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Minnesota () is a
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
in the upper
Midwestern United States The Midwestern United States, also referred to as the Midwest or the American Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau (also known as "Region 2"). It occupies the northern central part of the United States. It ...
. It is the 12th largest U.S. state in area and the 22nd most populous, with over 5.7 million residents. Minnesota's geography consists of western
prairie Wheatfield intersection in the Southern Saskatchewan prairies, Canada. Prairies are ecosystem An ecosystem is a community (ecology), community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment, interact ...
s, now given over to intensive agriculture;
deciduous In the fields of horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists are agriculturists who grow flowers, fruits and nuts, v ...
forests in the southeast, now partially cleared, farmed, and settled; and the less populated North Woods, used for mining, forestry, and recreation. Roughly a third of the state is covered in forests, and it is known as the "Land of 10,000 Lakes" for having over 14,000 bodies of fresh water of at least ten acres. A little more than half of Minnesotans live in the
Minneapolis–Saint Paul Minneapolis–Saint Paul is a metropolitan area built around the confluence of the Mississippi River, Mississippi, Minnesota River, Minnesota and St. Croix River (Wisconsin–Minnesota), St. Croix rivers in Minnesota. The area, historical ...
metropolitan area, known as the "Twin Cities", the state's main political, economic, and cultural hub. The Twin Cities is the 16th largest metropolitan area in the U.S. Other Minnesota minor metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas include
Duluth Duluth ( ) is a Port, port city in the U.S. state of Minnesota and the county seat of St. Louis County, Minnesota, St. Louis County. Duluth is about 65 miles south of the Superior National Forest and the Sawtooth Mountains (Minnesota), Sawtooth ...
,
Mankato Mankato ( ) is a city in Blue Earth, Nicollet, and Le Sueur County, Minnesota, Le Sueur counties in the state of Minnesota. The population was 39,309 according to the 2010 census, making it the List of cities in Minnesota, fifth largest city i ...
, Moorhead, Rochester, and St. Cloud. Minnesota, which gets its name from the
Dakota language Dakota (''Dakhótiyapi, Dakȟótiyapi''), also referred to as Dakhota, is a Siouan language Siouan or Siouan–Catawban is a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken lang ...
, has been inhabited by various
Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capitalized when referred to relating to specific countries), or autochthonous peoples, are culturally distinct e ...
since the
Woodland period In the classification of archaeological cultures of North America, the Woodland period of North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be d ...
of the 11th century BCE. Between roughly 200 and 500 CE, two areas of the indigenous
Hopewell tradition The Hopewell tradition (also called the Hopewell culture) describes the common aspects of an ancient pre-Columbian Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of ...
emerged: the Laurel Complex in the north, and Trempealeau Hopewell in the
Mississippi River Valley The Mississippi Embayment is a physiographic feature in the south-central United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily l ...
. The subsequent
Upper Mississippian The Upper Mississippian cultures were located in the Upper Mississippi Mississippi () is a state in the Southeastern region of the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), o ...
culture, consisting of the
Oneota Oneota is a designation archaeologists use to refer to a cultural complex that existed in the eastern plains and Great Lakes area of what is now occupied by the United States from around AD 900 to around 1650 or 1700. Based on classification def ...
people and other
Siouan Siouan or Siouan–Catawban is a language family A language family is a group of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, based on speech and gesture (spoken language), Signed language, sign, or often ...
speakers, lasted through the arrival of Europeans in the 17th century. French explorers and
missionaries A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to promote their faith or provide services, such as education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), va ...

missionaries
were the earliest Europeans to enter the region, encountering the
Dakota Dakota may refer to: * Dakota people, a sub-tribe of the Sioux ** Dakota language, their language From this origin, Dakota may also refer to: Places United States * Dakota, Georgia, an unincorporated community * Dakota, Illinois, a town * Dak ...
,
Ojibwe The Ojibwe, Ojibwa, Chippewa, or Saulteaux are an Anishinaabe The Anishinaabe are a group of culturally related Indigenous peoples resident in what are now called Canada and the United States. They include the Odawa, Saulteaux, Ojibwe (inc ...
, and various
Anishinaabe The Anishinaabe are a group of culturally related Indigenous peoples resident in what are now called Canada and the United States. They include the Odawa, Saulteaux, Ojibwe (including Mississaugas), Potawatomi people, Potawatomi, Oji-Cree, and ...
tribes. Much of what is now Minnesota formed part of the vast French holding of Louisiana, which
the United States purchased
the United States purchased
in 1803. After several territorial reorganizations, the
Minnesota Territory The Territory of Minnesota was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from March 3, 1849, until May 11, 1858, when the eastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Minnesota Min ...
was admitted to the Union as the 32nd state in 1858. Minnesota's official motto, , is the only
state motto State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
in French; meaning "The Star of the North", it was adopted shortly after statehood and reflects the state's early French settlers and its position as the northernmost state in the contiguous U.S. As part of the
American frontier The American frontier, also known as the Old West or the Wild West, includes the geography, history, folklore, and culture in the forward wave of American expansion that began with European colonial settlements in the early 17th century and e ...
, Minnesota attracted settlers and
homesteaders The Homestead Acts were several laws in the United States by which an applicant could acquire ownership of government land or the public domain, typically called a Homestead (buildings), homestead. In all, more than of public land, or nearly ...
from across the country, with its growth initially centered on timber, agriculture, and railroads. Into the early 20th century, European immigrants arrived in significant numbers, particularly from Scandinavia, Germany, and
Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on a common History, historical, Society, social and cultural identity. The Thirty Years' War between Catholic Church, Catholicism and Protestantism was a signifi ...

Central Europe
; many were linked to the failed
revolutions of 1848 The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Springtime of the Peoples or the Springtime of Nations, were a series of political upheaval A political revolution, in the Trotskyist Trotskyism is the political ideology and branch o ...
, and partly influenced the state's emergence as a major center of labor and social activism. Minnesota's rapid industrialization and urbanization precipitated major social, economic, and political changes during the American
Progressive Era The Progressive Era (1896–1916) was a period of widespread social activism Activism consists of efforts to promote, impede, direct, or intervene in Social change, social, Political campaign, political, Economics, economic, or Natural ...
of the late 19th and early 20th centuries; the state was at the forefront of labor rights, women's suffrage, and political reform. Minnesotan politics, culture, and identity are reflective of this history and remain highly progressive by national standards. Since the late 20th century, Minnesota's economy has diversified significantly, shifting from traditional industries, such as agriculture and resource extraction, to services, finance, and health care. The state is home to 11 federally recognized
Native American reservations Native may refer to: People * Jus soli ''Jus soli'' ( , , ; meaning "right of soil"), commonly referred to as birthright citizenship, is the right of anyone born in the territory of a state to nationality or citizenship. ''Jus soli'' was par ...

Native American reservations
(seven
Ojibwe The Ojibwe, Ojibwa, Chippewa, or Saulteaux are an Anishinaabe The Anishinaabe are a group of culturally related Indigenous peoples resident in what are now called Canada and the United States. They include the Odawa, Saulteaux, Ojibwe (inc ...
, four
Dakota Dakota may refer to: * Dakota people, a sub-tribe of the Sioux ** Dakota language, their language From this origin, Dakota may also refer to: Places United States * Dakota, Georgia, an unincorporated community * Dakota, Illinois, a town * Dak ...
), and remains a center of
Scandinavian A Scandinavian is a resident of Scandinavia or something associated with the region, including: Culture * Scandinavianism, political and cultural movement * Scandinavian design, a design movement of the 1950s * Scandinavian folklore * Scandinavia ...
and
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...
cultures. In recent decades, it has become increasingly multi-cultural, amid greater domestic migration and immigration from Latin America, Asia, the
Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA), also known as the Somali Peninsula, is a large peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland fr ...

Horn of Africa
, and the Middle East. It has the nation's largest population of
Somali Americans Somali Americans are Americans of Somali people, Somali ancestry. The first ethnic Somalis to arrive in the U.S. were Somali maritime history, sailors who came in the 1920s from British Somaliland. They were followed by students pursuing higher stu ...
and second-largest Hmong population. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the nation, and the state is among the best-educated in the nation. It is ranked among the best states in metrics such as employment, median income, safety, and governance.


Etymology

The word ''Minnesota'' comes from the
Dakota Dakota may refer to: * Dakota people, a sub-tribe of the Sioux ** Dakota language, their language From this origin, Dakota may also refer to: Places United States * Dakota, Georgia, an unincorporated community * Dakota, Illinois, a town * Dak ...
name for the
Minnesota River The Minnesota River ( dak, Mnísota Wakpá) is a tributary of the Mississippi River The Mississippi River is the List of longest rivers of the United States (by main stem), second-longest river and chief river of the second-largest Drainage ...

Minnesota River
, which got its name from one of two words in
Dakota Dakota may refer to: * Dakota people, a sub-tribe of the Sioux ** Dakota language, their language From this origin, Dakota may also refer to: Places United States * Dakota, Georgia, an unincorporated community * Dakota, Illinois, a town * Dak ...
: "mní sóta", which means "clear blue water", or "Mníssota", which means "cloudy water".
Dakota people The Dakota (pronounced , Dakota language Dakota (''Dakhótiyapi, Dakȟótiyapi''), also referred to as Dakhota, is a Siouan languages, Siouan language spoken by the Dakota people of the Sioux tribes. Dakota is closely related to and mutually i ...
demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it ''mní sóta''. Many places in the state have similar Dakota names, such as
Minnehaha Falls Minnehaha Park is a city park in Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States, and home to Minnehaha Falls and the lower reaches of Minnehaha Creek. Officially named Minnehaha Regional Park, it is part of the Minneapolis Park and Recreation Board syste ...

Minnehaha Falls
("curling water" or waterfall), Minneiska ("white water"), Minneota ("much water"),
Minnetonka Minnetonka ( ) is a suburban city in Hennepin County, Minnesota, Hennepin County, Minnesota, United States, eight miles (13 km) west of Minneapolis. The population was 49,734 at the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census. The name comes fr ...

Minnetonka
("big water"), Minnetrista ("crooked water"), and Minneapolis, a
hybrid word A hybrid word or hybridism is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), m ...
combining Dakota ''mní'' ("water") and ''-polis'' (
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
for "city").


History

When Europeans arrived in North America, the
Dakota people The Dakota (pronounced , Dakota language Dakota (''Dakhótiyapi, Dakȟótiyapi''), also referred to as Dakhota, is a Siouan languages, Siouan language spoken by the Dakota people of the Sioux tribes. Dakota is closely related to and mutually i ...
lived in Minnesota. The first Europeans to enter the region were French
voyageurs The voyageurs (; ) were 18th and 19th century French Canadians French Canadians (also referred to as Canadiens; french: Canadiens français, ; feminine form: , ), or Franco-Canadians (french: Franco-Canadiens), are an ethnic group An ethni ...
,
fur trade The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur Fur is a thick growth of hair Hair is a protein filament In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organi ...
rs who arrived in the 17th century. They used the
Grand Portage Grand Portage National Monument is a United States National Monument , Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak) is a state in the Southwestern region of the United States The United States of America (USA) ...
to access trapping and trading areas further into Minnesota. The
Anishinaabe The Anishinaabe are a group of culturally related Indigenous peoples resident in what are now called Canada and the United States. They include the Odawa, Saulteaux, Ojibwe (including Mississaugas), Potawatomi people, Potawatomi, Oji-Cree, and ...
(also known as
Ojibwe The Ojibwe, Ojibwa, Chippewa, or Saulteaux are an Anishinaabe The Anishinaabe are a group of culturally related Indigenous peoples resident in what are now called Canada and the United States. They include the Odawa, Saulteaux, Ojibwe (inc ...
or Chippewa) were migrating into Minnesota, causing tensions with the
Dakota people The Dakota (pronounced , Dakota language Dakota (''Dakhótiyapi, Dakȟótiyapi''), also referred to as Dakhota, is a Siouan languages, Siouan language spoken by the Dakota people of the Sioux tribes. Dakota is closely related to and mutually i ...
, and dislocated the Mdewakanton from their homelands along
Mille Lacs Lake Fishing on Mille Lacs Lake is promoted by a giant U.S. Route 169 in Garrison, Minnesota, Garrison. Mille Lacs Lake (also called Lake Mille Lacs or Mille Lacs) is a large but shallow lake in the U.S. state of Minnesota. It is located in the count ...

Mille Lacs Lake
. Explorers such as
Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut (c. 1639 – 25 February 1710) was a French soldier and explorer Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of unc ...
, Father
Louis Hennepin Father Louis Hennepin, Order of Friars Minor, O.F.M. baptized Antoine, (12 May 1626 – 5 December 1704) was a Belgian Roman Catholic priest and missionary of the Franciscan Recollets, Recollet order (French: ''Récollets'') and an explorer o ...

Louis Hennepin
,
Jonathan Carver Jonathan Carver (April 13, 1710 – January 31, 1780) was a Captain in a Massachusetts Massachusetts (, ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States. It b ...

Jonathan Carver
,
Henry Schoolcraft Henry Rowe Schoolcraft (March 28, 1793 – December 10, 1864) was an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of ...
, and
Joseph Nicollet Joseph Nicolas Nicollet (July 24, 1786 – September 11, 1843), also known as Jean-Nicolas Nicollet, was a French geographer, astronomer, and mathematician known for cartography, mapping the Upper Mississippi River basin during the 1830s. Nicolle ...
mapped the state. The region was part of
Spanish Louisiana Spanish Louisiana ( es, link=no, la Luisiana) was a governorate and administrative district of the Viceroyalty of New Spain from 1762 to 1801 that consisted of a vast territory in the center of North America North America is a cont ...
from 1762 to 1802. The portion of the state east of the Mississippi River became part of the United States at the end of the
American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegates from Thirteen Colonies, thirteen American colonies of British America in Continental Congress ...
, when the Second Treaty of Paris was signed. Land west of the Mississippi was acquired with the
Louisiana Purchase The Louisiana Purchase (french: Vente de la Louisiane, translation=Sale of Louisiana) was the acquisition of the Louisiana (New France), territory of Louisiana by the United States from French First Republic, Napoleonic France in 1803. In retur ...

Louisiana Purchase
, though part of the
Red River Valley The Red River Valley is a region in central North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to ...
was disputed until the
Treaty of 1818 The Convention respecting fisheries, boundary and the restoration of slaves, also known as the London Convention, Anglo-American Convention of 1818, Convention of 1818, or simply the Treaty of 1818, is an international treaty A treaty is ...
. In 1805
Zebulon Pike Zebulon Montgomery Pike (January 5, 1779 – April 27, 1813) was an American brigadier general and explorer for whom Pikes Peak Pikes Peak is the List of mountain ranges of Colorado#Mountain ranges, highest summit of the southern Front Range ...

Zebulon Pike
bargained with Native Americans to acquire land at the
confluence In geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is ...

confluence
of the Minnesota and Mississippi rivers to create a military reservation. The construction of Fort Snelling followed between 1819 and 1825. Its soldiers built a
grist mill A gristmill (also: grist mill, corn mill, flour mill, feed mill or feedmill) grinds cereal grain into flour and Wheat middlings, middlings. The term can refer to either the Mill (grinding), grinding mechanism or the building that holds it. Grist i ...
and a
sawmill A sawmill (saw mill, saw-mill) or lumber mill is a facility where logs are cut into lumber Lumber, also known as timber, is wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the Plant stem, stems and roots of trees and ...

sawmill
at
Saint Anthony Falls Saint Anthony Falls, or the Falls of Saint Anthony, northeast of downtown Minneapolis, Minnesota, was the only natural major waterfall on the Upper Mississippi River. The natural falls were replaced by a concrete overflow spillway (also called an "a ...
, which were harbingers of the water-powered industries around which Minneapolis later grew. Meanwhile, squatters, government officials, and others had settled near the fort; in 1839 the army forced them off military lands, and most moved downriver, just outside the military reservation, to the area that became St. Paul. Minnesota underwent several territorial organizations. From 1812 to 1821 it was part of the Territory of Missouri that corresponded with much of the Louisiana Purchase. It was briefly an unorganized territory (1821-1834) and was later consolidated with Wisconsin, Iowa and half the Dakotas to form the short-lived
Territory of Michigan The Territory of Michigan was an organized incorporated territory of the United States Organized incorporated territories were territories of the United States that were both incorporated (part of the United States proper) and organized (h ...
(1834-1836). From 1836 to 1848 Minnesota and Iowa were part of the Territory of Wisconsin. From 1838 to 1846 Minnesota west of the Mississippi River was part of the Territory of Iowa. Minnesota east of the Mississippi was part of Wisconsin until 1848. When Iowa gained statehood western Minnesota was in an Unorganized Territory again.
Minnesota Territory The Territory of Minnesota was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from March 3, 1849, until May 11, 1858, when the eastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Minnesota Min ...
was formed on March 3, 1849. The first territorial legislature, held on September 2, 1849, was dominated by men of New England ancestry. Thousands of pioneers had come to create farms and cut timber. Minnesota became the 32nd U.S. state on May 11, 1858. The founding population was so overwhelmingly of New England origins that the state was dubbed "the New England of the West". Treaties between the U.S. Government and the Dakota and Ojibwe gradually forced the natives off their lands and onto . In 1861 residents of
Mankato Mankato ( ) is a city in Blue Earth, Nicollet, and Le Sueur County, Minnesota, Le Sueur counties in the state of Minnesota. The population was 39,309 according to the 2010 census, making it the List of cities in Minnesota, fifth largest city i ...
formed the Knights of the Forest, with a goal of eliminating all Native Americans from Minnesota. As conditions deteriorated for the Dakota, tensions rose, leading to the
Dakota War of 1862 The Dakota War of 1862, also known as the Sioux Uprising, the Dakota Uprising, the Sioux Outbreak of 1862, the Dakota Conflict, the US-Dakota War of 1862, or Little Crow's War, was an armed conflict between the United States and several bands o ...

Dakota War of 1862
. The six-week war ended with the execution of 38 Dakota and the exile of many to the
Crow Creek Reservation The Crow Creek Indian Reservation ('' lkt, Kȟaŋğí Wakpá Oyáŋke'') is located in parts of Buffalo, Hughes, and Hyde counties on the east bank of the Missouri River in central South Dakota in the United States. It has a land area of and ...
in
Dakota Territory The Territory of Dakota was an organized incorporated territory of the United States and the founding of the United States: Kingdom of Great Britain, British claims are indicated in red and pink, while Spanish claims are in orange and yellow. ...
. As many as 800 settlers died during the war. Minnesota Governor
Alexander Ramsey Alexander Ramsey (September 8, 1815 April 22, 1903) was an American politician. He served as a Whig Party (United States), Whig and Republican Party (United States), Republican over a variety of offices between the 1840s and the 1880s. He was the ...

Alexander Ramsey
subsequently declared that "the Sioux Indians of Minnesota must be exterminated or driven forever beyond the borders of the state.” He also placed a bounty of $25/scalp on the heads of the Dakota men. Over 1,600 Dakota women, children, and elderly walked from the Lower Sioux Agency to
Fort Snelling Fort Snelling is a former military fortification and National Historic Landmark in the U.S. state of Minnesota on the bluffs overlooking the confluence of the Minnesota River, Minnesota and Mississippi River, Mississippi rivers. The military site ...

Fort Snelling
to be held until the spring thaw allowed riverboats to take them out of Minnesota to Crow Creek by the
Great Sioux Reservation 350px, Map showing the Great Sioux Reservation and current reservations The Great Sioux Reservation was the original area encompassing what are today the various Sioux Indian reservations in South Dakota and Nebraska. The reservation was establ ...
. Shortly after arriving at the fort, one of the women was raped by soldiers while gathering firewood.U.S.-Dakota War's aftermath a ‘dark moment’ in Fort Snelling history, Pioneer Press, Nick Woltman, May 201

/ref> William Crooks (colonel), William Crooks, commander of 6th Minnesota, had a
palisade A palisade, sometimes called a stakewall or a paling, is typically a fence or defensive wall made from iron or wooden stakes, or tree trunks, and used as a defensive structure or enclosure. Palisades can form a stockade. Etymology ''Palisade'' ...
erected around the encampment on Pike Island, just below the fort, to protect native people from the soldiers and settlers. Conditions there were poor. The food was meager,
measles Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease An infection is the invasion of an organism's body Tissue (biology), tissues by Pathogen, disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host (biology), host tissues to ...
and
cholera Cholera is an infection An infection is the invasion of an organism's body by , their multiplication, and the reaction of tissues to the infectious agents and the s they produce. An infectious disease, also known as a transmissible disea ...

cholera
swept the enclosure, and nothing had been done to provide sanitation. Many died. The men were imprisoned or had fled.Minnesota Bounties On Dakota Men During The US-Dakota War, Hamline University, C. Rotel, 201

/ref> In early 1863, Ramsey resigned as governor to become the Federal Indian Commissioner. His successor, Governor Henry Adoniram Swift, Henry Swift, raised the bounty to $200/scalp immediately. When hostilities broke out there were 6,500-7,000 Dakota in the state. When hostilities ended there were 2,000 in custody. The remainder had fled the state into Canada, the Canadians having set aside two parcels of 7,000 and 8,000 acres for those who crossed into
Manitoba Manitoba ( ) is a Provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada at the Centre of Canada, longitudinal centre of the country. It is Canada's Population of Canada by province and territory, fifth-most populous province, with a population o ...

Manitoba
. The Canadians were not eager to take in the displaced Minnesota Dakota but went on to set aside even more land for them. Upon becoming Indian Commissioner, Ramsey set out to get the Ojibwe too. In 1863 he negotiated the Treaty of Old Crossing, whereby the Ojibwe ceded all their land in northern Minnesota and moved to reservations. Logging, farming, and railroads were mainstays of Minnesota's early economy. The sawmills at Saint Anthony Falls and logging centers of Pine City, Marine on St. Croix, , and Winona processed vast quantities of timber. These cities were on rivers that were ideal for transportation. St. Anthony Falls was later tapped to provide power for flour mills. Innovations by Minneapolis millers led to the production of Minnesota "patent" flour, which commanded almost double the price of "bakers'" or "clear" flour which it replaced. By 1900 Minnesota mills, led by Pillsbury, Northwestern, and the Washburn-Crosby Company (an ancestor of
General Mills General Mills, Inc., is an American multinational corporation, multinational manufacturer and marketer of branded consumer foods sold through retail stores. It is headquartered in Golden Valley, Minnesota, a suburb of Minneapolis. Often nickna ...
), were grinding 14.1% of the nation's grain. The state's iron-mining industry was established with the discovery of iron in the
Vermilion File:Lacquerware-roundbox-w-children.jpg, A Chinese "cinnabar red" carved lacquer box from the Qing dynasty (1736–1795), National Museum of China, Beijing Vermilion (sometimes spelled vermillion) is both a brilliant red or scarlet (color), sc ...
and Mesabi Range, Mesabi ranges in the 1880s, followed by the Cuyuna Range in the early 1900s. The ore went by rail to
Duluth Duluth ( ) is a Port, port city in the U.S. state of Minnesota and the county seat of St. Louis County, Minnesota, St. Louis County. Duluth is about 65 miles south of the Superior National Forest and the Sawtooth Mountains (Minnesota), Sawtooth ...
and Two Harbors, Minnesota, Two Harbors for ship transport east via the Great Lakes. Industrial development and the rise of manufacturing caused the population to shift gradually from rural areas to cities during the early 20th century. Nevertheless, farming remained prevalent. Minnesota's economy was hit hard by the Great Depression, resulting in lower prices for farmers, layoffs among iron miners, and labor unrest. Compounding the adversity, western Minnesota and the Dakotas were hit by drought from 1931 to 1935. New Deal programs provided some economic turnaround. The Civilian Conservation Corps and other programs around the state established some jobs for Indians on their reservations, and the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 provided the tribes with a mechanism of self-government. This gave Natives a greater voice within the state and promoted more respect for tribal customs because religious ceremonies and native languages were no longer suppressed. After World War II, industrial development quickened. New technology increased farm productivity through automation of feedlots for hogs and cattle, machine milking at dairy farms, and raising chickens in large buildings. Planting became more specialized, with hybrid (biology), hybridization of corn and wheat, and farm machinery such as tractors and combine harvester, combines became the norm. University of Minnesota professor Norman Borlaug contributed to these developments as part of the Green Revolution. Suburban development accelerated due to increased postwar housing demand and convenient transportation. Increased mobility in turn enabled more specialized jobs. Minnesota became a center of technology after World War II. Engineering Research Associates was formed in 1946 to develop computers for the United States Navy. It later merged with Remington Rand, and then became Sperry Rand. William Norris (CEO), William Norris left Sperry in 1957 to form Control Data Corporation (CDC). Cray Research was formed when Seymour Cray left CDC to form his own company. Medical device maker Medtronic also started business in the Twin Cities in 1949. The United States Navy and Coast Guard have recognized Minnesota with: * steam frigate * * * *


Geography

Minnesota is the second northernmost U.S. state (after Alaska) and northernmost contiguous state, as the isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods County is the only part of the 48 Contiguous United States, contiguous states north of the 49th parallel north, 49th parallel. The state is part of the U.S. region known as the Upper Midwest and part of North America's Great Lakes region (North America), Great Lakes Region. It shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, and the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian provinces of Ontario and
Manitoba Manitoba ( ) is a Provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada at the Centre of Canada, longitudinal centre of the country. It is Canada's Population of Canada by province and territory, fifth-most populous province, with a population o ...

Manitoba
are to the north. With , or approximately 2.25% of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state.


Geology

Minnesota has some of the earth's oldest rocks, gneisses that are about 3.6billion years old (80% as old as the planet). About 2.7billion years ago basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean; the remains of this volcano, volcanic rock formed the Canadian Shield in northeast Minnesota. The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Since a period of volcanism 1.1billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea, which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In Glacial history of Minnesota, more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state's landscape and sculpted its terrain. The Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock. This area is known as the Coulee Region, Driftless Zone for its absence of drift (geology), glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state has fifty feet (15m) or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago. Its flat bed now is the fertile Red River of the North, Red River valley, and its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the
Minnesota River The Minnesota River ( dak, Mnísota Wakpá) is a tributary of the Mississippi River The Mississippi River is the List of longest rivers of the United States (by main stem), second-longest river and chief river of the second-largest Drainage ...

Minnesota River
and the Upper Mississippi downstream from
Fort Snelling Fort Snelling is a former military fortification and National Historic Landmark in the U.S. state of Minnesota on the bluffs overlooking the confluence of the Minnesota River, Minnesota and Mississippi River, Mississippi rivers. The military site ...

Fort Snelling
. Minnesota is geologically quiet today; it experiences earthquakes infrequently, most of them minor. The state's high point is Eagle Mountain (Minnesota), Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet (701m), which is only away from the low point of 601 feet (183m) at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a gently rolling peneplain. Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, Minnesota, Hibbing, forming a triple Drainage basin, watershed. Precipitation (meteorology), Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Canada Hudson Bay drainage, Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean. The state's nickname "Land of 10,000 Lakes" is apt, as there are 11,842 Minnesota lakes over in size. Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior is the largest at and deepest (at ) body of water in the state. Minnesota has 6,564 natural rivers and streams that cumulatively flow for . The Mississippi River begins its journey from its headwaters at Lake Itasca and crosses the Iowa border downstream. It is joined by the
Minnesota River The Minnesota River ( dak, Mnísota Wakpá) is a tributary of the Mississippi River The Mississippi River is the List of longest rivers of the United States (by main stem), second-longest river and chief river of the second-largest Drainage ...

Minnesota River
at Fort Snelling, by the St. Croix River (Wisconsin-Minnesota), St. Croix River near Hastings, Minnesota, Hastings, by the Chippewa River (Wisconsin), Chippewa River at Wabasha, MN, Wabasha, and by many smaller streams. The Red River drains the northwest part of the state northward toward Canada's Hudson Bay. Approximately of wetlands are within Minnesota's borders, the most of any state outside Alaska.


Flora and fauna

Minnesota has four ecological provinces:
prairie Wheatfield intersection in the Southern Saskatchewan prairies, Canada. Prairies are ecosystem An ecosystem is a community (ecology), community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment, interact ...
parkland, in the southwestern and western parts of the state; the Temperate deciduous forest, eastern broadleaf forest (Big Woods) in the southeast, extending in a narrowing strip to the state's northwestern part, where it transitions into Tallgrass Aspen Parkland, tallgrass aspen parkland; and the northern Laurentian Mixed Forest Province, Laurentian mixed forest, a transitional forest between the northern Taiga, boreal forest and the broadleaf forests to the south. These northern forests are a vast wilderness of pine and spruce trees mixed with patchy stands of birch and Populus, poplar. Much of Minnesota's northern forest has undergone logging, leaving only a few patches of old growth forest today in areas such as in the Chippewa National Forest and the Superior National Forest, where the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness has some of unlogged land. Although logging continues, regrowth and replanting keep about a third of the state forested. Nearly all Minnesota's prairies and oak savannas have been fragmented by farming, grazing, logging, and suburban development. While loss of habitat has affected native animals such as the American marten, pine marten, elk, Migratory Woodland Caribou, woodland caribou, and American bison, bison, others like whitetail deer and bobcat thrive. Minnesota has the nation's largest population of wolf, timber wolves outside Alaska, and supports healthy populations of American black bear, black bears, moose, and gophers. Located on the Mississippi Flyway, Minnesota hosts migratory waterfowl such as Goose, geese and ducks, and game birds such as grouse, pheasants, and Turkey (bird), turkeys. It is home to bird of prey, birds of prey, including the largest number of breeding pairs of bald eagles in the lower 48 states as of 2007, red-tailed Hawk, red-tailed hawks, and snowy owls. Hawk Ridge, Duluth, Hawk Ridge is one of the premier bird watching sites in North America. The lakes teem with sport fish such as walleye, bass (fish), bass, muskellunge, and northern pike, and brook trout, brook, brown trout, brown, and rainbow trout populate streams in the southeast and northeast.


Climate

Minnesota experiences List of Minnesota weather records, temperature extremes characteristic of its continental climate, with cold winters and hot summers. The lowest temperature recorded was at Tower, Minnesota, Tower on February 2, 1996, and the highest was at Moorhead on July 6, 1936. Meteorological events include rain, snow, blizzards, thunderstorms, hail, derechos, tornadoes, and high-velocity Downburst, straight-line winds. The growing season varies from 90 days in the far northeast to 160 days in southeast Minnesota near the Mississippi River, and average temperatures range from . Average summer dew point, dewpoints range from about in the south to about in the north. Average annual precipitation ranges from , and droughts occur every 10 to 50 years.


Protected lands

Minnesota's first state park, Itasca State Park, was established in 1891, and is the source (river or stream), source of the Mississippi River. Today Minnesota has List of Minnesota state parks, 72 state parks and recreation areas, List of Minnesota state forests, 58 state forests covering about four million acres (16,000km2), and numerous state wildlife preserves, all managed by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. The Chippewa National Forest, Chippewa and Superior National Forest, Superior national forests comprise . The Superior National Forest in the northeast contains the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, which encompasses over a million acres (4,000km2) and a thousand lakes. To its west is Voyageurs National Park. The Mississippi National River and Recreation Area (MNRRA) is a corridor along the Mississippi River through the Minneapolis–St. Paul Metropolitan Area connecting a variety of sites of historic, cultural, and geologic interest.


Cities and towns

Saint Paul, Minnesota, Saint Paul, in east-central Minnesota along the banks of the Mississippi River, has been Minnesota's List of capitals in the United States, capital city since 1849, first as capital of the Territory of Minnesota, and then as the state capital since 1858. Saint Paul is adjacent to Minnesota's most populous city, Minneapolis; they and their suburbs are collectively known as the Minneapolis–Saint Paul#Combined Statistical Area, Twin Cities metropolitan area, the country's 16th-largest metropolitan area and home to about 55 percent of the state's population. The remainder of the state is known as "Regions of Minnesota, Greater Minnesota" or "Outstate Minnesota". The state has 17 cities with populations above 50,000 as of the 2010 census. In descending order of population, they are Minneapolis, Minnesota, Minneapolis, Saint Paul, Minnesota, Saint Paul, Rochester,
Duluth Duluth ( ) is a Port, port city in the U.S. state of Minnesota and the county seat of St. Louis County, Minnesota, St. Louis County. Duluth is about 65 miles south of the Superior National Forest and the Sawtooth Mountains (Minnesota), Sawtooth ...
, Bloomington, Minnesota, Bloomington, Brooklyn Park, Minnesota, Brooklyn Park, Plymouth, Minnesota, Plymouth, St. Cloud, Minnesota, Saint Cloud, Woodbury, Minnesota, Woodbury, Eagan, Minnesota, Eagan, Maple Grove, Minnesota, Maple Grove, Coon Rapids, Minnesota, Coon Rapids, Eden Prairie, Minnesota, Eden Prairie, Minnetonka, MN, Minnetonka, Burnsville, Minnesota, Burnsville, Apple Valley, Minnesota, Apple Valley, Blaine, Minnesota, Blaine, and Lakeville, Minnesota, Lakeville. Of these only Rochester, Duluth, and Saint Cloud are outside the Twin Cities metropolitan area. Minnesota's population continues to grow, primarily in the urban centers. The populations of metropolitan Sherburne County, Minnesota, Sherburne and Scott County, Minnesota, Scott counties doubled between 1980 and 2000, while 40 of the state's 87 counties lost residents over the same period. The United States Navy has recognized List of naval ships named for Minnesota, multiple Minnesota communities.


Demographics


Population

From fewer than 6,120 white settlers in 1850, Minnesota's official population grew to over 1.7million by 1900. Each of the next six decades saw a 15 percent increase in population, reaching 3.4million in 1960. Growth then slowed, rising 11 percent to 3.8million in 1970, and an average of 9percent over the next three decades to 4.9million in the 2000 United States Census, 2000 census. The 2020 United States Census, 2020 United States census showed Minnesota's population at 5,709,752 on April 1, 2020, a 7.65% increase since the 2010 United States Census, 2010 United States census. The rate of population change, and age and gender distributions, approximate the national average. Minnesota's center of population is in Hennepin County, Minnesota, Hennepin County. At the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census Minnesota's population was 5,303,925. The gender makeup of the state was 49.6% male and 50.4% female. 24.2% of the population was under age 18; 9.5% between 18 and 24; 26.3% from 25 to 44; 27.1% from 45 to 64; and 12.9% 65 or older. The table below shows the racial composition of Minnesota's population as of the 2020 census. According to the 2017 American Community Survey, 5.1% of Minnesota's population were of Hispanic and Latino Americans, Hispanic or Latino origin (of any race): Mexican American, Mexican (3.5%), Puerto Ricans, Puerto Rican (0.2%), Cuban American, Cuban (0.1%), and other Hispanic or Latino origin (1.2%). The ancestry groups claimed by more than five percent of the population were:
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...
(33.8%), Norwegian American, Norwegian (15.3%), Irish American, Irish (10.5%), Swedish American, Swedish (8.1%), and English American, English (5.4%). In 2011 non-Hispanic whites were involved in 72.3 percent of all the births. Minnesota's growing Race and ethnicity in the United States, minority groups, however, still form a smaller percentage of the population than in the nation as a whole. Minnesota has the country's largest Somalis, Somali population,New Americans in the North Star State
with an estimated 57,000 people, the largest concentration outside of the
Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA), also known as the Somali Peninsula, is a large peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland fr ...

Horn of Africa
.


Religion

The majority of Minnesotans are Protestants, including a large Lutheran contingent, owing to the state's largely Northern European ethnic makeup. Roman Catholics (of largely
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...
, Irish Americans, Irish, French Americans, French and Slavs, Slavic descent) make up the largest single Christian denomination. A 2010 survey by the Pew Research Center, Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life showed that 32 percent of Minnesotans were affiliated with Mainline Protestant traditions, 21 percent were Evangelicalism, Evangelical Protestants, 28 percent Roman Catholic, 1percent each Judaism, Jewish, Islam, Muslim, Buddhism, Buddhist, and Black church, Black Protestant, and smaller amounts of other faiths, with 13 percent unaffiliated. According to the Association of Religion Data Archives, the denominations with the most adherents in 2010 were the Roman Catholic Church with 1,150,367; the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America with 737,537; and the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod with 182,439. This is broadly consistent with the results of the 2001 American Religious Identification Survey, which also gives detailed percentages for many individual denominations. The international Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference is headquartered in Mankato, Minnesota. Although Christianity is dominant, Minnesota has a long history with non-Christian faiths. Ashkenazi Judaism, Jewish pioneers set up Saint Paul's first synagogue in 1856. Minnesota is home to more than 30 mosques, mostly in the Twin Cities metro area. The Temple of ECK, the spiritual home of Eckankar, is based in Minnesota.


Economy

Once primarily a producer of raw materials, Minnesota's economy has transformed to emphasize finished products and services. Perhaps the most significant characteristic of the economy is its diversity; the relative outputs of its business sectors closely match the United States as a whole. Minnesota's economy had a gross domestic product of $383billion in 2019, with 33 of the United States' top 1,000 publicly traded companies by revenue headquartered in Minnesota, including Target Corporation, Target, UnitedHealth Group, 3M,
General Mills General Mills, Inc., is an American multinational corporation, multinational manufacturer and marketer of branded consumer foods sold through retail stores. It is headquartered in Golden Valley, Minnesota, a suburb of Minneapolis. Often nickna ...
, U.S. Bancorp, Ameriprise, Hormel, Land O' Lakes, SuperValu (United States), SuperValu, Best Buy, and Valspar. Private companies based in Minnesota include Cargill, the largest privately owned company in the United States, and Carlson Companies, the parent company of Radisson Hotels. Minnesota's List of U.S. states by income, per capita personal income in 2019 was $58,834, the thirteenth-highest in the nation. Its 2019 median household income was $74,593, ranking thirteenth in the U.S. and fifth among the 36 states not on the Atlantic coast.


Industry and commerce

Minnesota's earliest industries were fur trading and agriculture. Minneapolis grew around the flour mills powered by St. Anthony Falls. Although less than one percent of the population is now employed in the agricultural sector, it remains a major part of the state's economy, ranking sixth in the nation in the value of products sold. The state is the nation's largest producer of sugar beets, sweet corn, and peas for processing, and farm-raised Turkey (bird), turkeys. Minnesota is also a large producer of corn and soybeans, and has the most food List of food cooperatives#United States, cooperatives per capita in the United States. Forestry remains strong, including logging, pulpwood processing and paper production, and forest products manufacturing. Minnesota was famous for its soft-ore mines, which produced a significant portion of the world's iron ore for more than a century. Although the high-grade ore is now depleted, taconite mining continues, using processes developed locally to save the industry. In 2016 the state produced 60 percent of the country's usable iron ore. The mining boom created the port of Duluth, which continues to be important for shipping ore, coal, and agricultural products. The manufacturing sector now includes technology and biomedical firms, in addition to the older food processors and heavy industry. The nation's first indoor shopping mall was Edina, Minnesota, Edina's Southdale Center, and its largest is Bloomington's Mall of America. Minnesota is one of 45 U.S. states with its Minnesota State Lottery, own lottery; its games include Multi-State Lottery Association, multi-jurisdiction draws, in-house draws, and other games.


Energy use and production

Minnesota produces ethanol fuel and is the first to mandate its use, a ten percent mix (E10 fuel, E10). In 2019 there were more than 411 service stations supplying E85 fuel, comprising 85 percent ethanol and 15 percent gasoline. A two percent biodiesel blend has been required in diesel fuel since 2005. Minnesota is ranked in the top ten for wind energy production. The state gets nearly one fifth of all its electrical energy from wind. Xcel Energy is the state's largest utility and is headquartered in the state; it is one of five investor-owned utilities. There are also a number of municipal utilities.


State taxes

Minnesota has a progressive income tax structure; the four brackets of state income tax rates are 5.35, 7.05, 7.85 and 9.85 percent. As of 2008 Minnesota was ranked 12th in the nation in per capita total state and local taxes. In 2008 Minnesotans paid 10.2 percent of their income in state and local taxes; the U.S. average was 9.7 percent. The state sales tax in Minnesota is 6.875 percent, but clothing, prescription drug medications and food items for home consumption are exempt. The Minnesota Legislature, state legislature may allow municipalities to institute local sales taxes and special local taxes, such as the 0.5 percent supplemental sales tax in Minneapolis. Excise taxes are levied on alcohol, tobacco, and motor fuel. The state imposes a use tax on items purchased elsewhere but used within Minnesota. Owners of real property in Minnesota pay property tax to their county, municipality, school district, and special taxing districts.


Culture


Fine and performing arts

Minnesota's leading fine art museums include the Minneapolis Institute of Art, the Walker Art Center, the Frederick R. Weisman Art Museum, and The Museum of Russian Art (TMORA). All are in Minneapolis. The Minnesota Orchestra and the Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra are prominent full-time professional musical ensembles who perform concerts and offer educational programs to the Twin Cities' community. The world-renowned Guthrie Theater moved into a new Minneapolis facility in 2006, boasting three stages and overlooking the Mississippi River. Attendance at theatre, theatrical, musical, and comedy events in the area is strong. In the United States, Minneapolis's number of theater companies ranks behind only New York City's, and about 2.3million theater tickets were sold in the Twin Cities annually as of 2006. The Minnesota Fringe Festival in Minneapolis is an annual celebration of theatre, dance, improvisation, puppetry, kids' shows, visual art, and musicals with more than 800 performances over 11 days. It is the country's largest non-juried performing arts festival.


Literature

The rigors and rewards of pioneer life on the
prairie Wheatfield intersection in the Southern Saskatchewan prairies, Canada. Prairies are ecosystem An ecosystem is a community (ecology), community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment, interact ...
are the subject of Giants in the Earth (novel), ''Giants in the Earth'' by Ole Rolvaag and the Little House on the Prairie, ''Little House'' series of children's books by Laura Ingalls Wilder. Small-town life is portrayed grimly by Sinclair Lewis in the novel Main Street (novel), ''Main Street'', and more gently and affectionately by Garrison Keillor in his tales of Lake Wobegon. St. Paul native F. Scott Fitzgerald writes of the social insecurities and aspirations of the young city in stories such as ''Winter Dreams'' and ''The Ice Palace'' (published in ''Flappers and Philosophers''). Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's epic poem ''The Song of Hiawatha'' was inspired by Minnesota and names many of the state's places and bodies of water. Minnesota native Robert Zimmerman (Bob Dylan) won the 2016 Nobel Prize in Literature. Science fiction writer Marissa Lingen lives here.


Entertainment

Minnesota musicians include Prince (musician), Prince, Bob Dylan, Eddie Cochran, The Andrews Sisters, The Castaways, The Trashmen, Soul Asylum, David Ellefson, Chad Smith, John Wozniak, Hüsker Dü, Semisonic, The Replacements (band), The Replacements, Owl City, Holly Henry, Motion City Soundtrack, Atmosphere (music group), Atmosphere, and Dessa. Minnesotans helped shape the history of music through popular American culture: the Andrews Sisters' "Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy" was an iconic tune of World War II, while the Trashmen's "Surfin' Bird" and Bob Dylan epitomize two sides of the 1960s. In the 1980s, influential hit radio groups and musicians included Prince (musician), Prince, The Original 7ven, Jimmy Jam & Terry Lewis, The Jets (Minnesota band), The Jets, Lipps Inc., and Information Society (band), Information Society. Minnesotans have also made significant contributions to comedy, theater, media, and film. The comic strip ''Peanuts'' was created by St. Paul native Charles M. Schulz. A Prairie Home Companion which first aired in 1974, became a long-running comedy radio show on National Public Radio. A cult Science fiction, scifi cable TV show, Mystery Science Theater 3000, was created by Joel Hodgson in Hopkins, and Minneapolis, MN. Another popular comedy staple developed in the 1990s, The Daily Show, was originated through Lizz Winstead and Madeleine Smithberg. Joel and Ethan Coen, Terry Gilliam, Bill Pohlad, and Mike Todd contributed to the art of filmmaking as writers, directors, and producers. Notable actors from Minnesota include Loni Anderson, Richard Dean Anderson, James Arness, Jessica Biel, Rachael Leigh Cook, Julia Duffy, Mike Farrell, Judy Garland, Peter Graves, Josh Hartnett, Garrett Hedlund, Tippi Hedren, Jessica Lange, Kelly Lynch, E.G. Marshall, Laura Osnes, Melissa Peterman, Chris Pratt, Marion Ross, Jane Russell, Winona Ryder, Seann William Scott, Kevin Sorbo, Lea Thompson, Vince Vaughn, Jesse Ventura, and Steve Zahn.


Popular culture

Stereotype, Stereotypical traits of Minnesotans include "Minnesota nice", Lutheranism, a strong sense of community and shared culture, and a distinctive brand of North Central American English sprinkled with Scandinavian expressions. Potlucks, usually with a variety of hotdishes, are popular small-town church activities. A small segment of the Scandinavian population attend a traditional lutefisk dinner to celebrate Christmas. Life in Minnesota has also been depicted or used as a backdrop, in movies such as ''Fargo (1996 film), Fargo'', ''Grumpy Old Men (film), Grumpy Old Men'', ''Grumpier Old Men'', ''Juno (film), Juno'', ''Drop Dead Gorgeous (film), Drop Dead Gorgeous'', ''Young Adult (film), Young Adult'', ''A Serious Man'', ''New in Town'', ''Rio (2011 film), Rio'', ''The Mighty Ducks (film series), The Mighty Ducks films,'' and in famous television series like ''Little House on the Prairie (TV series), Little House on the Prairie'', ''The Mary Tyler Moore Show'', ''The Golden Girls'', ''Coach (TV series), Coach'', ''The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show'', ''How I Met Your Mother'' and ''Fargo (TV series), Fargo''. Major movies shot on location in Minnesota include ''That Was Then... This Is Now'', ''Purple Rain (film), Purple Rain'', ''Airport (1970 film), Airport'', ''Beautiful Girls (film), Beautiful Girls'', ''North Country (film), North Country'', ''Untamed Heart'', ''Feeling Minnesota'', ''Jingle All The Way'', ''A Simple Plan (film), A Simple Plan'', and ''The Mighty Ducks (film series), The Mighty Ducks films''. The Minnesota State Fair, advertised as ''The Great Minnesota Get-Together'', is an icon of state culture. In a state of 5.5million people, there were more than 1.8million visitors to the fair in 2014, setting a new attendance record. The fair covers the variety of Minnesota life, including fine art, science, agriculture, food preparation, 4-H displays, music, midway (fair), the midway, and corporate merchandising. It is known for its displays of seed art, butter sculptures of Princess Kay of the Milky Way, dairy princesses, the birthing barn, and the "fattest pig" competition. One can also find dozens of varieties of food on a stick, such as Pronto Pups, Cheese curds#Fried cheese curds, cheese curds, and deep-fried candy bars. On a smaller scale, many of these attractions are offered at numerous county fairs. Other large annual festivals include the Saint Paul Winter Carnival, the Minnesota Renaissance Festival, Minneapolis' Minneapolis Aquatennial, Aquatennial and Mill City Music Festival, Moondance Jam in Walker, Minnesota, Walker, Sonshine Festival, Sonshine Christian music festival in Willmar, Minnesota, Willmar, the Judy Garland Festival in Grand Rapids, Minnesota, Grand Rapids, the Eelpout Festival on Leech Lake, and the WE Fest in Detroit Lakes, Minnesota, Detroit Lakes.


Health

Minnesotans have low rates of premature death, infant mortality, cardiovascular disease, and occupational fatalities. They have long life expectancies, and high rates of health insurance and regular exercise. These and other measures have led two groups to rank Minnesota as the healthiest state in the nation; however, in one of these rankings, Minnesota descended from first to sixth in the nation between 2005 and 2009 because of low levels of public health funding and the prevalence of binge drinking. While overall health indicators are strong, Minnesota does have significant health disparities in minority populations. On October 1, 2007, the Freedom to Breathe Act took effect, outlawing smoking in restaurants and bars in Minnesota. The Minnesota Department of Health is the primary state health agency responsible for public policy and regulation. Medical care in the state is provided by a comprehensive network of hospitals and clinics operated by a number of large providers including Allina Hospitals & Clinics, CentraCare Health System, Essentia Health, HealthPartners, M Health Fairview and the Mayo Clinic Health System. There are two teaching hospitals and medical schools in Minnesota. The University of Minnesota Medical School is a high-rated teaching institution that has made a number of breakthroughs in treatment, and its research activities contribute significantly to the state's growing biotechnology industry. The Mayo Clinic, a world-renowned hospital based in Rochester, was founded by William Worrall Mayo, an immigrant from England. ''U.S. News & World Report'' 2020–21 survey ranked 4,554 hospitals in the country in 12 specialized fields of care, and placed the Mayo Clinic in the top four in most fields. The hospital ranked first on the best hospitals honor roll. The only specialty where it fell outside the top ten was ophthalmology. The Mayo Clinic and the University of Minnesota are partners in the Minnesota Partnership for Biotechnology and Medical Genomics, a state-funded program that conducts research into cancer, Alzheimer's disease, Coronary heart disease, heart health, obesity, and other areas.


Education

One of the Minnesota Legislature's first acts when it opened in 1858 was the creation of a normal school in Winona. Minnesota's commitment to education has contributed to a literate and well-educated populace. In 2009, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, Minnesota had the second-highest proportion of high school graduates, with 91.5% of people 25 and older holding a high school diploma, and the tenth-highest proportion of people with bachelor's degrees. In 2015, Minneapolis was named the nation's "Most Literate City", while St. Paul placed fourth, according to a major annual survey. In a 2013 study conducted by the National Center for Educational Statistics comparing the performance of eighth-grade students internationally in math and science, Minnesota ranked eighth in the world and third in the United States, behind Massachusetts and Vermont. In 2014, Minnesota students earned the tenth-highest average composite score in the nation on the ACT (examination), ACT exam. In 2013, nationwide in per-student public education spending, Minnesota ranked 21st. While Minnesota has chosen not to implement school vouchers, it is home to the first charter school. The state supports a network of public universities and colleges, including 37 institutions in the Minnesota State Colleges and Universities System, and five major campuses of the University of Minnesota system. It is also home to more than 20 private colleges and universities, six of which rank among the nation's top 100 liberal arts colleges, according to U.S. News & World Report.


Transportation

Transportation in Minnesota is overseen by the Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT) at the state level and by regional and local governments at the local level. Principal transportation corridors radiate from the Twin Cities metropolitan area and along interstate corridors in Greater Minnesota. The major Interstate Highway System, Interstate highways are Interstate 35 in Minnesota, Interstate35 (I-35), Interstate 90 in Minnesota, I-90, and Interstate 94 in Minnesota, I-94, with I-35 and I-94 connecting the Minneapolis–St. Paul area, and I-90 traveling east–west along the southern edge of the state. In 2006, a constitutional amendment was passed that required sales and use taxes on motor vehicles to fund transportation, with at least forty percent dedicated to public transit. There are nearly two dozen rail transport, rail corridors in Minnesota, most of which go through Minneapolis–St. Paul or Duluth. There is water transportation along the Mississippi River system and from the ports of Lake Superior. Minnesota's principal airport is Minneapolis–St. Paul International Airport (MSP), a major passenger and freight hub for Delta Air Lines and Sun Country Airlines. Most other domestic carriers serve the airport. Large commercial jet service is provided at Duluth and Rochester, with scheduled commuter service to four smaller cities via Delta Connection carriers SkyWest Airlines, Compass Airlines (North America), Compass Airlines, and Endeavor Air. Public transit services are available in the regional urban centers in Minnesota including Metro Transit (Minnesota), Metro Transit in the Twin Cities, opt-out suburban operators Minnesota Valley Transit Authority, SouthWest Transit, Plymouth Metrolink, Maple Grove Transit and others. In Greater Minnesota transit services are provided by city systems such as Duluth Transit Authority, Mankato Transit System, MATBUS (Fargo-Moorhead), Rochester, Minnesota#Transportation, Rochester Public Transit, St. Cloud, Minnesota#Transportation, Saint Cloud Metro Bus, Winona Public Transit and others. Dial-a-Ride service is available for persons with disabilities in a majority of Minnesota Counties. In addition to bus services, Amtrak's daily ''Empire Builder'' (Chicago–Seattle/Portland) train runs through Minnesota, calling at the Saint Paul Union Depot and five other stations. Intercity bus providers include Jefferson Lines, Greyhound Bus Lines, Greyhound, and Megabus (North America), Megabus. Local public transit is provided by bus networks in the larger cities and by two rail services. The Northstar Line commuter rail service runs from Big Lake, Minnesota, Big Lake to the Target Field (Metro Transit station), Target Field station in downtown Minneapolis. From there, light rail runs to Saint Paul Union Depot on the Green Line (Minnesota), Green Line, and to the MSP airport and the Mall of America via the Blue Line (Minneapolis-St. Paul Metro), Blue Line.


Law and government

Minnesota is governed pursuant to its constitution, which was adopted October 13, 1857, roughly one year before statehood. Like all U.S. states and the federal government, Minnesota has a Republicanism in the United States, republican system of political representation with power divided into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. Its constitution includes a bill of rights that reaffirms many of the same freedoms as its United States Bill of Rights, federal counterpart, albeit with some rights protected more strongly and explicitly.


Executive

The executive branch is headed by the Governor (United States), governor. Governor Tim Walz, DFL (Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party, Democratic–Farmer–Labor), took office on January 7, 2019. The governor has a cabinet (government), cabinet consisting of the leaders of various state government agencies, called commissioners. The other elected constitutional offices are List of secretaries of state of Minnesota, secretary of state, Minnesota Attorney General, attorney general, and Minnesota State Auditor, state auditor. Constitutional officeholders: * Governor Tim Walz (DFL) * Lt. Governor Peggy Flanagan (DFL) * Secretary of State Steve Simon (DFL) * Attorney General Keith Ellison (DFL) * State Auditor Julie Blaha (DFL)


Legislature

The Minnesota Legislature is a bicameral body consisting of the Minnesota Senate, Senate and the Minnesota House of Representatives, House of Representatives. The state has 67 districts, each with about 60,000 people. Each district has one senator and two representatives, each senatorial district being divided into ''A'' and ''B'' sections for members of the House. Senators serve for four years and representatives for two years. In the 2010 Minnesota House of Representatives election, November 2010 Minnesota House election, the Minnesota Republican Party, Republicans gained 25 house seats, giving them control of the body by a 72–62 margin. The 2010 Minnesota Senate election, 2010 Senate election also saw Minnesota voters elect a Republican majority in the state Senate for the first time since 1972. In 2012, the Democrats 2012 Minnesota House of Representatives election, regained the House of Representatives by a margin of 73–61, picking up 11 seats; the Democrats also 2012 Minnesota Senate election, regained the Minnesota Senate. Control of the House shifted back to Republicans in the 2014 Minnesota House of Representatives election, 2014 election, and returned to the DFL in the 2018 Minnesota House of Representatives election, 2018 midterm election. Since 2016 Minnesota Senate election, 2016, the Senate has had a slim Republican majority. House Leadership * Speaker: Melissa Hortman (DFL-36B) * Majority Leader: Ryan Winkler (DFL-46A) * Majority Whip: Kaohly Her (DFL-64A) * Speaker Pro Tempore: Liz Olson (DFL-7B) * Assistant Majority Leaders: Heather Edelson (DFL-49A), Emma Greenman (DFL-63B), Michael Howard (American politician), Michael Howard (DFL-50A), Todd Lippert (DLF-20B), Kelly Morrison (DFL-33B), Dan Wolgamott (DFL-14B) * Minority Leader: Kurt Daudt (R-31A) * Deputy Minority Leader: Anne Neu (R-Minnesota House of Representatives, District 32B, 32B) * Minority Whip: Barb Haley (R-21A) * Assistant Minority Leaders: Dave Baker (Minnesota politician), Dave Baker (R-17B), Peggy Bennett (R-27A), Lisa Demuth (R-13A), Jim Nash (politician), Jim Nash (R-47A), Paul Novotny (R-30A), Bjorn Olson (R-23A), Peggy Scott (politician), Peggy Scott (R-35B), Paul Torkelson (R-16B) Senate Leadership * President: Jeremy Miller (politician), Jeremy Miller (R-28) * President Pro Tempore: David Tomassoni (I-06) * Majority Leader: Paul Gazelka (R-09) * Deputy Majority Leader: Mark Johnson (Minnesota politician), Mark Johnson (R-01) * Assistant Majority Leaders: Roger Chamberlain (R-38), Karin Housley (R-39), John Jasinski (R-24), Zach Duckworth (R-58), Eric Pratt (R-55) * Minority Leader: Melisa Franzen (DFL-49) * Minority Whips: Kent Eken (DFL-4), Jason Isaacson (DLF-42) * Assistant Minority Leaders: Nick Frentz (DFL-19), Foung Hawj (DFL-67)


Judiciary

Minnesota's court system has three levels. Most cases start in the Minnesota District Courts, district courts, which are courts of general jurisdiction. There are 279 district court judgeships in ten judicial districts. Appeals from the trial courts and challenges to certain governmental decisions are heard by the Minnesota Court of Appeals, consisting of 19 judges who typically sit in three-judge panels. The seven-justice Minnesota Supreme Court hears all appeals from the tax court, the Minnesota Workers' Compensation Court of Appeals, workers' compensation court of appeals, first-degree murder convictions, and Certiorari#State courts, discretionary appeals from the court of appeals; it also has original jurisdiction over election disputes. Two specialized courts within administrative agencies have been established: the workers' compensation court of appeals, and the tax court, which deals with non-criminal tax cases. Supreme Court Justices * Chief Justice Lorie Skjerven Gildea, Lorie Gildea Associate Justices * Barry Anderson * David Lillehaug * Natalie Hudson * Margaret Chutich * Anne McKeig * Paul Thissen


Regional

In addition to the city and county levels of government found in the United States, Minnesota has other entities that provide governmental oversight and planning. Regional Development Commissions, Regional development commissions (RDCs) provide technical assistance to local governments in the broad multi-county areas of the state. Along with this Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs), such as the Metropolitan Council, provide planning and oversight of land use actions in metropolitan areas. Many lakes and rivers are overseen by Watershed district (Minnesota), watershed districts and soil and water conservation districts.


Federal

Minnesota's United States senators are Democrats Amy Klobuchar and Tina Smith. The state has eight Minnesota Congressional Districts, congressional districts; they are represented by Jim Hagedorn (Minnesota's 1st congressional district, 1st district; R), Angie Craig (Minnesota's 2nd congressional district, 2nd; DFL), Dean Phillips (Minnesota's 3rd congressional district, 3rd; DFL), Betty McCollum (Minnesota's 4th congressional district, 4th; DFL), Ilhan Omar (Minnesota's 5th congressional district, 5th; DFL), Tom Emmer (Minnesota's 6th congressional district, 6th; R), Michelle Fischbach (Minnesota's 7th congressional district, 7th; R), and Pete Stauber (Minnesota's 8th congressional district, 8th; R). Federal court cases are heard in the United States District Court for the District of Minnesota, in Minneapolis, St. Paul, Duluth, and Fergus Falls. Appeals are heard by the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals in St. Louis, Missouri and St. Paul.


Tribal

The State of Minnesota was created by the United States federal government in the traditional and cultural range of lands occupied by the
Dakota Dakota may refer to: * Dakota people, a sub-tribe of the Sioux ** Dakota language, their language From this origin, Dakota may also refer to: Places United States * Dakota, Georgia, an unincorporated community * Dakota, Illinois, a town * Dak ...
and
Anishinaabe The Anishinaabe are a group of culturally related Indigenous peoples resident in what are now called Canada and the United States. They include the Odawa, Saulteaux, Ojibwe (including Mississaugas), Potawatomi people, Potawatomi, Oji-Cree, and ...
peoples as well as other Native American groups. After many years of unequal treaties and forced resettlement by the state and federal government, the tribes re-organized into sovereign tribal governments. Today, the tribal governments are divided into 11 semi-autonomous that negotiate with the U.S. and the state on a bilateral basis: Four Dakota Mdewakanton communities: * Prairie Island Indian Community * Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community * Lower Sioux Indian Reservation * Upper Sioux Community, Minnesota, Upper Sioux CommunityPejuhutazizi Oyate Seven Anishinaabe reservations: * Bois Forte Band of Chippewa * Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa * Grand Portage Band of Chippewa * Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe * Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe * White Earth Band of Ojibwe * Red Lake Band of Chippewa The first six of the Anishinaabe bands compose the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, the collective federally recognized tribal government of the Bois Forte, Fond du Lac, Grand Portage, Leech Lake, Mille Lacs, and White Earth reservations.


Politics

Minnesota is known for a politically active citizenry, and populism has been a long-standing force among the state's political party, political parties. Minnesota has a consistently high voter turnout. In the 2008 United States presidential election, 2008 U.S. presidential election, 78.2% of eligible Minnesotans votedthe highest percentage of any U.S. stateversus the national average of 61.2%. That figure was surpassed in 2020, when 79.96% of registered voters participated in the general election. Voters can register on Election Day (United States), election day at their polling places with evidence of residency. Hubert Humphrey brought national attention to the state with his address at the 1948 Democratic National Convention. Minnesotans have consistently cast their Electoral College votes for Democratic presidential candidates since 1976, longer than any other state. Minnesota is the only state in the nation that did not vote for Ronald Reagan in either of his presidential runs. Minnesota has gone for the Democratic Party in every presidential election since 1960, with the exception of 1972, when it was carried by Republican Richard Nixon. Both the Democratic and Republican parties have major-party status in Minnesota, but its state-level Democratic party has a different name, officially known as the Minnesota Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (DFL). It was formed out of a 1944 alliance of the Minnesota Democratic and Minnesota Farmer-Labor Party, Farmer-Labor parties. The state has had active third-party movements. The Reform Party of the United States, Reform Party, now the Independence Party of Minnesota, Independence Party, was able to elect former mayor of Brooklyn Park, Minnesota, Brooklyn Park and professional wrestler Jesse Ventura to the Minnesota gubernatorial election, 1998, governorship in 1998. The Independence Party of Minnesota, Independence Party has received enough support to keep major-party status. The Green Party of Minnesota, Green Party, while no longer having major-party status, has a large presence in municipal government, notably in Minneapolis and Duluth, where it competes directly with the DFL party for local offices. Major-party status in Minnesota (which grants state funding for elections) is reserved to parties whose candidates receive five percent or more of the vote in any statewide election (e.g., governor, secretary of state, U.S. president). The state's United States Senate, U.S. Senate seats have generally been split since the early 1990s and in the 108th United States Congress, 108th and 109th United States Congress, 109th Congresses, Minnesota's congressional delegation was split, with four representatives and one senator from each party. In the 2006 mid-term election, Democrats were elected to all state offices, except governor and lieutenant governor, where Republicans Tim Pawlenty and Carol Molnau narrowly won re-election. The DFL posted double-digit gains in both houses of the legislature, elected Amy Klobuchar to the U.S. Senate, and increased the party's U.S. House caucus by one. Keith Ellison (DFL) was elected as the first African American U.S. Representative from Minnesota, as well as the first Muslim elected to Congress nationwide. In 2008, DFLer and former comedian and radio talk show host Al Franken defeated incumbent Republican Norm Coleman in the U.S. Senate race by 312 votes out of three million cast. In the 2010 election, Republicans took control of both chambers of the Minnesota legislature for the first time in 38 years and, with Mark Dayton's election, the DFL party took the governor's office for the first time in 20 years. Two years later, the DFL regained control of both houses, and with Dayton in office, the party had same-party control of both the legislative and executive branches for the first time since 1990. Two years later, the Republicans regained control of the Minnesota House, and in 2016, the GOP also regained control of the State Senate. In 2018, the DFL retook control of the Minnesota House, while electing DFLer Tim Walz as Governor.


Media

The Twin Cities area is the fifteenth-largest media market in the United States, as ranked by Nielsen Media Research. The state's other top markets are Fargo–Moorhead (118th nationally), Twin Ports, Duluth–Superior (137th), Rochester–Mason City–Austin (152nd), and Mankato (200th). Terrestrial television, Broadcast television in Minnesota and the Upper Midwest started on April 27, 1948, when KSTP-TV began broadcasting. Hubbard Broadcasting, which owns KSTP, is now the only locally owned television company in Minnesota. Twin Cities CBS station WCCO-TV and Fox Broadcasting Company, FOX station KMSP-TV are owned-and-operated by their respective networks. There are List of television stations in Minnesota (by channel number), 39 analog broadcast stations and 23 digital television, digital channels broadcast over Minnesota. The four largest daily newspapers are the ''Star Tribune'' in Minneapolis, the ''St. Paul Pioneer Press, Pioneer Press'' in Saint Paul, the ''Duluth News Tribune'' in Duluth, and the ''Post-Bulletin'' in Rochester. ''Minnesota Daily, The Minnesota Daily'' is the largest student-run newspaper in the U.S. Sites offering daily news on the Web include ''The UpTake'', ''MinnPost.com, MinnPost'', the Twin Cities ''Daily Planet'', business news site ''Finance & Commerce, Finance and Commerce'' and Washington D.C.-based ''Minnesota Independent''. Weeklies including ''City Pages'' and monthly publications such as ''Minnesota Monthly'' are available. Two of the largest public radio networks, Minnesota Public Radio (MPR) and Public Radio International (PRI), are based in the state. MPR has the largest audience of any regional public radio network in the nation, broadcasting on 46 radio stations as of 2019. PRI weekly provides more than 400 hours of programming to almost 800 affiliates. The state's oldest radio station, KUOM-AM, was launched in 1922 and is among the 10-List of oldest radio stations, oldest radio stations in the United States. The University of Minnesota-owned station is still on the air, and since 1993 broadcasts a campus radio, college rock format.


Sports, recreation and tourism

Minnesota has an active program of organized amateur and professional sports. Tourism has become an important industry, especially in the Lake region. In the North Country, what had been an industrial area focused on mining and timber has largely been transformed into a vacation destination. Popular interest in the environment and environmentalism, added to traditional interests in hunting and fishing, has attracted a large urban audience within driving range.


Organized sports

Minnesota has professional men's teams in all major sports. The Minnesota Vikings have played in the National Football League since their admission as an expansion franchise in 1961. They played in Metropolitan Stadium from 1961 through 1981 and in the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome from 1982 until its demolition after the 2013 season for the construction of the team's new home, U.S. Bank Stadium. The Vikings' current stadium hosted Super Bowl LII in February 2018. Super Bowl XXVI was played in the Metrodome in 1992. The Vikings have advanced to the Super Bowl Super Bowl IV, Super Bowl VIII, Super Bowl IX, and Super Bowl XI, losing all four games to their AFC/AFL opponent The Minnesota Twins have played in the Major League Baseball in the Twin Cities since 1961. The Twins began play as the original Minnesota Twins, Washington Senators, a founding member of the American League in 1901, relocating to Minnesota in 1961. The Twins won the 1987 World Series, 1987 and 1991 World Series in seven-game matches where the home team was victorious in all games. The Twins also advanced to the 1965 World Series, where they lost to the Los Angeles Dodgers in seven games. The team has played at Target Field since 2010. The Minneapolis Lakers of the National Basketball Association played in the Minneapolis Auditorium from 1947 to 1960, after which they relocated to Los Angeles. The Minnesota Timberwolves joined the NBA in 1989, and have played in Target Center since 1990. The National Hockey League's Minnesota Wild play in St. Paul's Xcel Energy Center, and reached 300 consecutive sold-out games on January 16, 2008. Previously, the Minnesota North Stars competed in NHL from 1967 to 1993, which played in and lost the 1981 and 1991 Stanley Cup Finals. Minnesota United FC joined Major League Soccer as an expansion team in 2017, having played in the lower-division North American Soccer League (2010), North American Soccer League from 2010 to 2016. The team plays at Allianz Field in St. Paul. Previous professional soccer teams have included the Minnesota Kicks, which played at Metropolitan Stadium from 1976 to 1981, and the Minnesota Strikers from 1984 to 1988. Minnesota also has minor-league professional sports teams. The Minnesota Swarm of the National Lacrosse League played at the Xcel Energy Center until the team moved to Georgia in 2015. The St. Paul Saints, who play at CHS Field in St. Paul, are the Triple-A (baseball), Triple-A minor league affiliate of the Minnesota Twins. Professional women's sports include the Minnesota Lynx of the Women's National Basketball Association, winners of the 2011, 2013, 2015, and 2017 WNBA Championships, the Minnesota Lightning of the United Soccer Leagues USL W-League, W-League, the Minnesota Vixen of the Independent Women's Football League, the Minnesota Valkyrie of the Legends Football League, and the Minnesota Whitecaps of the National Women's Hockey League. The Twin Cities campus of the University of Minnesota is a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I school competing in the Big Ten Conference. Four additional schools in the state compete in NCAA Division I ice hockey: the University of Minnesota Duluth; Minnesota State University, Mankato; St. Cloud State University and Bemidji State University. There are nine NCAA Division II colleges in the Northern Sun Intercollegiate Conference, and twenty NCAA Division III colleges in the Minnesota Intercollegiate Athletic Conference and Upper Midwest Athletic Conference. Minneapolis has hosted the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship in 1951 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament, 1951, 1992 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament, 1992, 2001 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament, 2001, and 2019 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament, 2019. The Hazeltine National Golf Club has hosted the U.S. Open (golf), U.S. Open, U.S. Women's Open, U.S. Senior Open and PGA Championship. The course also hosted the Ryder Cup in the fall of 2016, when it became one of two courses in the U.S. to host all major golf competitions. The Ryder Cup is scheduled to return in 2028. Interlachen Country Club has hosted the U.S. Open (golf), U.S. Open, U.S. Women's Open, and Solheim Cup. Winter Olympic Games medalists from the state include twelve of the twenty members of the gold medal Miracle on Ice, 1980 ice hockey team (coached by Minnesota native Herb Brooks) and the bronze medalist Curling at the 2006 Winter Olympics#Men's, U.S. men's curling team in the 2006 Winter Olympics. Swimmer Tom Malchow won an Olympic gold medal in the 2000 Summer Olympics, 2000 Summer games and a silver medal in 1996 Summer Olympics, 1996. Grandma's Marathon is run every summer along the scenic North Shore (Lake Superior), North Shore of Lake Superior, and the Twin Cities Marathon winds around lakes and the Mississippi River during the peak of the color change in leaves, fall color season. Farther north, Eveleth, Minnesota, Eveleth is the location of the United States Hockey Hall of Fame.


Outdoor recreation

Minnesotans participate in high levels of physical activity, and many of these activities are outdoors. The strong interest of Minnesotans in environmentalism has been attributed to the popularity of these pursuits. In the warmer months, these activities often involve water. Weekend and longer trips to family cottage, cabins on Minnesota's numerous lakes are a way of life for many residents. Activities include water sports such as water skiing, which originated in the state, boating, canoeing, and fishing. More than 36 percent of Minnesotans fish, second only to Alaska. Fishing does not cease when the lakes freeze; ice fishing has been around since the arrival of early Scandinavian immigrants. Minnesotans have learned to embrace their long, harsh winters in ice sports such as ice skating, skating, Ice hockey, hockey, curling, and broomball, and snow sports such as cross-country skiing, alpine skiing, luge, snowshoeing, and snowmobile, snowmobiling. Minnesota is the only U.S. state where bandy is played. State and national forests and the seventy-two state parks are used year-round for hunting, camping, and hiking. There are almost of snowmobile trails statewide. Minnesota has more miles of bike trails than any other state, and a growing network of trail, hiking trails, including the Superior Hiking Trail in the northeast. Many hiking and bike trails are used for cross-country skiing during the winter.


See also

* Index of Minnesota-related articles * Outline of Minnesota


References


External links


Culture and history


Minnesota Historical Society

Minnesota Place Names

Minnesota Reflections


from the Library of Congress


General

*


Government

*


Prairie Island Indian Community

Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community

Lower Sioux Indian Community

The Upper Sioux Community Pejuhutazizi Oyate

Minnesota Chippewa Tribe

Bois Forte Band of Chippewa

Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa

Grand Portage Band of Lake Superior Chippewa

Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe

Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe

White Earth Indian Reservation Tribal Council

Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians


Maps and demographics


Minnesota State Demographic Center

State Facts from USDA

Minnesota State Highway Map

Minnesota at Open Street Map


Tourism and recreation


Explore Minnesota


* {{coord, 46, -94, dim:300000_region:US-MN_type:adm1st, name=State of Minnesota, display=title Minnesota, States and territories established in 1858 States of the United States Dakota toponyms Midwestern United States 1858 establishments in the United States Contiguous United States