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Macau or Macao (; ; ; ), officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (MSAR), (RAEM) is a
city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a ...
and
special administrative region A special administrative region is a designation for types of administrative territorial entities in Mainland China Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, China mainland, or the Mainland Area of the Republic of China is the geopo ...
of the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, most populous country, with a Population of China, population of more than 1.4 billio ...

People's Republic of China
in the western
Pearl River Delta The Pearl River Delta Metropolitan Region (PRD; ; pt, Delta do Rio das Pérolas (DRP)) is the low-lying area surrounding the , where the Pearl River flows into the . It is one of the most densely urbanized regions in the world, and is often c ...
by the
South China Sea The South China Sea is a of the . It is bounded in the north by the shores of (hence the name), in the west by the , in the east by the islands of and northwestern (mainly , and ), and in the south by , and the , encompassing an area of ...

South China Sea
. With a population of about 680,000 and an area of , it is the most densely populated region in the world. Formerly a
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...
colony, the territory of
Portuguese Macau Portuguese Macau was a colonial possession of Portugal that existed from the first Portuguese settlement in 1557 to the end of Portuguese Portuguese Empire, colonial rule and transfer of complete sovereignty to the China, People's Republic of Ch ...
was first leased to
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, ...

Portugal
as a trading post by the
Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; ) are an East Asian ethnic group nativ ...

Ming dynasty
in 1557. Portugal paid an annual rent and administered the territory under Chinese sovereignty up until 1887. Portugal later gained perpetual colonial rights in the
Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Peking The Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Peking was a trade treaty between the Kingdom of Portugal The Kingdom of Portugal ( la, Regnum Portugalliae, pt, Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of the modern Port ...
. The colony remained under Portuguese rule until 1999, when it was transferred to China. Macau is a
special administrative region A special administrative region is a designation for types of administrative territorial entities in Mainland China Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, China mainland, or the Mainland Area of the Republic of China is the geopo ...
of
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
, which maintains separate governing and economic systems from those of
mainland China The term "mainland China" refers to the area directly governed by the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies b ...

mainland China
under the principle of "
one country, two systems "One country, two systems" is a constitutional principle of the People's Republic of China describing the governance of Hong Kong Hong Kong (, ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China ...
".. The unique blend of Portuguese and Chinese architecture in the city's
historic center History (from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. Events occurring before the History of writing#Inventions of writing, invention of writing systems are considered ...
led to its inscription on the
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
World Heritage List A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...
in 2005. Originally a sparsely populated collection of coastal islands, Macau, often referred to as the "Las Vegas of the East", has become a major
resort city A resort town, often called a resort city or resort destination, is an urban area where tourism at the archaeological site of Chichén Itza. in Vienna. Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring ...
and a top destination for
gambling Gambling (also known as betting) is the wagering something of ("the stakes") on an with an uncertain outcome with the intent of winning something else of value. Gambling thus requires three elements to be present: (an amount wagered), (cha ...
tourism, with a gambling industry seven times larger than that of
Las Vegas Las Vegas (; for "The Meadows"), often known simply as Vegas, is the in the United States, the most populous city in the of , and the of . The city anchors the metropolitan area and is the largest city within the greater . Las Vegas is ...

Las Vegas
.. The city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, and its GDP per capita by purchasing power parity is one of the highest in the world.. It has a very high
Human Development Index The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic composite index of , (mean years of schooling completed and expected years of schooling upon entering the education system), and indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers ...
, as calculated by the Macau government, and the fourth-highest life expectancy in the world. The territory is highly urbanized; two-thirds of the total land area is built on land reclaimed from the sea..


Etymology

The first known written record of the name "Macau", rendered as "Ya/A Ma Gang" (), is found in a letter dated 20 November 1555. The local inhabitants believed that the sea goddess Matsu (alternatively called A-Ma) had blessed and protected the harbor and called the waters around
A-Ma Temple The A-Ma Temple is a Chinese temple, temple to the Chinese folk religion, Chinese sea god, sea-goddess Mazu (goddess), Mazu located in São Lourenço, Macau, São Lourenço, Macau, China. Built in 1488, the temple is one of the oldest in Macau and ...
using her name.. When Portuguese explorers first arrived in the area and asked for the place name, the locals thought they were asking about the temple and told them it was "Ma Kok" (). The earliest Portuguese spelling for this was ''Amaquão''. Multiple variations were used until ''Amacão / Amacao'' and ''Macão / Macao'' became common during the 17th century. The 1911 reform of Portuguese orthography standardized the spelling ''Macau''; however, the use of ''Macao'' persisted in English and other European languages. The
Macau Peninsula The Macau Peninsula is the most populous and historic part of Macau Macau (; , ; ), also spelled Macao and officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (Chinese: 中華人民共和國澳門特別行政區 ...
had many names in Chinese, including ''Jing'ao'' (), ''Haojing'' (), and ''Haojing'ao'' ().. The islands
Taipa Taipa ( zh, t=氹仔, ; pt, Taipa, ) is an in , presently united with the island of by reclaimed land known as . Administratively, the boundaries of the traditional are coterminous with that of former Taipa Island. Geography Taipa is ...

Taipa
,
Coloane Coloane (Cantonese: Lou Wan) is an island in Macau Macau (; , ; ), also spelled Macao and officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (Chinese: 中華人民共和國澳門特別行政區), is a city and ...
, and
Hengqin Hengqin (, pt, Ilha da Montanha) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_(right),_are_large_islands_of_north-west_Europe image:Small_Island_in_Lower_Sara ...
were collectively called ''Shizimen'' (). These names would later become ''Aomen'' (), ''Oumún'' in Cantonese and translating as "bay gate" or "port gate", to refer to the whole territory.


History

During the
Qin dynasty The Qin dynasty, or Ch'in dynasty in Wade–Giles Wade–Giles () is a Romanization of Chinese, romanization system for Standard Chinese, Mandarin Chinese. It developed from a system produced by Thomas Francis Wade, during the mid-19th ...

Qin dynasty
(221–206 BC), the region was under the
jurisdiction Jurisdiction (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the ...
of Panyu County, Nanhai Prefecture of the province of
Guangdong Guangdong (, ), alternately romanized as Canton Province or Kwangtung, is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, admin ...

Guangdong
... The region is first known to have been settled during the
Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...

Han dynasty
. It was administratively part of Dongguan Prefecture in the Jin dynasty (266–420 AD), and alternated under the control of Nanhai and Dongguan in later
dynasties A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or affinity (by marriage or other relationship). Th ...
. In 1152, during the
Song dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976), personal name Zhao Kua ...
(960–1279 AD), it was under the jurisdiction of the new . In 1277, approximately 50,000 refugees fleeing the
Mongol conquest of China The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; ) are an East Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia Mongolia (, Mongolian language, Mongolian: , Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: ') is a landlocked country in East ...
settled in the coastal area. Macau did not develop as a major settlement until the Portuguese arrived in the 16th century. The first European visitor to reach China by sea was the explorer
Jorge Álvares Jorge Álvares (died July 8, 1521) was a Portuguese explorer. He is credited as the first European to have reached China by sea during the Age of Discovery The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (sometimes also, particularly regionally, A ...
, who arrived in 1513..
Merchant A merchant is a person who trades in commodities In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distributi ...

Merchant
s first established a trading post in
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a List of cities in China, city and Special administrative regions of China, special administrative region of China on the ...

Hong Kong
waters at
Tamão Tamão was a trade settlement set up by the Portuguese on an island in the Pearl River Delta The Pearl River Delta Metropolitan Region (PRD; ; pt, Delta do Rio das Pérolas (DRP)) is the low-lying area surrounding the Pearl River estuary ...
(present-day
Tuen Mun Tuen Mun or Castle Peak is a satellite town near the mouth of Tuen Mun River and Castle Peak Bay in the New Territories, Hong Kong. It was one of the earliest settlements in what is now Hong Kong and can be dated to the Neolithic period. In t ...

Tuen Mun
), beginning regular trade with nearby settlements in southern China. Military clashes between the Ming and Portuguese navies followed the expulsion of the Tamão traders in 1521.. Despite the trade ban, Portuguese merchants continued to attempt to settle on other parts of the Pearl River estuary, finally settling on Macau. Luso-Canton trade relations were formally reestablished in 1554 and Portugal soon after acquired a permanent lease for Macau in 1557, agreeing to pay 500
tael Tael (),"Tael" entry
at the OED Online.
also known as the tahil and by #Names, other names, can refer to ...
s of silver as annual land rent. The initially small population of Portuguese merchants rapidly became a growing city.. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Macau was created in 1576, and by 1583, the
Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...
had been established to handle municipal affairs for the growing settlement. Macau was at the peak of its prosperity as a major
entrepôt An ''entrepôt'' (; ) or transshipment port is a port, city, or trading post A trading post, trading station, or trading house, also known as a factory, was an establishment or settlement where goods and services could be traded. Typically the ...
during the late 16th century, providing a crucial connection in exporting Chinese silk to Japan during the ''Nanban'' trade period. Although the Portuguese were initially prohibited from fortifying Macau or stockpiling weapons, the
Fortaleza do Monte Fortaleza do Monte (Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal Portugal (), officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=no ), is a country located on ...
was constructed in response to frequent Dutch naval incursions. The Dutch attempted to take the city in the 1622
Battle of Macau The Battle of Macau in 1622 was a conflict of the Dutch–Portuguese War The Dutch–Portuguese War was an armed conflict involving Dutch Republic, Dutch forces, in the form of the Dutch East India Company and the Dutch West India Company, agai ...
, but were repelled successfully by the Portuguese. Macau entered a period of decline in the 1640s following a series of catastrophic events for the burgeoning colony: Portuguese access to trade routes was irreparably severed when Japan halted trade in 1639, Portugal revolted against Spain in 1640, and
Malacca Malacca, officially the State of Malacca, is a Federated state, state in Malaysia located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Strait of Malacca. Its capital is Malacca City, dubbed the Historic City, which has been listed ...
fell to the Dutch in 1641. Maritime trade with China was banned in 1644 following the Qing conquest under the ''
Haijin The () or sea ban was a series of related isolationist Isolationism is a category of foreign policy, foreign policies institutionalized by leaders who assert that nations' best interests are best served by keeping the affairs of other countries ...
'' policies and limited only to Macau on a lesser scale while the new dynasty focused on eliminating surviving . While the
Kangxi Emperor The Kangxi Emperor (Xuanye; 4 May 1654– 20 December 1722) was the third Emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the second Qing emperor to rule over China proper China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western ...

Kangxi Emperor
lifted the prohibition in 1684, China again restricted trade under the
Canton System The Canton System (1757–1842) served as a means for China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a ...
in 1757. Foreign ships were required to first stop at Macau before further proceeding to
Canton Canton may refer to: Administrative division terminology * Canton (administrative division), territorial/administrative division in some countries, notably Switzerland * Township (Canada), known as ''canton'' in Canadian French Arts and entert ...

Canton
. Qing authorities exercised a much greater role in governing the territory during this period; Chinese residents were subject to Qing courts and new construction had to be approved by the resident
mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy and can compose the administration o ...
beginning in the 1740s. As the opium trade became more lucrative during the 18th century, Macau again became an important stopping point en route to China. Following the
First Opium War The First Opium War (), also known as the Opium War or the Anglo-Chinese War, was a series of military engagements fought between Britain and the Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last Dynasties in ...
and the establishment of
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a List of cities in China, city and Special administrative regions of China, special administrative region of China on the ...
, Macau lost its role as a major port. Firecracker and incense production, as well as tea and tobacco processing, were vital industries in the colony during this time. Portugal was able to capitalize on China's postwar weakness and assert its sovereignty; the
Governor of Macau The Governor of Macau ( pt, Governador de Macau; ) was a Portuguese colonial official who headed the colony In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, col ...
began refusing to pay China annual land rent for the colony in the 1840s,. and annexed
Taipa Taipa ( zh, t=氹仔, ; pt, Taipa, ) is an in , presently united with the island of by reclaimed land known as . Administratively, the boundaries of the traditional are coterminous with that of former Taipa Island. Geography Taipa is ...

Taipa
and
Coloane Coloane (Cantonese: Lou Wan) is an island in Macau Macau (; , ; ), also spelled Macao and officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (Chinese: 中華人民共和國澳門特別行政區), is a city and ...
, in 1851 and 1864 respectively. Portugal also occupied nearby Lapa and
Montanha Montanha is a settlement in the central part of the island of Santiago, Cape Verde, Santiago, Cape Verde. It is situated 2 km north of João Teves and 8 km southwest of Pedra Badejo. The area is intensively farmed; mainly maize, beans and sugar-c ...
, but these would be returned to China by 1887, when perpetual occupation rights over Macau were formalized in the
Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Peking The Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Peking was a trade treaty between the Kingdom of Portugal The Kingdom of Portugal ( la, Regnum Portugalliae, pt, Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of the modern Port ...
. This agreement also prohibited Portugal from ceding Macau without Chinese approval. Despite occasional conflict between Cantonese authorities and the colonial government, Macau's status remained unchanged through the republican revolutions of both Portugal in 1910 and China in 1911.. The
Kuomintang The Kuomintang (KMT) () is a major political party in Taiwan which originated as a revolutionary political party during the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republican Era on the Chinese mainland, where it is sometimes referred to as the Ch ...
further affirmed Portuguese jurisdiction in Macau when the Treaty of Peking was renegotiated in 1928. During the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, the
Empire of Japan The was a historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 until the enactment of the post-World War II Constitution of Japan, 1947 constitution and subsequent formation of modern Japan. It encomp ...

Empire of Japan
did not occupy the colony and generally respected Portuguese neutrality in Macau. However, after Japanese troops captured a British cargo ship in Macau waters in 1943, Japan installed a group of government "advisors" as an alternative to military occupation. The territory largely avoided military action during the war except in 1945, when the United States ordered air raids on Macau after learning that the colonial government was preparing to sell aviation fuel to Japan. Portugal was later given over US$20 million in compensation for the damage in 1950.
Refugee A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person Forced displacement (also forced migration) is an involuntary or coerced movement of a person or people away from their home or home region In geography, regions are areas that are broa ...

Refugee
s from mainland China swelled the population as they fled from the
Chinese Civil War The Chinese Civil War was a civil war in China fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led Nationalist government, government of the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China (ROC) and forces of the Communist Party of China (CPC) lastin ...
. Access to a large workforce enabled Macau's economy to grow as the colony expanded its clothing and textiles manufacturing industry, developed its tourism industry, and legalized
casino A casino is a facility for certain types of gambling. Casinos are often built near or combined with hotels, resorts, restaurants, retail shopping, cruise ships, and other tourist attractions. Some casinos are also known for hosting live entertai ...

casino
gaming. However, at the height of the
Cultural Revolution The Cultural Revolution, formally known as the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement Movement may refer to: Common uses * Movement (clockwork), the internal mechanism of a timepiece * Motion (physics), co ...
, residents dissatisfied with the colonial administration rioted in the 1966
12-3 incident The 12-3 incident ( zh, c=一二·三事件; pt, Motim 1-2-3) refers to a political demonstrations and rioting against Portuguese rule in Macau Macau or Macao (; ; ; ), officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Repu ...
, in which 8 people were killed and over 200 were injured. Portugal lost full control over the colony afterwards, and agreed to cooperate with the
Chinese Communist Party ) , anthem = "The Internationale" , seats1_title = National People's Congress (13th National People's Congress, 13th) , seats1 = , seats2_title = Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, NPC Standing ...
in exchange for continued administration of Macau. Following the 1974
Carnation Revolution The Carnation Revolution ( pt, Revolução dos Cravos), also known as the 25 April ( pt, 25 de Abril, links=no), was initially a 25 April 1974 military coup in Lisbon Lisbon (; Portuguese: Lisboa; ) is the capital and the largest city of ...
, Portugal formally relinquished Macau as an
overseas province Overseas province ( pt, província ultramarina) was a designation used by Portugal to describe its non-continental holdings. History In the early the 19th century, Portuguese overseas territories were referred to as "overseas dominions", but admini ...
and acknowledged it as a "Chinese territory under Portuguese administration". After China first concluded arrangements on Hong Kong's future with the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
, it entered negotiations with Portugal over Macau in 1986. They were concluded with the signing of the 1987
Joint Declaration on the Question of Macau The Joint Declaration on the Question of Macau, or Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration, was a treaty A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign states and ...
, in which Portugal agreed to transfer the colony in 1999 and China would guarantee Macau's political and economic systems for 50 years after the transfer. In the waning years of colonial rule, Macau rapidly urbanized and constructed large-scale infrastructure projects, including the
Macau International Airport Macau International Airport ( pt, Aeroporto Internacional de Macau) is an international airport in the special administrative region of Macau, situated at the eastern end of Taipa island and neighbouring waters which opened for commercial ...
and a new
container port in Singapore A container port or container terminal is a facility where Intermodal container, cargo containers are transshipped between different transport vehicles, for onward transportation. The transshipment may be between container ship ...
. Macau was transferred to China on 20 December 1999, after 442 years of Portuguese rule. Following the transfer, Macau liberalized its casino industry (which previously operated under a government-licensed monopoly) to allow foreign investors, starting a new period of economic development. The regional economy grew by a double-digit annual growth rate from 2002 to 2014, making Macau one of the richest economies in the world on a per capita basis. Political debates have centered on the region's jurisdictional independence and the central government's adherence of "
one country, two systems "One country, two systems" is a constitutional principle of the People's Republic of China describing the governance of Hong Kong Hong Kong (, ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China ...
". While issues such as national security legislation have been controversial, Macanese residents generally have high levels of trust in the government.


Lusophonia

Macau is the last Portuguese colony to gain independence from Portugal and the only one which is not a member of the
Community of Portuguese Language Countries The Community of Portuguese Language Countries (Portuguese language, Portuguese: ''Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa''; abbreviated as the CPLP), also known as the Lusophone Commonwealth (''Comunidade Lusófona''), is an international o ...
, despite Portuguese being one of its official languages. In 2006, during the II Ministerial meeting between China and Portuguese Speaking Countries, the CPLP Executive Secretary and Deputy ambassador Tadeu Soares invited the Chief Executive of the Government of the Macau Special Administrative Region, Edmund Ho, to request the Associate Observer status for Macau. The Government of Macau has yet to make this request. In 2016, Murade Murargy, then executive secretary of CPLP said in an interview that Macau's membership is a complicated question, since like the Galicia region in
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
, it is not an independent country, but only a part of China. However, the ''Instituto Internacional de Macau'' () and the University of São José are Consultative Observers of the CPLP.


Government and politics

Macau is a
special administrative region of China The special administrative regions (SAR) are one type of provincial-level administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of ...
, with executive, legislative, and judicial powers
devolved Devolution is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government A central government is the government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), st ...
from the national government.. The
Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration The Joint Declaration on the Question of Macau, or Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration, was a treaty between Portugal and the People's Republic of China over the status of Macau. The full name of the treaty is Joint Declaration of the Government of ...
provided for economic and administrative continuity through the
transfer of sovereignty Transfer may refer to: Arts and media *Transfer (2010 film), ''Transfer'' (2010 film), a German science-fiction movie directed by Damir Lukacevic and starring Zana Marjanović *Transfer (1966 film), ''Transfer'' (1966 film), a short film * Transf ...
, resulting in an executive-led governing system largely inherited from the territory's history as a Portuguese colony. Under these terms and the "
one country, two systems "One country, two systems" is a constitutional principle of the People's Republic of China describing the governance of Hong Kong Hong Kong (, ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China ...
" principle, the Basic Law of Macao is the regional
constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...

constitution
. Because negotiations for the Joint Declaration and Basic Law began after transitional arrangements for Hong Kong were made, Macau's structure of government is very similar to Hong Kong's. The regional government is composed of three branches: * ''Executive:'' The
Chief Executive A chief executive officer (CEO), chief administrator officer, or just chief executive (CE), is one of a number of corporate executives A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co ...
is responsible for enforcing regional law, Chapter IV Article 50. can force reconsideration of legislation, and appoints Executive Council members, a portion of the legislature, and principal officials. Acting with the Executive Council, the Chief Executive can propose new bills, issue Primary and secondary legislation, subordinate legislation, and has authority to Dissolution of parliament, dissolve the legislature. * ''Legislature:'' The unicameral Legislative Assembly of Macau, Legislative Assembly enacts regional law, approves budgets, and has the power to impeach a sitting Chief Executive. * ''Judiciary:'' The Court of Final Appeal (Macau), Court of Final Appeal and Judiciary of Macau, lower courts, whose judges are appointed by the Chief Executive on the advice of a recommendation commission, interpret laws and overturn those inconsistent with the Basic Law. The Chief Executive is the head of government, and serves for a maximum of two five-year terms. The State Council of the People's Republic of China, State Council (led by the Premier of the People's Republic of China, Premier of China) appoints the Chief Executive after nomination by the Election Committee, which is composed of 400 business, community, and government leaders. The Legislative Assembly has 33 members, each serving a four-year term: 14 are Directly elected member (Macau), directly elected, 12 Indirectly elected member, indirectly elected, and 7 Appointed Member of the Legislative Assembly, appointed by the Chief Executive. Indirectly elected assemblymen are selected from limited electorates representing sectors of the economy or special interest groups. All directly elected members are chosen with proportional representation. Twelve political parties had representatives elected to the Legislative Assembly in the 2017 Macanese legislative election, 2017 election. These parties have aligned themselves into two ideological groups: the Pro-Beijing camp (Macau), pro-establishment (the current government) and Pro-democracy camp (Macau), pro-democracy camps. Macau is represented in the National People's Congress by 12 deputies chosen through an electoral college, and 29 delegates in the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference appointed by the State Council of the People's Republic of China, central government. Law of the People's Republic of China, Chinese national law does not generally apply in the region, and Macau is treated as a separate jurisdiction. Its judicial system is based on Law of Portugal, Portuguese civil law, continuing the legal tradition established during colonial rule. Interpretative and amending power over the Basic Law and jurisdiction over acts of state lie with the central authority, however, making regional courts ultimately subordinate to the mainland's socialist law, socialist Civil law (legal system), civil law system. Decisions made by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress can also override territorial judicial processes. In 2021, after similar actions were taken in Hong Kong following the 2019–2020 Hong Kong protests, protests associated with the Anti-Extradition Law Amendment Bill Movement, 21 candidates running for office in the territorial elections were disqualified as a result of allegedly failing to support the Basic Law, although no specific violations were noted by the territory's electoral commission. The territory's jurisdictional independence is most apparent in its Visa policy of Macau, immigration and taxation policies. The Identification Department issues Macao Special Administrative Region passport, passports for permanent residents which differ from those issued by the mainland or Hong Kong, and the region maintains a regulated border with the rest of the country. All travelers between Macau and China and Hong Kong must pass border controls, regardless of nationality. Chinese citizens resident in mainland China do not have the right of abode in Macau and are subject to immigration controls. Public finances are handled separately from the national government, and taxes levied in Macau do not fund the central authority. The Macao Garrison is responsible for the region's defense. Although the Chairman of the Central Military Commission (China), Chairman of the Central Military Commission is Supreme Military Command of the People's Republic of China, supreme commander of the armed forces, the regional government may request assistance from the garrison. Macau residents are not required to perform military service and the law also has no provision for local enlistment, so its defense force is composed entirely of nonresidents. The State Council of the People's Republic of China, State Council and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China, Ministry of Foreign Affairs handle diplomatic matters, but Macau retains the ability to maintain separate economic and cultural Foreign relations of Macau, relations with foreign nations. The territory negotiates its own trade agreements and actively participates in supranational organisations, including agencies of the World Trade Organization and United Nations. The regional government maintains trade offices in Greater China and other nations.


Administrative divisions

The territory is divided into seven parishes. Cotai, a major area developed on reclaimed land between
Taipa Taipa ( zh, t=氹仔, ; pt, Taipa, ) is an in , presently united with the island of by reclaimed land known as . Administratively, the boundaries of the traditional are coterminous with that of former Taipa Island. Geography Taipa is ...

Taipa
and
Coloane Coloane (Cantonese: Lou Wan) is an island in Macau Macau (; , ; ), also spelled Macao and officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (Chinese: 中華人民共和國澳門特別行政區), is a city and ...
, and areas of the Macau New Urban Zone do not have defined parishes. Historically, the parishes belonged to one of two municipalities (the Municipality of Macau or the Municipality of Ilhas) that were responsible for administering municipal services. The municipalities were abolished in 2001 and superseded by the Civic and Municipal Affairs Bureau in providing local services.


Geography

Macau is located on China's southern coast, west of
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a List of cities in China, city and Special administrative regions of China, special administrative region of China on the ...

Hong Kong
, on the western side of the Pearl River (China), Pearl River estuary. It is surrounded by the
South China Sea The South China Sea is a of the . It is bounded in the north by the shores of (hence the name), in the west by the , in the east by the islands of and northwestern (mainly , and ), and in the south by , and the , encompassing an area of ...

South China Sea
in the east and south, and neighbors the Guangdong city of Zhuhai to the west and north.. The territory consists of
Macau Peninsula The Macau Peninsula is the most populous and historic part of Macau Macau (; , ; ), also spelled Macao and officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (Chinese: 中華人民共和國澳門特別行政區 ...
,
Taipa Taipa ( zh, t=氹仔, ; pt, Taipa, ) is an in , presently united with the island of by reclaimed land known as . Administratively, the boundaries of the traditional are coterminous with that of former Taipa Island. Geography Taipa is ...

Taipa
, and
Coloane Coloane (Cantonese: Lou Wan) is an island in Macau Macau (; , ; ), also spelled Macao and officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (Chinese: 中華人民共和國澳門特別行政區), is a city and ...
. A parcel of land in neighboring
Hengqin Hengqin (, pt, Ilha da Montanha) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_(right),_are_large_islands_of_north-west_Europe image:Small_Island_in_Lower_Sara ...
island that hosts the University of Macau also falls under the regional government's jurisdiction. The territory's highest point is Coloane Alto, above sea level. Urban development is concentrated on peninsular Macau, where most of the population lives. The peninsula was originally a separate island with hilly terrain, which gradually became a tombolo as a connecting sandbar formed over time. Both natural sedimentation and land reclamation expanded the area enough to support urban growth. Macau has tripled its land area in the last century, increasing from in the late 19th century to in 2018. Cotai, the area of reclaimed land connecting Taipa and Coloane, contains many of the newer casinos and resorts established after 1999. The region's jurisdiction over the surrounding sea was greatly expanded in 2015, when it was granted an additional of maritime territory by the State Council of the People's Republic of China, State Council. Further reclamation is currently underway to develop parts of the Macau New Urban Zone. The territory also has control over part of an artificial island to maintain a border checkpoint for the Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge.


Climate

Macau has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification, Köppen ''Cwa''), characteristic of southern China. The territory is dual season dominant – summer (May to September) and winter (November to February) are the longest seasons, while spring (March and April) and autumn (October) are relatively brief periods. The East Asian Monsoon, summer monsoon brings warm and humid air from the sea, with the most frequent rainfall occurring during the season. Typhoons also occur most often then, bringing significant spikes in rainfall. During the winter, northern winds from the continent bring dry air and much less rainfall. The highest and lowest temperatures recorded at the Macao Meteorological and Geophysical Bureau are on both 2 July 1930 and 6 July 1930 and on 26 January 1948. with frost being exceptionally rare, and with its all-time record low warmer than most of South Florida, Macau is able to cultivate tropical plants such as Roystonea regia, Royal Palm.


Demographics

The Statistics and Census Service estimated Macau's population at 667,400 at the end of 2018.. With a population density of 21,340 people per square kilometer, Macau is the most densely populated region in the world. The overwhelming majority (88.7 percent) are Chinese people, Chinese, many of whom originate from
Guangdong Guangdong (, ), alternately romanized as Canton Province or Kwangtung, is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, admin ...

Guangdong
(31.9 percent) or Fujian (5.9 percent). The remaining 11.6 percent are non ethnic Chinese minorities, primarily Filipinos (4.6 percent), Vietnamese people, Vietnamese (2.4 percent), and Portuguese people, Portuguese (1.8 percent). Several thousand residents are of Macanese people, Macanese heritage, native-born multiracial people with mixed Portuguese ancestry. Of the total population (excluding migrants), 49.4 percent were born in Macau, followed by 43.1 percent in Mainland China. A large portion of the population are Portuguese nationality law#Macau, Portuguese citizens, a legacy of colonial rule; at the time of the transfer of sovereignty in 1999, 107,000 residents held Portuguese passports. The predominant language is Cantonese, a Varieties of Chinese, variety of Chinese originating in Guangdong. It is spoken by 87.5 percent of the population, 80.1 percent as a first language and 7.5 percent as a second language. Only 2.3 percent can speak Portuguese language, Portuguese, the other official language; Chapter I Article 9. 0.7 percent are native speakers, and 1.6 percent use it as a second language. Increased immigration from mainland China in recent years has added to the number of Mandarin Chinese, Mandarin speakers, making up about half of the population (50.4 percent); 5.5 percent are native speakers and 44.9 percent are second language speakers.. Traditional Chinese characters are used in writing, rather than the Simplified Chinese characters, simplified characters used on the mainland. English is considered an additional working language and is spoken by over a quarter of the population (27.5 percent); 2.8 percent are native speakers, and 24.7 percent speak English as a second language. Macanese Patois, a local Creole language, creole generally known as ''Patuá'', is now spoken only by a few in the older Macanese community. According to the Government Information Bureau, 80 percent of the population practices Religion in Macau, Buddhism, 6.7 percent follow Religion in Macau, Christianity and 13.7 percent follow other religion. Chinese folk religion, Folk practices are also common among the citizens. According to Pew Research Center, Chinese folk religions have the most adherents (58.9 percent) and are followed by Buddhism (17.3 percent) and Christianity (7.2 percent), while 15.4 percent of the population profess no religious affiliation at all. Small minorities adhering to other religions (less than 1 percent), including Hinduism, Judaism, and Islam, are also resident in Macau. Life expectancy in Macau was 81.6 years for males and 87.7 years for females in 2018, the fourth highest in the world. Cancer, cardiovascular disease, heart disease, and respiratory disease are the territory's three leading causes of death. Most government-provided healthcare services are free of charge, though alternative treatment is also heavily subsidized. Migrant workers living in Macau account for over 25 percent of the entire workforce.. They largely work in lower wage sectors of the economy, including construction, hotels, and restaurants. As a growing proportion of local residents take up employment in the gaming industry, the disparity in income between local and migrant workers has been increasing.. Rising living costs have also pushed a large portion of nonresident workers to live in Zhuhai.


Economy

Macau has a capitalism, capitalist service economy largely based on
casino A casino is a facility for certain types of gambling. Casinos are often built near or combined with hotels, resorts, restaurants, retail shopping, cruise ships, and other tourist attractions. Some casinos are also known for hosting live entertai ...

casino
gaming and tourism. It is the world's List of countries by GDP (nominal), 83rd-largest economy, with a Gross domestic product#Nominal GDP and adjustments to GDP, nominal GDP of approximately MOP433 billion (US$53.9 billion). Although Macau has one of the highest per capita GDPs, the territory also has a high level of Economic inequality, wealth disparity. Macau's gaming industry is the largest in the world, generating over MOP195 billion (US$24 billion) in revenue and about seven times larger than that of
Las Vegas Las Vegas (; for "The Meadows"), often known simply as Vegas, is the in the United States, the most populous city in the of , and the of . The city anchors the metropolitan area and is the largest city within the greater . Las Vegas is ...

Las Vegas
. Macau's gambling revenue was $37 billion in 2018. The regional economy is heavily reliant on casino gaming. The vast majority of government funding (79.6 percent of total tax revenue) comes from gaming. Gambling as a share of GDP peaked in 2013 at over 60 percent, and continues to account for 49.1 percent of total economic output. The vast majority of casino patrons are tourists from mainland China, making up 68 percent of all visitors. Casino gaming is illegal in both the mainland and Hong Kong, giving Macau a legal monopoly on the industry in China. Revenue from Chinese high rollers has been falling and was forecast to fall as much as 10% more in 2019. Economic uncertainty may account for some of the drop, but alternate Asian gambling venues do as well. For example, Chinese visitors to the Philippines more than doubled between 2015 and 2018, since the City of Dreams casino opened in Manila. Casino gambling was legalized in 1962 and the gaming industry initially operated under a government-licensed monopoly granted to the Sociedade de Turismo e Diversões de Macau. This license was renegotiated and renewed several times before ending in 2002 after 40 years. The government then allowed open bidding for casino licenses to attract foreign investors.. Along with an easing of travel restrictions on mainland Chinese visitors, this triggered a period of rapid economic growth; from 1999 to 2016, Macau's gross domestic product multiplied by 7 and the unemployment rate dropped from 6.3 to 1.9 percent. The Sands Macao, Wynn Macau, MGM Macau, and Venetian Macau were all opened during the first decade after liberalisation of casino concessions. Casinos employ about 24 percent of the total workforce in the region. "Increased competition from casinos popping up across Asia to lure away Chinese high rollers and tourists" in Singapore, South Korea, Japan, Nepal, the Philippines, Australia, Vietnam and the Russian Far East led in 2019 to the lowest revenues in three years. Export-oriented manufacturing previously contributed to a much larger share of economic output, peaking at 36.9 percent of GDP in 1985 and falling to less than 1 percent in 2017. The bulk of these exports were cotton textiles and apparel, but also included toys and electronics. At the transfer of sovereignty in 1999, manufacturing, financial services, construction and real estate, and gaming were the four largest sectors of the economy. Macau's shift to an economic model entirely dependent on gaming caused concern over its overexposure to a single sector, prompting the regional government to attempt re-diversifying its economy. The government traditionally had a non-interventionist role in the economy and taxes corporations at very low rates. Post-handover administrations have generally been more involved in enhancing social welfare to counter the cyclical nature of the gaming industry. Economic growth has been attributed in large part to the high number of mainlander visits to Macau, and the central government exercises a role in guiding casino business growth through its control of the flow of tourists. The Mainland and Macau Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement, Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement formalized a policy of free trade between Macau and mainland China, with each jurisdiction pledging to remove remaining obstacles to trade and cross-boundary investment. Due to a lack of available land for farming, agriculture is not significant in the economy. Food is exclusively imported to Macau and almost all foreign goods are transshipped through Hong Kong.


Infrastructure


Transport

Macau has a highly developed road system, with over of roads. Automobiles drive Left- and right-hand traffic, on the left (unlike in both mainland China and Portugal), due to historical influence of the Portuguese Empire. Vehicle traffic is extremely congested, especially in the oldest part of the city, where streets are the narrowest. Public bus services operate over 80 routes, supplemented by free hotel shuttle buses that also run routes to popular tourist attractions and downtown locations. About 1,500 black taxicabs are licensed in the territory. The Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge, opened in 2018, provides a direct link with the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary. Cross-boundary traffic to mainland China may also pass through border checkpoints at the Portas do Cerco and Lótus Bridge.
Macau International Airport Macau International Airport ( pt, Aeroporto Internacional de Macau) is an international airport in the special administrative region of Macau, situated at the eastern end of Taipa island and neighbouring waters which opened for commercial ...
serves over 8 million passengers each year and is the primary hub for local flag carrier Air Macau. Ferry services to Hong Kong and mainland China operate out of ferry terminals such as Taipa Ferry Terminal. Daily helicopter service is also available to Hong Kong and Shenzhen. Phase 1 of the territory's first rail network, the Macau Light Rapid Transit, began operations in December 2019. The Taipa line connects 11 metro stations throughout Taipa and Cotai.


Healthcare

Macau is served by one major public hospital, the Hospital Conde S. Januário, and one major private hospital, the Kiang Wu Hospital, both located in Macau Peninsula, as well as a university associated hospital called Macau University of Science and Technology Hospital in Cotai. In addition to hospitals, Macau also has numerous health centers providing free basic medical care to residents. Consultation in traditional Chinese medicine is also available. None of the Macau hospitals are independently assessed through international healthcare accreditation. A Western culture, Western-style medical school was opened in Macau in 2019 by the Macau University of Science and Technology, with an annual intake of 50 students. Local nurses are trained at the Macau Polytechnic Institute and the Kiang Wu Nursing College. Currently there are no training courses in midwifery in Macau. A study by the University of Macau, commissioned by the Macau SAR government, concluded that Macau is too small to have its own medical specialist training center. Print title: "Patients running out" The Fire Services Bureau is responsible for ambulance service (Ambulância de Macau). The Macau Red Cross also operates ambulances (Toyota HiAce vans) for emergency and non-emergencies to local hospitals with volunteer staff. The organization has a total of 739 uniformed firefighters and paramedics serving from 7 stations in Macau. The Health Bureau in Macau is mainly responsible for coordinating the activities between the public and private organizations in the area of public health, and assure the health of citizens through specialized and primary health care services, as well as disease prevention and health promotion. The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (Macau), Macau Center for Disease Control and Prevention was established in 2001, which monitors the operation of hospitals, health centers, and the blood transfusion center in Macau. It also handles the organization of care and prevention of diseases affecting the population, sets guidelines for hospitals and private healthcare providers, and issues medical license, licenses. Macau healthcare authorities send patients to Queen Mary Hospital (Hong Kong), Queen Mary Hospital in Hong Kong in instances where the local Macau hospitals are not equipped to deal with their scenarios, and many Macau residents intentionally seek healthcare in Hong Kong because they place more trust in Hong Kong doctors than in Mainland-trained doctors operating in Macau.


Education

Education in Macau does not have a single centralized set of standards or curriculum. Individual schools follow different educational models, including Chinese, Portuguese, Hong Kong, and British systems.. Children are required to attend school from the age of five until completion of lower secondary school, or at age 15. Of residents aged 3 and older, 69 percent completed lower secondary education, 49 percent graduated from an upper secondary school, 21 percent earned a bachelor's degree or higher. Mandatory education has contributed to an adult literacy rate of 96.5 percent. While lower than that of other developed economies, the rate is due to the influx of refugees from mainland China during the post-war colonial era. Much of the elderly population were not formally educated due to war and poverty. Most schools in the territory are private institutions. Out of the 77 non-tertiary schools, 10 are public and the other 67 are privately run.. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Macau maintains an important position in territorial education, managing 27 primary and secondary schools. The government provides 15 years of free education for all residents enrolled in publicly run schools, and subsidizes tuition for students in private schools. Students at the secondary school level studying in neighboring areas of Guangdong are also eligible for tuition subsidies. The vast majority of schools use Cantonese as the medium of instruction, with written education in Chinese and compulsory classes in Mandarin. A minority of private schools use English or Portuguese as the primary teaching language. Portuguese-Chinese schools mainly use Chinese, but additionally require mandatory Portuguese-language classes as part of their curriculum. Macau has List of universities and colleges in Macau, ten universities and tertiary education institutes. The University of Macau, founded in 1981, is the territory's only public comprehensive university. The Kiang Wu Hospital#Kiang Wu Nursing College of Macau, Kiang Wu Nursing College of Macau is the oldest higher institute, specializing in educating future nursing staff for the college's parent hospital. The University of Saint Joseph, Macau University of Science and Technology, and the City University of Macau were all established in subsequent years. Five other institutes specialize in specific vocations or provide continuing education.


Culture

The mixing of Culture of China, Chinese and Portuguese culture and religious traditions for more than four centuries has left Macau with an inimitable collection of holidays, festivals and events. The biggest event of the year is the Macau Grand Prix each November, when the main streets of the Macau Peninsula are converted to a racetrack bearing similarities with the Monaco Grand Prix. Other annual events include Macau Arts festival in March, the International Fireworks Display Contest in September, the International Music festival in October and/or November, and the Macau International Marathon in December. The Lunar Chinese New Year is the most important traditional festival, and celebration normally takes place in late January or early February. The Pou Tai Un Temple in Taipa is the place for the Feast of Tou Tei, the Earth god, in February. The Procession of the Passion of Our Lord is a well-known Roman Catholic rite and journey, which travels from Saint Austin's Church to the cathedral, also taking place in February. The A-Ma Temple, which honors the Goddess Matsu, is in full swing in April with many worshipers celebrating the A-Ma festival. In May it is common to see dancing dragons at the Feast of the Drunken Dragon and twinkling-clean Buddhas at the Feast of the Bathing of Lord Buddha. In Coloane Village, the Taoist god Tam Kong is also honored on the same day. Dragon Boat Festival is brought into play on Nam Van Lake in June and Hungry Ghosts' festival, in late August and/or early September every year. All events and festivities of the year end with Dongzhi Festival, Winter Solstice in December. Macau preserves many historical properties in the urban area. Its
historic center History (from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. Events occurring before the History of writing#Inventions of writing, invention of writing systems are considered ...
, which includes some twenty-five historic locations, was officially listed as a World Heritage Site by
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
on 15 July 2005 during the 29th session of the World Heritage Committee, held in Durban, South Africa. However, the Macao government is criticized for ignoring the conservation of heritage in urban planning. In 2007, local residents of Macao wrote a letter to
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
complaining about construction projects around world heritage Guia Lighthouse (Focal height ), including the headquarter of the Liaison Office (). UNESCO then issued a warning to the Macau government, which led former Chief Executive Edmund Ho to sign a notice regulating height restrictions on buildings around the site. In 2015, the New Macau Association submitted a report to
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
claiming that the government had failed to protect Macao's cultural heritage against threats by urban development projects. One of the main examples of the report is that the headquarter of the Liaison Office of the Central People's Government, which is located on the Guia foothill and obstructs the view of the Guia Fortress (one of the world heritages symbols of Macao). One year later, Roni Amelan, a spokesman from UNESCO Press service, said that the UNESCO has asked China for information and is still waiting for a reply. In 2016, the Macau government approved an -tall construction limit for the residential project, which reportedly goes against the city's regulations on the height of buildings around world heritage site Guia Lighthouse.


Cuisine

Food in Macau is mainly based on both Cantonese cuisine, Cantonese and Portuguese cuisine, drawing influences from Indian cuisine, Indian and Malay cuisine, Malay dishes as well, reflecting a unique cultural and culinary blend after centuries of colonial rule. Portuguese recipes were adapted to use local ingredients, such as fresh seafood, turmeric, coconut milk, and adzuki beans. These adaptations produced Macanese variations of traditional Portuguese dishes including ''caldo verde'', minchee, and ''cozido à portuguesa''. While many restaurants claim to serve traditional Portuguese or Macanese dishes, most serve a mix of Cantonese-Portuguese fusion cuisine. ''Galinha à portuguesa'' is an example of a Chinese dish that draws from Macanese influences, but is not part of Macanese cuisine.. ''Cha chaan teng'', a type of fast casual diner originating in Hong Kong that serves that region's interpretation of Western food, are also prevalent in Macau. ''Pastel de nata'', pork chop buns, and almond biscuits are popular street food items.


Sports

Despite its small area, Macau is home to a variety of sports and recreational facilities that have hosted a number of major international sporting events, including the 2005 East Asian Games, the 2006 Lusophony Games, and the 2007 Asian Indoor Games. The territory regularly hosts the Macau Grand Prix, one of the most significant annual motorsport competitions that uses city streets as the racetrack. It is the only street circuit that hosts Formula Three, touring car, and motorcycle races in the same event. The Guia Circuit, with narrow corner clearance and a winding path, is considered an extremely challenging course and a serious milestone for prospective Formula One racers. Macau represents itself separately from mainland China with its own sports teams in international competitions. The territory maintains its own Sports and Olympic Committee of Macau, China, National Olympic Committee, but does not compete in the Olympic Games. International Olympic Committee rules specify that new NOCs can only be admitted if they represent sovereign states (Hong Kong has participated in the Olympics since before the regulation change in 1996).


Twin towns and sister cities

Macau has six Sister city, sister cities, listed chronologically by year joined: * Lisbon, Portugal (1982) * Porto, Portugal (1997) * Linköping, Sweden (1997) * Coimbra, Portugal (1998) * São Paulo, Brazil (2000) * Praia, Cape Verde (2007) Additionally, Macau has other cultural agreements with the following cities: * Brussels, Belgium (1991) * San Francisco, United States (2001) * Da Nang, Vietnam (2006) * Phuket Province, Phuket, Thailand (2018)


Union of Luso-Afro-Americo-Asiatic Capital Cities

Macau is part of the Union of Luso-Afro-Americo-Asiatic Capital Cities from 28 June 1985, establishing brotherly relations with the following cities: * Bissau, Guinea-Bissau * Dili, East Timor * Lisbon, Portugal * Luanda, Angola * Maputo, Mozambique * Panaji (Panjim), India * Praia, Cape Verde * Rio de Janeiro, Brazil * São Tomé, São Tomé and Príncipe


See also

* Foreign relations of Macau * Outline of Macau * Index of Macau-related articles * Cuiheng, Cuiheng New Area


Notes


References


Citations


Sources


Government reports

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Academic publications

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Legislation

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Print

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News articles

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External links


Macau
''The World Factbook''. Central Intelligence Agency.
Macau
from BBC News ; Government
Gov.MO
Macau SAR Government Portal
Macao Government Tourism Office

Macau SAR News
; Trade
World Bank Summary Trade Statistics Macao
; Maps * * {{Authority control Macau, People's Republic of China 1557 establishments in Asia Cities in China Former colonies in Asia Former Portuguese colonies Pearl River Delta Populated coastal places in China Port cities and towns in China Portuguese-speaking countries and territories Special administrative regions of China States and territories established in 1999 South China South China Sea