HOME

TheInfoList




Macedonian (; , , ) is an
Eastern South Slavic The Eastern South Slavic dialects form the eastern subgroup of the South Slavic languages The South Slavic languages are one of three branches of the Slavic languages The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo- ...
language. It is part of the
Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing ...
, and is one of the
Slavic languages The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European languages The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with t ...

Slavic languages
, which are part of a larger Balto-Slavic branch. Spoken as a
first language A first language, native tongue, native language, or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1), is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period hypothesis, critical period. In so ...
by around two million people, it serves as the official language of
North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia before February 2019), officially the Republic of North Macedonia,, is a country in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical region of Europe ...
. Most speakers can be found in the country and its diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational
region of Macedonia Macedonia () is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. Its boundaries have changed considerably over time; however, it came to be defined as the modern geographical region by the mid 19th century. Toda ...
. Macedonian is also a recognized
minority language A minority language is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing system composed of ...
in parts of
Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or Shqipëria), officially the Republic of Albania ( sq, Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It is located on the Adriatic Sea, Adriatic and Ionian Sea within the Medite ...

Albania
,
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north a ...

Bosnia and Herzegovina
,
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...

Romania
, and
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may refe ...

Serbia
and it is spoken by emigrant communities predominantly in
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
,
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of . Its extend from the to the and northward into the , covering , making it the world's . Its southern and western , stretching , is the world's longest bi-national land border. Canada's capital ...

Canada
and the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It consists of 50 , a , five major , 326 , and some . At , it is the world's . The United States shares significan ...

United States
. Macedonian developed out of the western
dialect The term dialect (from , , from the word , 'discourse', from , 'through' and , 'I speak') can refer to either of two distinctly different types of phenomena: * One usage refers to a of a that is a characteristic of a particular group of ...
s of the East South Slavic
dialect continuum A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a series of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighboring varieties are mutually intelligible In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of languag ...
, whose earliest recorded form is
Old Church Slavonic Old Church Slavonic or Old Slavonic (, ) was the first Slavic literary language. Historians credit the 9th-century Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius with standardizing the language and using it in translating the Bible ...
. During much of its history, this dialect continuum was called "Bulgarian", although in the 19th century, its western dialects came to be known separately as "Macedonian".
Standard Macedonian Standard Macedonian or literary Macedonian ( mk, книжевен македонски јазик or македонски литературен јазик) is the standard variety of the Macedonian language Macedonian (; , , ) is an Easter ...
was codified in 1945 and has developed modern literature since. As it is part of a dialect continuum with other
South Slavic language The South Slavic languages are one of three branches of the Slavic languages. There are approximately 30 million speakers, mainly in the Balkans. These are separated geographically from speakers of the other two Slavic branches ( West and Eas ...
s, Macedonian has a high degree of
mutual intelligibility In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include p ...
with
Bulgarian Bulgarian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Bulgaria * Bulgarians, a South Slavic ethnic group * Bulgarian language, a Slavic language * Bulgarian alphabet * A citizen of Bulgaria, see Demographics of Bulgaria * Bulg ...

Bulgarian
and varieties of
Serbo-Croatian Serbo-Croatian () – also called Serbo-Croat (), Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), and Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS) – is a South Slavic language The South Slavic languages are one of three branches ...
. Linguists distinguish 29
dialects of MacedonianThe dialects of Macedonian comprise the Slavic dialects spoken in the Republic of North Macedonia as well as some varieties spoken in the wider geographic region of Macedonia. They are part of the dialect continuum A dialect continuum or dial ...
, with linguistic differences separating Western and Eastern groups of dialects. Some features of Macedonian grammar are the use of a dynamic stress that falls on the ante-penultimate syllable, three suffixed
deictic articles
deictic articles
that indicate noun position in reference to the speaker and the use of simple and complex
verb tense A verb, from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Ro ...
s. Macedonian orthography is phonemic with a correspondence of one
grapheme In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis includ ...

grapheme
per
phoneme In phonology and linguistics, a phoneme is a unit of sound that distinguishes one word from another in a particular language. For example, in most List of dialects of English, dialects of English, with the notable exception of the West Midlan ...
. It is written using an adapted 31-letter version of the
Cyrillic script The Cyrillic script ( ) is a used for various languages across and is used as the national script in various , , , , and -speaking countries in , , the , , , and . , around 250 million people in Eurasia use Cyrillic as the official scrip ...
with six original letters. Macedonian
syntax In linguistics, syntax () is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of Sentence (linguistics), sentences (sentence structure) in a given Natural language, language, usually including word order. The term ''syntax'' ...

syntax
is of the subject-object-verb (SOV) type and has flexible
word order In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languag ...
. Macedonian vocabulary has been historically influenced by
Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), offi ...

Turkish
and
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
. Somewhat less prominent vocabulary influences also came from neighboring and prestige languages. Since Macedonian and Bulgarian are mutually intelligible, share common linguistic features and are socio-historically related, some linguists are divided in their views of the two as separate languages or as a single
pluricentric language A pluricentric language or polycentric language is a language with several interacting codified standard forms, often corresponding to different countries. Many examples of such languages can be found worldwide among the most-spoken languages, incl ...
, respectively. The international consensus outside of
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република България, links=no, Republika Bǎlgariya, ), is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia ...

Bulgaria
is that Macedonian is an
autonomous languageAutonomy and heteronomy are complementary attributes of a language variety describing its functional relationship with related varieties. The concepts were introduced by William A. Stewart in 1968, and provide a way of distinguishing a ''language'' ...
within the Eastern South Slavic dialect continuum.


Classification and related languages

Macedonian belongs to the eastern group of the South Slavic branch of
Slavic languages The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European languages The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with t ...

Slavic languages
in the
Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the northern Indian subcontinent and the Iranian Plateau. Some European languages of t ...
language family, together with
Bulgarian Bulgarian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Bulgaria * Bulgarians, a South Slavic ethnic group * Bulgarian language, a Slavic language * Bulgarian alphabet * A citizen of Bulgaria, see Demographics of Bulgaria * Bulg ...

Bulgarian
and the extinct
Old Church Slavonic Old Church Slavonic or Old Slavonic (, ) was the first Slavic literary language. Historians credit the 9th-century Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius with standardizing the language and using it in translating the Bible ...
. Some authors also classify the Torlakian dialects in this group. Macedonian's closest relative is Bulgarian followed by
Serbo-Croatian Serbo-Croatian () – also called Serbo-Croat (), Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), and Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS) – is a South Slavic language The South Slavic languages are one of three branches ...
and
Slovene Slovene or Slovenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Slovenia, a country in Central Europe * Slovene language, a South Slavic language mainly spoken in Slovenia * Slovenes, an ethno-linguistic group mainly living in Slovenia * Sla ...
, although the last is more distantly related. Together, South Slavic languages form a
dialect continuum A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a series of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighboring varieties are mutually intelligible In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of languag ...
. Macedonian, like the other Eastern South Slavic idioms has characteristics that make it part of the
Balkan sprachbund The Balkan sprachbund or Balkan language area is the sprachbund, ensemble of areal features—similarities in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and phonology—among the languages of the Balkans. Several features are found across these languages though ...
, a group of languages that share typological, grammatical and lexical features based on areal convergence, rather than genetic proximity. In that sense, Macedonian has experienced convergent evolution with other languages that belong to this group such as Greek, Aromanian,
Albanian Albanian may refer to: *Pertaining to Albania in Southeast Europe; in particular: **Albanians, an ethnic group native to the Balkans **Albanian language **Albanian culture **Demographics of Albania, includes other ethnic groups within the country ...

Albanian
and
Romani Romani may refer to: Ethnicities *Romani people The Romani (), also known as the Roma, are an Indo-Aryan people, traditionally nomadic itinerants living mostly in Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several ...
due to cultural and linguistic exchanges that occurred primarily through oral communication. Macedonian and Bulgarian are divergent from the remaining South Slavic languages in that they do not use
noun case Grammatical case is a linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguist ...
s (except for the
vocative In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as ...
, and apart from some traces of once productive inflections still found scattered throughout these two) and have lost the
infinitive Infinitive ( ) is a term for certain forms existing in many languages, most often used as s. As with many linguistic concepts, there is not a single definition applicable to all languages. The word is derived from '' odusinfinitivus'', a derivat ...
. They are also the only Slavic languages with any definite articles (unlike standard Bulgarian, which uses only one article, standard Macedonian as well as some south-eastern Bulgarian dialects have a set of three
deicticIn linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include pho ...

deictic
articles: unspecified, proximal and distal definite article). Macedonian and Bulgarian are the only Indo-European languages that make use of the narrative mood. The " Yat border" running approximately from Nikopol on the Danube to Thessaloniki on the Aegean Sea is the main
isogloss An isogloss, also called a heterogloss (see Etymology Etymology ()The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time ...
separating the Eastern South Slavic dialects into Eastern and Western. It goes through the modern
region of Macedonia Macedonia () is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. Its boundaries have changed considerably over time; however, it came to be defined as the modern geographical region by the mid 19th century. Toda ...
along the
Velingrad
Velingrad
Petrich Petrich ( bg, Петрич ) is a town in Blagoevgrad Province Blagoevgrad Province ( bg, област Благоевград, ''oblast Blagoevgrad'' or Благоевградска област, ''Blagoevgradska oblast''), also known as Pirin ...

Petrich
Thessaloniki Thessaloniki (; el, Θεσσαλονίκη, ), also known as Thessalonica (), Saloniki or Salonica (), is the List of countries by largest and second largest cities, second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its Thessaloni ...

Thessaloniki
line. Jouko Lindstedt has assumed that the dividing line between Macedonian and Bulgarian is in fact the Yat border.


History

The
Slavic people Slavs are an ethno-linguistic group An ethnolinguistic group (or ethno-linguistic group) is a group that is unified by both a common ethnicity and language. Most ethnic groups share a first language. However, the term is often used to emphasise ...

Slavic people
who settled in the Balkans during the 6th century CE, spoke their own dialects and used different dialects or languages to communicate with other people. The "canonical" Old Church Slavonic period of the development of Macedonian started during the 9th century and lasted until the first half of the 11th century. It saw translation of
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
religious texts. The Macedonian recension of Old Church Slavonic also appeared around that period in the
Bulgarian Empire In the medieval history of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarde ...

Bulgarian Empire
and was referred to as such due to works of the
Ohrid Literary School The Ohrid Literary School or Ohrid- ''Devol'' Literary school was one of the two major cultural centres of the First Bulgarian Empire, along with the Preslav Literary School (Pliska Literary School). The school was established in Ohrid (in what is ...
. Towards the end of the 13th century, the influence of Serbian increased as Serbia expanded its borders southward. During the five centuries of
Ottoman rule Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine given name Uthman ( ar, عُثْمان, ‘uthmān). It may refer to: Governments and dynasties * Ottoman Caliphate, an Islamic caliphate from 1517 to 1924 * Ottoman Empire The Ott ...
, from the 15th to the 20th century, the vernacular spoken in the territory of current-day North Macedonia witnessed grammatical and linguistic changes that came to characterize Macedonian as a member of the Balkan sprachbund. This period saw the introduction of many
Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), offi ...

Turkish
loanwords into the language. The latter half of the 18th century saw the rise of modern literary Macedonian through the written use of
Macedonian dialectsThe dialects of Macedonian comprise the Slavic dialects spoken in the Republic of North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia until February 2019), officially the Republic of North Macedonia,, is a country in So ...
referred to as "Bulgarian" by writers. The first half of the 19th century saw the rise of nationalism among the South Slavic people in the Ottoman Empire. This period saw proponents of creating a
common church
common church
for Bulgarian and Macedonian Slavs which would use a common modern Macedo-Bulgarian literary standard. The period between 1840 and 1870, saw a struggle to define the dialectal base of the common language called simply "Bulgarian", with two opposing views emerging. One ideology was to create a Bulgarian literary language based on Macedonian dialects, but such proposals were rejected by the Bulgarian codifiers. That period saw poetry written in the
Struga dialect The Struga Dialect ( mk, Струшки дијалект, ''Struški dijalekt'') is a member of the western and north western subgroup of the western group of Dialects of the Macedonian language, dialects of the Macedonian language. The dialect is s ...
with elements from
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
. Textbooks also used either spoken dialectal forms of the language or a mixed Macedo-Bulgarian language. Subsequently, proponents of the idea of using a separate Macedonian language emerged. Krste Petkov Misirkov's book ''
Za makedonckite raboti
Za makedonckite raboti
'' (''On Macedonian Matters'') published in 1903, was the first attempt to formalize a separate literary language. With the book, the author proposed a Macedonian grammar and expressed the goal of codifying the language and using it in schools. The author postulated the principle that the
Prilep-Bitola dialectImage:Macedonian Slavic dialects.png, 300px, Dialectal divisions of Macedonia. The Prilep-Bitola dialect ( mk, Прилепско-битолски дијалект, ''Prilepsko-bitolski dijalekt'') is a member of the central subgroup of the western ...
be used as a dialectal basis for the formation of the Macedonian standard language; his idea however was not adopted until the 1940s. On 2 August 1944 at the first
Anti-fascist Assembly for the National Liberation of Macedonia The Anti-fascist Assembly for the National Liberation of Macedonia ( mk, Антифашистичко собрание за народно ослободување на Македонија (АСНОМ), ''Antifašističko sobranie za narodno oslobo ...
(ASNOM) meeting, Macedonian was declared an official language. With this, it became the last of the major Slavic languages to achieve a standard literary form. As such, Macedonian served as one of the three official languages of Yugoslavia from 1945 to 1991.


Geographical distribution

Although the precise number of
native Native may refer to: People * Jus soli, citizenship by right of birth * Indigenous peoples, peoples with a set of specific rights based on their historical ties to a particular territory ** Native Americans (disambiguation) In arts and entertain ...
and
second language A person's second language, or L2, is a language that is not the native language A first language, native tongue, native language, or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language A language is a struc ...
speakers of Macedonian is unknown due to the policies of neighboring countries and emigration of the population, estimates ranging between 1.4 million and 3.5 million have been reported. According to the 2002 census, the total population of
North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia before February 2019), officially the Republic of North Macedonia,, is a country in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical region of Europe ...
was 2,022,547, with 1,344,815 citizens declaring Macedonian their native language. Macedonian is also studied and spoken to various degrees as a second language by all
ethnic minorities A minority group, by its original definition, refers to a group of people whose practices, race, religion, ethnicity, or other characteristics are lesser in numbers than the main groups of those classifications. However, in present-day sociology, ...

ethnic minorities
in the country. Outside North Macedonia, there are small
ethnic Macedonian Macedonians ( mk, Македонци, Makedonci) are a nation and a South Slavs, South Slavic ethnic group native to the region of Macedonia (region), Macedonia in South-East Europe. They speak the Macedonian language, a South Slavic language. ...
minorities that speak Macedonian in neighboring countries including 4.697 in
Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or Shqipëria), officially the Republic of Albania ( sq, Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It is located on the Adriatic Sea, Adriatic and Ionian Sea within the Medite ...

Albania
(1989 census), 1,609 in
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република България, links=no, Republika Bǎlgariya, ), is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia ...

Bulgaria
(2011 census) and 12,706 in
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may refe ...

Serbia
(2011 census). The exact number of speakers of Macedonian in Greece is difficult to ascertain due to the country's policies. Estimates of Slavophones ranging anywhere between 50,000 and 300,000 in the last decade of the 20th century have been reported. Approximately 580,000 Macedonians live outside North Macedonia per 1964 estimates with
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
,
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of . Its extend from the to the and northward into the , covering , making it the world's . Its southern and western , stretching , is the world's longest bi-national land border. Canada's capital ...

Canada
, and the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It consists of 50 , a , five major , 326 , and some . At , it is the world's . The United States shares significan ...

United States
being home to the largest emigrant communities. Consequently, the number of speakers of Macedonian in these countries include 66,020 (2016 census), 15,605 (2016 census) and 22,885 (2010 census), respectively. Macedonian also has more than 50,000 native speakers in countries of
Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical r ...

Western Europe
, predominantly in
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
,
Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under an assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_title1 = Fe ...

Switzerland
and
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...

Italy
. The Macedonian language has the status of an official language only in North Macedonia, and is a recognized minority and official language in parts of Albania (
Pustec Pustec ( sq, Pustec; Macedonian language, Macedonian and bg, Пустец) formerly known as Liqenas (1973–2013), is a village in Pustec (municipality), Pustec Municipality, Korçë County, eastern Albania. Situated on the southwestern shore of ...

Pustec
),
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...

Romania
, Serbia (
Jabuka Jabuka ( Serbian Cyrillic and mk, Јабука) is a village A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet (place), hamlet but smaller than a town (although the word is often used to describe both ham ...

Jabuka
and Plandište) and
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north a ...

Bosnia and Herzegovina
. There are provisions to learn Macedonian in Romania as Macedonians are an officially recognized minority group. Macedonian is studied and taught at various universities across the world and research centers focusing on the language are found at universities across Europe (
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
,
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
,
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine States o ...

Austria
,
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...

Italy
,
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
) as well as Australia, Canada and the United States (
Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive map of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name ...

Chicago
and
North Carolina North Carolina () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily news ...

North Carolina
).


Dialects

During the standardization process of the Macedonian language, the dialectal base selected was primarily based on the West-Central dialects, which spans the triangle of the communities
Makedonski Brod Makedonski Brod ( mk, Македонски Брод ; meaning ''Macedonian Ford'') is a small town in the central part of North Macedonia, on the south-eastern part of Suva Gora, western Karadžica and south-western Dautica mountains. The town is ...

Makedonski Brod
,
Kičevo Kičevo ( mk, Кичево ; al, Kërçovë) is a city in the western part of North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia until February 2019), officially the Republic of North Macedonia,, is a country in So ...
, Demir Hisar,
Bitola Bitola (; mk, Битола ) is a city in the southwestern part of North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia before February 2019), officially the Republic of North Macedonia,, is a country in Southeast Eur ...
,
Prilep Prilep ( mk, Прилеп ) is the fourth-largest city in North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia until February 2019), officially the Republic of North Macedonia,, is a country in Southeast Europe. It ...
, and
Veles Veles may refer to: * Veles (god), Slavic deity * Veles Municipality, in North Macedonia * Veles, North Macedonia, a city, seat of the municipality, formerly called Titov Veles * Veles Bastion, Stribog Mountains on Brabant Island, Antarctica *Veles ...
. These were considered the most widespread and most likely to be adopted by speakers from other regions. The initial idea to select this region as a base was first proposed in Krste Petkov Misirkov's works as he believed the Macedonian language should abstract on those dialects that are distinct from neighboring Slavic languages, such as Bulgarian and Serbian. Likewise, this view does not take into account the fact that a Macedonian
koiné language In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include ...
was already in existence. Based on a large group of features, Macedonian dialects can be divided into Eastern, Western and Northern groups. The boundary between them geographically runs approximately from
Skopje Skopje ( , , ; mk, Скопје ; sq, Shkup) is the capital and List of cities in North Macedonia by population, largest city of North Macedonia. It is the country's political, cultural, economic, and academic centre. The territory of S ...

Skopje
and
Skopska Crna Gora Skopska Crna Gora (Macedonian language, Macedonian and sr-cyr, Скопска Црна Гора, italics=yes, , sq, Mali i Zi i Shkupit; meaning "Black Mountain of Skopje"), often called simply Crna Gora (Macedonian and Serbian Cyrillic: , Albani ...
along the rivers
Vardar The Vardar (; mk, , ) or Axios () is the longest river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry a ...
and Crna. There are numerous
isogloss An isogloss, also called a heterogloss (see Etymology Etymology ()The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time ...
es between these dialectal variations, with structural differences in phonetics, prosody (accentuation), morphology and syntax. The Western group of dialects can be subdivided into smaller dialectal territories, the largest group of which includes the central dialects. The linguistic territory where Macedonian dialects were spoken also span outside the country and within the
region of Macedonia Macedonia () is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. Its boundaries have changed considerably over time; however, it came to be defined as the modern geographical region by the mid 19th century. Toda ...
, including Pirin Macedonia into Bulgaria and Aegean Macedonia into Greece. Variations in consonant pronunciation occur between the two groups, with most Western regions losing the /x/ and the /v/ in intervocalic position (''глава'' (head): /ɡlava/ = /ɡla/: ''глави'' (heads): /ɡlavi/ = /ɡlaj/) while Eastern dialects preserve it. Stress in the Western dialects is generally fixed and falls on the antepenultimate syllable while Eastern dialects have non-fixed stress systems that can fall on any syllable of the word, that is also reminiscent of Bulgarian dialects. Additionally, Eastern dialects are distinguishable by their fast tonality, elision of sounds and the suffixes for definiteness. The Northern dialectal group is close to South Serbian and Torlakian dialects and is characterized by 46–47 phonetic and grammatical isoglosses. In addition, a more detailed classification can be based on the modern reflexes of the Proto-Slavic reduced vowels (yers), vocalic sonorants, and the back nasal *ǫ. That classification distinguishes between the following 6 groups: Western Dialects: * Ohrid-Prespa Group: Ohrid dialect,
Struga dialect The Struga Dialect ( mk, Струшки дијалект, ''Struški dijalekt'') is a member of the western and north western subgroup of the western group of Dialects of the Macedonian language, dialects of the Macedonian language. The dialect is s ...
, Vevčani-Radožda dialect, Upper Prespa dialect and Lower Prespa dialect. * Debar Group: Debar dialect, Reka dialect, Drimkol-Golo Brdo dialect, Galičnik dialect, Skopska Crna Gora dialect and Našinski, Gora dialect * Polog Group: Upper Polog dialect, Lower Polog dialect,
Prilep-Bitola dialectImage:Macedonian Slavic dialects.png, 300px, Dialectal divisions of Macedonia. The Prilep-Bitola dialect ( mk, Прилепско-битолски дијалект, ''Prilepsko-bitolski dijalekt'') is a member of the central subgroup of the western ...
, Kičevo-Poreče dialect and Skopje-Veles dialect * Kostur-Korča Group: Korča dialect, Kostur dialect and Nestram-Kostenar dialect Eastern Dialects: * Northern Group: Kumanovo dialect, Kratovo dialect, Kriva Palanka dialect and Ovče Pole dialect * Eastern Group: Štip - Kočani dialect, Strumica dialect, Tikveš-Mariovo dialect, Maleševo-Pirin dialect, Solun-Voden dialect and Ser-Drama-Lagadin-Nevrokop dialect.


Phonology

The phonology, phonological system of Standard Macedonian is based on the Prilep-Bitola dialect. Macedonian possesses five vowels, one semivowel, three liquid consonants, three nasal stops, three pairs of fricative consonant, fricatives, two pairs of affricates, a non-paired voiceless fricative, nine pairs of voiced and unvoiced consonants and four pairs of Stop consonant, stops. Out of all the Slavic languages, Macedonian has the most frequent occurrence of vowels relative to consonants with a typical Macedonian sentence having on average 1.18 consonants for every one vowel.


Vowels

The Macedonian language contains 5 vowels which are /a/, /ɛ/, /ɪ/, /o/, and /u/. For the pronunciation of the middle vowels /''е''/ and /''о''/ by native Macedonian speakers, various vowel sounds can be produced ranging from [ɛ] to [ẹ] and from [o] to [ọ]. Unstressed vowels are not vowel reduction, reduced, although they are pronounced more weakly and shortly than stressed ones, especially if they are found in a stressed syllable. The five vowels and the letter ''р'' (/r/) which acts as a semivowel when found between two consonants (e.g. ''црква'', "church"), can be syllable-forming. The schwa is phonemic in many dialects (varying in closeness to or ) but its use in the standard language is marginal. When writing a dialectal word and keeping the schwa for aesthetic effect, an apostrophe is used; for example, , , etc. When spelling words letter-by-letters, each consonant is followed by the schwa sound. The individual letters of acronyms are pronounced with the schwa in the same way: (). The lexicalized acronyms () and () (a brand of cigarettes), are among the few exceptions. Vowel length is not phonemic. Vowels in stressed open syllables in disyllabic words with stress on the penultimate can be realized as long, e.g. 'Veles (city), Veles'. The sequence is often realized phonetically as ; e.g. colloq.'' hour', - snakes. In other words, two vowels appearing next to each other can also be pronounced twice separately (e.g. ''пооди'' - to walk).


Consonants

The consonant inventory of the Macedonian language consists of 26 letters and distinguishes three groups of consonants (''согласки''): voiced (''звучни''), voicelessness, voiceless (''безвучни'') and sonorant consonants (''сонорни''). Typical features and rules that apply to consonants in the Macedonian language include assimilation (phonology), assimilation of voiced and voiceless consonants when next to each other, devoicing of vocal consonants when at the end of a word, double consonants and elision. At morpheme boundaries (represented in spelling) and at the end of a word (not represented in spelling), voicing opposition is Final-obstruent devoicing, neutralized. The alveolar trill () is Syllabic consonant, syllabic between two consonants; for example, 'finger'. The dental nasal () and dental lateral () are also syllabic in certain foreign words; e.g. 'Newton (unit), newton', 'Popocatépetl', etc. The labiodental nasal occurs as an allophone of before and (e.g. 'tram'). The velar nasal similarly occur as an allophone of before and (e.g. 'English'). The latter realization is avoided by some speakers who strive for a clear, formal pronunciation. The consonant () is not typical of the Western dialects of Macedonian and became part of the standard language through the introduction of new foreign words (e.g. ''хотел'', hotel), toponyms (''Пехчево'', Pehčevo), words originating from Old Church Slavonic (''дух'', ghost), newly formed words (''доход'', income) and as a means to disambiguate between two words (''храна'', food vs. ''рана'', wound). The palatal stops are arguable phonemic . They exhibit different pronunciations depending on dialect. They are dorso-palatal stops in the standard language and are pronounced as such by some native speakers.


Stress

The Stress (linguistics), word stress in Macedonian is and dynamic (expiratory). This means that it falls on the third from last syllable in words with three or more syllables, and on the first or only syllable in other words. This is sometimes disregarded when the word has entered the language more recently or from a foreign source. To note which syllable of the word should be accented, Macedonian uses an apostrophe over its vowels. Disyllabic words are stressed on the second-to-last syllable: ''дéте'' (: child), ''мáјка'' (): mother) and ''тáтко'' (: father). Trisyllabic and polysyllabic words are stressed on the third-to-last syllable: ''плáнина'' (: mountain) ''планѝната'' (: the mountain) ''планинáрите'' (: the mountaineers). There are several exceptions to the rule and they include: Participle, verbal adverbs (i.e. words suffixed with ''-ќи''): e.g. ''викáјќи'' (: shouting), ''одéјќи'' (: walking); adverbs of time: ''годинáва'' (: this year), ''летóво'' (: this summer); foreign loanwords: e.g. ''клишé'' ( cliché), ''генéза'' ( genesis), ''литератýра'' (: literature), ''Алексáндар'' (, Alexander). Linking occurs when two or more words are pronounced with the same stress. Linking is a common feature of the Macedonian language. This linguistic phenomenon is called ''акцентска целост'' and is denoted with a Tie_(typography), spacing tie (Tie_(typography)#Encoding, ‿) sign. Several words are taken as a single unit and thus follow the rules of the stress falling on the antepenultimate syllable. The rule applies when using clitics (either enclitics or proclitics) such as the negating particle ''не'' with verbs (''тој нé‿дојде'', he did not come) and with short pronoun forms. The future particle ''ќе'' can also be used in-between and falls under the same rules (''не‿му‿јá‿даде'', did not give it to him; ''не‿ќé‿дојде'', he will not come). Other uses include the imperative form accompanied by short pronoun forms (''дáј‿ми'': give me), the expression of possessives (''мáјка‿ми''), prepositions followed by a noun (''зáд‿врата''), question words followed by verbs (''когá‿дојде'') and some compound nouns (''сувó‿грозје'' - raisins, ''киселó‿млеко'' - yoghurt) among others.


Grammar

Macedonian grammar is markedly Analytic language, analytic in comparison with other Slavic languages, having lost the common Slavic case system. The Macedonian language shows some special and, in some cases, unique characteristics due to its central position in the Balkans. Literary Macedonian is the only South Slavic literary language that has three forms of the definite article, based on the degree of proximity to the speaker, and a perfect tense formed by means of an auxiliary verb "to have", followed by a past tense, past participle in the Neuter gender, neuter, also known as the verbal adjective. Other features that are only found in Macedonian and not in other Slavic languages include the antepenultimate accent and the use of the same vocal ending for all verbs in first person, present simple (''глед-a-м'', ''јад-а-м'', ''скок-а-м''). Macedonian distinguishes at least 12 major part of speech, word classes, five of which are modifiable and include nouns, adjectives, pronouns, numbers and verbs and seven of which are invariant and include adverbs, prepositions, conjunction (grammar), conjunctions, interjections, Grammatical particle, particles and Linguistic modality, modal words.


Nouns

Macedonian nouns (''именки'') belong to one of three Grammatical gender, genders (masculine, feminine, and neuter) and are Inflection, inflected for Grammatical number, number (singular and plural), and marginally for grammatical case, case. The gender opposition is not distinctively marked in the plural. Masculine nouns usually end in a consonant or a vowel (''-a'', ''-o'' or ''-e'') and neuter nouns end in a vowel (''-o'' or ''-e''). Virtually all feminine nouns end in the same vowel, ''-a''. The vocative of nouns is the only remaining case in the Macedonian language and is used to address a person directly. The vocative case always ends with a vowel, which can be either an -у (''јунаку'': hero vocative) or an -e (''човече'': man vocative) to the root of masculine nouns. For feminine nouns, the most common final vowel ending in the vocative is -o (''душо'', sweetheart vocative; ''жено'', wife vocative). The final suffix -e can be used in the following cases: three or polysyllabic words with the ending ''-ица'' (''мајчице'', mother vocative), female given names that end with ''-ка'': ''Ратка'' becomes ''Ратке'' and ''-ја'': ''Марија'' becomes ''Марије'' or ''Маријо''. There is no vocative case in neuter nouns. The role of the vocative is only facultative and there is a general tendency of vocative loss in the language since its use is considered impolite and dialectal. The vocative can also be expressed by changing the tone. There are three different types of plural: regular, counted and collective noun, collective. The first plural type is most common and used to indicate regular plurality of nouns: ''маж - мажи'' (a man - men), ''маса - маси'' (a table - table), ''село - села'' (a village - villages). There are various suffixes that are used and they differ per gender; a linguistic feature not found in other Slavic languages is the use of the suffix ''-иња'' to form plural of neuter nouns ending in ''-е'': ''пиле - пилиња'' (a chick - chicks). Counted plural is used when a number or a quantifier (linguistics), quantifier precedes the noun; suffixes to express this type of plurality do not correspond with the regular plurality suffixes: ''два молива'' (two pencils), ''три листа'' (three leaves), ''неколку часа'' (several hours). The collective plural is used for nouns that can be viewed as a single unit: ''лисје'' (a pile of leaves), ''ридје'' (a unit of hills). Irregular plural forms also exist in the language: ''дете - деца'' (child - children).


Definiteness

{, class="wikitable floatright" , - , +The definite articles , - !rowspan="2" , !colspan="3" , Singular !colspan="3" , Plural , - !Masculine !Feminine !Neuter !Masculine !Feminine !Neuter , - !Unspecified , ''мажот'' , ''жената'' , ''детето'' , colspan="2" style="text-align:center;", ''мажите''/''жените'' , ''децата'' , - !Proximate , ''мажов'' , ''женава'' , ''детевo'' , colspan="2" style="text-align:center;", ''маживе''/''жениве'' , ''децава'' , - !Distal , ''мажон'' , ''женана'' , ''детенo'' , colspan="2" style="text-align:center;", ''мажине''/''женине'' , ''децана'' A characteristic feature of the nominal system is the indication of definiteness. As with other Slavic languages, there is no indefinite article in Macedonian. The definite article in Macedonian is postpositive, i.e. it is added as a suffix to nouns. An individual feature of the Macedonian language is the use of three definite articles, inflected for gender and related to the position of the object, which can be unspecified, proximate or distal. *Definite articles ''-ов, -ва, -во, -ве'' are used for objects located close to the speaker (''човеков'': - this person here) *Definite articles ''-он, -на, -но, -не'' are used for objects located further away from the speaker that can still be perceived (''женана'': - that woman there) *Definite articles ''-от, -та, -то, -те'' are most commonly used as general indicators of definiteness regardless of the referred object's position (''детето'': the child). Additionally, these suffixes can be used to indicate objects referred to by the speaker that are in the proximity of the listener, e.g. ''дај ми ја книгата што е до тебе'' - give me the book next to you. Proper nouns are per definition definite and are not usually used together with an article, although exceptions exist in the spoken and literary language such as ''Совчето'', ''Марето'', ''Надето'' to demonstrate feelings of endearment to a person.


Adjectives

Adjectives accompany nouns and serve to provide additional information about their referents. Macedonian adjectives Agreement (linguistics), agree in form with the noun they modify and are thus are thus inflected for gender, number and definiteness and ''убав'' changes to ''убава'' (''убава жена'', a beautiful woman) when used to describe a feminine noun, ''убаво'' when used to describe a neuter noun (''убаво дете'', a beautiful child) and ''убави'' when used to form the plural (''убави мажи, убави жени, убави деца''). Adjectives can be analytically inflected for degree of Comparison (grammar), comparison with the prefix ''по-'' marking the comparative and the prefix ''нај-'' marking the superlative. Both prefixes cannot be written separately from the adjective: ''Марија е паметна девојка'' (Marija is a smart girl), ''Марија е попаметна од Сара'' (Marija is smarter than Sara), ''Марија е најпаметната девојка во нејзиниот клас'' (Marija is the smartest girl in her class). The only adjective with an irregular comparative and superlative form is ''многу'' which becomes ''повеќе'' in the comparative and ''најмногу'' in the superlative form. Another modification of adjectives is the use of the prefixes ''при-'' and ''пре-'' which can also be used as a form of comparison: ''престар човек'' (a very old man) or ''пристар човек'' (a somewhat old man).


Pronouns

Three types of pronouns can be distinguished in Macedonian: personal pronouns, personal (''лични''), relative pronouns, relative (''лично-предметни'') and demonstrative pronouns, demonstrative (''показни''). Case relations are marked in pronouns. Personal pronouns in Macedonian appear in three genders and both in singular and plural. They can also appear either as accusative, direct or dative, indirect object in long or short forms. Depending on whether a definite direct or indirect object is used, a clitic pronoun will refer to the object with the verb: ''Јас не му ја дадов книгата на момчето'' ("I did not give the book to the boy"). The direct object is a remnant of the accusative case and the indirect of the dative. Reflexive pronouns also have forms for both direct and indirect objects: ''себе се'', ''себе си''. Examples of personal pronouns are shown below: *Personal pronoun: ''Јас читам книга''. ("I am reading a book") *Direct object pronoun: ''Таа мене ме виде во киното''. ("She saw me at the cinema") *Indirect object pronoun: ''Тој мене ми рече да дојдам''. ("He told me to come") Relative pronouns can refer to a person (''кој, која, кое'' - who), objects (''што'' - which) or serve as indicators of possession (''чиј, чија, чие'' - whose) in the function of a question or a relative word. These pronouns are inflected for gender and number and other word forms can be derived from them (''никој'' - nobody, ''нешто'' - something, ''сечиј'' - everybody's). There are three groups of demonstrative pronouns that can indicate proximate (''овој'' - this one (mas.)), distal (''онаа'' - the one there (fem.)) and unspecific (''тоа'' - that one (neut.)) objects. These pronouns have served as a basis for the definite article. {, class="wikitable" , +Macedonian personal pronouns , - !Person !Singular !Direct object !Indirect object !Plural !Direct object !Indirect object , - !1. , ''јас'' , ''мене ме'' , ''мене ми'' , ''ние'' , ''нас нѐ'' , ''нам ни'' , - !2. , ''ти''
''вие'' (formal) , ''тебе те''
''вас ве'' (formal) , ''тебе ти''
''вас ви'' (formal) , ''вие'' , ''вас ве'' , ''вас ви'' , - !3. , ''тој'' (masculine)
''таа'' (feminine)
''тоа'' (neuter) , ''него го'' (masc./neut.)
''неа ја'' (fem.) , ''нему му'' (masc./neut.)
''нејзе ѝ'' (fem.) , ''тие'' , ''нив ги'' , ''ним им''


Verbs

Macedonian verbs agree with the subject in grammatical person, person (first, second or third) and number (singular or plural). Some dependent verb constructions (''нелични глаголски форми'') such as verbal adjectives (''глаголска придавка'': ''плетен/плетена''), verbal l-form (''глаголска л-форма'': ''играл/играла'') and verbal noun (''глаголска именка'': ''плетење'') also demonstrate gender. There are several other grammatical categories typical of Macedonian verbs, namely type, transitiveness, mood, superordinate aspect (imperfective/perfective grammatical aspect, aspect). Verb forms can also be classified as simple, with eight possible verb constructions or complex with ten possible constructions. Macedonian has developed a grammatical category which specifies the opposition of witnessed and reported actions (also known as renarration). Per this grammatical category, one can distinguish between ''минато определено'' i.e. definite past, denoting events that the speaker witnessed at a given definite time point, and ''минато неопределено'' i.e. indefinite past denoting events that did not occur at a definite time point or events reported to the speaker, excluding the time component in the latter case. Examples: ''Но, потоа се случија работи за кои не знаев'' ("But then things happened that I did not know about") vs. ''Ми кажаа дека потоа се случиле работи за кои не знаев'' ("They told me that after, things happened that I did not know about").


Tense

{, class="wikitable floatleft" , +Conjugation of ''сум'' in present, aorist, present perfect and future tense , - !Person !Singular !Plural , - !1. , ''сум'', ''бев'', ''сум бил'', ''ќе бидам'' , ''сме'', ''бевме'', ''сме биле'', ''ќе бидеме'' , - !2. , ''си'', ''беше'', ''си бил'', ''ќе бидеш'' , ''сте'', ''бевте'', ''сте биле'', ''ќе бидете'' , - !3. , ''е'', ''беше'', ''бил'', ''ќе биде'' , ''се'', ''беа'', ''биле'', ''ќе бидат'' The present tense in Macedonian is formed by adding a suffix to the verb stem which is inflected per person, form and number of the subject. Macedonian verbs are conventionally divided into three main conjugations according to the thematic vowel used in the citation form (i.e. ). These groups are: ''a''-group, ''e''-group and ''и''-group. Furthermore, the ''и''-subgroup is divided into three more subgroups: ''а-'', ''е-'' and ''и-''subgroups. The verb ''сум'' (to be) is the only exception to the rule as it ends with a consonant and is conjugated as an irregular verb. The perfect tense can be formed using both to be (''сум'') and to have (''има'') as auxiliary verbs. The first form inflects the verb for person and uses a past active participle: ''сум видел многу работи'' ("I have seen a lot of things"). The latter form makes use of a clitic that agrees in number and gender with the object of the sentence and the passive participle of the verb in its uninflected form (''го имам гледано филмот'', "I have seen that movie"). Another past form, the aorist is used to describe actions that have finished at a given moment in the past: ''одев'' ("I walked"), ''скокаа'' ("they jumped"). Future forms of verbs are conjugated using the particle ''ќе'' followed by the verb conjugated in present tense, ''ќе одам'' (I will go). The construction used to express negation in the future can be formed by either adding the negation particle at the beginning ''не ќе одам'' (I will not go) or using the construction ''нема да'' (''нема да одам''). There is no difference in meaning, although the latter form is more commonly used in spoken language. Another future tense is future in the past which is formed using the clitic ''ќе'' and the past tense of the verb inflected for person, ''таа ќе заминеше'' ("she would have left").


Aspect, voice and mood

Similar to other Slavic languages, Macedonian verbs have a grammatical aspect (''глаголски вид'') that is a Grammatical aspect in Slavic languages, typical feature of Slavic languages. Verbs can be divided into imperfective aspect, imperfective (''несвршени'') and perfective aspect, perfective (''свршени'') indicating actions whose time duration is unknown or occur repetitively or those that show an action that is finished in one moment. The former group of verbs can be subdivided into verbs which take place without interruption (e.g. ''Тој спие цел ден'', "He sleeps all day long) or those that signify repeated actions (e.g. ''Ја бараше книгата но не можеше да ја најде'', "He was looking for the book but he could not find it"). Perfective verbs are usually formed by adding prefixes to the stem of the verb, depending on which, they can express actions that took place in one moment (''чукна'', "knocked"), actions that have just begun (''запеа'', "start to sing"), actions that have ended (''прочита'', "read") or partial actions that last for short periods of time (''поработи'', "worked"). The contrast between transitive and intransitive verbs can be expressed analytically or syntactically and virtually all verbs denoting actions performed by living beings can become transitive if a short personal pronoun is added: ''Тоj легна'' ("He laid down") vs. ''Тоj го легна детето'' ("He laid the child down"). Additionally, verbs which are expressed with the reflexive pronoun ''се'' can become transitive by using any of the contracted pronoun forms for the direct object: ''Тој се смее'' - He is laughing, vs. ''Тој ме смее'' - "He is making me laugh"). Some verbs such as sleep or die do not traditionally have the property of being transitive. Macedonian verbs have three grammatical moods (''глаголски начин''): indicative, imperative mood, imperative and conditional mood, conditional. The imperative mood can express both a wish or an order to finish a certain action. The imperative only has forms for the second person and is formed using the suffixes ''-ј'' (''пеј''; sing) or ''-и'' (''оди'', walk) for singular and ''-јте'' (''пејте'', sing) or ''-ете'' for plural (''одете'', walk). The first and third subject forms in singular and plural express indirect orders and are conjugated using ''да'' or ''нека'' and the verb in present tense (''да живееме долго'', may we live long). In addition to its primary functions, the imperative is used to indicate actions in the past, eternal truths as is the case in sayings and a condition. The Macedonian conditional is conjugated in the same way for all three persons using the particle ''би'' and the verbal l-form, ''би читал'' (I/you/he would read).


Syntax

Macedonian syntax has a subject-verb-object (SVO)
word order In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languag ...
which is nevertheless flexible and can be topicalization, topicalized. For instance, the sentence ''Марија го сака Иван'' (Marija loves Ivan) can become of the object–verb–subject (OVS) form as well, ''Иван го сака Марија''. Topicalization can also be achieved using a combination of word order and intonation; as an example all of the following sentences give a different point of emphasis: *''Мачката ја каса кучето.'' – The dog bites the cat (the focus is on the object) *''Кучето мачката ја каса.'' – The dog bites the cat (the focus is on the object) *''Мачката кучето ја каса.'' – The dog bites the cat (the focus is on the subject) *''Ја каса кучето мачката.'' – The dog bites the cat (the focus is on both the subject and the verb) *''Ја каса мачката кучето.'' – The dog bites the cat (the focus is on the verb and the object) Macedonian is a null-subject language which means that the subject pronoun can be omitted, for instance ''Што сакаш (ти)?'' (what do you want?), ''(јас) читам книга'' (I am reading a book), ''(ние) го видовме'' (we saw him). Macedonian passive voice, passive construction is formed using the short reflexive pronoun ''се'' (''девојчето се уплаши'', the girl got scared) or a combination of the verb "to be" with verbal adjectives (''Тој е миен'', he is washed). In the former case, the active-passive distinction is not very clear. Subordinate clauses in Macedonian are introduced using relativizers, which can be wh-question words or relative pronouns. A Interlinear gloss, glossed example of this is: Due to the absence of a case system, Macedonian makes wide use of prepositions (''предлози'') to express relationships between words in a sentence. The most important Macedonian preposition is ''на'' which can have local ('on') or motional meanings ('to'). As a replacement for the dative case, the preposition ''на'' is used in combination with a short indirect object form to denote an action that is related to the indirect object of a sentence, ''Му давам книга на Иван'' (I am giving a book to Ivan), ''Им велам нешто на децата'' (I am saying something to the children). Additionally, ''на'' can serve to replace the genitive case and express possession, ''таткото на другар ми'' (my friend's father).


Vocabulary

Macedonian exhibits lexical similarities with all other Slavic languages, and numerous nouns are cognates, including those related to familial relations and numbers. Additionally, as a result of the close relationship with Bulgarian and Serbo-Croatian, Macedonian shares a considerable amount of its lexicon with these languages. Other languages that have been in positions of power, such as Ottoman Turkish language, Ottoman Turkish and, increasingly, English language, English have also provided a significant proportion of the loanwords. Prestige languages, such as Old Church Slavonic—which occupies a relationship to modern Macedonian comparable to the relationship of medieval Latin to modern Romance languages—and Russian also provided a source for lexical items. Other loanwords and vocabulary also came from Greek and Albanian as well as Prestige (sociolinguistics), prestige languages such as French language, French and German language, German. During the Codification (linguistics), standardization process, there was deliberate care taken to try to Linguistic purism, purify the lexicon of the language. Words that were associated with the Serbian or Bulgarian standard languages, which had become common due to the influence of these languages in the region, were rejected in favor of words from native dialects and archaisms. This is not to say that there are no words associated with the Serbian, Bulgarian, or even Russian standard languages in the language, but rather that they were discouraged on a principle of "seeking native material first". The language of the writers at the turn of the 19th century abounded with Russian and, more specifically, Old Church Slavonic lexical and morphological elements that in the contemporary norm have been replaced by native words or calqued using Productivity (linguistics), productive morphemes.Т. Димитровски. ''Литературната лексика на македонскиот писмен јазик во XIX в. и нашиот однос кон неа'': Реферати на македонските слависти за VI Меѓународен славистички конгрес во Прага, Скопје, 1968 (T. Dimitrovski. ''The literary vocabulary of the Macedonian written language in the 19th century and our attitude to it''. Abstracts of Macedonian Slavists for the 6th International Slavic Studies Congress in Prague. Skopje, 1968) New words were Neologism, coined according to internal logic and others calqued from related languages (especially Serbo-Croatian) to replace those taken from Russian, which include ''известие'' (Russ. ''известие'') → ''извештај'' 'report', ''количество'' (Russ. ''количество'') → ''количина'' 'amount, quantity', ''согласие'' (Russ. ''согласие'') → ''слога'' 'concord, agreement', etc. This change was aimed at bringing written Macedonian closer to the spoken language, effectively distancing it from the more Russified Bulgarian language, representing a successful puristic attempt to abolish a lexicogenic tradition once common in written literature. The use of Ottoman Turkish loanwords is discouraged in the Register (sociolinguistics), formal register when a native equivalent exists (e.g. ''комшија'' (← Turk. ''komşu'') vs. ''сосед'' (← Proto-Slavic language, PSl. *sǫsědъ) 'neighbor'), and these words are typically restricted to the archaic, colloquial, and ironic registers. {, class="wikitable" style="margin:auto; text-align:center;" , + Lexical comparison of 5 words among 11 Slavic languages , - ! English !! Macedonian !! Bulgarian !! Serbian !! Croatian language, Croatian !! Slovenian !! Russian !! Belarusian language, Belarusian !! Ukrainian language, Ukrainian !! Polish language, Polish !! Czech language, Czech !! Slovak language, Slovak , - , dream , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , - , day, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , - , arm, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , - , flower, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , - , night, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , -


Writing system


Alphabet

The official Macedonian alphabet was codified on 5 May 1945 by the Presidium of the Anti-fascist Assembly for the National Liberation of Macedonia (abbreviated as ASNOM in Macedonian) headed by Blaže Koneski. There are several letters that are specific for the Macedonian Cyrillic script, namely ѓ, ќ, ѕ, џ, љ and њ, with the last three letters being borrowed from the Serbo-Croatian phonetic alphabet adapted by Serbian linguist Vuk Stefanović Karadžić, while the grapheme ѕ has an equivalent in the Church Slavonic alphabet. Letters љ and њ were previously used by Macedonian writer Krste Petkov Misirkov written as л' and н'. The Macedonian alphabet also uses the apostrophe sign (') as a sound. It is used to mark the syllable forming /''р˳''/ , at the beginning of the word (''рж'' - rye, ''рбет'' - spine) and to represent the phoneme schwa in some literary words or Turkish loanwords (''ксмет'' - fortune). А Diacritic, diacritical sign, namely the acute accent (`) is used over three vowels in orthography: ''ѝ'' - her, different from ''и'' - and, ''нè'' - us, different from ''не'' - no and ''сѐ'' - everything different from ''сe'' - short reflexive pronoun accompanying reflexive verbs. The standard Macedonian alphabet contains 31 letters. The following table provides the upper and lower case forms of the Macedonian alphabet, along with the International Phonetic Alphabet, IPA value for each letter: {, cellpadding="10" style="margin:auto; text-align:center;" , - , align="left", ''Cyrillic''
''International Phonetic Alphabet, IPA'', , A (Cyrillic), А а
, , Be (Cyrillic), Б б
, , Ve (Cyrillic), В в
, , Ge (Cyrillic), Г г
, , De (Cyrillic), Д д
, , Gje, Ѓ ѓ
, , Ye (Cyrillic), Е е
, , Zhe (Cyrillic), Ж ж
, , Ze (Cyrillic), З з
, , Dze, Ѕ ѕ
, , I (Cyrillic), И и
, - , align="left", ''Cyrillic''
''International Phonetic Alphabet, IPA'', , Je (Cyrillic), Ј ј
, , Ka (Cyrillic), К к
, , El (Cyrillic), Л л
is pronounced before , and otherwise. is always pronounced but is not used before . Cf. how the final љ in биљби''љ'' "nightingale" is changed to a л in the plural form биљби''л''и ., , Lje, Љ љ
, , Em (Cyrillic), М м
, , En (Cyrillic), Н н
, , Nje, Њ њ
, , O (Cyrillic), О о
, , Pe (Cyrillic), П п
, , Er (Cyrillic), Р р
, , Es (Cyrillic), С с
, - , align="left", ''Cyrillic''
''International Phonetic Alphabet, IPA'', , Te (Cyrillic), Т т
, , Kje, Ќ ќ
, , U (Cyrillic), У у
, , Ef (Cyrillic), Ф ф
, , Kha (Cyrillic), Х х
, , Tse (Cyrillic), Ц ц
, , Che (Cyrillic), Ч ч
, , Dzhe, Џ џ
, , Sha (Cyrillic), Ш ш


Orthography

Similar to the Macedonian alphabet, Macedonian orthography was officially codified on 7 June 1945 at an ASNOM meeting. Rules about the orthography and orthoepy (correct pronunciation of words) were first collected and outlined in the book ''Правопис на македонскиот литературен јазик'' (''Orthography of the Macedonian standard language'') published in 1945. Updated versions have subsequently appeared with the most recent one published in 2016. Macedonian orthography is consistent and phonemic in practice, an approximation of the principle of one
grapheme In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis includ ...

grapheme
per
phoneme In phonology and linguistics, a phoneme is a unit of sound that distinguishes one word from another in a particular language. For example, in most List of dialects of English, dialects of English, with the notable exception of the West Midlan ...
. This one-to-one correspondence is often simply described by the principle, "write as you speak and read as it is written". There is only one exception to this rule with the letter /''л''/ which is pronounced as /l/ before front vowels (e.g. ''лист'' (leaf); pronounced as [list]) and /j/ (e.g. ''полјанка'' (meadow); pronounced as [poljanka]) but velar /ł/ elsewhere (e.g. ''бела'' (white) pronounced as [beła]). Another sound that is not represented in the written form but is pronounced in words is the schwa.


Political views on the language

Politicians and scholars from North Macedonia, Bulgaria and Greece have opposing views about the existence and distinctiveness of the Macedonian language. Through history Macedonian has been referred mainly to as a variant of Bulgarian, but especially during the first half of the 20th century also as Serbian, and as a distinct language of its own. Historically, after its codification, the use of the language has been a subject of different views and internal policies in Serbia, Bulgaria and Greece. Some international scholars also maintain Macedo-Bulgarian was a single pluricentric language until the 20th century and argue that the idea of linguistic separatism emerged in the late 19th century with the advent of Macedonian nationalism and the need for a separate Macedonian standard language subsequently appeared in the early 20th century. Different linguists have argued that during its codification, the Macedonian standard language was Serbianization, Serbianized with regards to its orthography and vocabulary. Government of Bulgaria, The government of Bulgaria, Bulgarian academics, the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and the general public have and continue to widely consider Macedonian part of the Bulgarian dialects, Bulgarian dialect area. During the Communist era, Macedonian was recognized as a minority language in Bulgaria and utilized in education from 1946 to 1948. Subsequently, it was described as a dialect of Bulgarian. In 1956 the Bulgarian government signed an agreement on mutual legal defense with Yugoslavia, where the Macedonian language is named as one of the languages to be used for legal purposes, together with Bulgarian, Serbo-Croatian and Slovenian. The same year Bulgaria revoked its recognition of Macedonian nationhood and language and implicitly resumed its prewar position of their non-existence. In 1999 the government in Sofia signed a s:en:Joint Declaration of 22 February 1999, Joint Declaration in the official languages of the two countries, marking the first time it agreed to sign a bilateral agreement written in Macedonian. Dialect experts of the Bulgarian language refer to the Macedonian language as ''македонска езикова норма'' (Macedonian linguistic norm) of the Bulgarian language. As of 2019, disputes regarding the language and its origins are ongoing in academic and political circles in the two countries. The Greek scientific and local community was opposed to using the denomination Macedonian to refer to the language in light of the Macedonia naming dispute, Greek-Macedonian naming dispute. Instead, the language is often called "Slavic", "Slavomacedonian" (translated to "Macedonian Slavic" in English), ''makedonski'', ''makedoniski'' ("Macedonian"), ''slaviká'' (Greek: "Slavic"), ''dópia'' or ''entópia'' (Greek: "local/indigenous [language]"), ''balgàrtzki'' (Bulgarian) or "Macedonian" in some parts of the region of Kastoria, ''bògartski'' ("Bulgarian") in some parts of Dolna Prespa along with ''naši'' ("our own") and ''stariski'' ("old"). With the Prespa agreement signed in 2018, Greece accepted the name "Macedonian" for the language.


Sample text

The following is the Lord's Prayer in standard Macedonian. :Оче наш (Cyrillic alphabet) :Оче наш, кој си на небесата, :да се свети името Твое, :да дојде царството Твое, :да биде волјата Твоја, :како на небото, така и на земјата; :лебот наш насушен дај ни го денес :и прости ни ги долговите наши :како и ние што им ги проштеваме на нашите должници; :и не нѐ воведувај во искушение, :но избави нѐ од лукавиот :Зашто Твое е Царството и Силата и Славата, во вечни векови. :Амин! :Oče naš (Romanization of Macedonian, Romanized version) :''Oče naš, koj si na nebesata'' :''da se sveti imeto Tvoe,'' :''da dojde carstvoto Tvoe,'' :''da bide voljata Tvoja,'' :''kako na neboto, taka i na zemjata;'' :''lebot naš nasušen daj ni go denes'' :''i prosti ni gi dolgovite naši'' :''kako i nie što im gi proštevame na našite dolžnici'' :''I ne nè voveduvaj vo iskušenie,'' :''no izbavi nè od lukaviot.'' :''Zašto Tvoe e Carstvoto i Silata i Slavata, vo večni vekovi.'' :''Amin!''


See also

* Romanisation of Macedonian * Abstand and ausbau languages


Notes


References

;Books * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ;Journal articles * * * * * * * * *


External links


Институт за македонски јазик, „Крсте Петков Мисирков“
– Institute for Macedonian language "Krste Misirkov", the main regulatory body of the Macedonian language (in Macedonian)
Дигитален речник на македонскиот јазик
– Online dictionary of the Macedonian language * * * * * {{DEFAULTSORT:Macedonian Language Macedonian language, Analytic languages Languages of Albania Languages of Bulgaria Languages of Greece Languages of Serbia Languages of Vojvodina Languages of North Macedonia South Slavic languages Languages written in Cyrillic script