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New Haven is a coastal city in the
U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state ...
of
Connecticut Connecticut () is the southernmost state in the New England region of the United States. As of the 2010 United States census, 2010 Census, it has the highest per-capita income, second-highest level of List of U.S. states and territories by H ...
. It is located on
New Haven Harbor New Haven Harbor is an inlet on the north side of Long Island Sound Long Island Sound is a tidal estuary of the Atlantic Ocean, lying predominantly between the U.S. state of Connecticut Connecticut () is the southernmost state in the New Engl ...
on the northern shore of
Long Island Sound Long Island Sound is a tidal estuary of the Atlantic Ocean, lying predominantly between the U.S. state of Connecticut to the north, and Long Island in New York (state), New York to the south. From west to east, the sound stretches from the East ...

Long Island Sound
in
New Haven County, Connecticut New Haven County is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The ter ...
, and is part of the
New York City metropolitan area The New York metropolitan area, also commonly referred to as the Tri-State area, is the largest metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surro ...
. With a population of 134,023 as determined by the 2020 United States Census,{{https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/table/newhavencityconnecticut/POP010220#POP010220 New Haven is now the third-largest city in Connecticut after Bridgeport, and Stamford. New Haven is the principal municipality of
Greater New HavenGreater New Haven is the metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories under the same administrative division, sharing industry, ...
, which had a total population of 864,835 as of 2020. New Haven was one of the first planned cities in America. A year after its founding by English
Puritan The Puritans were English Protestants Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of J ...

Puritan
s in 1638, eight streets were laid out in a four-by-four
grid Grid, The Grid, or GRID may refer to: Common usage * Cattle grid or stock grid, a type of obstacle is used to prevent livestock from crossing the road * Grid reference, used to define a location on a map Arts, entertainment, and media * News gri ...
, creating what is commonly known as the "Nine Square Plan".{{cite web , url=http://www.towngreens.com/exhibits/index.cgi/2/index.html , title=New Haven: The Elm City , publisher=Towngreens.com , access-date=2011-09-28 The central common block is
the New Haven Green
the New Haven Green
, a {{convert, 16, acre, ha, 0, adj=on square at the center of
Downtown New Haven Downtown New Haven is the neighborhood located in the heart of the city of New Haven New Haven is a coastal city in the U.S. state of Connecticut. It is located on New Haven Harbor on the northern shore of Long Island Sound in New Haven Count ...

Downtown New Haven
. The Green is now a
National Historic Landmark A National Historic Landmark (NHL) is a building, district, object, site, or structure that is officially recognized by the United States government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government or U.S. governme ...
, and the "Nine Square Plan" is recognized by the
American Planning Association The American Planning Association (APA) is a professional organization representing the field of urban planning in the United States. The APA was formed in 1978, when two separate professional planning organizations, the American Institute of P ...
as a National Planning Landmark.{{cite web , url=http://www.planning.org/awards/landmarks.htm#Connecticut , title=National Planning Landmark Award , publisher=planning.org , access-date=2017-03-04 , url-status=dead , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170305201206/https://www.planning.org/awards/landmarks.htm#Connecticut , archive-date=2017-03-05 New Haven is the home of
Yale University Yale University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...
. As New Haven's biggest taxpayer and employer, Yale serves as an integral part of the city's economy. Health care (hospitals and biotechnology), professional services (legal, architectural, marketing, and engineering), financial services, and retail trade also contribute to the city's economic activity. The city served as co-capital of Connecticut from 1701 until 1873, when sole governance was transferred to the more centrally located city of
Hartford Hartford is the List of capitals in the United States, capital city of the U.S. state of Connecticut. It was the seat of Hartford County, Connecticut, Hartford County until Connecticut disbanded county government in 1960. It is the core city i ...
. New Haven has since billed itself as the "Cultural Capital of Connecticut" for its supply of established theaters, museums, and music venues. New Haven had the first public tree planting program in America, producing a canopy of mature trees (including some large
elm Elms are and s comprising the genus ''Ulmus'' in the plant family . The genus first appeared in the about 20 million years ago, originating in what is now central Asia.Richens, R. H. (1983). ''Elm''. Cambridge University Press. These tree ...

elm
s) that gave the city the nickname "The Elm City".


History


Pre-colonial foundation as an independent colony

Before Europeans arrived, the New Haven area was the home of the
Quinnipiac Quinnipiac is the English name for the Eansketambawg (meaning "original people"; ''cf.'' Ojibwe The Ojibwe, Ojibwa, Chippewa, or Saulteaux are an Anishinaabe people in what is currently southern Canada Canada is a country in the nor ...
tribe of
Native Americans Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indigenous peoples in Canada, the indigenous p ...
, who lived in villages around the harbor and subsisted off local fisheries and the farming of
maize Maize ( ; ''Zea mays'' subsp. ''mays'', from es, maíz after tnq, mahiz), also known as corn (North American North America is a continent in the Northern Hemisphere and almost entirely within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be ...

maize
. The area was briefly visited by
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...

Dutch
explorer
Adriaen Block Adriaen (Arjan) Block (c. 1567 – buried April 27, 1627) was a Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flem ...
in 1614. Dutch traders set up a small trading system of
beaver Beavers are large, semiaquatic In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interaction ...

beaver
pelts with the local inhabitants, but trade was sporadic and the Dutch did not settle permanently in the area. In 1637 a small party of Puritans reconnoitered the New Haven harbor area and wintered over. In April 1638, the main party of five hundred Puritans who had left the
Massachusetts Bay Colony The Massachusetts Bay Colony (1630–1691), more formally The Colony of Massachusetts Bay, was an English settlement on the east coast of America around the Massachusetts Bay Massachusetts Bay is a bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body ...
under the leadership of Reverend John Davenport and London merchant
Theophilus EatonTheophilus Eaton (January 7, 1658) was a merchant, farmer, and Puritan The Puritans were English Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to purify the Church of England of Roman Catholic practices, maintaining that the Church of E ...
sailed into the harbor. It was their hope to set up a theological community with the government more closely linked to the church than that in Massachusetts, and to exploit the area's excellent potential as a port. The Quinnipiacs, who were under attack by neighboring
Pequots The Pequot () are a Native Americans in the United States, Native American people of Connecticut. The modern Pequot are members of the federally recognized Mashantucket Pequot Tribe, four other state-recognized groups in Connecticut including th ...
, sold their land to the settlers in return for protection. {{Wikisource, Government of New Haven Colony By 1640, "Quinnipiac's" theocratic government and nine-square grid plan were in place, and the
town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and use The word "town" shares a ...
was renamed Newhaven, with ' haven' meaning harbor or port. (However, the area to the north remained Quinnipiac until 1678, when it was renamed Hamden.) The settlement became the headquarters of the
New Haven Colony The New Haven Colony was a small English colony in North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria ...
, distinct from the
Connecticut Colony The Connecticut Colony or Colony of Connecticut, originally known as the Connecticut River Colony or simply the River Colony, was an English colony in New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United Stat ...
previously established to the north centering on
Hartford Hartford is the List of capitals in the United States, capital city of the U.S. state of Connecticut. It was the seat of Hartford County, Connecticut, Hartford County until Connecticut disbanded county government in 1960. It is the core city i ...
. Reflecting its
theocratic Theocracy is a form of government in which one or more deities A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena or entities that are not subject to the . This term is attributed to , such as s, s, , and ...

theocratic
roots, the New Haven Colony forbid the establishment of other churches, whereas the Connecticut Colony permitted them. Economic disaster struck Newhaven in 1646, when the town sent its first fully loaded ship of local goods (the "Great Shippe") back to England. It never reached its destination, and its disappearance stymied New Haven's development versus the rising trade powers of
Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Massachusetts, most populous city of the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States and 21st List of Unit ...

Boston
and
New Amsterdam New Amsterdam ( nl, Nieuw Amsterdam, or ) was a 17th-century Dutch settlement established at the southern tip of Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as ''The City'', is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the ...

New Amsterdam
. In 1660, Colony founder John Davenport's wishes were fulfilled, and
Hopkins School Hopkins School is a private, college-preparatory, coeducational, day school for grades 7–12 located in New Haven, Connecticut. In 1660, Edward Hopkins, seven-time governor of the Connecticut Colony, bequeathed a portion of his estate to found ...
was founded in New Haven with money from the estate of
Edward Hopkins Edward Hopkins (1600 – March 1657) was an English colonist and politician and Governor of the Connecticut Colony. Active on both sides of the Atlantic, he was a founder of the New Haven New Haven is a coastal city in the U.S. state of Conne ...
. In 1661, the
Regicides Regicide is the purposeful killing of a monarch or sovereign of a polity and is often associated with Usurper, the usurpation of power. A regicide can also be the person responsible for the killing. The word comes from the latin roots of ''re ...
who had signed the death warrant of
Charles I of England Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the begins with , who initially ruled , one of the which later made up modern England. Alfred styled himself King of the from a ...

Charles I of England
were pursued by
Charles II
Charles II
. Two of them, Colonel
Edward Whalley Edward Whalley (c. 1607 – c. 1675) was an English military leader during the English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ( ...
and Colonel
William Goffe William Goffe (1605?–1679?) was an English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has e ...
, fled to New Haven for refuge. Davenport arranged for them to hide in the West Rock hills northwest of the town. Later a third judge, John Dixwell, joined the others.


As part of the Connecticut Colony

In 1664 New Haven became part of the Connecticut Colony when the two colonies were merged under political pressure from England. Some members of the New Haven Colony seeking to establish a new theocracy elsewhere went on to establish
Newark, New Jersey Newark ( , ) is the most populous city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: ...

Newark, New Jersey
. It was made co-
capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercase (or more formally ''minusc ...
of Connecticut in 1701, a status it retained until 1873. In 1716, the Collegiate School relocated from
Old Saybrook Old Saybrook is a New England town, town in Middlesex County, Connecticut, Middlesex County, Connecticut, United States. The population was 10,242 at the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census. It contains the incorporated borough of Fenwick, Conne ...
to New Haven, establishing New Haven as a center of learning. In 1718, in response to a large donation from
East India Company The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC), East India Trading Company (EITC), the English East India Company or (after 1707) the British East India Company, and informally known as John Company, Com ...
merchant
Elihu Yale Elihu Yale (5 April 1649 – 8 July 1721) was a British-American British American usually refers to Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nationals of the United Sta ...

Elihu Yale
, former Governor of
Madras Chennai (, ), also known as Madras (List of renamed Indian cities and states#Tamil Nadu, the official name until 1996), is the capital city of the states and territories of India, Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The state's largest city in area ...
, the name of the Collegiate School was changed to
Yale College Yale College is the undergraduate college of Yale University Yale University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, ...
. For over a century, New Haven citizens had fought in the colonial militia alongside regular British forces, as in the
French and Indian War The French and Indian War (1754–1763) was a theater of the Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Great Britain ...

French and Indian War
. As the
American Revolution The American Revolution was an ideological and political revolution which occurred in colonial North America between 1765 and 1783. The Americans in the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colo ...
approached, General
David Wooster David Wooster ( – May 2, 1777) was an American general who served in the French and Indian War and in the American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War o ...
and other influential residents hoped that the conflict with the government in Britain could be resolved short of rebellion. On 23 April 1775, which is still celebrated in New Haven as
Powder House DayThe following are minor or locally celebrated holidays related to the American Revolution. A Great Jubilee Day A Great Jubilee Day, first organized May 26, 1783 in North Stratford, now Trumbull, Connecticut, celebrated end of major fighting in th ...
, the Second Company, Governor's Foot Guard, of New Haven entered the struggle against the
British parliament The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kin ...
. Under Captain
Benedict Arnold Benedict Arnold (Brandt (1994), p. 414 June 1801) was an United States, American military officer who served during the American Revolutionary War, Revolutionary War. He fought with distinction for the American Continental Army, rising to the r ...

Benedict Arnold
, they broke into the powder house to arm themselves and began a three-day march to
Cambridge, Massachusetts Cambridge ( ) is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Greater Boston, Boston metropolitan area as a major suburb of Boston. , it was the fifth most populous city in the state, behind Boston, ...
. Other New Haven militia members were on hand to escort
George Washington George Washington (February 22, 1732, 1799) was an American soldier, statesman, and Founding Father The following list of national founding figures is a record, by country, of people who were credited with establishing a state. Natio ...

George Washington
from his overnight stay in New Haven on his way to Cambridge. Contemporary reports, from both sides, remark on the New Haven volunteers' professional military bearing, including uniforms. On July 5, 1779, 2,600 loyalists and British regulars under General
William Tryon Lieutenant General Lieutenant general or lieutenant-general (Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a Three-star rank, three-star military rank (NATO code OF-9) used in many countries. The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages, where the title of ...
, governor of New York, landed in New Haven Harbor and raided the 3,500-person town. A militia of Yale students had been preparing for battle, and former Yale president and
Yale Divinity School Yale Divinity School (YDS) is one of the twelve graduate and professional schools of Yale University Yale University is a private Ivy League The Ivy League (also known as The Ancient Eight) is an American collegiate athletic conferen ...
professor
Naphtali Daggett Naphtali Daggett (September 8, 1727 – November 25, 1780) was an American academic and educator. He graduated from Yale University in 1748.Kelley, Brooks Mather. (1999)''Yale: A History,'' p. 62./ref> Three years later, he became pastor of the ...

Naphtali Daggett
rode out to confront the Redcoats. Yale president Ezra Stiles recounted in his diary that while he moved furniture in anticipation of battle, he still couldn't quite believe the revolution had begun. New Haven was not torched as the invaders did with
Danbury
Danbury
in 1777, or Fairfield and Norwalk a week after the New Haven raid, so many of the town's colonial features were preserved.


Post-colonial period and industrialization

New Haven was incorporated as a city in 1784, and
Roger Sherman Roger Sherman (April 19, 1721 – July 23, 1793) was an early American statesman and lawyer A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney at lawAttorney at law or attorney-at-law, usually abbreviated in ever ...
, one of the signers of the
Constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...

Constitution
and author of the "
Connecticut Compromise The Connecticut Compromise (also known as the Great Compromise of 1787 or Sherman Compromise) was an agreement reached during the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that in part defined the legislative structure and representation each state woul ...
", became the new city's first mayor. {, class="wikitable" style="float:right" , - , style="text-align:left;" colspan="3", Towns created from the original New Haven Colony{{cite web , url=http://www.sots.ct.gov/RegisterManual/SectionVII/townorder.htm , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080314164126/http://www.sots.ct.gov/RegisterManual/SectionVII/townorder.htm , url-status=dead , title=Connecticut Register and Manual , archive-date=March 14, 2008 , - ! ''New town'' ! ''Split from'' ! ''Incorporated'' , - ,
WallingfordWallingford may refer to: Places * Wallingford, Oxfordshire, England, United Kingdom **Wallingford Castle the castle * Wallingford, Connecticut, United States * Wallingford, Iowa, United States * Wallingford, Kentucky, United States * Wallingford, ...
, New Haven , 1670 , - ,
Cheshire Cheshire ( ;), archaically the County Palatine of Chester, is a historic and ceremonial county in northwest England North West England is one of nine official regions of England The regions, formerly known as the government office re ...
, Wallingford , 1780 , - , Meriden , Wallingford , 1806 , - ,
Branford Branford may refer to: Places *Branford, Connecticut Branford is a shoreline New England town, town located on Long Island Sound in New Haven County, Connecticut, New Haven County, Connecticut, about east of downtown New Haven, Connecticut, New ...
, New Haven , 1685 , - , North Branford , Branford , 1831 , - , Woodbridge , New Haven and Milford , 1784 , - ,
Bethany Bethany ( grc-gre, Βηθανία;Murphy-O'Connor, 2008, p152/ref> he, בֵּית עַנְיָה) or what is locally known as Al-Eizariya or al-Azariya ( ar, العيزرية, " (place) of Lazarus"), is a town in the West Bank The West Ban ...
, Woodbridge , 1832 , - , East Haven , New Haven , 1785 , - , Hamden , New Haven , 1786 , - , North Haven , New Haven , 1786 , - ,
Orange Orange most often refers to: *Orange (colour), occurs between red and yellow in the visible spectrum *Orange (fruit), the fruit of the tree species '' Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' ** Orange blossom, its fragrant flower *Some other citrus or citrus-li ...
, New Haven and Milford , 1822 , - ,
West Haven West Haven is a city in New Haven County, Connecticut, New Haven County, Connecticut, United States, and a coastal city of Long Island Sound. At the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census, the population of the city was 55,564. History Settled ...
, Orange , 1921 The city struck fortune in the late 18th century with the inventions and industrial activity of
Eli Whitney Eli Whitney Jr. (December 8, 1765January 8, 1825) was an American inventor, widely known for inventing the cotton gin in Hamden, Connecticut Hamden is a New England town, town in New Haven County, Connecticut, New Haven County, Connecticut, ...
, a Yale graduate who remained in New Haven to develop the
cotton gin A cotton gin – meaning "cotton engine" – is a machine that quickly and easily separates cotton Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the ge ...

cotton gin
and establish a gun-manufacturing factory in the northern part of the city near the Hamden town line. That area is still known as Whitneyville, and the main road through both towns is known as Whitney Avenue. The factory is now the
Eli Whitney Museum The Eli Whitney Museum, in Hamden, Connecticut Connecticut () is the southernmost state in the New England region of the United States. As of the 2010 United States census, 2010 Census, it has the highest per-capita income, second-highes ...
, which has a particular emphasis on activities for children and exhibits pertaining to the A. C. Gilbert Company. His factory, along with that of
Simeon North Simeon North (July 13, 1765 – August 25, 1852) was a Middletown, Connecticut Middletown is a city located in Middlesex County, Connecticut, Middlesex County, Connecticut, along the Connecticut River, in the central part of the state, south of ...
, and the lively clock-making and brass hardware sectors, contributed to making early Connecticut a powerful manufacturing economy; so many arms manufacturers sprang up that the state became known as "The Arsenal of America". It was in Whitney's gun-manufacturing plant that
Samuel Colt Samuel Colt (; July 19, 1814 – January 10, 1862) was an American inventor, industrialist, and businessman who established Colt's Patent Fire-Arms Manufacturing Company (now Colt's Manufacturing Company Colt's Manufacturing Company ...
invented the
automatic revolver
automatic revolver
in 1836. Many other talented machinists and firearms designers would go on to found successful firearms manufacturing companies in New Haven, including Oliver Winchester and O.F. Mossberg & Sons. The
Farmington Canal The Farmington Canal, also known as the New Haven and Northampton Canal, was a major private canal Canals are waterways Channel (geography), channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles. T ...
, created in the early 19th century, was a short-lived transporter of goods into the interior regions of Connecticut and Massachusetts, and ran from New Haven to
Northampton, Massachusetts The city of Northampton is the county seat of Hampshire County, Massachusetts, Hampshire County, Massachusetts, United States. As of the 2020 United States Census, 2020 census, the population of Northampton (including its outer villages, Florenc ...
. New Haven was to be the site of the first college for African Americans in the United States, but the plan was obstructed by efforts led by Yale
Law School A law school (also known as a law centre or college of law) is an institution specializing in legal education Legal education is the education of individuals in the principles, practices, and theory of law Law is a system A syste ...
founder and former New Haven Mayor
David Daggett David Daggett (December 31, 1764 – April 12, 1851) was a U.S. senator The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress The United States Congress or U.S. Congress is the bicameral legislature of the ...
, who went on to serve as a U.S. Senator and judge on Connecticut's highest court. Daggett denigrated African Americans, denied they were citizens, and presided over the trial of a woman persecuted for trying to admit an African American girl to her boarding school and, having that effort blocked, running a boarding school for African American girls. New Haven was home to one of the important early events in the burgeoning
anti-slavery movement Abolitionism, or the abolitionist movement, was the movement to end slavery. In Western Europe and the Americas, abolitionism was a historic movement that sought to end the Atlantic slave trade and liberate the enslaved people. The British ...
when, in 1839, the trial of mutineering Mende tribesmen being transported as slaves on the Spanish slaveship '' Amistad'' was held in New Haven's United States District Court.{{cite web , url=http://www.wdl.org/en/item/3080/ , title=Unidentified Young Man , website=
World Digital Library The World Digital Library (WDL) is an international digital library operated by UNESCO and the United States Library of Congress. The WDL has stated that its mission is to promote international and intercultural understanding, expand the volume ...
, date=1839–1840 , access-date=2013-07-28
There is a
statue A statue is a free-standing sculpture in which the realistic, full-length figures of persons or animals are carved or Casting (metalworking), cast in a durable material such as wood, metal or stone. Typical statues are life-sized or close to ...
of Joseph Cinqué, the informal leader of the slaves, beside City Hall. See "Museums" below for more information.
Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln (; February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of governme ...

Abraham Lincoln
delivered a speech on slavery in New Haven in 1860, shortly before he secured the Republican nomination for President. The
American Civil War The American Civil War (also known by other names Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' (Tryon nove ...
boosted the local economy with wartime purchases of industrial goods, including that of the
New Haven Arms Company The U.S. Repeating Arms Company. Inc. (USRAC) was the last business name of the Winchester Repeating Arms Company, famous for making Winchester rifles. USRAC's predecessor company adopted the Winchester name in 1866 when Oliver Winchester reorgani ...
, which would later become the
Winchester Repeating Arms Company The Winchester Repeating Arms Company was a prominent American maker of repeating rifle, repeating firearms, located in New Haven, Connecticut. The Winchester brand is today owned by the Olin Corporation and the name is used under license by tw ...
. (Winchester would continue to produce arms in New Haven until 2006, and many of the buildings that were a part of the Winchester plant are now a part of the Winchester Repeating Arms Company Historic District). After the war, population grew and doubled by the start of the 20th century, most notably due to the influx of
immigrants Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective ident ...

immigrants
from southern Europe, particularly Italy. Today, roughly half the populations of East Haven, West Haven, and North Haven are
Italian-American Italian Americans ( it, italoamericani or ''italo-americani'', ) are Americans Americans are the and of the .; ; ''Ricketts v. Attorney General''897 F.3d 491, 494 n.3 (3d Cir. 2018) (" and are not ous. While all citizens are nationals, ...
. Jewish immigration to New Haven has left an enduring mark on the city. Westville was the center of
Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is ...
life in New Haven, though today many have fanned out to suburban communities such as Woodbridge and Cheshire.


Post-industrial era and urban redevelopment

New Haven's expansion continued during the two World Wars, with most new inhabitants being
African American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being t ...

African American
s from the
American South The Southern United States, also referred to as the Southern States, the American South, Dixie, the Southland, or simply the South, is a geographic and cultural region In geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geograph ...
and
Puerto Ricans Puerto Ricans ( es, Puertorriqueños; or boricuas) are the people of Puerto Rico Puerto Rico (; abbreviated PR; tnq, Boriken, ''Borinquen''), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico ( es, link=yes, Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Ric ...
. The city reached its peak population after
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. The area of New Haven is only {{convert, 17, sqmi, km2, 0, encouraging further development of new housing after 1950 in adjacent, suburban towns. Moreover, as in other U.S. cities in the
1950s File:1950s decade montage.png, 455x455px, Top, L-R: U.S. Marines engaged in street fighting during the Korean War The Korean War (see § Names) was a war fought between North Korea and South Korea from 25 June 1950 to 27 July 1953. The ...
, New Haven began to suffer
white flight White flight or white exodus is the sudden or gradual large-scale migration of from areas becoming more racially or ethnoculturally diverse. Starting in the 1950s and 1960s, the terms became popular in the . They referred to the large-scale mi ...
of
middle-class The middle class is a class Class or The Class may refer to: Common uses not otherwise categorized * Class (biology), a taxonomic rank * Class (knowledge representation), a collection of individuals or objects * Class (philosophy), an an ...
workers. One author suggested that aggressive
redlining Redlining is the systematic denial of various services or goods by governments or the private sector either directly or through the selective raising of prices. The word itself is rooted back to the early 1930's after the color correlating prope ...
and rezoning made it difficult for residents to obtain financing for older, deteriorating urban housing stock, thereby condemning such structures to deterioration.{{Additional citation needed, date=October 2017, reason=Non-free source cited; additional source needed to support this assertion In 1954; then-mayor Richard C. Lee began some of the earliest major
urban renewal Urban renewal (also called urban regeneration in the United Kingdom and urban redevelopment in the United States) is a program of land redevelopment often used to address urban decay in cities. Urban renewal is the clearing out of blighted area ...
projects in the United States. Certain sections of
downtown New Haven Downtown New Haven is the neighborhood located in the heart of the city of New Haven New Haven is a coastal city in the U.S. state of Connecticut. It is located on New Haven Harbor on the northern shore of Long Island Sound in New Haven Count ...

downtown New Haven
were redeveloped to include museums, new office towers, a hotel, and large shopping complexes.{{cite news , url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,825008,00.html , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111019193231/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,825008,00.html , url-status=dead , archive-date=October 19, 2011 , work=Time , title=CITIES: Forward Look in Connecticut , date=1957-06-24 , access-date=2010-05-20 Other parts of the city, particularly the Wooster Square and Fair Haven neighborhoods were affected by the construction of
Interstate 95 Interstate 95 (I-95) is the main north–south Interstate Highway The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly known as the Interstate Highway System, is a network of controlled-access highwa ...
along the Long Wharf section,
Interstate 91 Interstate 91 (I-91) is an Interstate Highway The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly known as the Interstate Highway System, is a network of controlled-access highways that forms part of the N ...
, and the
Oak Street Connector The Oak Street Connector, officially known as the Richard C. Lee Highway (named after former New Haven mayor Richard C. Lee), is a freeway section of Route 34 that is located in downtown New Haven, downtown New Haven, Connecticut, United States. ...
. The Oak Street Connector ( Route 34), running between Interstate 95, downtown, and The Hill neighborhood, was originally intended as a highway to the city's western suburbs but was only completed as a highway to the downtown area, with the area to the west becoming a boulevard (See "Redevelopment" below). In 1970, a New Haven Black Panther trials, series of criminal prosecutions against various members of the Black Panther Party took place in New Haven, inciting mass protests on the New Haven Green involving twelve thousand demonstrators and many well-known New Left political activists. (See "Political Culture" below for more information). From the 1960s through the late 1990s, central areas of New Haven continued to decline both economically and in terms of population despite attempts to resurrect certain neighborhoods through renewal projects. In conjunction with its declining population, New Haven experienced a steep rise in its crime rate. Since approximately 2000, many parts of downtown New Haven have been revitalized with new restaurants, nightlife, and small retail stores. In particular, the area surrounding the New Haven Green has experienced an influx of apartments and condominiums. In recent years, downtown retail options have increased with the opening of new stores such as Urban Oufitters, J Crew, Origins, American Apparel, Gant Clothing, and an Apple Store, joining older stores such as Barnes & Noble and Raggs Clothing. In addition, two new supermarkets opened to serve downtown's growing residential population. A Stop & Shop opened just west of downtown, while Elm City Market, located one block from the Green, opened in 2011. The recent turnaround of downtown New Haven has received positive press from various periodicals.{{cite news , url=https://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9500E5DD103FF930A35757C0A9639C8B63 , work=The New York Times , first=Eleanor , last=Charles , date=2005-04-03 , access-date=2010-05-20 , title=LIVING IN/Downtown New Haven; An Infusion of Energy in Yale's Backyard Major projects include the current construction of a new campus for Gateway Community College downtown, and also a 32-story, 500-unit apartment/retail building called 360 State Street. The 360 State Street project is now occupied and is the largest residential building in Connecticut. A new boathouse and dock is planned for New Haven Harbor, and the linear park Farmington Canal Trail is set to extend into downtown New Haven within the coming year. Additionally, foundation and ramp work to widen I-95 to create a new harbor crossing for New Haven, with an extradosed bridge to replace the 1950s-era Pearl Harbor Memorial Bridge (Connecticut), Q Bridge, has begun. The city still hopes to redevelop the site of the New Haven Coliseum, which was demolished in 2007. In April 2009, the United States Supreme Court agreed to Ricci v. DeStefano, hear a suit over reverse discrimination brought by 18 white firefighters against the city. The suit involved the 2003 promotion test for the New Haven Fire Department. After the tests were scored, no African American, black firefighters scored high enough to qualify for consideration for promotion, so the city announced that no one would be promoted. In the subsequent ''Ricci v. DeStefano'' decision the court found 5-4 that New Haven's decision to ignore the test results violated Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. As a result, a district court subsequently ordered the city to promote 14 of the white firefighters. In 2010 and 2011, state and federal funds were awarded to Connecticut (and Massachusetts) to construct the Hartford Line, with a southern terminus at New Haven's Union Station (New Haven), Union Station and a northern terminus at Springfield, Massachusetts, Springfield's Union Station.{{cite web , url=http://www.nhhsrail.com/ , title=New Haven – Hartford – Springfield Rail Project , publisher=Nhhsrail.com , access-date=2011-09-28 According to the White House, "This corridor [currently] has one train per day connecting communities in Connecticut and Massachusetts to the Northeast Corridor and Vermont. The vision for this corridor is to restore the alignment to its original route via the Knowledge Corridor in western Massachusetts, improving trip time and increasing the population base that can be served." Set for construction in 2013, the "Knowledge Corridor high speed intercity passenger rail" project will cost approximately $1 billion, and the ultimate northern terminus for the project is reported to be Montreal in Canada. Train speeds between will reportedly exceed {{convert, 110, mph and increase both cities' rail traffic exponentially.


Timeline of notable firsts

{{see also, Yale – New Haven Hospital#Milestones in medicine *1638: New Haven becomes the first planned city in America. *1776: Yale student David Bushnell invents the first American submarine. *1787: John Fitch (inventor), John Fitch builds the first steamboat. *1793:
Eli Whitney Eli Whitney Jr. (December 8, 1765January 8, 1825) was an American inventor, widely known for inventing the cotton gin in Hamden, Connecticut Hamden is a New England town, town in New Haven County, Connecticut, New Haven County, Connecticut, ...
invents the cotton gin. *1836:
Samuel Colt Samuel Colt (; July 19, 1814 – January 10, 1862) was an American inventor, industrialist, and businessman who established Colt's Patent Fire-Arms Manufacturing Company (now Colt's Manufacturing Company Colt's Manufacturing Company ...
invents the automatic revolver in Whitney's Eli Whitney Museum, factory. *1839: Charles Goodyear of New Haven discovers the process of vulcanizing rubber in Woburn, Massachusetts, and later perfects it and patents the process in nearby Springfield, Massachusetts. *1860: Philios P. Blake patents the first corkscrew. *1877: New Haven hosts the first Bell System, Bell PSTN (telephone) switch office. *1878–1880: The District Telephone Company of New Haven creates the world's first telephone exchange and the first telephone directory and installs the first public phone. The company expanded and became the Connecticut Telephone Company, then the Southern New England Telephone Company (now part of AT&T Inc., AT&T).{{cite web , last1=National Park Services , title=Site of the First Telephone Exchange , url=https://www.nps.gov/subjects/nationalhistoriclandmarks/site-of-the-first-telephone-exchange.htm , website=National Park Services , access-date=28 October 2021 *1882: The Knights of Columbus are founded in New Haven. The city still serves as the world Knights of Columbus Building (New Haven, Connecticut), headquarters of the organization, which maintains a museum downtown. *1892: Local confectioner George C. Smith of the Bradley Smith Candy Co. invents the first lollipops. *Late 19th century-early 20th century: The first public tree planting program takes place in New Haven, at the urging of native James Hillhouse. *1900: Louis Lassen, owner of Louis' Lunch, is credited with inventing the hamburger, as well as the steak sandwich. *1911: The Erector Set, the popular and culturally important construction toy, is invented in New Haven by Alfred Carlton Gilbert, A.C. Gilbert. It was manufactured by the A. C. Gilbert Company at Erector Square from 1913 until the company's bankruptcy in 1967. *1920: In competition with competing explanations, the Frisbee is said to have originated on the Yale campus, based on the tin pans of the Frisbie Pie Company which were tossed around by students on the New Haven Green. *1977: The first memorial to victims of the Holocaust on public land in America{{cite web , url=http://www.newhavenindependent.org/archives/2007/05/post_324.php , title=The Ashes of Memory, Revealed , date=2007-05-08 , access-date=2008-03-30 , work=New Haven Independent stands in New Haven's Edgewood Park, New Haven, Edgewood Park at the corner of Whalley and West Park avenues. It was built with funds collected from the community and is maintained by Greater New Haven Holocaust Memory, Inc. The ashes of victims killed and cremation, cremated at Auschwitz are buried under the memorial.


Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of {{convert, 52.1, km2, order=flip, of which {{convert, 48.4, km2, order=flip is land and {{convert, 3.7, km2, order=flip, or 6.67%, is water. New Haven's best-known geographic features are its large, shallow harbor, and two reddish basalt trap rock ridges which rise to the northeast and northwest of the city core. These trap rocks are known respectively as East Rock and West Rock, and both serve as extensive parks. West Rock has been tunneled through to make way for the east–west passage of the Wilbur Cross Parkway (the only highway tunnel through a natural obstacle in Connecticut), and once served as the hideout of the "
Regicides Regicide is the purposeful killing of a monarch or sovereign of a polity and is often associated with Usurper, the usurpation of power. A regicide can also be the person responsible for the killing. The word comes from the latin roots of ''re ...
" (see: Regicides Trail). Most New Haveners refer to these men as "The Three Judges". East Rock features the prominent Soldiers and Sailors war monument on its peak as well as the "Great/Giant Steps" which run up the rock's cliffside. The city is drained by three rivers; the West River (Connecticut), West, Mill River (Connecticut), Mill, and Quinnipiac River, Quinnipiac, named in order from west to east. The West River discharges into
West Haven West Haven is a city in New Haven County, Connecticut, New Haven County, Connecticut, United States, and a coastal city of Long Island Sound. At the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census, the population of the city was 55,564. History Settled ...
Harbor, while the Mill and Quinnipiac rivers discharge into New Haven Harbor. Both harbors are embayments of
Long Island Sound Long Island Sound is a tidal estuary of the Atlantic Ocean, lying predominantly between the U.S. state of Connecticut to the north, and Long Island in New York (state), New York to the south. From west to east, the sound stretches from the East ...

Long Island Sound
. In addition, several smaller streams flow through the city's neighborhoods, including Wintergreen Brook, the Beaver Ponds Outlet, Wilmot Brook, Belden Brook, and Prospect Creek. Not all of these small streams have continuous flow year-round.


Climate

According to the Köppen climate classification, Köppen classification, New Haven is ''cfa'', or a Temperate climate. The city has hot, humid summers and cool to cold winters. From May to late September, the weather is typically hot and humid, with average temperatures exceeding {{convert, 80, °F on 70 days per year. In summer, the Bermuda High creates as southern flow of warm and humid air, with frequent thundershowers. October to early December is normally mild to cool late in the season, while early spring (April) can be cool to warm. Winters are cold with both rain and snow fall. The weather patterns that affect New Haven result from a primarily offshore direction, thus reducing the marine influence of Long Island Sound—although, like other marine areas, differences in temperature between areas right along the coastline and areas a mile or two inland can be large at times. During summer heat waves, temperatures may reach {{convert, 95, °F or higher on occasion with heat-index values of over {{convert, 100, °F. Tropical cyclones have struck New Haven in the past, including 1938 Hurricane (Long Island Express), Hurricane Carol in 1954, Hurricane Gloria in 1985.{{Citation needed, date=July 2019 {{Weather box , location = New Haven (Tweed New Haven Airport, HVN), elevation: {{convert, 4, m, abbr=on, disp=or, 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1948–present , single line = Y , Jan record high F = 69 , Feb record high F = 67 , Mar record high F = 77 , Apr record high F = 87 , May record high F = 92 , Jun record high F = 96 , Jul record high F = 101 , Aug record high F = 100 , Sep record high F = 82 , Oct record high F = 89 , Nov record high F = 76 , Dec record high F = 65 , year record high F = 101 , Jan avg record high F = 56 , Feb avg record high F = 55 , Mar avg record high F = 64 , Apr avg record high F = 77 , May avg record high F = 83 , Jun avg record high F = 88 , Jul avg record high F = 91 , Aug avg record high F = 90 , Sep avg record high F = 86 , Oct avg record high F = 78 , Nov avg record high F = 68 , Dec avg record high F = 59 , year avg record high F = 92 , Jan high F = 38.1 , Feb high F = 40.2 , Mar high F = 47.0 , Apr high F = 57.8 , May high F = 67.7 , Jun high F = 76.4 , Jul high F = 82.1 , Aug high F = 81.0 , Sep high F = 74.7 , Oct high F = 63.8 , Nov high F = 53.4 , Dec high F = 43.7 , year high F = 60.5 , Jan mean F = 30.5 , Feb mean F = 32.0 , Mar mean F = 38.5 , Apr mean F = 48.5 , May mean F = 58.5 , Jun mean F = 67.9 , Jul mean F = 73.9 , Aug mean F = 72.9 , Sep mean F = 66.0 , Oct mean F = 54.7 , Nov mean F = 44.7 , Dec mean F = 36.3 , year mean F = 52.0 , Jan low F = 23.0 , Feb low F = 23.9 , Mar low F = 30.1 , Apr low F = 39.3 , May low F = 49.4 , Jun low F = 59.3 , Jul low F = 65.7 , Aug low F = 64.7 , Sep low F = 57.3 , Oct low F = 45.5 , Nov low F = 35.9 , Dec low F = 28.9 , year low F = 43.9 , Jan avg record low F = 5 , Feb avg record low F = 9 , Mar avg record low F = 16 , Apr avg record low F = 27 , May avg record low F = 38 , Jun avg record low F = 48 , Jul avg record low F = 57 , Aug avg record low F = 54 , Sep avg record low F = 45 , Oct avg record low F = 31 , Nov avg record low F = 22 , Dec avg record low F = 15 , year avg record low F = 6 , Jan record low F = -8 , Feb record low F = -6 , Mar record low F = 1 , Apr record low F = 17 , May record low F = 30 , Jun record low F = 40 , Jul record low F = 50 , Aug record low F = 43 , Sep record low F = 34 , Oct record low F = 23 , Nov record low F = 13 , Dec record low F = -3 , year record low F = -8 , precipitation colour = green , Jan precipitation inch = 2.72 , Feb precipitation inch = 2.84 , Mar precipitation inch = 3.66 , Apr precipitation inch = 4.19 , May precipitation inch = 3.54 , Jun precipitation inch = 3.47 , Jul precipitation inch = 3.36 , Aug precipitation inch = 3.55 , Sep precipitation inch = 4.03 , Oct precipitation inch = 3.78 , Nov precipitation inch = 3.12 , Dec precipitation inch = 3.53 , year precipitation inch = 41.79 , unit precipitation days = 0.01 in , Jan precipitation days = 9.5 , Feb precipitation days = 8.5 , Mar precipitation days = 9.6 , Apr precipitation days = 10.9 , May precipitation days = 12.9 , Jun precipitation days = 11.8 , Jul precipitation days = 10.4 , Aug precipitation days = 9.9 , Sep precipitation days = 9.3 , Oct precipitation days = 11.1 , Nov precipitation days = 9.4 , Dec precipitation days = 11.0 , year precipitation days = 124.3 , Jan humidity = 62.8 , Feb humidity = 60.3 , Mar humidity = 64.4 , Apr humidity = 65.1 , May humidity = 69.7 , Jun humidity = 73.8 , Jul humidity = 74.2 , Aug humidity = 73.8 , Sep humidity = 74.1 , Oct humidity = 70.4 , Nov humidity = 68.2 , Dec humidity = 63.6 , Jan uv = 2 , Feb uv = 2 , Mar uv = 4 , Apr uv = 6 , May uv = 7 , Jun uv = 8 , Jul uv = 8 , Aug uv = 8 , Sep uv = 6 , Oct uv = 4 , Nov uv = 2 , Dec uv = 1 , source 1 = National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NOAA{{cite web , url=https://w2.weather.gov/climate/xmacis.php?wfo=okx , title=NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data , publisher=National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration , access-date=June 2, 2021{{cite web , url=https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/access/services/data/v1?dataset=normals-monthly-1991-2020&startDate=0001-01-01&endDate=9996-12-31&stations=USW00014758&format=pdf , publisher=National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration , title=Station: New Haven Tweed AP, CT , work=U.S. Climate Normals 2020: U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1991–2020) , access-date=June 2, 2021 , source 2 = Weatherbase (humidity), Weather Atlas (UV index)


Streetscape

New Haven has a long tradition of urban planning and a purposeful design for the city's layout. The city could be argued to have some of the first preconceived layouts in the country. Upon founding, New Haven was laid out in a grid plan of nine square blocks; the central square was left open, in the tradition of many New England towns, as the village green, city green (a commons area). The city also instituted the first public tree planting program in America. As in other cities, many of the
elm Elms are and s comprising the genus ''Ulmus'' in the plant family . The genus first appeared in the about 20 million years ago, originating in what is now central Asia.Richens, R. H. (1983). ''Elm''. Cambridge University Press. These tree ...

elm
s that gave New Haven the nickname "Elm City" perished in the mid-20th century due to Dutch elm disease, although many have since been replanted. The New Haven Green is currently home to three separate historic churches which speak to the original theocratic nature of the city. The Green remains the social center of the city today. It was named a
National Historic Landmark A National Historic Landmark (NHL) is a building, district, object, site, or structure that is officially recognized by the United States government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government or U.S. governme ...
in 1970.
Downtown New Haven Downtown New Haven is the neighborhood located in the heart of the city of New Haven New Haven is a coastal city in the U.S. state of Connecticut. It is located on New Haven Harbor on the northern shore of Long Island Sound in New Haven Count ...

Downtown New Haven
, occupied by nearly 7,000 residents, has a more residential character than most downtowns.CityOfNewHaven.com
{{webarchive, url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160301230330/https://www.cityofnewhaven.com/CityPlan/pdfs/PlanningPrograms/ComprehensivePlan/SectionVIDowntown.pdf , date=2016-03-01 Comprehensive Report: New Haven pg3
The downtown area provides about half of the city's jobs and half of its tax base and in recent years has become filled with dozens of new upscale restaurants, in addition to shops and thousands of apartments and condominium units which subsequently help overall growth of the city.{{Cite web , url=http://www.conntact.com/article_page.lasso?id=40054 , title=Archived copy , access-date=December 11, 2009 , archive-date=August 4, 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200804104839/http://www.conntact.com/article_page.lasso?id=40054 , url-status=dead


Neighborhoods

{{main, Neighborhoods of New Haven, Connecticut The city has many distinct neighborhoods. In addition to Downtown, centered on the central business district and the New Haven Green, Green, are the following neighborhoods: the west central neighborhoods of Dixwell (New Haven), Dixwell and Dwight Street Historic District, Dwight; the southern neighborhoods of The Hill, historic water-front City Point (New Haven), City Point (or Oyster Point), and the harborside district of Long Wharf (New Haven), Long Wharf; the western neighborhoods of Beaver Hills, New Haven, Beaver Hills, Edgewood Park Historic District, Edgewood, West River (neighborhood), West River, Westville (New Haven), Westville, Amity (New Haven), Amity, and West Rock (neighborhood), West Rock-Westhills; East Rock (neighborhood), East Rock, Cedar Hill (New Haven), Cedar Hill, Prospect Hill (New Haven), Prospect Hill, and Newhallville in the northern side of town; the east central neighborhoods of Mill River (neighborhood), Mill River and Wooster Square, an Italian-American neighborhood; Fair Haven, an immigrant community located between the Mill and Quinnipiac rivers; Quinnipiac Meadows and Fair Haven Heights across the Quinnipiac River; and facing the eastern side of the harbor, The Annex (New Haven), The Annex and East Shore (New Haven), East Shore (or Morris Cove).


Demographics


Census data

{{see also, List of Connecticut locations by per capita income {{Historical populations , type= USA , 1756, 5085 , 1774, 8295 , 1790, 4487 , 1800, 4049 , 1810, 5772 , 1820, 7147 , 1830, 10180 , 1840, 12960 , 1850, 20345 , 1860, 39267 , 1870, 50840 , 1880, 62882 , 1890, 86045 , 1900, 108027 , 1910, 133605 , 1920, 162537 , 1930, 162665 , 1940, 160605 , 1950, 164443 , 1960, 152048 , 1970, 137707 , 1980, 126021 , 1990, 130474 , 2000, 123626 , 2010, 129779 , 2020, 134023 , source=
U.S. Decennial Census{{cite web , url= https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/table/stamfordcityconnecticut/POP010220 , title=QuickFacts: Stamford city, Connecticut , publisher=2020 United States Census, access-date=October 21, 2021
Connecticut Census 1756 & 1774{{cite book , author=United States Census Bureau , date=1909 , title=A Century of Population Growth , url=https://archive.org/details/centuryofpopulat00unit/page/164/mode/2up , pages=164–167
The U.S. Census Bureau reports a 2010 population of 129,779, with 47,094 households and 25,854 families within the city of New Haven. The population density was 6,859.8 people per square mile (2,648.6/km{{sup, 2). There were 52,941 housing units at an average density of 2,808.5 per square mile (1,084.4/km{{sup, 2). The racial makeup of the city was 42.6% White (U.S. Census), White, 35.4% African American (U.S. Census), African American, 0.5% Native American (U.S. Census), Native American, 4.6% Asian (U.S. Census), Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander (U.S. Census), Pacific Islander, 12.9% from Race (United States Census), other races, and 3.9% from two or more races. Hispanic (U.S. Census), Hispanic or Latino (U.S. Census), Latino residents of any race were 27.4% of the population. Non-Hispanic Whites were 31.8% of the population in 2010, down from 69.6% in 1970. The city's Latino population is growing rapidly. Previous influxes among ethnic groups have been African-Americans in the postwar era, and Irish, Italian and (to a lesser degree) Slavic peoples in the prewar period. As of the 2010 census, of the 47,094 households, 29.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 27.5% include married couples living together, 22.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 45.1% were non-families. 36.1% of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size 3.19.{{cite web , url=http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/SAFFFacts?_event=&ActiveGeoDiv=geoSelect&pctxt=fph&_lang=en&_sse=on&geo_id=16000US0952000&_state=04000US09 , title=New Haven city, Connecticut – Fact Sheet – American FactFinder , publisher=Factfinder.census.gov , access-date=2011-09-28 , archive-url=https://archive.today/20200212042629/http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/SAFFFacts?_event=&ActiveGeoDiv=geoSelect&pctxt=fph&_lang=en&_sse=on&geo_id=16000US0952000&_state=04000US09 , archive-date=2020-02-12 , url-status=dead{{cite web , author=American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau , url=http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/QTTable?_bm=y&-qr_name=DEC_2000_SF3_U_DP3&-ds_name=DEC_2000_SF3_U&-_lang=en&-_sse=on&-geo_id=16000US0952000 , title=New Haven city, Connecticut – DP-3. Profile of Selected Economic Characteristics: 2000 , publisher=Factfinder.census.gov , access-date=2011-09-28 , archive-url=https://archive.today/20200212041759/http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/QTTable?_bm=y&-qr_name=DEC_2000_SF3_U_DP3&-ds_name=DEC_2000_SF3_U&-_lang=en&-_sse=on&-geo_id=16000US0952000 , archive-date=2020-02-12 , url-status=dead The ages of New Haven's residents were 25.4% under the age of 18, 16.4% from 18 to 24, 31.2% from 25 to 44, 16.7% from 45 to 64, and 10.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years, which was significantly lower than the national average. There were 91.8 males per 100 females. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $29,604, and the median income for a family was $35,950. Median income for males was $33,605, compared with $28,424 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,393. About 20.5% of families and 24.4% of the population were living below the poverty line, including 32.2% of those under age 18 and 17.9% of those age 65 or over.


Other data

It is estimated that 14% of New Haven residents are pedestrian commuters, ranking it number four by highest percentage in the United States. This is primarily due to New Haven's small area and the presence of
Yale University Yale University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...
. New Haven is noted for having the highest percentage of Italian American residents of any US city. New Haven is a predominantly Roman Catholic Church, Roman Catholic city, as the city's Dominican, Irish, Italian, Mexican, Ecuadorian, and Puerto Rican populations are overwhelmingly Catholic. The city is part of the Archdiocese of Hartford. Jews also make up a considerable portion of the population, as do Black Baptists. There is a growing number of (mostly Puerto Rican) Pentecostals as well. There are churches for all major branches of Christianity within the city, multiple store-front churches, ministries (especially in working-class Latino and Black neighborhoods), a mosque, many synagogues (including two yeshivas), and other places of worship; the level of religious diversity in the city is high.{{Citation needed, date=August 2018 A study of the demographics of the New Haven metro area, based on age, educational attainment, and race and ethnicity, found that they were the closest of any American city to the national average.


Economy

New Haven's economy originally was based in manufacturing, but the postwar period brought rapid deindustrialization, industrial decline; the entire Northeast was affected, and medium-sized cities with large working-class populations, like New Haven, were hit particularly hard. Simultaneously, the growth and expansion of
Yale University Yale University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...
further affected the economic shift. Today, over half (56%) of the city's economy is now made up of services, in particular education and health care; Yale is the city's largest employer, followed by Yale – New Haven Hospital. Other large employers include Southern Connecticut State University, Assa Abloy lock manufacturing, the Knights of Columbus headquarters, Higher One, Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Covidien and United Illuminating.{{cite web , url=http://www.city-data.com/us-cities/The-Northeast/New-Haven-Economy.html , title=New Haven: Economy – Major Industries and Commercial Activity , publisher=City-data.com , access-date=2011-09-28 Clothing stores Gant (retailer), Gant and Ann Inc., Ann Taylor were founded in the city. In 2017, New Haven was ranked by a Verizon Communications, Verizon study as one of the top 10 cities in America for launching tech startups, and top two in New England. Industry sectors: Agriculture (.6%), Construction and Mining (4.9%), Manufacturing (2.9%), Transportation and Utilities (2.9%), Trade (21.7%), Finance and Real Estate (7.1%), Services (55.9%), Government (4.0%)


Headquarters

The Knights of Columbus, the world's largest Catholic fraternal service organization and a Fortune 1000 company, is headquartered in New Haven. Amphenol, based in Greater New Haven (
WallingfordWallingford may refer to: Places * Wallingford, Oxfordshire, England, United Kingdom **Wallingford Castle the castle * Wallingford, Connecticut, United States * Wallingford, Iowa, United States * Wallingford, Kentucky, United States * Wallingford, ...
), is a Fortune 100 company. Eight Courant 100 companies are based in Greater New Haven, with four headquartered in New Haven proper. New Haven-based companies traded on stock exchanges include NewAlliance Bank, the second largest bank in Connecticut and fourth-largest in New England (NYSE: NAL), Higher One Holdings (NYSE: ONE), a financial services firm, United Illuminating, the electricity distributor for southern Connecticut (NYSE: UIL), and Transpro Inc. (AMEX: TPR). Vion Pharmaceuticals is traded Over-the-counter (finance), OTC (OTC BB: VIONQ.OB). The American division of Assa Abloy (one of the world's leading manufacturers of locks) is located in the city. The Southern New England Telephone Company (SNET) began operations in the city as the District Telephone Company of New Haven in 1878; the company remains headquartered in New Haven as a subsidiary of Frontier Communications and provides telephone service for all but two municipalities in Connecticut. SeeClickFix was founded and has been headquartered in the city since 2007. Peter Paul Candy Manufacturing Company (a candy-making division of the Hershey Company) was formerly located in the city. Achillion Pharmaceuticals and Alexion Pharmaceuticals were also formerly headquartered in New Haven.


Law and government


Political structure

{{see also, List of mayors of New Haven, Connecticut, Mayoral elections in New Haven, Connecticut New Haven is governed via the mayor-council system. Connecticut municipalities (like those of neighboring states Massachusetts and Rhode Island) provide nearly all local services (such as fire and rescue, education, snow removal, etc.), as county government has been abolished since 1960. New Haven County merely refers to a grouping of towns and a judicial district, not a governmental entity. New Haven is a member of the South Central Connecticut Regional Council of Governments (SCRCOG), a regional agency created to facilitate coordination between area municipal governments and state and federal agencies, in the absence of county government. Justin Elicker is the mayor of New Haven. He was sworn in as the 51st mayor of New Haven on January 1, 2020. The city council, called the Board of Alders, consists of thirty members, each elected from single-member wards. Each of the 30 wards consists of slightly over 4,300 residents; redistricting takes place every ten years. The city is overwhelmingly Democratic Party (United States), Democratic. In 2017, of the town's 83,694 voters, 66% were registered as Democrats (-4% since 2015), 4% were registered as Republicans (+1%), and 29% were unaffiliated (+3). The board of alders is dominated by Democrats; a Republican has not served as a New Haven alder since 2011.New Haven's Board of Alders races feature challengers and upcoming primary
''New Haven Regiser'' (August 22, 2015).
New Haven is served by the New Haven Police Department, which had 443 sworn officers in 2011. The city is also served by the New Haven Fire Department. New Haven lies within Connecticut's 3rd congressional district and has been represented by Rosa DeLauro since 1991. Martin Looney and Gary Holder-Winfield represent New Haven in the Connecticut State Senate, and the city lies within six districts (numbers 92 through 97) of the Connecticut House of Representatives. The Greater New Haven area is served by the New Haven Judicial District Court and the New Haven Superior Court, both headquartered at the New Haven County Courthouse. The United States District Court for the District of Connecticut, federal District Court for the District of Connecticut has a New Haven facility, the Richard C. Lee United States Courthouse.


Political history

{{see also, List of Yale University people#Law and politics, List of people from New Haven, Connecticut#Politicians New Haven is the birthplace of former President of the United States, president George W. Bush,{{cite web , url=https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/president/biography.html , title=Biography of President George W. Bush , access-date=2011-09-28 , url-status=live , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090205072744/http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/president/biography.html , via=NARA, National Archives , work=whitehouse.gov , archive-date=2009-02-05 who was born when his father, former president George H. W. Bush, was living in New Haven while a student at Yale. In addition to being the site of the college educations of both Presidents Bush, as Yale students, New Haven was also the temporary home of former presidents William Howard Taft, Gerald Ford, and Bill Clinton, as well as Secretary of State John Kerry. President Clinton met his wife, former U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, while the two were students at Yale Law School. Former Vice President of the United States, vice presidents John C. Calhoun and Dick Cheney also studied in New Haven (although the latter did not graduate from Yale). Before the 2008 election, the last time there was not a person with ties to New Haven and Yale on either major party's ticket was 1968. James Hillhouse, a New Haven native, served as President pro tempore of the United States Senate in 1801. A predominantly Democratic Party (United States), Democratic city, New Haven voters overwhelmingly supported Al Gore in the 2000 United States presidential election, 2000 election, Yale graduate John Kerry in 2004 United States presidential election, 2004, and Barack Obama in 2008 US presidential election, 2008 and 2012. In the 2008 election, New Haven County was third among all Connecticut counties in campaign contributions, after Fairfield County, Connecticut, Fairfield and Hartford County, Hartford counties. (Connecticut, in turn, was ranked 14th among all states in total campaign contributions.) New Haven was the subject of '' Who Governs? Democracy and Power in An American City'', a very influential book in political science by preeminent Yale professor Robert A. Dahl, which includes an extensive history of the city and thorough description of its politics in the 1950s. New Haven's theocratic history is also mentioned several times by Alexis de Tocqueville in his classic volume on 19th-century American political life, ''Democracy in America''. New Haven was the residence of conservative thinker William F. Buckley, Jr., in 1951, when he wrote his influential ''God and Man at Yale''. William Lee Miller's ''The Fifteenth Ward and the Great Society'' (1966) similarly explores the relationship between local politics in New Haven and national political movements, focusing on Lyndon Johnson's Great Society and
urban renewal Urban renewal (also called urban regeneration in the United Kingdom and urban redevelopment in the United States) is a program of land redevelopment often used to address urban decay in cities. Urban renewal is the clearing out of blighted area ...
. George Williamson Crawford, a Yale Law School graduate, served as the city's first black corporation counsel from 1954 to 1962, under Mayor Richard C. Lee. In 1970, the New Haven Black Panther trials took place, the largest and longest trials in Connecticut history. Black Panther Party co-founder Bobby Seale and ten other party members were tried for murdering an alleged informant. Beginning on May Day, the city became a center of protest for 12,000 Panther supporters, college students, and New Left activists (including Jean Genet, Benjamin Spock, Abbie Hoffman, Jerry Rubin, and John Froines), who amassed on the New Haven Green, across the street from where the trials were being held. Violent confrontations between the demonstrators and the New Haven Police Department, New Haven Police occurred, and several bombs were set off in the area by radicals. The event became a rallying point for the New Left and critics of the Richard Nixon, Nixon Administration. During the summer of 2007, New Haven was the center of protests by anti-immigration groups who opposed the city's program of offering municipal ID cards, known as the Elm City Resident Card, to illegal immigration to the United States, illegal immigrants. In 2008, the country of Ecuador opened a consulate in New Haven to serve the large Ecuadorean immigrant population in the area. It is the first foreign mission to open in New Haven since Italy opened a consulate (now closed) in the city in 1910. In April 2009, the United States Supreme Court agreed to Ricci v. DeStefano, hear a suit over reverse discrimination brought by 20 white and Hispanic firefighters against the city. The suit involved the 2003 promotion test for the New Haven Fire Department. After the tests were scored, no black people, blacks scored high enough to qualify for consideration for promotion, so the city announced that no one would be promoted. On 29 June 2009, the United States Supreme Court ruled in favor of the firefighters, agreeing that they were improperly denied promotion because of their race.Williams, Joseph (2009-06-30). Supreme Court rules in favor of Conn. firefighters. The Boston Globe. Retrieved on 2009-07-06 fro
Boston.com
"Supreme court rules in favor of conn firefighters"
The case, ''Ricci v. DeStefano'', became highly publicized and brought national attention to New Haven politics due to the involvement of then-US Supreme Court, Supreme Court nominee (and Yale Law School graduate) Sonia Sotomayor in a lower court decision. Garry Trudeau, creator of the political ''Doonesbury'' comic strip, attended Yale University. There he met fellow student and later Green Party of the United States, Green Party candidate for United States Congress, Congress Charles Pillsbury (attorney), Charles Pillsbury, a long-time New Haven resident for whom Trudeau's comic strip is named. During his college years, Pillsbury was known by the nickname "The Doones". A International legal theory, theory of international law, which argues for a sociological normative approach in regards to jurisprudence, is named the International legal theory#New Haven Approach, New Haven Approach, after the city. Connecticut US senator Richard Blumenthal is a Yale graduate, as is former Connecticut US Senator Joe Lieberman who also was a New Haven resident for many years, before moving back to his hometown of Stamford.


Crime

{{see also, America's Safest and Most Dangerous Cities Crime increased in the 1990s, with New Haven having one of the ten highest violent crime rates per capita in the United States. In the late 1990s New Haven's crime began to stabilize. The city, adopting a policy of neighborhood watch, community policing, saw crime rates drop during the 2000s. Violent crime levels vary dramatically among New Haven's neighborhoods, with some areas having crime rates in line with the state of Connecticut average, and others having extremely high rates of crime. A 2011 New Haven Health Department report identifies these issues in greater detail. In 2010, New Haven ranked as the 18th most dangerous city in the United States (albeit below the safety benchmark of 200.00 for the second year in a row).{{cite web , url=http://os.cqpress.com/citycrime/2010/City_crime_rate_2010-2011_hightolow.pdf , title=2010 City Crime Rate Rankings , work=CQ Press using reported data from the F.B.I. "Crime in the United States 2009" , date=2010-11-12 , access-date=2011-09-28 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150412010233/http://os.cqpress.com/citycrime/2010/City_crime_rate_2010-2011_hightolow.pdf , archive-date=2015-04-12 , url-status=dead However, according to a completely different analysis conducted by the "24/7 Wall Street Blog", in 2011 New Haven had risen to become the fourth most dangerous city in the United States, and was widely cited in the press as such. However, an analysis by the Regional Data Cooperative for Greater New Haven, Inc., has shown that due to issues of comparative denominators and other factors, such municipality-based rankings can be considered inaccurate. For example, two cities of identical population can cover widely differing land areas, making such analyses irrelevant. The research organization called for comparisons based on neighborhoods, blocks, or standard methodologies (similar to those used by Brookings, DiversityData, and other established institutions), not based on municipalities.


Education


Colleges and universities

New Haven is a notable center for higher education.
Yale University Yale University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...
, at the heart of downtown, is one of the city's best known features and its largest employer. New Haven is also home to Southern Connecticut State University, part of the Connecticut State University System, and Albertus Magnus College, a private institution. Gateway Community College has a campus in downtown New Haven, formerly located in the Long Wharf (New Haven), Long Wharf district; Gateway consolidated into one campus downtown into a new state-of-the-art campus (on the site of the old Macy's building) and was open for the Fall 2012 semester. There are several institutions immediately outside of New Haven, as well. Quinnipiac University and the Paier College of Art are located just to the north, in the town of Hamden. The University of New Haven is located not in New Haven but in neighboring
West Haven West Haven is a city in New Haven County, Connecticut, New Haven County, Connecticut, United States, and a coastal city of Long Island Sound. At the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census, the population of the city was 55,564. History Settled ...
.


Primary and secondary schools

New Haven Public Schools is the school district serving the city. Wilbur Cross High School and Hillhouse High School are New Haven's two largest public secondary schools.
Hopkins School Hopkins School is a private, college-preparatory, coeducational, day school for grades 7–12 located in New Haven, Connecticut. In 1660, Edward Hopkins, seven-time governor of the Connecticut Colony, bequeathed a portion of his estate to found ...
, a private school, was founded in 1660 and is the fifth-oldest educational institution in the United States. New Haven is home to a number of other private schools as well as public magnet schools, including Metropolitan Business Academy, High School in the Community, Hill Regional Career High School, Co-op High School, New Haven Academy, Edgewood Magnet School, ACES Educational Center for the Arts, the Foote School and the Sound School, all of which draw students from New Haven and suburban towns. New Haven is also home to two Achievement First charter schools, Amistad Academy and Elm City College Prep, and to Common Ground, an environmental charter school. The city is renowned for its progressive school lunch programs, and participation in statewide bussing efforts toward increased diversity in schools.


Culture


Cuisine

Livability.com named New Haven as the Best Foodie City in the country in 2014. There are 56 Zagat Survey, Zagat-rated restaurants in New Haven, the most in Connecticut and the third most in New England (after
Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Massachusetts, most populous city of the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States and 21st List of Unit ...

Boston
and Cambridge, Massachusetts, Cambridge). More than 120 restaurants are located within two blocks of the New Haven Green. The city is home to an eclectic mix of ethnic restaurants and small markets specializing in various foreign foods. Represented cuisines include Malaysian, Ethiopian, Spanish, Belgian, French, Greek, Latin American, Mexican, Italian, Thai, Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese, Korean, Indian, Jamaican, Cuban, Peruvian, Syrian/Lebanese, and Turkish. New Haven's greatest culinary claim to fame may be its pizza, which has been claimed to be among the best in the country, or even in the world. New Haven-style pizza, called "apizza", made its debut at the iconic Frank Pepe Pizzeria Napoletana (known as Pepe's) in 1925. Apizza is baked in coal- or wood-fired brick ovens, and is notable for its thin crust. Apizza may be red (with a tomato-based sauce) or white (with a sauce of garlic and olive oil), and pies ordered "plain" are made without the otherwise customary mozzarella (originally smoked mozzarella, known as "scamorza" in Italian). A white clam pie is a well-known specialty of the restaurants on Wooster Square, Wooster Street in the Little Italy section of New Haven, including Pepe's and Sally's Apizza (which opened in 1938). Modern Apizza on State Street, which opened in 1934, is also well-known. A second New Haven gastronomical claim to fame is Louis' Lunch, which is located in a small brick building on Crown Street and has been serving fast food since 1895. Though fiercely debated, the restaurant's founder Louis Lassen is credited by the Library of Congress with inventing the hamburger and steak sandwich. Louis' Lunch broiling, broils hamburgers, steak sandwiches and hot dogs vertically in original antique 1898 cast iron stoves using gridiron (cooking), gridirons, patented by local resident Luigi Pieragostini in 1939, that hold the meat in place while it cooks. A third New Haven gastronomical claim to fame is Miya's, the first sustainable sushi restaurant in the world. Miya's, founded by Chef Yoshiko Lai in 1982, featured the first sustainable seafood-based sushi menu, the first plant-based sushi menu, and the first invasive species menu in the world. Second generation Miya's chef, Bun Lai, is the 2016 White House Champions of Change for Sustainable Seafood and a James Beard Foundation Award nominee. Chef Bun Lai is credited as the first chef in the world for implementing a sustainability paradigm to the cuisine of sushi.{{cite web , last=Granata , first=Elise , url=http://newhavenindependent.org/index.php/archives/entry/sustainable_sushi_gets_a_toehold1/ , title="Sustainable Sushi" Gets A Toehold , publisher=New Haven Independent , date=2010-01-18 , access-date=2010-02-24 During weekday lunchtime, over 150 lunch carts and food trucks cater to diners around the city. The carts and food trucks cluster at four main points: on Long Wharf Drive, along the city's shoreline with quick access off Interstate 95, by Yale – New Haven Hospital in the center of the Hospital Green (Cedar and York streets), by Yale's Trumbull College (Elm and York streets), and on the intersection of Prospect and Sachem streets by the Yale School of Management. Popular farmers' markets, managed by the local non-profit CitySeed, set up shop weekly in several neighborhoods, including Westville/Edgewood Park, Fair Haven, Upper State Street, Wooster Square, and Downtown/New Haven Green. A large grocery store, the Elm City Market, opened on 360 State Street in New Haven in early fall 2011 and served local produce and groceries to the community. Originally, the market was a member-owned co-op, but debt defaults in August 2014 forced a sale of the business. It is now an employee-owned business; the co-op's previous owners received no equity in the new business. In the past several years, two separate Downtown food tour companies have started offering popular restaurant tours on weekends. Taste of New Haven Tours offers several different weekly restaurant/bar tours and a popular pizza, bike, and pints tour. Culinary Walking Tours offers monthly restaurant tours and sponsors an annual Elm City Iron Chef competition.


Theatre and film

The city hosts numerous theatres and production houses, including the Yale Repertory Theatre, the Long Wharf Theatre, and the Shubert Theatre (New Haven), Shubert Theatre. There is also theatre activity from the Yale School of Drama, which works through the Yale University Theatre and the student-run Yale Cabaret. Southern Connecticut State University hosts the Lyman Center for the Performing Arts. The shuttered Palace Theatre (opposite the Shubert Theatre) was renovated and reopened as the College Street Music Hall in May, 2015. Smaller theatres include the Little Theater on Lincoln Street. Cooperative Arts and Humanities High School also has a theatre on College Street. The theatre is used for student productions, and is the home to weekly services to a local non-denominational church, the City Church New Haven. The Shubert Theatre once premiered many major theatrical productions before their Broadway debuts. Productions that premiered at the Shubert include ''Oklahoma!'' (which was also written in New HavenThe Taft Apartment Building—New Haven, Connecticut
Morganreed.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-15.
), ''Carousel (musical), Carousel'', ''South Pacific (musical), South Pacific'', ''My Fair Lady'', ''The King and I'', and ''The Sound of Music'', and the Tennessee Williams play ''A Streetcar Named Desire (play), A Streetcar Named Desire''. Bow Tie Cinemas owns and operates the Criterion Cinemas, the first new movie theater to open in New Haven in over 30 years and the first luxury movie complex in the city's history. The Criterion has seven screens and opened in November 2004, showing a mix of upscale first run commercial and independent film.


Museums

New Haven has a variety of museums, many of them associated with Yale. The Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library features an original copy of the Gutenberg Bible. There is also the Connecticut Children's Museum; the Knights of Columbus museum near that organization's world headquarters; the Peabody Museum of Natural History; the Yale University Collection of Musical Instruments; the
Eli Whitney Museum The Eli Whitney Museum, in Hamden, Connecticut Connecticut () is the southernmost state in the New England region of the United States. As of the 2010 United States census, 2010 Census, it has the highest per-capita income, second-highes ...
(across the town line in Hamden, Connecticut, on Whitney Avenue); the Yale Center for British Art, which houses the largest collection of British art outside the U.K., and the Yale University Art Gallery, the western hemisphere's oldest college art museum. New Haven is also home to the New Haven Museum and Historical Society on Whitney Avenue, which has a library of many primary source treasures dating from Colonial times to the present. Artspace, New Haven, Artspace on Orange Street is one of several contemporary art galleries around the city, showcasing the work of local, national, and international artists. Others include City Gallery and A. Leaf Gallery in the downtown area. Westville galleries include Kehler Liddell, Jennifer Jane Gallery, and The Hungry Eye. The Erector Square complex in the Fair Haven neighborhood houses, the Parachute Factory gallery along with numerous artist studios, and the complex serves as an active destination during City-Wide Open Studios held yearly in October. New Haven is the home port of a life-size replica of the historical ''Amistad (ship replica), Freedom Schooner Amistad'', which is open for tours at Long Wharf pier at certain times during the summer. Also at Long Wharf pier is the ''Quinnipiack'' schooner, offering sailing cruises of the harbor area throughout the summer. The ''Quinnipiack'' also functions as a floating classroom for hundreds of local students.


Music

The New Haven Green is the site of many free music concerts, especially during the summer months. These have included the New Haven Symphony Orchestra, the July Free Concerts on the Green, and the New Haven Jazz Festival in August. The Jazz Festival, which began in 1982, is one of the longest-running free outdoor festivals in the U.S., until it was canceled for 2007. Headliners such as The Breakfast, Dave Brubeck, Ray Charles and Celia Cruz have historically drawn 30,000 to 50,000 fans, filling up the New Haven Green to capacity. The New Haven Jazz Festival was revived in 2008 and has been sponsored since by Jazz Haven. New Haven is home to the concert venue Toad's Place, and a new venue, College Street Music Hall. The city has retained an alternative art and music underground that has helped to influence post-punk era music movements such as indie rock, indie, college rock and underground hip-hop. Other local venues include Cafe Nine, BAR, Pacific Standard Tavern, Stella Blues, Three Sheets, Firehouse 12, and Rudy's. The Yale School of Music contributes to the city's music scene by offering hundreds of free concerts throughout the year at venues in and around the Yale campus. Large performances are held in the 2,700-seat Woolsey Hall auditorium, which contains the Newberry Memorial Organ, world's largest symphonic organs, while chamber music and recitals are performed in Sprague Hall. Heavy metal music, Hardcore band Hatebreed are from
WallingfordWallingford may refer to: Places * Wallingford, Oxfordshire, England, United Kingdom **Wallingford Castle the castle * Wallingford, Connecticut, United States * Wallingford, Iowa, United States * Wallingford, Kentucky, United States * Wallingford, ...
, but got their start in New Haven under the name Jasta 14 (band), Jasta 14. The band Miracle Legion formed in New Haven in 1983. Folk musicians from New Haven include Loren Mazzacane Connors and Kath Bloom. The Hillhouse Opera Company is a U.S. non-profit opera company based in New Haven that performs in the New Haven area. Founded in 2008 by Victoria Leigh Gardner, Nicole Rodriguez and Jim Coatsworth Hillhouse Opera Company has performed operas as well as opera scenes programs, master classes and concert series. In 2011, the Company professionally staged the works created through the Riverview Opera Project. The Riverview Opera Project created workshops for children and adolescents at Riverview Hospital, Connecticut's only state-funded psychiatric hospital for youth, and helped them to successfully create, produce, and perform four original operas.


Festivals

In addition to the Jazz Festival (described above), New Haven serves as the home city of the annual International Festival of Arts and Ideas. New Haven's Saint Patrick's Day parade, which began in 1842, is New England's oldest and draws the largest crowds of any one-day spectator event in Connecticut. The St. Andrew the Apostle Italian Festival has taken place in the historic Wooster Square neighborhood every year since 1900. Other parishes in the city celebrate the Feast of Saint Anthony of Padua and a carnival in honor of St. Bernadette Soubirous. New Haven celebrates
Powder House DayThe following are minor or locally celebrated holidays related to the American Revolution. A Great Jubilee Day A Great Jubilee Day, first organized May 26, 1783 in North Stratford, now Trumbull, Connecticut, celebrated end of major fighting in th ...
every April on the New Haven Green to commemorate the city's entrance into the American Revolutionary War, Revolutionary War. The annual Wooster Square Cherry Blossom Festival commemorates the 1973 planting of 72 Prunus × yedoensis, Yoshino Japanese cherry blossom trees by the New Haven Historic Commission in collaboration with the New Haven Parks Department and residents of the neighborhood. The Festival now draws well over 5,000 visitors. The Film Fest New Haven has been held annually since 1995.


Nightlife

In the past decade downtown has seen an influx of new restaurants, bars, and nightclubs. Large crowds are drawn to the Crown Street area downtown on weekends where many of the restaurants and bars are located. Crown Street between State and High Streets has dozens of establishments, as do nearby Temple and College Streets. Away from downtown, Upper State Street has a number of restaurants and bars popular with local residents and weekend visitors.


Newspapers and media

New Haven is served by the daily ''New Haven Register'', the weekly "alternative" ''New Haven Advocate'' (which is run by Tribune, the corporation owning the ''Hartford Courant''), the online daily ''New Haven Independent'', and the monthly ''Grand News Community Newspaper.'' Downtown New Haven is covered by an in-depth civic news forum, Design New Haven. The ''Register'' also backs ''PLAY (magazine), PLAY'' magazine, a weekly entertainment publication. The city is also served by several student-run papers, including the ''Yale Daily News'', the weekly ''Yale Herald'' and a humor tabloid, ''Rumpus Magazine''. WTNH Channel 8, the American Broadcasting Company, ABC affiliate for Connecticut, WCTX Channel 59, the MyNetworkTV affiliate for the state, Connecticut Public Television station WEDY channel 65, a Public Broadcasting Service, PBS affiliate, and WTXX Channel 34, the IntrigueTV affiliate, broadcast from New Haven. All New York City news and sports team stations broadcast to New Haven County.


Sports and athletics

{{main, Sports in New Haven, Connecticut New Haven has a history of professional sports franchises dating back to the 19th century and has been the home to professional baseball, basketball, American football, football, ice hockey, hockey, and soccer teams—including the New York Giants of the National Football League from 1973 to 1974, who played at the Yale Bowl. Throughout the second half of the 20th century, New Haven consistently had minor league hockey and baseball teams, which played at the New Haven Arena (built in 1926, demolished in 1972), New Haven Coliseum (1972–2002), and Yale Field (1928–present). When John DeStefano, Jr., became mayor of New Haven in 1995, he outlined a plan to transform the city into a major cultural and arts center in the Northeast United States, Northeast, which involved investments in programs and projects other than sports franchises. As nearby Bridgeport, Connecticut, Bridgeport built new sports facilities, the brutalist New Haven Coliseum rapidly deteriorated. Believing the upkeep on the venue to be a drain of tax dollars, the DeStefano administration closed the Coliseum in 2002; it was demolished in 2007. New Haven's last professional sports team, the New Haven County Cutters, left in 2009. The DeStefano administration did, however, see the construction of the New Haven Athletic Center in 1998, a {{convert, 94000, sqft, m2, adj=on indoor athletic facility with a seating capacity of over 3,000. The NHAC, built adjacent to Hillhouse High School, is used for New Haven public schools athletics, as well as large-scale area and state sporting events; it is the largest high school indoor sports complex in the state. New Haven was the host of the 1995 Special Olympics World Summer Games; then-President Bill Clinton spoke at the opening ceremonies. The city is home to the New Haven Open at Yale, Pilot Pen International tennis event, which takes place every August at the Connecticut Tennis Center, one of the largest tennis venues in the world. New Haven biannually hosts "Harvard–Yale football rivalry, The Game" between Yale and Harvard University, Harvard, the country's second-oldest college football rivalry. Numerous road running, road races take place in New Haven, including the USATF 20K Championship during the New Haven Road Race.
Greater New HavenGreater New Haven is the metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories under the same administrative division, sharing industry, ...
is home to a number of college sports teams. The Yale Bulldogs play Division I college sports, as do the Quinnipiac Bobcats in neighboring Hamden. Division II athletics are played by Southern Connecticut State University and the University of New Haven (actually located in neighboring
West Haven West Haven is a city in New Haven County, Connecticut, New Haven County, Connecticut, United States, and a coastal city of Long Island Sound. At the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census, the population of the city was 55,564. History Settled ...
), while Albertus Magnus College athletes perform at the Division III level. New Haven is home to many New York Yankees, New York Mets, & Boston Red Sox fans due to the proximity of New York City & Boston. Walter Camp, deemed the "father of American football," was a New Havener. The New Haven Warriors rugby league team play in the AMNRL. They have a large number of Pacific Islanders playing for them. Their field is located at the West Haven High School's Ken Strong Stadium. They won the 2008 AMNRL Grand Final.


Structures


Architecture

New Haven has many architectural landmarks dating from every important time period and architectural style in American history. The city has been home to a number of architects and architectural firms that have left their mark on the city including Ithiel Town and Henry Austin (architect), Henry Austin in the 19th century and Cesar Pelli, Warren Platner, Kevin Roche, Herbert Newman and Barry Svigals in the 20th. The Yale School of Architecture has fostered this important component of the city's economy. Cass Gilbert, of the Beaux-Arts architecture, Beaux-Arts school, designed New Haven's Union Station (New Haven), Union Station and the New Haven Free Public Library and was also commissioned for a City Beautiful plan in 1919. Frank Lloyd Wright, Marcel Breuer, Alexander Jackson Davis, Philip Johnson, Philip C. Johnson, Gordon Bunshaft, Louis Kahn, James Gamble Rogers, Frank Gehry, Charles Willard Moore, Behnisch Architekten, Stefan Behnisch, James Polshek, Paul Rudolph (architect), Paul Rudolph, Eero Saarinen and Robert Venturi all have designed buildings in New Haven. Yale's 1950s-era Ingalls Rink, designed by Eero Saarinen, was included on the ''America's Favorite Architecture'' list created in 2007. Several residential homes in New Haven were designed by Alice Washburn, a noted female architect whose Colonial Revival style set a standard for homes in the region. Many of the city's neighborhoods are well-preserved as walkable "museums" of 19th- and 20th-century American architecture, particularly by the New Haven Green, Hillhouse Avenue and other residential sections close to
Downtown New Haven Downtown New Haven is the neighborhood located in the heart of the city of New Haven New Haven is a coastal city in the U.S. state of Connecticut. It is located on New Haven Harbor on the northern shore of Long Island Sound in New Haven Count ...

Downtown New Haven
. Overall, a large proportion of the city's land area is National (NRHP) historic districts. One of the best sources on local architecture is ''New Haven: Architecture and Urban Design'', by Elizabeth Mills Brown. {{see also, List of tallest buildings in New Haven The five tallest buildings in New Haven are: # Connecticut Financial Center 383 ft (117m) 26 floors # 360 State Street 338 ft (103m) 32 floors # Knights of Columbus Building (New Haven, Connecticut), Knights of Columbus Building 321 ft (98m) 23 floors # Kline Biology Tower 250 ft (76m) 16 floors # Crown Towers (New Haven, Connecticut), Crown Towers 233 ft (71m) 22 floors


Historic points of interest

{{see also, National Register of Historic Places listings in New Haven, Connecticut Many historical sites exist throughout the city, including National Register of Historic Places listings in New Haven, Connecticut, 59 properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Of these, nine are among the List of National Historic Landmarks in Connecticut, 60 U.S. National Historic Landmarks in Connecticut. The New Haven Green, one of the National Historic Landmarks, was formed in 1638, and is home to three 19th-century churches. Below the First Church of Christ in New Haven (referred to as the Center Church on the Green) lies a 17th-century crypt, which is open to visitors. Some of the more famous burials include the first wife of
Benedict Arnold Benedict Arnold (Brandt (1994), p. 414 June 1801) was an United States, American military officer who served during the American Revolutionary War, Revolutionary War. He fought with distinction for the American Continental Army, rising to the r ...

Benedict Arnold
and the aunt and grandmother of President Rutherford B. Hayes; Hayes visited the crypt while President in 1880. The Old Campus of
Yale University Yale University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...
is located next to the Green, and includes Connecticut Hall, Yale's oldest building and a National Historic Landmark. The Hillhouse Avenue area, which is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and is also a part of Yale's campus, has been called a walkable museum, due to its 19th-century mansions and street scape; Charles Dickens is said to have called Hillhouse Avenue "the most beautiful street in America" when visiting the city in 1868. In 1660,
Edward Whalley Edward Whalley (c. 1607 – c. 1675) was an English military leader during the English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ( ...
(a cousin and friend of Oliver Cromwell) and
William Goffe William Goffe (1605?–1679?) was an English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has e ...
, two English Civil War generals who signed the death warrant of King Charles I of England, King Charles I, hid in a rock formation in New Haven after having fled England upon the Restoration (England), restoration of to the English throne. They were later joined by a third regicide, John Dixwell. The rock formation, which is now a part of West Rock Park, is known as Judges' Cave, and the path leading to the cave is called the Regicides Trail. After the American Revolutionary War broke out in 1776, the Connecticut Colony, Connecticut colonial government ordered the construction of Fort Nathan Hale, Black Rock Fort (to be built on top of an older 17th-century fort) to protect the port of New Haven. In 1779, during the Tryon's raid, Battle of New Haven, British soldiers captured Black Rock Fort and burned the barracks to the ground. The fort was reconstructed in 1807 by the federal government (on orders from the Thomas Jefferson administration), and rechristened Fort Nathan Hale, after the Nathan Hale, Revolutionary War hero who had lived in New Haven. The cannons of Fort Nathan Hale were successful in defying British war ships during the War of 1812. In 1863, during the American Civil War, Civil War, a Fort Nathan Hale, second Fort Hale was built next to the original, complete with bomb-resistant bunkers and a moat, to defend the city should a Confederate States of America, Southern raid against New Haven be launched. The United States Congress deeded the site to the state in 1921, and all three versions of the fort have been restored. The site is now listed on the National Register of Historic Places and receives thousands of visitors each year. Grove Street Cemetery, a National Historic Landmark which lies adjacent to Yale's campus, contains the graves of
Roger Sherman Roger Sherman (April 19, 1721 – July 23, 1793) was an early American statesman and lawyer A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney at lawAttorney at law or attorney-at-law, usually abbreviated in ever ...
,
Eli Whitney Eli Whitney Jr. (December 8, 1765January 8, 1825) was an American inventor, widely known for inventing the cotton gin in Hamden, Connecticut Hamden is a New England town, town in New Haven County, Connecticut, New Haven County, Connecticut, ...
, Noah Webster, Josiah Willard Gibbs, Charles Goodyear and Walter Camp, among other notable burials. The cemetery is noted for its Egyptian Revival gateway, and is the oldest planned burial ground in the United States. The Union League Club of New Haven building, located on Chapel Street, is notable for not only being a historic Beaux-Arts architecture, Beaux-Arts building, but also is built on the site where Roger Sherman's home once stood;
George Washington George Washington (February 22, 1732, 1799) was an American soldier, statesman, and Founding Father The following list of national founding figures is a record, by country, of people who were credited with establishing a state. Natio ...

George Washington
is known to have stayed at the Sherman residence while President in 1789 (one of three times Washington visited New Haven throughout his lifetime). Two sites pay homage to the time President and Chief Justice of the United States, Chief Justice William Howard Taft lived in the city, as both a student and later Professor at Yale: a plaque on Prospect Street marks the site where Taft's home formerly stood, and downtown's Taft Apartment Building (formerly the Taft Hotel) bears the name of the former president who resided in the building for eight years before becoming Chief Justice of the United States. Lighthouse Point Park, a public beach run by the city, was a popular tourist destination during the Roaring Twenties, attracting luminaries of the period such as Babe Ruth and Ty Cobb. The park remains popular among New Haveners, and is home to the Five Mile Point Lighthouse, constructed in 1847, and the Lighthouse Point Carousel, constructed in 1916. Five Mile Point Light was decommissioned in 1877 following the construction of Southwest Ledge Light at the entrance of the harbor, which remains in service to this day. Both of the lighthouses and the carousel are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Other historic sites in the city include the Soldiers and Sailors Monument (New Haven), Soldiers and Sailors Monument, which stands at the summit of East Rock, the Marsh Botanical Garden, Wooster Square, Dwight Street Historic District, Dwight Street, Louis' Lunch, and the
Farmington Canal The Farmington Canal, also known as the New Haven and Northampton Canal, was a major private canal Canals are waterways Channel (geography), channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles. T ...
, all of which date back to the 19th century. Other historic parks besides the Green include Edgerton (Hamden and New Haven, Connecticut), Edgerton Park, Edgewood Park, New Haven, Edgewood Park, and East Rock Park, each of which is included on the National Register of Historic Places.


Transportation


Rail

New Haven is connected to New York City and points along the Northeast corridor by commuter rail, regional rail and inter-city rail. Service is provided by: * Metro-North Railroad's New Haven Line (commuter rail) to points west, such as Bridgeport, Stamford, Greenwich, and New York City * Shore Line East (commuter rail) to points east, such as Old Saybrook and New London, with limited rush-hour service west to Stamford * Hartford Line (commuter rail) to points north, such as Meriden, Hartford, Windsor, and Springfield, Massachusetts * Amtrak (regional and intercity rail) The city's main railroad station is the historic Beaux-Arts architecture, Beaux-Arts Union Station (New Haven), Union Station, which serves Metro-North, Hartford Line, and Shore Line East commuter trains. Union Station is also served by four Amtrak lines: the ''Northeast Regional'' and the high-speed rail, high-speed ''Acela Express'' provide service to New York, Washington, D.C. and
Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Massachusetts, most populous city of the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States and 21st List of Unit ...

Boston
, and rank as the first and second busiest routes in the country; the New Haven–Springfield Line provides service to
Hartford Hartford is the List of capitals in the United States, capital city of the U.S. state of Connecticut. It was the seat of Hartford County, Connecticut, Hartford County until Connecticut disbanded county government in 1960. It is the core city i ...
and Springfield, Massachusetts; and the ''Vermonter (train), Vermonter'' provides service to both Washington, D.C., and Vermont, {{convert, 15, mi, km from the Canada–United States border, Canada–US border. Amtrak also codeshares with United Airlines for travel to any airport serviced by United Airlines, via Newark Liberty International Airport {{airport codes, EWR originating from or terminating at Union Station {{airport codes, ZVE. An additional station, State Street Station (New Haven), State Street Station, was opened in 2002, providing passengers easier access to
downtown New Haven Downtown New Haven is the neighborhood located in the heart of the city of New Haven New Haven is a coastal city in the U.S. state of Connecticut. It is located on New Haven Harbor on the northern shore of Long Island Sound in New Haven Count ...

downtown New Haven
. State Street Station is currently serviced by Shore Line East and Hartford Line trains, plus some peak-hour Metro-North trips.


Bus

The Connecticut Transit New Haven, New Haven Division of Connecticut Transit (CT Transit), the state's bus system, is the second largest division in the state with 24 routes. All routes originate from the New Haven Green, making it the central transfer hub of the city. Service is provided to 19 different municipalities throughout
Greater New HavenGreater New Haven is the metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories under the same administrative division, sharing industry, ...
. Bus routes were formerly identified by letters, but as of October 8, 2017, all service was renamed using 200-series numbers, in accordance with a renumbering of CTtransit's statewide services. CT Transit's Union Station Shuttle provides free service from Union Station to the New Haven Green and several New Haven parking garages. Peter Pan Bus Lines, Peter Pan and Greyhound Lines, Greyhound bus lines have scheduled stops at Union Station, and connections downtown can be made via the Union Station Shuttle. A private company operates the New Haven/Hartford Express which provides commuter bus service to Hartford. The Yale University Shuttle provides free transportation around New Haven for Yale students, faculty, and staff. The New Haven Division buses follow routes that had originally been covered by tram, trolley service. Horsecar, Horse-drawn streetcars began operating in New Haven in the 1860s, and by the mid-1890s all the lines had become electric. In the 1920s and 1930s, some of the trolley lines began to be replaced by bus lines, with the last trolley route converted to bus in 1948. The City of New Haven is in the very early stages of considering the restoration of streetcar (light-rail) service, which has been absent since the postwar period.


Bicycle


Bikeshare

On February 21, 2018, New Haven officially launched its Bike New Haven bikeshare program.{{cite news , url=http://wshu.org/post/new-haven-launches-bike-share-program#stream/0 , title=New Haven Launches Bike Share Program , last=Moaton , first=Anthony , date=21 February 2018 , work=WSHU , access-date=25 February 2018 based on dockless technology powered by Noa Technologies At time of launch, the program features 10 docking stations and 100 bikes, spread throughout the urban core; there are plans to reach 30 bike stations and 300 bikes by the end of April 2018. The launch of the New Haven bikeshare program coincided with the launch of Yale University's own bikeshare program, which uses the same technology powered by Noa.


Bike lanes

In 2004, the first bike lane in the city was added to Orange Street, connecting East Rock Park and the East Rock (neighborhood), East Rock neighborhood to downtown. Since then, bike lanes have also been added to sections of Howard Ave, Elm St, Dixwell Avenue, Water Street, Clinton Avenue and State Street. The city has created recommended bike routes for getting around New Haven, including use of the Canal Trail and the Orange Street lane. As of the end of 2012, bicycle lanes have also been added in both directions on Dixwell Avenue along most of the street from downtown to the Hamden town line, as well as along Howard Avenue from Yale New Haven Hospital to City Point. The city has plans to create two additional bike lanes connecting Union Station with downtown, and the Westville (New Haven), Westville neighborhood with downtown. The city has added dozens of covered bicycle parking, bike parking spots at Union Station, in order to facilitate more bike commuting to the station.


Farmington Canal Greenway

The Farmington Canal Trail is a rail trail that will eventually run continuously from downtown New Haven to
Northampton, Massachusetts The city of Northampton is the county seat of Hampshire County, Massachusetts, Hampshire County, Massachusetts, United States. As of the 2020 United States Census, 2020 census, the population of Northampton (including its outer villages, Florenc ...
. The scenic trail follows the path of the historic New Haven and Northampton Company and the
Farmington Canal The Farmington Canal, also known as the New Haven and Northampton Canal, was a major private canal Canals are waterways Channel (geography), channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles. T ...
. Currently, there is a continuous {{convert, 14, mi, km, adj=on stretch of the trail from downtown, through Hamden and into
Cheshire Cheshire ( ;), archaically the County Palatine of Chester, is a historic and ceremonial county in northwest England North West England is one of nine official regions of England The regions, formerly known as the government office re ...
, making bicycle commuting between New Haven and those suburbs possible. The trail is part of the East Coast Greenway, a proposed {{convert, 3000, mi, km, adj=on bike path that would link every major city on the East Coast of the United States, East Coast from Florida to Maine.


Roads

New Haven lies at the intersection of
Interstate 95 Interstate 95 (I-95) is the main north–south Interstate Highway The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly known as the Interstate Highway System, is a network of controlled-access highwa ...
on the coast—which provides access southwards and/or westwards to the western coast of Connecticut and to New York City, and eastwards to the eastern Connecticut shoreline, Rhode Island, and eastern Massachusetts—and
Interstate 91 Interstate 91 (I-91) is an Interstate Highway The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly known as the Interstate Highway System, is a network of controlled-access highways that forms part of the N ...
, which leads northward to the interior of Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont and the Canada–US border. I-95 is infamous for traffic jams increasing with proximity to New York City; on the east side of New Haven it passes over the Quinnipiac River via the Pearl Harbor Memorial, or "Pearl Harbor Memorial Bridge (Connecticut), Q Bridge", which often presents a major bottleneck to traffic. I-91, however, is relatively less congested, except at the intersection with I-95 during peak travel times. The
Oak Street Connector The Oak Street Connector, officially known as the Richard C. Lee Highway (named after former New Haven mayor Richard C. Lee), is a freeway section of Route 34 that is located in downtown New Haven, downtown New Haven, Connecticut, United States. ...
(Connecticut Route 34) intersects I-91 at exit 1, just south of the I-95/I-91 interchange, and runs northwest for a few blocks as an expressway spur into downtown before emptying onto surface roads. The Wilbur Cross Parkway (Connecticut Route 15) runs parallel to I-95 west of New Haven, turning northwards as it nears the city and then running northwards parallel to I-91 through the outer rim of New Haven and Hamden, offering an alternative to the I-95/I-91 journey (restricted to non-commercial vehicles). Route 15 in New Haven is the site of the only highway tunnel in the state (officially designated as Heroes Tunnel), running through West Rock, home to West Rock Park and the Three Judges Cave. The city also has several major surface arteries. U.S. Route 1 in Connecticut, U.S. Route 1 (Columbus Avenue, Union Avenue, Water Street, Forbes Avenue) runs in an east–west direction south of downtown serving Union Station (New Haven), Union Station and leading out of the city to Milford,
West Haven West Haven is a city in New Haven County, Connecticut, New Haven County, Connecticut, United States, and a coastal city of Long Island Sound. At the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census, the population of the city was 55,564. History Settled ...
, East Haven and
Branford Branford may refer to: Places *Branford, Connecticut Branford is a shoreline New England town, town located on Long Island Sound in New Haven County, Connecticut, New Haven County, Connecticut, about east of downtown New Haven, Connecticut, New ...
. The main road from downtown heading northwest is Whalley Avenue (partly signed as Connecticut Route 10, Route 10 and Connecticut Route 63, Route 63) leading to Westville (New Haven), Westville and Woodbridge. Heading north towards Hamden, there are two major thoroughfares, Dixwell Avenue and Whitney Avenue. To the northeast are Middletown Avenue (Connecticut Route 17, Route 17), which leads to the Montowese section of North Haven, and Foxon Boulevard (Connecticut Route 80, Route 80), which leads to the Foxon section of East Haven and to the town of North Branford. To the west is Route 34, which leads to the city of Derby, Connecticut, Derby. Other major intracity arteries are Ella Grasso Boulevard (Connecticut Route 10, Route 10) west of downtown, and College Street, Temple Street, Church Street, Elm Street, and Grove Street in the downtown area. Traffic safety is a major concern for drivers, pedestrians and cyclists in New Haven. In addition to many traffic-related fatalities in the city each year, since 2005, over a dozen Yale students, staff and faculty have been killed or injured in traffic collisions on or near the campus.


Airport

Tweed New Haven Regional Airport is located within the city limits {{convert, 3, mi, 0 east of the business district. Avelo Airlines flies nonstop to cities across Florida, including Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Orlando, Tampa, and West Palm Beach. Bus service between
Downtown New Haven Downtown New Haven is the neighborhood located in the heart of the city of New Haven New Haven is a coastal city in the U.S. state of Connecticut. It is located on New Haven Harbor on the northern shore of Long Island Sound in New Haven Count ...

Downtown New Haven
and Tweed is available via the Connecticut Transit New Haven, CT Transit New Haven Division. Taxi service and rental cars are available at the airport. Travel time from Tweed to downtown takes approximately 15 minutes by car. Other nearby airports include: *Bradley International Airport in Windsor Locks, Connecticut. *Sikorsky Memorial Airport in Bridgeport, Connecticut.


Seaport

New Haven Harbor New Haven Harbor is an inlet on the north side of Long Island Sound Long Island Sound is a tidal estuary of the Atlantic Ocean, lying predominantly between the U.S. state of Connecticut Connecticut () is the southernmost state in the New Engl ...
is home to the Port of New Haven, a deep-water seaport with three berths capable of hosting vessels and barges as well as the facilities required to handle break bulk cargo. The port has the capacity to load 200 trucks a day from the ground or via loading docks. Rail transportation access is available, with a private switch engine for yard movements and private siding for loading and unloading. Approximately {{convert, 400000, sqft, m2, -4 of inside storage and {{convert, 50, acre, m2 of outside storage are available at the site. Five shore cranes with a 250-ton capacity and 26 forklifts, each with a 26-ton capacity, are also available. On June 17, 2013, the city commissioned the Nathan Hale (fireboat), ''Nathan Hale'', a {{convert, 36, foot, m port security vessel capable of serving search and rescue, firefighting, and constabulary roles.{{cite news , url=http://www.newhavenindependent.org/index.php/archives/entry/nathan_hale_hits_the_harbor/ , title="Nathan Hale" hits the harbor , publisher=New Haven Independent , author=Thomas MacMillan , date=2013-06-17 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131231091954/http://www.newhavenindependent.org/index.php/archives/entry/nathan_hale_hits_the_harbor/ , archive-date=2013-12-31 , access-date=2014-10-25 , url-status=dead , quote=The city recently purchased the Metalcraft Firestorm 36 using grant money from the federal Department of Homeland Security. The vessel will be used by the fire and police departments for dousing fires on sea and on the shore, and search and rescue operations.


Infrastructure


Hospitals and medicine

The New Haven area supports several medical facilities that are considered some of the best hospitals in the country. There are two major medical centers downtown: Yale – New Haven Hospital has four pavilions, including the Yale – New Haven Children's Hospital and the Smilow Cancer Hospital; the Hospital of Saint Raphael is several blocks north, and touts its excellent cardiac emergency care program. Smaller downtown health facilities are the Temple Medical Center located downtown on Temple Street, Connecticut Mental Health Center/ across Park Street from Y-NHH, and the Hill Health Center, which serves the working-class Hill neighborhood. A large Veterans Affairs hospital is located in neighboring West Haven. To the west in Milford is Milford Hospital (Connecticut), Milford Hospital, and to the north in Meriden is the MidState Medical Center. Yale and New Haven are working to build a medical and biotechnology research hub in the city and Greater New Haven region, and are succeeding to some extent.{{citation needed, date=March 2014 The city, state and Yale together run Science Park, a large site three blocks northwest of Yale's Science Hill (Yale University), Science Hill campus.[citation forthcoming] This multi-block site, approximately bordered by Mansfield Street, Division Street, and Shelton Avenue, is the former home of Winchester Repeating Arms Company, Winchester's and Olin Corporation's 45 large-scale factory buildings. Currently, sections of the site are large-scale parking lots or abandoned structures, but there is also a large remodeled and functioning area of buildings (leased primarily by a private developer) with numerous Yale employees, financial service and biotech companies. A second biotechnology district is being planned for the median strip on Frontage Road, on land cleared for the never-built Route 34 extension. As of late 2009, a Pfizer drug-testing clinic, a medical laboratory building serving Yale – New Haven Hospital, and a mixed-use structure containing parking, housing and office space, have been constructed on this corridor. A former Southern New England Telephone, SNET telephone building at 300 George Street is being converted into lab space, and has been quite successful so far in attracting biotechnology and medical firms.


Power supply facilities

Electricity for New Haven is generated by a 448 MW oil and gas-fired generating station located on the shore at New Haven Harbor. Pennsylvania Power and Light (PPL) Inc. operates a 220 MW peaking natural gas turbine plant in nearby Wallingford. Near New Haven there is the static inverter plant of the HVDC Cross Sound Cable. There are three PureCell System, PureCell Model 400 fuel cells placed in the city of New Haven—one at the New Haven Public Schools and newly constructed Roberto Clemente School, one at the mixed-use 360 State Street building, and one at New Haven City Hall and County Courthouse, City Hall. According to Giovanni Zinn of the city's Office of Sustainability, each fuel cell may save the city up to $1 million in energy costs over a decade. The fuel cells were provided by ClearEdge Power, formerly UTC Power. Additional fuel cells are located at the Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History and at the Greater New Haven Water Pollution Control Authority (GNHWPCA). IKEA, Ikea's New Haven facility also utilizes a 250 kW fuel cell and 940.8 kW solar array. New Haven recently installed solar panels at 11 city schools with a combined power generation capacity of 1.8 MW. Owned and maintained by Greenskies, the panels allow New Haven to purchase electricity at a discounted rate through a power-purchasing agreement. The panels bring New Haven's solar capacity to 2.8 MW and will help New Haven meet its commitment to powering 100% of its municipal operations through clean energy, which it made in Summer 2017 and reaffirmed in the 2018 New Haven Climate and Sustainability Framework.


In popular culture

{{more citations needed, date=September 2016 Several recent movies have been filmed in New Haven, including ''Mona Lisa Smile'' (2003), with Julia Roberts, ''The Life Before Her Eyes'' (2007), with Uma Thurman, and ''Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull'' (2008) directed by Steven Spielberg and starring Harrison Ford, Cate Blanchett and Shia LaBeouf. The filming of ''Crystal Skull'' involved an extensive chase sequence through the streets of New Haven. Several downtown streets were closed to traffic and received a "makeover" to look like streets of 1957, when the film is set. 500 locals were cast as extras for the film. In ''Everybody's Fine (2009 film), Everybody's Fine'' (2009), Robert De Niro has a close encounter in what is supposed to be the Denver train station; the scene was filmed in New Haven's Union Station. New Haven is mentioned in the song Peace Frog by The Doors, referencing a 1967 incident where Morrison was arrested for "attempting to incite a riot" in the middle of a concert at the New Haven Arena.


Notable people

{{main list, List of people from New Haven, Connecticut


Sister cities

New Haven's Sister city, sister cities are:{{cite web , title=New Haven Sister Cities , url=https://www.newhavenct.gov/arts/neighborhood_n_cultural_development/sister_cities.htm , website=newhavenct.gov , publisher=City of New Haven , access-date=2021-05-16 {{div col, colwidth=20em *{{flagicon, ISR Afula, Israel *{{flagicon, ITA Amalfi, Italy *{{flagicon, FRA Avignon, France *{{flagicon, CHN Changsha, China *{{flagicon, SLE Freetown, Sierra Leone *{{flagicon, VIE Huế, Vietnam *{{flagicon, NIC León, Nicaragua, Nicaragua *{{flagicon, MEX San Francisco Tetlanohcan Municipality, San Francisco Tetlanohcan, Mexico {{div col end Some of these were selected because of historical connection—Freetown because of the ''Amistad'' trial. Others, such as Amalfi and Afula, reflect ethnic groups in New Haven. In 1990, the United Nations named New Haven a "United Nations Peace Messenger Cities, Peace Messenger City".


See also

{{Portal, Connecticut * National Register of Historic Places listings in New Haven, Connecticut * New Haven Fire Department * New Haven Police Department * Coast Guard Station New Haven * Human coronavirus NL63, New Haven Coronavirus


References

{{reflist , refs = {{cite news , url=http://www.nhregister.com/general-news/20130617/new-police-fire-ems-boat-afloat-in-new-haven , title=New police, fire EMS boat afloat in New Haven , newspaper=New Haven Register , author=Guerrero Garcia , date=2013-06-17 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141026012806/http://www.nhregister.com/general-news/20130617/new-police-fire-ems-boat-afloat-in-new-haven , archive-date=2014-10-26 , access-date=2014-10-25 , url-status=live , quote=The city held a ceremony to commission The Nathan Hale, the new public safety vessel, which is going to be used by the police, fire and emergency services departments to support all operations in the harbor and to help put the public in a better place, said Deputy Director of Emergency Management Rick Fontana.


Further reading

{{refbegin * Leonard Bacon, ''Thirteen Historical Discourses'' (New Haven, 1839) * C. H. Hoadley (editor), ''Records of the Colony of New Haven, 1638–1665'' (two volumes, Hartford, 1857–58) * J. W. Barber, ''History and Antiquities of New Haven'' (third edition, New Haven, 1870) * C. H. Levermore, ''Town and City Government of New Haven'' (Baltimore, 1886) * C. H. Levermore, ''Republic of New Haven: A History of Municipal Evolution'' (Baltimore, 1886) * E. S. Bartlett, ''Historical Sketches of New Haven'' (New Haven, 1897) * F. H. Cogswell, "New Haven" in L. P. Powell (editor), ''Historic Towns of New England'' (New York, 1898) * H. T. Blake, ''Chronicles of New Haven Green'' (New Haven, 1898) * E. E. Atwater, ''History of the Colony of New Haven'' (New edition, New Haven, 1902) * {{Citation , publisher = Porter Sargent, Porter E. Sargent , location = Boston , title = Handbook of New England , date = 1916 , oclc = 16726464 , chapter-url = https://archive.org/stream/handbookofneweng00sargiala#page/94/mode/2up , chapter = New Haven * Robert A. Dahl, ''Who Governs?, Who Governs? Democracy and Power in An American City'' (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1961) * William Lee Miller, ''The Fifteenth Ward and the Great Society'' (Houghton Mifflin/Riverside, 1966) * Douglas W. Rae, ''City: Urbanism and Its End'' (New Haven, 2003) * ''New Haven City Yearbooks'' * Michael Sletcher, ''New Haven: From Puritanism to the Age of Terrorism'' (Charleston, 2004) * Preston C. Maynard and Majorey B. Noyes, (editors), "Carriages and Clocks, Corsets and Locks: the Rise and Fall of an Industrial City—New Haven, Connecticut" (University Press of New England, 2005) * Mandi Isaacs Jackson, ''Model City Blues: Urban Space and Organized Resistance in New Haven'' (Temple University Press, 2008) * James Cersonsky, "Whose New Haven? Reversing the Slant of the Knowledge Economy" (''Dissent'', February 15, 2011) * Paul Bass, "New Hope for New Haven, Connecticut" (''Nation'', January 25, 2012) {{refend


External links

{{Commons category, New Haven, Connecticut {{Wikivoyage, New Haven {{EB1911 Poster, New Haven * {{Official website, http://www.cityofnewhaven.com/ {{Geographic Location , Centre = New Haven , North = Hamden , Northwest = Woodbridge , Northeast = North Haven , West =
Orange Orange most often refers to: *Orange (colour), occurs between red and yellow in the visible spectrum *Orange (fruit), the fruit of the tree species '' Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' ** Orange blossom, its fragrant flower *Some other citrus or citrus-li ...
West Haven West Haven is a city in New Haven County, Connecticut, New Haven County, Connecticut, United States, and a coastal city of Long Island Sound. At the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census, the population of the city was 55,564. History Settled ...
, East = East Haven , South =
Long Island Sound Long Island Sound is a tidal estuary of the Atlantic Ocean, lying predominantly between the U.S. state of Connecticut to the north, and Long Island in New York (state), New York to the south. From west to east, the sound stretches from the East ...

Long Island Sound
{{Neighborhoods of New Haven {{Navboxes, list= {{New Haven County, Connecticut {{Connecticut {{New England {{Connecticut cities and mayors of 100,000 population {{New York metropolitan area {{All-American City Award Hall of Fame {{Northeast Megalopolis {{Northeast US {{Connecticut county seats {{Authority control New Haven, Connecticut, Cities in Connecticut Cities in New Haven County, Connecticut Cities in the New York metropolitan area Former state capitals in the United States, Connecticut Populated coastal places in Connecticut Populated places established in 1638 Port cities and towns of the United States Atlantic coast 1638 establishments in Connecticut