Nayarit (), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Nayarit ( es|Estado Libre y Soberano de Nayarit), is one of the 32 states that comprise the Federal Entities
of Mexico. It is divided in 20 municipalities
and its capital city is Tepic
It is bordered by the states of Sinaloa
to the northwest, Durango
to the north, Zacatecas
to the northeast and Jalisco
to the south. To the west, Nayarit has a significant share of coastline on the Pacific Ocean
, including the islands of Marías
. The beaches of San Blas
and the so-called "Riviera Nayarit
" are popular with tourists.
Besides tourism, the economy of the state is based mainly on agriculture and fishing. It is also one of two states where the tarantula
species ''Brachypelma klaasi
'' is found, the other being Jalisco
Home to Uto-Aztecan
indigenous peoples such as the Huichol
, the region was exposed to the ''conquistador
es'', Hernán Cortés
and Nuño de Guzmán
, in the 16th century. Spanish governance was made difficult by indigenous rebellions and by the inhospitable terrain of the Sierra del Nayar. The last independent Cora communities were subjugated in 1722.
The state's name recalls the Cora people's label for themselves: ''Náayerite'', commemorating Nayar, a resistance leader.
colonization of the western Mexican coast – including parts of Sinaloa, Nayarit and Jalisco – as occurring as early as 900 AD, with some evidence suggesting it might have been as early as 520 AD. Encountered on the western coast by the Spanish invaders in 1500, the cultures were descended from these original Aztatlán settlements and other Classic-stage
cultures who had merged with them.
was the first known European to enter into the area now known as Nayarit, which he claimed for Spain as part of Nueva Galicia
. Under Nuño de Guzman
, Spaniards took the region with considerable brutality, causing the indigenous inhabitants to revolt, in what was later referred to as the Mixtón War
. After almost two centuries of resistance, the last independent Cora communities were incorporated into Spanish administration by force in 1722. Then followed intense missionary efforts by Jesuit
s to convert the indigenous.
In the colonial period, the port of San Blas
was one of the most important trade ports on the American Pacific coast. Galleon
s transporting goods from Manila, the Philippines arrived here before the rise of the port of Acapulco
. Today, the town still boasts colonial architecture
from its heyday, such as the ''aduana'' (customs office), the ''contaduria'' (accounting offices) and the fortress that protected the port against pirates.
In Nayarit, the struggle for independence from Spain was initiated by the priest José María Mercado, who conquered Tepic and San Blas before being defeated and executed by Spanish royalists. In 1824, in the first constitution of the Mexican Republic, Nayarit was a part of Jalisco
. In the mid-1800s Comanche Indians, from Texas and Oklahoma, attacked Tepic causing widespread destruction. During the second half of the 19th century, Nayarit was one of the most turbulent territories in Mexico. The population was in open revolt, demanding access to land.
Nayarit was one of the last territories admitted as a state of the Mexican federation, which occurred on May 1, 1917.
Nayarit covers , making it one of the smaller states in Mexico. Nayarit is located between latitude lines 23°05' north and 20°36' south and longitude lines 103°43' east and 105°46' west. Its terrain is broken up by the western ends of the Sierra Madre Occidental
mountains. Its highest mountains are: San Juan, Sanguangüey
, El Ceboruco
, Cumbre de Pajaritos
in ''The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia'', 6th ed. 2012, Columbia University Press
Nayarit has two volcanoes, Ceboruco
. In the northeast are broad, tropical plains watered by the Río Grande de Santiago
, a continuation of the Lerma River
. The main state rivers are the Río Grande de Santiago
, San Pedro, Acaponeta
and Las Cañas
. The Río Grande de Santiago is the largest river in Nayarit. The Santiago and its tributaries are of major importance for agricultural irrigation. The Ameca and the Las Cañas lie on the border between Nayarit and the states of Jalisco
, respectively. Notable lagoons
in Nayarit include Santa María del Oro
, San Pedro Lagunillas
and Agua Brava
Nayarit – as with all states of Mexico – is geographically divided into municipalities
)'', creating twenty municipalities in Nayarit
Nayarit contains hundreds of miles of rain forest in the sierra. Its wildlife includes hundreds of bird
species including the lilac-crowned amazon
(''Amazona finschi'') and Mexican woodnymph
(''Thalurania ridgwayi''). There are also 119 registered species of mammals, including white-tailed deer
(''Odocoileus virginianus''), collared peccary
(''Pecari tajacu''), caymans, armadillos and wild felines such as jaguarundi
(''Puma yagouarundi'') and ocelot
(''Felis pardalis'') and many more.
[Pulido Pérez, R. (1995). Diagnostico de la fauna silvestre en el estado de Nayarit/.]
Unfortunately, most of the rain forest has been exploited, especially around the region of Santa María del Oro. The conservation and protection of the rain forest and wildlife of Nayarit is an issue of crucial importance.
The Islas Marías
were designated as the Islas Marías Biosphere Reserve
Flora and fauna
*Instituto Tecnológico de Tepic
*Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit
*Universidad Tecnólogica de Nayarit
*Universidad Tecnólogica de la Costa
*Escuela Normal Superior de Nayarit
: a normal school
*Universidad Vizcaya de Las Americas
*Escuela Secundaria Técnica No. 51 (Emilio M. Gonzalez)
Nayarit is Mexico's twenty-ninth most populous state. According to the census of 2020, the state had a population of 1,235,456 and its population density was 39/km2
Nayarit is the home to four indigenous groups: the Wixaritari
(Huichol), the Naayeri
(Cora), the Odam
(Tepehuan) and the Nahuatl
s. The indigenous groups mostly inhabit the Nayar highlands, but are also frequently encountered in Tepic and on the Pacific coast, where they have also established colonies. They are known for their crafts and artwork which they sell. About five percent of the state population speaks an indigenous language.
Nayarit is predominantly an agricultural state, and produces a large variety of crops such as bean
, sugar cane
, rice, chiles, peanut
, mangoes, bananas, and avocados. In addition to these crops, livestock and fishing are also central to the local economy. Approximately six percent of the land in Nayarit is pasture land, with the most common livestock being cattle, horses, pigs, goats
, and sheep
. Nayarit has 289 kilometers of coastline, which provides an abundance of fish and shellfish, including bass
, and oysters
. There are over 75 cooperatives
related to the fishing industry alone in Nayarit. Much of the food produced in Nayarit is exported to the larger urban areas surrounding Mexico City and Guadalajara, and much of the agricultural labor is performed by migrant laborers
. Although mining exists in Nayarit, it is mostly of non-metal
lic substances such as limestone
Beginning in the late 90's, Nayarit has become known as a producer of specialty Arabica coffee
, regarded for its fine taste and high density beans grown in the volcanic soils of the Sierra Madre Occidental
. Nayarit coffee is exported all over the world, including to the UK and Australia via the Grupo Terruño Nayarita farmers cooperative.
In recent years, Nayarit has worked to build its tourism sector, marketing the "Riviera Nayarita
" as a safe, beautiful destination served by Puerto Vallarta International Airport
. Popular resort towns include Bucerius
, Punta de Mita
, La Cruz de Huanacaxtle
, San Blas
, Santiago Ixcuintla
. However, some residents in these and other towns are concerned that the growth in the tourism industry might have harmful impacts on the community.
Timeshare scams with links to the local Nayarite Mafia
are quite common.
of Nayarit include: ''El Periódico en que Nayarit Opina Día a Día'', ''El Semanario que refleja qué hay en Nayarit'', ''Matutino Gráfico'', ''Meridiano de Nayarit'', and ''Realidades.''
*Ixtlán del Rio (archaeological site)
*Western Mexico shaft tomb tradition
*Nayarit State Government
*Portal de Carrillo Puerto Nayarit, Mexico
*Portal de Compostela Nayarit, Mexico
Category:States and territories established in 1917
Category:States of Mexico