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Mainz (; ) is the capital and largest city of
Rhineland-Palatinate Rhineland-Palatinate (german: Rheinland-Pfalz, ) is a western state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''Th ...
(German:
Rheinland-Pfalz Rhineland-Palatinate (german: Rheinland-Pfalz, ) is a western state of Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language ...
),
Germany Germany (german: Deutschland, ), officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in . It is the in Europe after , and the most populous . Germany is situated between the and seas to the north, and the to the south; it covers an area of ...

Germany
. Most of the city is downstream of the
Rhine ), Surselva Surselva Region is one of the eleven administrative districts Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many si ...

Rhine
before it flows east. The north of the city faces
Wiesbaden Wiesbaden () is a city in central western Germany and the capital of the state of Hesse. , it had 290,955 inhabitants, plus approximately 21,000 United States citizens (mostly associated with the United States Army). The Wiesbaden urban area i ...

Wiesbaden
, the capital of the neighbouring state
Hesse Hesse (, , ) or Hessia (, ; german: Hessen ), officially the State of Hessen (german: links=no, Land Hessen), is a German states, state in Germany. Its capital city is Wiesbaden, and the largest urban area is Frankfurt. With an area of 21,000 squa ...
, and the east the
confluence In geography, a confluence (also: ''conflux'') occurs where two or more flowing bodies of water join together to form a single channel. A confluence can occur in several configurations: at the point where a tributary joins a larger river (main ...

confluence
of the
Main Main may refer to: Geography * Main River (disambiguation) **Most commonly the Main (river) in Germany * Main, Iran, a village in Fars Province *" Spanish Main", the Caribbean coasts of mainland Spanish territories in the 16th and 17th centuries ...
. Mainz is an
independent city An independent city or independent town is a city or town that does not form part of another general-purpose local government entity (such as a province). Historical precursors In the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imp ...
with a population of 218,578 (as of 2019) and forms part of the Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region. Mainz was founded by the
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...

Romans
in the 1st century BC as a military fortress on the northernmost frontier of the empire and provincial capital of
Germania Superior 250px, Northern part of the province with the Limes Germanicus. Germania Superior ("Upper Germania Germania ( , ), also called Magna Germania (English: ''Great Germania''), Germania Libera (English: ''Free Germania'') or Germanic Barbaricum ...
. Mainz became an important city in the 8th century AD as part of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western, Central Europe, Central and Southern Europe that developed during the Early Middle Age ...
, capital of the
Electorate of Mainz The Electorate of Mainz Mainz (; ; la, Mogontiacum) is the capital and largest city of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Most of the city is upstream of the Rhine before it flows west. The north of the city faces Wiesbaden, in Hesse, and the ...
and seat of the Archbishop-Elector of Mainz, the
Primate A primate ( ) (from Latin , from 'prime, first rank') is a eutheria Eutheria (; from Greek , 'good, right' and , 'beast'; ) is the clade A clade (; from grc, , ''klados'', "branch"), also known as a monophyletic group or natural gro ...
of Germany. Mainz is famous as the birthplace of
Johannes Gutenberg Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (; – 3 February 1468) was a German inventor An invention is a unique or novel device, method, composition or process. The invention process is a process within an overall engineering ...

Johannes Gutenberg
, the inventor of a movable-type
printing press A printing press is a mechanical device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a printing, print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink. It marked a dramatic improvement on earlier printing methods in whi ...
, who in the early 1450s manufactured his first books in the city, including the
Gutenberg Bible The Gutenberg Bible (also known as the 42-line Bible, the Mazarin Bible or the B42) was the earliest major book printed using mass-produced movable metal type in Europe. It marked the start of the " Gutenberg Revolution" and the age of printed b ...

Gutenberg Bible
. Mainz was heavily damaged in
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved —including all of the great powers—forming two opposing s: the and the . In a total war directly involving m ...
; more than 30 air raids destroyed most of the historic buildings. Mainz is notable as a
transport hub in Helsinki, Finland : Port of Szczecin, A6 autostrada (Poland), motorway, Expressway S3 (Poland), expressway and Szczecin Główny railway station, railway connections, an inter-city public transport, a city bus and Tramways in Szczecin, electr ...
, for
wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from Fermentation in winemaking, fermented grapes. Yeast in winemaking, Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol and carbon dioxide, releasing heat in the process. Different v ...

wine
production, and for its many rebuilt historic buildings.


Geography


Topography

Mainz is on the 50th latitude north, on the
left bank of the Rhine#REDIRECT Left Bank of the Rhine The Left Bank of the Rhine (german: Linkes Rheinufer, french: Rive gauche du Rhin) was the region north of Lauterbourg that is now in western Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px ...

left bank of the Rhine
. The east of the city is opposite where the
Main Main may refer to: Geography * Main River (disambiguation) **Most commonly the Main (river) in Germany * Main, Iran, a village in Fars Province *" Spanish Main", the Caribbean coasts of mainland Spanish territories in the 16th and 17th centuries ...
falls into it. The population in early 2012 was 200,957. A further 18,619 people live mainly elsewhere but have a second home in Mainz. The city is part of the Rhein Metro area of 5.8 million people. Mainz can easily be reached from
Frankfurt International Airport Frankfurt Airport (german: link=no, Flughafen Frankfurt am Main , also known as ''Rhein-Main-Flughafen'') is a major international airport located in Frankfurt, the fifth-largest city of Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , ...

Frankfurt International Airport
in 25 minutes by commuter railway Line S8. Mainz is a
river port Examples The United States Army Corps of Engineers publishes biannually a list of such locations and for this purpose states that "inland ports" are ports that are located on rivers and do not handle deep draft (hull), draft ship transport, ship ...
city as the
Rhine ), Surselva Surselva Region is one of the eleven administrative districts Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many si ...

Rhine
which connects with its main tributaries, such as the
Neckar The Neckar () is a river in Germany, mainly flowing through the southwestern States of Germany, state of Baden-Württemberg, with a short section through Hesse. The Neckar is a major right tributary of the Rhine. Rising in the Schwarzwald-Baar-K ...

Neckar
, the Main and, later, the
Moselle The Moselle ( , ; german: Mosel ; lb, Musel ) is a river that rises in the Vosges mountains and flows from western Germany through Luxembourg and north-eastern France. It is a bank (geography), left bank tributary of the Rhine, which it j ...
and thereby continental Europe with the
Port of Rotterdam The Port of Rotterdam is the largest seaport The Porticciolo del Cedas port in Barcola The thumb is the first digit of the hand, next to the index finger. When a person is standing in the medical anatomical position (where the palm is facin ...

Port of Rotterdam
and thus the
North Sea The North Sea is a sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
. Mainz's history and economy are closely tied to its proximity to the Rhine historically handling much of the region's waterborne cargo. Today's huge container port hub allowing trimodal transport is north of the town centre. The river moderates climate. It makes waterfront neighbourhoods slightly warmer in winter and cooler in summer. After the last ice age, sand dunes were deposited in the Rhine valley at what was to become the western edge of the city. The
Mainz Sand Dunes
Mainz Sand Dunes
area is now a nature reserve with a unique landscape and rare ''steppe'' vegetation for this area. While the Mainz legion camp was founded in 13/12 BC on the Kästrich hill, the associated vici and
canabaeA Canaba (Canabae plural) was the Latin term for a hut or hovel and was later (from the time of Hadrian) used typically to mean a town that emerged as a civilian settlement (Canabae legionis) in the vicinity of a Roman legionary fortress ( castrum). ...
(civilian settlements) were erected towards the Rhine. Historical sources and archaeological findings both prove the importance of the military and civilian Mogontiacum as a port city on the Rhine.


Climate

Mainz experiences an
oceanic climate An oceanic climate, also known as a maritime climate or marine climate, is the Köppen classification of climate Climate is the long-term average of weather, typically averaged over a period of 30 years. More rigorously, it is the mean an ...
(
Köppen climate classification The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used systems. It was first published by German-Russian (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936. Later, the climatologist (1894- ...
''Cfb'').


History


Roman Mogontiacum

The Roman stronghold or ''
castrum In the Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the ancient Rome, classical Roman civilization, run through res publica, public Representation (politics), representation of the Roman people. Beginning w ...
Mogontiacum'', the precursor to Mainz, was founded by the Roman general Drusus perhaps as early as 13/12 BC. As related by
Suetonius Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus (), commonly known as Suetonius ( ; c. AD 69 – after AD 122), was a Roman historianRoman historiography stretches back to at least the 3rd century BC and was indebted to earlier Greek historiography. The Romans ...

Suetonius
the existence of ''Mogontiacum'' is well established by four years later (the account of the death and funeral of
Nero Claudius Drusus Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus (14 January 38 BC – summer of 9 BC), also called Drusus the Elder, was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th ce ...
), though several other theories suggest the site may have been established earlier. Although the city is situated opposite the mouth of the
Main Main may refer to: Geography * Main River (disambiguation) **Most commonly the Main (river) in Germany * Main, Iran, a village in Fars Province *" Spanish Main", the Caribbean coasts of mainland Spanish territories in the 16th and 17th centuries ...
, the name of Mainz is not from ''Main'', the similarity being perhaps reinforced by folk-etymological reanalysis. ''Main'' is from Latin ''Moenis'' (also ''Moenus'' or ''Menus''), the name the Romans used for the river.
Linguistic Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing ...

Linguistic
analysis of the many forms that the name "Mainz" has taken on make it clear that it is a simplification of ''Mogontiacum''. The name appears to be
Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: ...
and ultimately it is. However, it had also become Roman and was selected by them with a special significance. The Roman soldiers defending
Gallia Gaul ( la, Gallia) was a region of Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe. The region's countries and territories vary depending on context. Beginning with foreign exploration during the Age of Discovery, roughly fr ...

Gallia
had adopted the Gallic god
Mogons Mogons or Moguns was a Celtic god worshiped in Roman Britain and Gaul. The main evidence is from altars dedicated to the god by Roman soldiers. Etymology According to J.T. Koch at the University of Wales, the various alternations of the name ''M ...
(Mogounus, Moguns, Mogonino), for the meaning of which etymology offers two basic options: "the great one", similar to Latin magnus, which was used in aggrandizing names such as ''Alexander magnus'', "Alexander the Great" and ''Pompeius magnus'', "Pompey the great", or the god of "might" personified as it appears in young servitors of any type whether of noble or ignoble birth. Mogontiacum was an important military town throughout Roman times, probably due to its strategic position at the confluence of the Main and the Rhine. The town of ''Mogontiacum'' grew up between the fort and the river. The castrum was the base of Legio XIV ''Gemina'' and XVI ''Gallica'' (AD 9–43), XXII ''Primigenia'', IV ''Macedonica'' (43–70), I ''Adiutrix'' (70–88), XXI ''Rapax'' (70–89), and XIV ''Gemina'' (70–92), among others. Mainz was also a base of a Roman river fleet, the
Classis Germanica 150px, Fragment of a bronze plaque from Naaldwijk (NL) with the inscription CLASSISAV The Classis Germanica was a Ancient Rome, Roman Naval fleet, fleet in Germania Superior and Germania Inferior. Besides the Channel Fleet (Classis Brit ...
. Remains of Roman troop ships (
navis lusoria 250px, A reconstructed navis lusoria at the Museum of Ancient Seafaring, Mainz A navis lusoria (, plural ) is a type of a small military vessel of the late Roman Empire that served as a troop transport on 14 June 1943, rehearsing for landings on ...
) and a patrol boat from the late 4th century were discovered in 1982/86 and may now be viewed in the ''Museum für Antike Schifffahrt''. A temple dedicated to
Isis Panthea
Isis Panthea
and Magna Mater was discovered in 2000 and is open to the public. The city was the provincial capital of
Germania Superior 250px, Northern part of the province with the Limes Germanicus. Germania Superior ("Upper Germania Germania ( , ), also called Magna Germania (English: ''Great Germania''), Germania Libera (English: ''Free Germania'') or Germanic Barbaricum ...
, and had an important funeral monument dedicated to Drusus, to which people made pilgrimages for an annual festival from as far away as
Lyon Lyon or Lyons (, , ; frp, Liyon, ) is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located at the confluence of the rivers Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, Rodano ; frp, Rôno ; oc, ...

Lyon
. Among the famous buildings were the largest
theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place, often a stage. The performe ...
north of the Alps and a bridge across the Rhine. The city was also the site of the assassination of emperor
Severus Alexander Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander (1 October 208 – 19 March 235) was the last Roman emperor The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a ...

Severus Alexander
in 235.
Alemanni The Alemanni (also ''Alamanni''; ''Suebi'' "Swabians") were a confederation of Germanic tribes * * * on the Upper Rhine River. First mentioned by Cassius Dio in the context of the campaign of Caracalla Caracalla ( ; 4 April 188 – ...
forces under Rando sacked the city in 368. From the last day of 405 or 406, the Siling and Asding
Vandals The Vandals were a Germanic people Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient northern European tribes, first mentioned by Graeco-Roman authors. They are also a ...
, the
Suebi The Suebi (or Suebians, also spelled Suevi, Suavi) were a large group of Germanic peoples originally from the Elbe river region in what is now Germany and Czechia, the Czech Republic. In the early Roman era they included many peoples with their ow ...
, the
Alans The Alans or Alāns (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of th ...

Alans
, and other Germanic tribes
crossed the Rhine
crossed the Rhine
, possibly at Mainz. Christian chronicles relate that the bishop, Aureus, was put to death by the Alemannian Crocus. The way was open to the sack of
Trier Trier ( , ; lb, Tréier ), formerly known in English as Trèves ( ;) and Triers (see also Names of Trier in different languages, names in other languages), is a city on the banks of the Moselle (river), Moselle in Germany. It lies in a valley b ...

Trier
and the invasion of Gaul. Throughout the changes of time, the Roman castrum never seems to have been permanently abandoned as a military installation, which is a testimony to Roman military judgement. Different structures were built there at different times. The current citadel originated in 1660, but it replaced previous forts. It was used in World War II. One of the sights at the citadel is still the
cenotaph A cenotaph is an empty tomb at Hierapolis Hierapolis ( grc, Ἱεράπολις, lit. "Holy City") was an ancient Greek city located on hot springs in Greco-Roman culture, classical Phrygia in southwestern Anatolia. Its ruins are a ...

cenotaph
raised by legionaries to commemorate their Drusus.


Frankish Mainz

Through a series of incursions during the 4th century
Alsace Alsace (, also ; Low Alemannic German Low Alemannic German (german: Niederalemannisch) is a branch of Alemannic German Alemannic, or rarely Alemannish (''Alemannisch'', ), is a group of High German dialects. The name derives from the ancien ...

Alsace
gradually lost its Belgic ethnic character of formerly Germanic tribes among Celts ruled by Romans and became predominantly influenced by the
Alamanni The Alemanni (also ''Alamanni''; ''Suebi'' "Swabians") were a confederation of Germanic peoples, Germanic tribes * * * on the Upper Rhine River. First mentioned by Cassius Dio in the context of the campaign of Caracalla of 213, the Alemanni captu ...
. The Romans repeatedly re-asserted control; however, the troops stationed at Mainz became chiefly non-Italic and the emperors had only one or two Italian ancestors in a pedigree that included chiefly peoples of the northern frontier. The last emperor to station troops serving the western empire at Mainz was
Valentinian III Valentinian III ( la, Placidus Valentinianus; 2 July 41916 March 455) was Roman emperor in the Western Roman Empire, West from 425 to 455. Made emperor in childhood, his reign over the Roman Empire was one of the longest, but was dominated by powe ...
(reigned 425–455), who relied heavily on his ''Magister militum per Gallias'',
Flavius Aëtius Flavius Aetius (spelled also Aëtius; ; c. 391 – 454) was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancie ...
. By that time the army included large numbers of troops from the major Germanic confederacies along the Rhine, the Alamanni, the
Saxons The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of early Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic languag ...

Saxons
and the
Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of whose name was first mentioned in 3rd-century Roman sources, and associated with tribes between the and the , on the edge of the . Later the term was associated with Germanic dynasties within the ...

Franks
. The Franks were an opponent that had risen to power and reputation among the Belgae of the lower Rhine during the 3rd century and repeatedly attempted to extend their influence upstream. In 358 the emperor Julian bought peace by giving them most of
Germania Inferior Germania Inferior ("Lower Germania") was a Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin: ''provincia'', pl. ''provinciae'') were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Italy that were controlled by the Romans under the Roman Repub ...
, which they possessed anyway, and imposing service in the Roman army in exchange. European factions in the time of master Aëtius included Celts, Goths, Franks, Saxons, Alamanni, Huns, Italians, and Alans as well as numerous other minor peoples. Aëtius played them all off against one another in a masterly effort to keep the peace under Roman sovereignty. He used Hunnic troops a number of times. At last, a day of reckoning arrived between Aëtius and
Attila Attila (; ), frequently called Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe between the 4th and 6th century AD. According to European tradition, ...

Attila
, both commanding polyglot, multi-ethnic troops. Attila went through Alsace in 451, devastating the country and destroying Mainz and Trier with their Roman garrisons. Shortly after he was thwarted by
Flavius Aëtius Flavius Aetius (spelled also Aëtius; ; c. 391 – 454) was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancie ...
at the Battle of Châlons, the largest of the ancient world. Aëtius was not to enjoy the victory long. He was assassinated in 454 by the hand of his employer, who in turn was stabbed to death by friends of Aëtius in 455. As far as the north was concerned this was the effective end of the Roman empire there. After some sanguinary but relatively brief contention a former subordinate of Aëtius,
Ricimer Flavius Ricimer ( , ; – 18/19 August 472) was a Romanization (cultural), Romanized Germanic peoples, Germanic general who effectively ruled the remaining territory of the Western Roman Empire from 461 until his death in 472, with a brief inte ...
, became commander in chief, and was named Patrician. His father was a Suebian; his mother, a princess of the
Visigoths The Visigoths (; la, Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi) were an early Germanic people Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient northern European t ...
. Ricimer did not rule the north directly but set up a client province there, which functioned independently. The capital was at
Soissons Soissons () is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs t ...

Soissons
. Even then its status was equivocal. Many insisted it was the
Kingdom of Soissons The Kingdom or Domain of Soissons was a rump state of the Western Roman Empire in northern Gaul, between the Somme and the Seine, that lasted for some 25 years during Late Antiquity. The rulers of the rump state, notably its final ruler Syagrius, ...
. which extended across northern France and was ruled in the name of Rome by Aegidius, an ally of emperor Majorian, 457–461, who died about 464. He was succeeded by his son, Syagrius, who was defeated by Clovis in 486. Previously the first of the
Merovingian The Merovingian dynasty () was the ruling family of the Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples whose name was first mentioned in 3rd-century Roman sources, and associated with tribes between the Lower Rhine and ...
s, Clodio, had been defeated by Aëtius at about 430. His son, Merovaeus, fought on the Roman side against Attila, and his son,
Childeric
Childeric
, served in the domain of Soissons. Meanwhile, the Franks were gradually infiltrating and assuming power in this domain from
Toxandria Texandria (also Toxiandria; later Toxandria, Taxandria), is a region mentioned in the 4th century AD and during the Middle Ages. It was situated in the southern part of the modern Netherlands and in the northern part of present-day Belgium, currentl ...
(northern Belgium which had been given to them by the Romans to protect as allies). They also moved up the Rhine and created a domain in the region of the former Germania Superior with capital at
Cologne Cologne ( ; german: Köln ; ksh, Kölle ) is the largest city of Germany, Germany's most populous States of Germany, state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) and the List of cities in Germany by population, fourth-most populous city and one of t ...

Cologne
. They became known as the
Ripuarian Franks Ripuarian or Rhineland Franks (Latin: ''Ripuarii'' or ''Ribuarii'') were one of the two main groupings of early Frankish people The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples whose name was first mentioned in 3rd-century Roman s ...
as opposed to the
Salian Franks The Salian Franks, also called the Salians (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. ...
. Events moved rapidly in the late 5th century. After the
fall of the Western Roman Empire The fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called the fall of the Roman Empire or the fall of Rome) was the loss of central political control in the Western Roman Empire, a process in which the Empire failed to enforce its rule, and its vast ...
in 476, the
Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of whose name was first mentioned in 3rd-century Roman sources, and associated with tribes between the and the , on the edge of the . Later the term was associated with Germanic dynasties within the ...

Franks
under the rule of
Clovis I Clovis ( la, Chlodovechus; reconstructed Frankish Frankish may refer to: * Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient northern E ...

Clovis I
gained control over western Europe by the year 496. Clovis, son of Childeric, became king of the Salians in 481, ruling from
Tournai Tournai or Tournay ( ; ; nl, Doornik ; pcd, Tornai; wa, Tornè ; la, Tornacum) is a city and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-gover ...

Tournai
. In 486 he defeated
Syagrius Syagrius (430 – 486 or 487 or 493–4) was a Roman general and the last ruler of a Roman rump state A rump state is the remnant of a once much larger State (polity), state, left with a reduced territory in the wake of secession, annexation, ...
, the last governor of the Soissons domain, and took northern France. He extended his reign to
Cambrai Cambrai (, ; pcd, Kimbré; nl, Kamerijk), formerly Cambray and historically in English Camerick or Camericke, is a Communes of France, commune in the Nord (French department), Nord Departments of France, department and in the Hauts-de-France R ...

Cambrai
and
Tongeren Tongeren (; french: Tongres ; german: Tongern ; li, Tóngere ) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Scienc ...

Tongeren
in 490–491, and repelled the Alamanni in 496. Also in that year, he converted to Catholicism from non-
Arian Christianity Arianism is a Christological doctrine first attributed to Arius Arius (; grc-koi, Ἄρειος, ; 250 or 256–336) was a Cyrenaic The Cyrenaics or Kyrenaics ( grc, Κυρηναϊκοί; ''Kyrēnaïkoí'') were a sensual hedonist Greek ...
. Clovis annexed the kingdom of Cologne in 508. Thereafter, Mainz, in its strategic position, became one of the bases of the Frankish kingdom. Mainz had sheltered a Christian community long before the conversion of Clovis. His successor
Dagobert I Dagobert I ( la, Dagobertus; 603 – 19 January 639 AD) was the king of Austrasia Austrasia was a territory which formed the northeastern section of the Merovingian Kingdom of the Franks during the 6th to 8th centuries. It was centred on the ...
reinforced the walls of Mainz and made it one of his seats. A
solidus Solidus (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republi ...
of
Theodebert I Theudebert I (french: Thibert/Théodebert) (c. 500 – 547 or 548) was the Merovingians, Merovingian king of Austrasia from 533 to his death in 548. He was the son of Theuderic I and the father of Theudebald. Sources Most of what we know about Theu ...
(534–548) was minted at Mainz.
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; 2 April 748 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks The Franks—Germanic-speaking peoples that invaded the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century—were first led by i ...

Charlemagne
(768–814), through a succession of wars against other tribes, built a vast Frankian empire in Europe. Mainz from its central location became important to the empire and to Christianity. Meanwhile, language change was gradually working to divide the Franks. Mainz spoke a dialect termed Ripuarian. On the death of Charlemagne, distinctions between France and Germany began to be made. Mainz was not central any longer but was on the border, creating a question of the nationality to which it belonged, which descended into modern times as the question of Alsace-Lorraine.


Christian Mainz

In the early
Middle Age Middle age is the period of age beyond young adulthood but before the onset of old age File:Festival Ringing Cedars 2014 June 22 Димон 05.jpg, An elderly woman at a Ringing Cedars' settlement in Russia. Old age refers to ages nearing o ...

Middle Age
s, Mainz was a centre for the
Christianisation Christianization (American and British English spelling differences#-ise.2C -ize .28-isation.2C -ization.29, or Christianisation) was the Conversion to Christianity, conversion of societies to Christianity beginning in late antiquity in the Rom ...
of the
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
and
Slavic peoples Slavs are an ethno-linguistic group of people who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic language, Balto-Slavic linguistic group of the Indo-European languages. They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central Europe, ...
. The first archbishop in Mainz,
Boniface Boniface ( la, Bonifatius; 675 – 5 June 754), born Winfrid (also spelled Winifred, Wynfrith, Winfrith or Wynfryth) in the Devon Devon (, also known as Devonshire) is a Counties of England, county of England, reaching from the Bristol C ...

Boniface
, was killed in 754 while trying to convert the
Frisians The Frisians are a Germanic people, Germanic ethnic group indigenous to the German Bight, coastal regions of the Netherlands and northwestern Germany. They inhabit an area known as Frisia and are concentrated in the Dutch provinces of Friesland ...

Frisians
to Christianity and is buried in
Fulda Fulda () (historically in English called Fuld) is a town in Hesse Hesse (, , ) or Hessia (, ; german: Hessen ), officially the State of Hessen (german: links=no, Land Hessen), is a German states, state in Germany. Its capital city is Wiesbaden, ...

Fulda
. Boniface held a personal title of archbishop; Mainz became a regular archbishopric see in 781, when Boniface's successor
Lullus Saint Lullus (Lull or Lul) (born about 710 in Wessex Wessex (; ang, Westseaxna rīċe , 'the Kingdom of the West Saxons') was an Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the ...
was granted the pallium by Pope Adrian I. Harald Klak, king of Jutland, his family and followers, were baptized at Mainz in 826, in the St. Alban's Abbey, Mainz, abbey of St. Alban's. Other early archbishops of Mainz include Rabanus Maurus, the scholar and author, and Willigis (975–1011), who began construction on the current building of the Mainz Cathedral and founded the monastery of St. Stephan. From the time of Willigis until the end of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western, Central Europe, Central and Southern Europe that developed during the Early Middle Age ...
in 1806, the Archbishops of Mainz were archchancellors of the Empire and the most important of the seven prince-elector, Electors of the German emperor. Besides Rome, the Bishop of Mainz, diocese of Mainz today is the only diocese in the world with an episcopal see that is called a Holy See (''sancta sedes''). The Archbishops of Mainz traditionally were ''primas germaniae'', the substitutes of the Pope north of the Alps. In 1244, Archbishop Siegfried III (archbishop of Mainz), Siegfried III granted Mainz a city charter, which included the right of the citizens to establish and elect a city council. The city saw a feud between two archbishops in 1461, namely Diether von Isenburg, who was elected Archbishop by the Chapter (religion), cathedral chapter and supported by the citizens, and Adolf II von Nassau, who had been named archbishop for Mainz by the pope. In 1462, Archbishop Adolf raided the city of Mainz, plundering and killing 400 inhabitants. At a tribunal, those who had survived lost all their property, which was then divided between those who promised to follow Adolf. Those who would not promise to follow Adolf (amongst them
Johannes Gutenberg Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (; – 3 February 1468) was a German inventor An invention is a unique or novel device, method, composition or process. The invention process is a process within an overall engineering ...

Johannes Gutenberg
) were driven out of the town or thrown into prison. The new archbishop revoked the city charter of Mainz and put the city under his direct rule. Ironically, after the death of Adolf II his successor was again Diether von Isenburg, now legally elected by the chapter and named by the Pope.


Early Jewish community

The Jewish community of Mainz dates to the 10th century CE. It is noted for its religious education. Rabbi Gershom ben Judah (960–1040) taught there, among others. He concentrated on the study of the Talmud, creating a German Jewish tradition. Mainz is also the legendary home of the martyred Rabbi Amnon of Mainz, composer of the Unetanneh Tokef prayer. The Jews of Mainz, Speyer and Worms, Germany, Worms created a supreme council to set standards in Jewish law and education in the 12th century. The city of Mainz responded to the Jewish population in a variety of ways, behaving in a capricious manner towards them. Sometimes they were allowed freedom and were protected; at other times, they were persecuted. The Jews were expelled in 1012, 1462 (after which they were invited to return), and in 1474. Jews were attacked in Rhineland massacres, 1096 and by mobs in 1283. Outbreaks of the Black Death were usually blamed on the Jews, at which times they were massacred, such as the burning of 11 Jews alive in 1349. Nowadays the Jewish community is growing rapidly, and a new synagogue Mainz, new synagogue by the architect Manuel Herz was constructed in 2010 on the site of the one destroyed by the Nazis on ''Kristallnacht'' in 1938. The community itself has 1,034 members, according to the Central Council of Jews in Germany, and at least twice as many Jews altogether since many are unaffiliated with Judaism.


Republic of Mainz

During the French Revolution, the French Revolutionary army occupied Mainz in 1792; the Archbishop of Mainz, Friedrich Karl Josef von Erthal, had already fled to Aschaffenburg by the time the French marched in. On 18 March 1793, the Jacobin Club, Jacobins of Mainz, with other German democrats from about 130 towns in the Palatinate region, Rhenish Palatinate, proclaimed the 'Republic of Mainz'. Led by Georg Forster, representatives of the Mainz Republic in Paris requested political affiliation of the Mainz Republic with France, but too late: Prussia was not entirely happy with the idea of a democratic free state on German soil (although the French dominated Mainz was neither free nor democratic). Prussian troops had already occupied the area and besieged Mainz by the end of March 1793. After a Siege of Mainz (1793), siege of 18 weeks, the French troops in Mainz surrendered on 23 July 1793; Prussians occupied the city and ended the Republic of Mainz. It came to the Battle of Mainz in 1795 between Austria and France. Members of the Mainz Jacobin Club were mistreated or imprisoned and punished for treason. In 1797, the French returned. The army of Napoleon I of France, Napoléon Bonaparte occupied the German territory to the west of the
Rhine ), Surselva Surselva Region is one of the eleven administrative districts Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many si ...

Rhine
, and the Treaty of Campo Formio awarded France this entire area. On 17 February 1800, the French ''Mont-Tonnerre, Département du Mont-Tonnerre'' was founded here, with Mainz as its capital, the
Rhine ), Surselva Surselva Region is one of the eleven administrative districts Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many si ...

Rhine
being the new eastern frontier of la Grande Nation. Austria and Prussia could not but approve this new border with France in 1801. However, after several defeats in Europe during the next years, the weakened Napoléon and his troops had to leave Mainz in May 1814.


Rhenish Hesse

In 1816, the part of the former French Département which is known today as Rhenish Hesse (german: Rheinhessen) was awarded to the Grand Duchy of Hesse, Hesse-Darmstadt, Mainz being the capital of the new Hesse, Hessian province of Rhenish Hesse. From 1816 to 1866, to the German Confederation Mainz was the most important fortress in the defence against France, and had a strong garrison of Austrian, Prussian and Bavarian troops. On the afternoon of 18 November 1857, a huge explosion rocked Mainz when the city's powder magazine, the ''Pulverturm'', exploded. Approximately 150 people were killed and at least 500 injured; 57 buildings were destroyed and a similar number severely damaged in what was to be known as the ''Powder Tower Explosion'' or ''Powder Explosion''. During the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, Mainz was declared a neutral zone. After the founding of the German Empire in 1871, Mainz no longer was as important a stronghold, because in the Franco-Prussian War, War of 1870/71 France had lost the territory of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany (which France had occupied bit by bit from 1630 to 1795), and this defined the new border between the two countries.


Industrial expansion

For centuries the inhabitants of the Fortress Mainz, fortress of Mainz had suffered from a severe shortage of space which led to disease and other inconveniences. In 1872 Mayor Carl Wallau and the council of Mainz persuaded the military government to sign a contract to expand the city. Beginning in 1874, the city of Mainz assimilated the ''Gartenfeld'', an idyllic area of meadows and fields along the banks of the
Rhine ), Surselva Surselva Region is one of the eleven administrative districts Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many si ...

Rhine
to the north of the rampart. The city expansion more than doubled the urban area which allowed Mainz to participate in the industrial revolution which had previously avoided the city for decades. Eduard Kreyßig was the man who made this happen. Having been the master-builder of the city of Mainz since 1865, Kreyßig had the vision for the new part of town, the ''Neustadt''. He also planned the first sewer system for the old part of town since Roman times and persuaded the city government to relocate the railway line from the Rhine side to the west end of the town. Mainz Hauptbahnhof, The main station was built from 1882 to 1884 according to the plans of Philipp Johann Berdellé. The Mainz master builder constructed a number of state-of-the-art public buildings, including the Mainz town hall — which was the largest of its kind in Germany at that time — as well a synagogue, the Rhine harbour and a number of public baths and school buildings. Kreyßig's last work was Christuskirche, Mainz, Christ Church (''Christuskirche''), the largest Protestant church in the city and the first building constructed solely for the use of a Protestant congregation. In 1905 the demolition of the entire circumvallation and the Rheingauwall was taken in hand, according to the imperial order of Wilhelm II, German Emperor, Wilhelm II.


20th century

During the German Revolution of 1918 the Mainz Workers' and Soldiers' Council was formed which ran the city from 9 November until the arrival of French troops under the terms of the occupation of the Rhineland agreed in the Armistice. The French occupation was confirmed by the Treaty of Versailles which went into effect 28 June 1919. The Rhineland (in which Mainz is located) was to be a demilitarized zone until 1935 and the French garrison, representing the ''Triple Entente'', was to stay until reparations were paid. In 1923 Mainz participated in the Rhineland separatist movement that proclaimed a republic in the Rhineland. It collapsed in 1924. The French withdrew on 30 June 1930. Adolf Hitler became chancellor of Germany in January 1933 and his political opponents, especially those of the Social Democratic Party, were either incarcerated or murdered. Some were able to move away from Mainz in time. One was the political organizer for the SPD, Friedrich Kellner, who went to Laubach, where, as the chief justice inspector of the district court, he continued his opposition against the Nazis by recording their misdeeds in a 900-page My Opposition, diary. In March 1933, a detachment from the National Socialist German Workers Party, National Socialist Party in Worms, Germany, Worms brought the party to Mainz. They hoisted the swastika on all public buildings and began to denounce the Jewish population in the newspapers. In 1936, the Nazis Remilitarization of the Rhineland, remilitarized the Rhineland with great fanfare, the first move of Nazi Germany's meteoric expansion. The former Triple Entente took no action. During World War II the citadel at Mainz hosted the Oflag XII-B prisoner of war camp. The Bishop of Mainz, Albert Stohr, formed an organization to help Jews escape from Germany. During World War II, more than 30 air raids destroyed about 80 per cent of the city's centre, including most of the historic buildings. Mainz was captured on 22 March 1945 against uneven German resistance (staunch in some sectors and weak in other parts of the city) by the 90th Infantry Division (United States), 90th Infantry Division under William A. McNulty, a formation of the XII Corps under Third Army commanded by General George S. Patton, Jr. Patton used the ancient strategic gateway through ''Germania Superior'' to cross the Rhine south of Mainz, drive down the Danube towards Czechoslovakia and end the possibility of a Bavarian redoubt crossing the Alps in Austria when the war ended. From 1945 to 1949, the city was part of the French zone of occupation. When the state of
Rhineland-Palatinate Rhineland-Palatinate (german: Rheinland-Pfalz, ) is a western state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''Th ...
was founded on 30 August 1946 by the commander of the French army on the French occupation zone Marie Pierre Kœnig, Mainz became the capital of the new state. In 1962, the diarist, Friedrich Kellner, returned to spend his last years in Mainz. His life in Mainz, and the impact of his My Opposition, writings, is the subject of the Canadian documentary ''My Opposition: The Diaries of Friedrich Kellner''. Following the withdrawal of French forces from Mainz, the United States Army Europe occupied the military bases in Mainz. Today USAREUR only occupies McCulley Barracks in Wackernheim and the
Mainz Sand Dunes
Mainz Sand Dunes
for the training areas. Mainz is home to the headquarters of the ''Bundeswehrs ''Landeskommando'' Rhineland-Palatinate and other units.


Minority groups

The following list shows the largest minority groups in Mainz :


Cityscape


Architecture

The destruction caused by the Strategic bombing during World War II, bombing of Mainz during World War II led to the most intense phase of building in the history of the town. During the last war in Germany, more than 30 air raids destroyed about 80 per cent of the city's centre, including most of the historic buildings. The attack on the afternoon of 27 February 1945 remains the most destructive of all 33 bombings that Mainz has suffered in World War II in the collective memory of most of the population living then. The air raid caused most of the dead and made an already hard-hit city largely levelled. Nevertheless, the post-war reconstruction took place very slowly. While cities such as Frankfurt had been rebuilt fast by a central authority, only individual efforts were initially successful in rebuilding Mainz. The reason for this was that the French wanted Mainz to expand and become a model city. Mainz lay within the Allied-occupied Germany, French-controlled sector of Germany and it was a French architect and town-planner, Marcel Lods, who produced a Le Corbusier-style plan of an ideal architecture. But the very first interest of the inhabitants was the restoration of housing areas. Even after the failure of the model city plans it was the initiative of the French (founding of the Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, elevation of Mainz to the state capital of Rhineland-Palatinate, the early resumption of the Mainz carnival) driving the city in a positive development after the war. The City Plan of 1958 by Ernst May allowed a regulated reconstruction for the first time. In 1950, the seat of the government of Rhineland-Palatinate had been transferred to the new Mainz and in 1963 the seat of the new ZDF, notable architects were Adolf Bayer, Richard Jörg and Egon Hartmann. At the time of the two-thousand-years-anniversary in 1962 the city was largely reconstructed. During the 1950s and 1960s, the Oberstadt had been extended, Münchfeld and Lerchenberg added as suburbs, the Altstadttangente (Automobile dependency, intersection of the old town), new neighbourhoods as Westring and Südring contributed to the extension. By 1970 there remained only a few ruins. The new town hall of Mainz had been designed by Arne Jacobsen and finished by Dissing+Weitling. The town used Jacobsens activity for the Danish Novo Nordisk, Novo erecting a new office and warehouse building to contact him. The urban renewal of the old town changed the inner city. In the framework of the preparation of the cathedrals millennium, pedestrian zones were developed around the cathedral, in northern direction to the Neubrunnenplatz and in a southern direction across the Leichhof to the Augustinerstraße and Kirschgarten. The 1980s brought the renewal of the façades on the Markt and a new inner-city neighbourhood on the Kästrich. During the 1990s the Kisselberg between Gonsenheim and Bretzenheim, the "Fort Malakoff Center" at the site of the old police barracks, the renewal of the Main Station and the demolition of the first post-war shopping centre at the Markt followed by the erection of a new historicising building at the same place.


Main sights

*Romano-Germanic Central Museum (Mainz), Romano-Germanic Central Museum (''Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum''). It is home to Roman, Medieval, and earlier artifacts. *Museum of Ancient Seafaring (''Museum für Antike Schifffahrt''). It houses the remains of five Roman boats from the late 4th century, discovered in the 1980s. *Roman remains, including Jupiter's column, Drusus' mausoleum, the ruins of the theatre and the aqueduct. *Mainz Cathedral, Mainz Cathedral of St. Martin (''Mainzer Dom''), over 1,000 years old. *St. John's Church, Mainz, St. John's Church, 7th-century church building * Staatstheater Mainz *The Iron Tower (''Eisenturm'', tower at the former iron market), a 13th-century gate-tower. *The Wood Tower (''Holzturm'', tower at the former wood market), a 15th-century gate tower. *The Gutenberg Museum – exhibits an original Gutenberg Bible amongst many other printed books from the 15th century and later. *The Mainz Old Town – what's left of it, the quarter south of the cathedral survived World War II. * The Arsenal, Mainz, old arsenal, the central arsenal of the fortress Mainz during the 17th and 18th century *The Electoral Palace Mainz, Electoral Palace (''Kurfürstliches Schloss''), residence of the prince-elector. *The Marktbrunnen (Mainz), Marktbrunnen, one of the largest Renaissance fountains in Germany. *''Domus Universitatis'' (1615), for centuries the tallest edifice in Mainz. *Christ Church (''Christuskirche (Mainz), Christuskirche''), built 1898–1903, bombed in 1945 and rebuilt in 1948–1954. *The St. Stephen's Church, Mainz, Church of St. Stephan, with post-war windows by Marc Chagall. *Zitadelle Mainz, Citadel. *The ruins of the church St. Christoph, Mainz, St. Christoph, a World War II memorial *''Schönborner Hof'' (1668). *Rococo churches of St. Augustin (the Augustinerkirche, Mainz) and St. Peter's Church, Mainz, St. Peter (the Peterskirche, Mainz). *Churches of St. Ignatius (1763) and St. Quintin's Church, Mainz, St. Quintin. *Erthaler Hof (1743) *The Baroque Bassenheimer Hof (1750) *The Botanischer Garten der Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, a botanical garden maintained by the university *Landesmuseum Mainz, state museum with archaeology and art. *Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen (ZDF) – one of the largest public German TV-Broadcaster. * New synagogue Mainz, New synagogue in Mainz *Kunsthalle Mainz – museum for contemporary art * Humbrechthof, later called Schöfferhof, the building in which Johannes Gutenberg developed his technique of printing


Administration

The city of Mainz is divided into 15 local districts according to the main statute of the city of Mainz. Each local district has a district administration of 13 members and a directly elected mayor, who is the chairman of the district administration. This local council decides on important issues affecting the local area, however, the final decision on new policies is made by Mainz's municipal council. In accordance with section 29 paragraph 2 Local Government Act of
Rhineland-Palatinate Rhineland-Palatinate (german: Rheinland-Pfalz, ) is a western state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''Th ...
, which refers to municipalities of more than 150,000 inhabitants, the city council has 60 members. Districts of the town are: Until 1945, the districts of Bischofsheim (Mainspitze), Bischofsheim (now an independent town), Ginsheim-Gustavsburg (which together are an independent town) belonged to Mainz. The former districts Mainz-Amöneburg, Amöneburg, Mainz-Kastel, Kastel, and Mainz-Kostheim, Kostheim — (in short, ''AKK'') are now administrated by the city of
Wiesbaden Wiesbaden () is a city in central western Germany and the capital of the state of Hesse. , it had 290,955 inhabitants, plus approximately 21,000 United States citizens (mostly associated with the United States Army). The Wiesbaden urban area i ...

Wiesbaden
(on the north bank of the river). The AKK was separated from Mainz when the
Rhine ), Surselva Surselva Region is one of the eleven administrative districts Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many si ...

Rhine
was designated the boundary between the French occupation zone (the later state of
Rhineland-Palatinate Rhineland-Palatinate (german: Rheinland-Pfalz, ) is a western state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''Th ...
) and the U.S. occupation zone (
Hesse Hesse (, , ) or Hessia (, ; german: Hessen ), officially the State of Hessen (german: links=no, Land Hessen), is a German states, state in Germany. Its capital city is Wiesbaden, and the largest urban area is Frankfurt. With an area of 21,000 squa ...
) in 1945.


Coat of arms

The coat of arms of Mainz is derived from the coat of arms of the Archbishopric of Mainz, Archbishops of Mainz and features two six-spoked silver wheels connected by a silver cross on a red background.


Culture

Mainz is home to a Carnival, the ''Mainzer Fassenacht'' or ''Fastnacht'', which has developed since the early 19th century. Carnival in Mainz has its roots in the criticism of social and political injustices under the shelter of cap and bells. Today, the uniforms of many traditional Carnival clubs still imitate and caricature the uniforms of the French and Prussian troops of the past. The height of the carnival season is on Rosenmontag ("rose Monday"), when there is a large parade in Mainz, with more than 500,000 people celebrating in the streets. The first-ever Katholikentag, a festival-like gathering of German Catholics, was held in Mainz in 1848.
Johannes Gutenberg Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (; – 3 February 1468) was a German inventor An invention is a unique or novel device, method, composition or process. The invention process is a process within an overall engineering ...

Johannes Gutenberg
, credited with the invention of a modern
printing press A printing press is a mechanical device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a printing, print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink. It marked a dramatic improvement on earlier printing methods in whi ...
with movable type, was born here and died here. Since 1968 the Johannisnacht, Mainz, Mainzer Johannisnacht commemorates the person Johannes Gutenberg in his native city. The University of Mainz, Mainz University, which was refounded in 1946, is named after Johannes Gutenberg, Gutenberg; the earlier University of Mainz that dated back to 1477 had been closed down by Napoleon's troops in 1798. Mainz was one of three important centres of Jewish theology and learning in Central Europe during the Middle Ages. Known collectively as ''Shum'', the cities of Speyer, Worms, Germany, Worms and Mainz played a key role in the preservation and propagation of Talmudic scholarship. The city is the seat of Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen (literally, "Second German Television", ZDF), one of two federal nationwide TV broadcasters. There are also a couple of radio stations based in Mainz. The Mainzer Stadtschreiber (City clerk in Mainz) is an annual German literature award. Other cultural aspects of the city include: *As city in the Greater Region, Mainz participated in the program of the year of European Capital of Culture 2007. *The Walk of Fame of Cabaret may be found nearby the Schillerplatz. *The Music publisher (popular music), music publisher Schott Music is located in Mainz. *One of the oldest brass instrument manufacturers in the world, Gebr. Alexander is located in Mainz. * Fans of Gospel music enjoy the yearly performances of Colours of Gospel.


Politics

Mainz (electoral district)


Education

*University of Mainz *University of Applied Sciences Mainz *Catholic University of Applied Sciences Mainz


Sports

The local football club 1. FSV Mainz 05 has a long history in the German football leagues. Since 2004 it has competed in the Bundesliga (First German soccer league) except a break in second level in 2007–08 season. Mainz is closely associated with renowned coach Jürgen Klopp, who spent the vast majority of his playing career at the club and was also the manager for seven years, leading the club to Bundesliga football for the first time. After leaving Mainz Klopp went on to win two Bundesliga titles and reaching a UEFA Champions League, Champions League final with Borussia Dortmund. In the summer of 2011, the club opened its new stadium called Coface Arena, which was later renamed Opel Arena. Further relevant football clubs are TSV Schott Mainz, SV Gonsenheim, Fontana Finthen, FC Fortuna Mombach and FVgg Mombach 03. The local wrestling club ASV Mainz 1888 is currently in the top division of team wrestling in Germany, the Bundesliga (wrestling), Bundesliga. In 1973, 1977 and 2012 the ASV Mainz 1888 won the German championship. In 2007 the Mainz Athletics won the German champions (baseball)#German Men's Champions, German Men's Championship in baseball. As a result of the 2008 invasion of Georgia by Russian troops, Mainz acted as a neutral venue for the Georgian Vs Republic of Ireland football game. The biggest basketball club in the city is the ASC Theresianum Mainz. Its men's team is playing in the Regionalliga and its women's team is playing in the 2.DBBL.


USC Mainz

Universitäts-Sportclub Mainz (University Sports Club Mainz) is a German sports club based in Mainz. It was founded on 9 September 1959 by Berno Wischmann primarily for students of the University of Mainz. It is considered one of the most powerful Athletics Sports clubs in Germany. 50 athletes of USC have distinguished themselves in a half-century in club history at Olympic Games, World and European Championships. In particular in the decathlon dominated USC athletes for decades: Already at the European Championships in Budapest in 1966 Mainz won three (Werner von Moltke, Jörg Mattheis and Horst Beyer) all decathlon medals. In the all-time list of the USC, there are nine athletes who have achieved more than 8,000 points – at the head of Siegfried Wentz (8762 points in 1983) and Guido Kratschmer (1980 world record with 8667 points). The most successful athlete of the association is more fighter, sprinter and long jumper Ingrid Becker (Olympic champion in 1968 in the pentathlon and Olympic champion in 1972 in the 4 × 100 Metres Relay and European champion in 1971 in the long jump). The most famous athletes of the present are the sprinter Marion Wagner (world champion in 2001 in the 4 × 100 Metres Relay) and the pole vaulters Carolin Hingst (Eighth of the 2008 Olympics in Beijing) and Anna Battke. Three world titles adorn the balance of USC Mainz. For the discus thrower, Lars Riedel attended (1991 and 1993) and the already mentioned sprinter Marion Wagner (2001). Added to 5 titles at the European Championships, a total of 65 international medals and 260 victories at the German Athletics Championships. The players of USC's basketball section played from the season 1968/69 to the season 1974/75 in the National Basketball League (BBL) of the German Basketball Federation (DBB). As a finalist to winning the DBB Cup in 1971 USC Mainz played in the 1971–72 FIBA European Cup Winners' Cup against the Italian Cup winners of Fides Napoli.


Mainz Athletics

The Baseball and Softball Club Mainz Athletics is a German baseball and softball club located in the city of Mainz in
Rhineland-Palatinate Rhineland-Palatinate (german: Rheinland-Pfalz, ) is a western state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''Th ...
. The Athletics is one of the largest clubs in the Bundesliga (baseball), Baseball-Bundesliga Süd in terms of membership, claiming to have hundreds of active players. The club has played in the Baseball-Bundesliga for more than two decades and has won the German Championship in 2007 and 2016.


Economy


Wine centre

Mainz has been a wine-growing region since Roman times and is one of the centres of the German wine industry. Since 2008, the city is a member of the Great Wine Capitals Global Network (GWC), an association of well-known wineculture-cities of the world. Many wine traders work in the city. The sparkling wine producer Kupferberg produced in Mainz-Hechtsheim and Henkell — now located on the other side of the river Rhine — were once founded in Mainz. The famous Blue Nun, one of the first branded wines, was marketed by the Sichel family. The ''Haus des Deutschen Weines'' (English: House of German Wine), is located in the city. The Mainzer Weinmarkt (wine market) is one of the great wine fairs in Germany.


Other industries

The Schott AG, one of the world's largest glass manufactures, as well as the Werner & Mertz, a large chemical factory, are based in Mainz. Other companies such as IBM, QUINN group#QUINN Plastics, QUINN Plastics, or Novo Nordisk have their German administration in Mainz as well. BioNTech, a biotechnology company developing Immunotherapy, immunotherapies including a vaccine against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19) was founded in 2008 in Mainz by Turkish-German scientists Uğur Şahin, and Özlem Türeci, with the Austrian oncologist Christoph Huber. Johann-Joseph Krug, founder of France's famous Champagne Krug, Krug champagne house in 1843, was born in Mainz in 1800.


Transport

Mainz is a major transport hub in southern Germany. It is an important component in European distribution, as it has the fifth largest inter-modal port in Germany. The Port of Mainz, now handling mainly containers, is a sizable industrial area to the north of the city, along the banks of the Rhine. In order to open up space along the city's riverfront for residential development, it was shifted further northwards in 2010.


Rail

Mainz Central Station or ''Mainz Hauptbahnhof'', is frequented by 80,000 travelers and visitors each day and is therefore one of the busiest 21 stations in Germany. It is a stop for the S-Bahn Rhein-Main, S-Bahn line S8 (Rhine-Main S-Bahn), S8 of the Rhein-Main-Verkehrsverbund. Additionally, the Mainbahn line to Frankfurt (Main) Hauptbahnhof, Frankfurt Hbf starts at the station. It is served by 440 daily local and regional trains (StadtExpress, RegionalExpress, RE and Regionalbahn, RB) and 78 long-distance trains (InterCity, IC, EuroCity, EC and InterCityExpress, ICE). Intercity-Express lines connect Mainz with Frankfurt (Main), Karlsruhe Hbf, Worms Hauptbahnhof and Koblenz Hauptbahnhof. It is a terminus of the West Rhine Railway and the Mainz–Ludwigshafen railway, as well as the Alzey–Mainz Railway erected by the Hessische Ludwigsbahn in 1871. Access to the East Rhine Railway is provided by the Kaiserbrücke (Mainz), Kaiserbrücke, a railway bridge across the Rhine at the north end of Mainz.


Operational usage


Public transportation

The station is an interchange point for the Trams in Mainz, Mainz tramway network, and an important bus junction for the city and region (Rhein-Nahe-Nahverkehrsverbund, RNN, Omnibusverkehr Rhein-Nahe, ORN and Mainzer Verkehrsgesellschaft, MVG).


Cycling

Mainz offers a wide array of bicycle transportation facilities and events, including several miles of on-street bike lanes. The EV15 The Rhine Cycle Route, Rheinradweg (Rhine Cycle Route) is an international cycle route, running from the source to the mouth of the Rhine, traversing four countries at a distance of . Another cycling tour runs towards Bingen and further to the Middle Rhine, a List of World Heritage Sites in Europe, UNESCO World Heritage Site (2002).


Air transportation

Mainz is served by Frankfurt Airport, the busiest airport by passenger traffic in Germany by far, the third busiest in Europe and the ninth busiest worldwide in 2009. Located about east of Mainz, it is connected to the city by an S8 (Rhine-Main S-Bahn), S-Bahn line. The small Mainz Finthen Airport, located just southwest of Mainz, is used by general aviation only. Another airport, Frankfurt-Hahn Airport located about west of Mainz, is served by a few low-cost carriers.


Notable people

*List of people related to Mainz *Electorate of Mainz, Archbishops of Mainz *List of mayors of Mainz


Twin towns – sister cities

Mainz is Sister city, twinned with: * Watford, United Kingdom (1956) * Dijon, France (1957) * Zagreb, Croatia (1967) * Valencia, Spain (1978) * Haifa, Israel (1981) * Erfurt, Germany (1988) * Louisville, Kentucky, Louisville, United States (1994) * Longchamp, Côte-d'Or, Longchamp, France (1966, with Mainz-Laubenheim) * Rodeneck, Italy (1977, with Mainz-Finthen) Mainz has friendly relations with: * Kigali, Rwanda (1982) * Baku, Azerbaijan (1984)


Alternative names

Mainz has a number of Names of European cities in different languages, different names in other languages and dialects. In Latin it is known as ' or ' and, in the local West Middle German dialect, it is ''Määnz'' or ''Meenz''. It is known as ' in French, ' in Italian, ' in Spanish, ' in Portuguese, ' in Polish, ''Magentza'' () in Yiddish, and ' in Czech and Slovakian. Before the 20th century, Mainz was commonly known in English as ''Mentz'' or by its French name of ''Mayence''. It is the namesake of two American cities named Mentz (disambiguation), Mentz.


See also

* Johann Fust *
Johannes Gutenberg Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (; – 3 February 1468) was a German inventor An invention is a unique or novel device, method, composition or process. The invention process is a process within an overall engineering ...

Johannes Gutenberg
* Peter Schöffer, apprentice of Gutenberg and early printer


Notes and references


Sources

*Hope, Valerie. ''Constructing Identity: The Roman Funerary Monuments of Aquelia, Mainz and Nîmes''; British Archaeological Reports (16. Juli 2001) *Imhof, Michael and Simone Kestin: ''Mainz City and Cathedral Guide.'' Petersberg: Michael Imhof Verlag, 2004. *Mainz (journal), ''Mainz'' ("Vierteljahreshefte für Kultur, Politik, Wirtschaft, Geschichte"), since 1981 *Saddington, Denis. ''The stationing of auxiliary regiments in Germania Superior in the Julio-Claudian period'' *Stanton, Shelby, ''World War II Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division, 1939–1946'' (Revised Edition, 2006), Stackpole Books


External links


The official web site of the city of Mainz
* * *
Explore the ShUM Sites of Speyer, Worms and Mainz in the UNESCO collection on Google Arts and Culture
*Duchhardt, Heinz
„Römer“ in Mainz. Ein Doppelporträt aus der Frühgeschichte der „neuen“ Mainzer Universität
{{Authority control Mainz, Cities in Rhineland-Palatinate Divided cities German state capitals Free imperial cities Port cities and towns in Germany Roman towns and cities in Germany Populated places on the Rhine Populated places established in the 1st century BC Roman legionary fortresses in Germany Roman fortifications in Germania Superior Rhenish Hesse States and territories established in 1244 States and territories disestablished in 1462