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The Liturgy of the Hours (
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
: ''Liturgia Horarum'') or Divine Office (Latin: ''Officium Divinum'') or Work of God (Latin: ''Opus Dei'') are the
canonical hours In the practice of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth. It is t ...
, often also referred to as the
breviary A breviary (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it b ...
, of the
Latin rite Latin liturgical rites, or Western liturgical rites, are Catholic rites of public worship employed by the Latin Church , native_name_lang = la , image = San Giovanni in Laterano - Rome.jpg , imagewidth = 250px , ...
s of the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic Church
. The Liturgy of the Hours forms the official set of prayers "marking the hours of each day and sanctifying the day with prayer." The term "Liturgy of the Hours" has been retroactively applied to the practices of saying the canonical hours in both the Christian East and
West 250px, A compass rose with west highlighted in black West or Occident is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet-based directions are conventionally defined. A co ...
prior to the
Second Vatican Council The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, commonly known as the , or , was the 21st ecumenical council An ecumenical council (or oecumenical council; also general council) is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological e ...
, and is the official term for the canonical hours promulgated for usage by the
Latin Church , native_name_lang = la , image = San Giovanni in Laterano - Rome.jpg , imagewidth = 250px , alt = Façade of the Archbasilica of St. John in Lateran , caption = Archbasilica of Saint Joh ...
in 1971. Before 1971, the official form for the
Latin Church , native_name_lang = la , image = San Giovanni in Laterano - Rome.jpg , imagewidth = 250px , alt = Façade of the Archbasilica of St. John in Lateran , caption = Archbasilica of Saint Joh ...
was the '' Breviarium Romanum'', first published in 1568 with major editions through 1962. The Liturgy of the Hours, like many other forms of the canonical hours, consists primarily of
psalms The Book of Psalms ( or ; he, תְּהִלִּים, , lit. "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms, the Psalter or "the Psalms", is the first book of the ("Writings"), the third section of the Tanakh The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh ...

psalms
supplemented by
hymns A hymn is a type of song A song is a musical composition intended to be performed by the human voice. This is often done at melody, distinct and fixed pitches (melodies) using patterns of sound and silence. Songs contain various song form, ...
, readings, and other prayers and
antiphon An antiphon (Greek language, Greek ἀντίφωνον, ἀντί "opposite" and φωνή "voice") is a short chant in Christianity, Christian ritual, sung as a refrain. The texts of antiphons are the Psalms. Their form was favored by St Ambrose a ...
s prayed at
fixed prayer times Fixed prayer times, praying at dedicated times during the day, are common practice in major world religions such as Judaism Judaism is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Se ...
. Together with the
Mass Mass is the quantity Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude, which illustrate discontinuity and continuity. Quantities can be compared in terms of "more", "less", or "equal", or by assigning a numerical value ...
, it constitutes the official public prayer life of the Church. The recitation of the Divine Office also forms the basis of prayer within
Christian monasticism Christian monasticism is the devotional practice of Christians who live Asceticism#Christianity, ascetic and typically cloistered lives that are dedicated to Christian worship. It began to develop early in the history of the Christian Church, m ...
, with many orders producing their own permutations of the Liturgy of the Hours and older Roman Breviary. Celebration of the Divine Office is an obligation undertaken by priests and deacons intending to become priests, while deacons intending to remain deacons are obliged to recite only a part. The constitutions of
religious institute A religious institute is a type of institute of consecrated life in the Catholic Church whose members take religious vows, religious vows and lead a life in community with fellow members. Religious institutes are one of the two types of institut ...
s generally oblige their members to celebrate at least parts and in some cases to do so jointly ("in choir"). The
laity In religious organizations, the laity consists of all members who are not part of the clergy Clergy are formal leaders within established s. Their roles and functions vary in different religious traditions, but usually involve presiding over ...
are under no public obligation to do so, but may oblige themselves to do so by personal vow, and "are encouraged to recite the divine office, either with the priests, or among themselves, or even individually". The liturgical canonical hours, along with the
Eucharist The Eucharist (; grc-gre, εὐχαριστία, eucharistía, thanksgiving) also known as Holy Communion and the Lord's Supper, among other names, is a Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monothe ...

Eucharist
, has formed part of the Church's public worship from the earliest times. Christians of both
Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western world, countries that ide ...
and
Eastern Eastern may refer to: Transportation *China Eastern Airlines, a current Chinese airline based in Shanghai *Eastern Air, former name of Zambia Skyways *Eastern Air Lines, a defunct American airline that operated from 1926 to 1991 *Eastern Air Lin ...
traditions (including the
Latin Catholic , native_name_lang = la , image = San Giovanni in Laterano - Rome.jpg , imagewidth = 250px , alt = Façade of the Archbasilica of St. John in Lateran , caption = Archbasilica of Saint John ...
,
Eastern Catholic The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, Eastern Rite Catholicism, or simply the Eastern Churches and in some historical cases referred to as ''Uniates'', are twenty-three East ...
,
Eastern Orthodox The Eastern Orthodox Church, also called the Orthodox Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptised members. It operates as a communion Communion may refer to: Religion * The Eucharist (also cal ...
,
Oriental Orthodox The Oriental Orthodox Churches are a group of Eastern Christian Eastern Christianity comprises Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings ...
, Assyrian,
Lutheran Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism that identifies with the teachings of Jesus Christ and was founded by Martin Luther, a 16th-century German monk and Protestant Reformers, reformer whose efforts to reform the theology ...
,
Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Christianity, Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called ''Anglicans''; t ...

Anglican
, and some other Protestant churches) celebrate the canonical hours in various forms and under various names. Within the
Latin Church , native_name_lang = la , image = San Giovanni in Laterano - Rome.jpg , imagewidth = 250px , alt = Façade of the Archbasilica of St. John in Lateran , caption = Archbasilica of Saint Joh ...
, the present official form of the entire Liturgy of the Hours is that contained in the four-volume Latin-language publication ''Liturgia Horarum'', the first edition of which appeared in 1971. English and other vernacular translations were soon produced and were made official for their territories by the competent
episcopal conference#REDIRECT Episcopal conference An episcopal conference, sometimes called a conference of bishops, is an official assembly of the Bishop (Catholic Church), bishops of the Catholic Church in a given territory. Episcopal conferences have long existed a ...
s. For Catholics in primarily
Commonwealth nations The Commonwealth of Nations, generally known simply as the Commonwealth, is a political association of 54 member states, almost all of which are former territories A territory is an administrative division, usually an area that is under the ...

Commonwealth nations
, the three-volume ''Divine Office'', which uses a range of different English Bibles for the readings from Scripture, was published in 1974. The four-volume ''Liturgy of the Hours'', with Scripture readings from the ''
New American Bible The New American Bible (NAB) is an English translation English usually refers to: * English language * English people English may also refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * ''English'', an adjective for something of, from, or relate ...
'', appeared in 1975 with approval from the
United States Conference of Catholic Bishops The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB) is the episcopal conference of the Catholic Church in the United States. Founded in 1966 as the joint National Conference of Catholic Bishops (NCCB) and United States Catholic Conference ( ...

United States Conference of Catholic Bishops
. In the
Byzantine Rite The Byzantine Rite, also known as the Greek Rite or the Rite of Constantinople, identifies the wide range of cultural, liturgical, and canonical practices that developed in the Eastern Orthodox Church of Constantinople. The canonical hours are v ...
, the corresponding services are found in the ''
Horologion The ''Horologion'' ( grc-gre, Ὡρολόγιον; Church Slavonic Church Slavonic (''црькъвьнословѣньскъ ѩзыкъ'', ''crĭkŭvĭnoslověnĭskŭ językŭ'', literally "Church-Slavonic language"), also known as Church Slav ...
'' (), meaning ''Book of Hours''. The Lutheran counterpart is contained in the liturgical books used by the various Lutheran church bodies, such as
The Brotherhood Prayer BookEvangelisch-Lutherische Gebetsbruderschaft (''Evangelical Lutheran Prayer Brotherhood'') is a German Lutheran Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism that identifies with the teachings of Martin Luther, a 16th-century German Pr ...
.
Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Christianity, Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called ''Anglicans''; t ...

Anglican
canonical hours differ depending on the jurisdiction, but are generally found in locally-approved editions of the
Book of Common Prayer A book is a medium for recording information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sense, data are a set of v ...

Book of Common Prayer
. Alternate options are also found in the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
's Daily Prayer of
Common Worship Three ''Common Worship'' liturgy books. From left to right they are ''Daily Prayer'' (red), ''Pastoral Services'' (green) and the ''Main Volume'' (black).''Common Worship'' is the name given to the series of services authorised by the General Synod ...
, as well as in
Anglo-Catholic Anglo-Catholicism, Anglican Catholicism, or Catholic Anglicanism comprises people, beliefs and practices within Anglicanism Anglicanism is a Western Christianity, Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, ...
texts such as the
Anglican Breviary The ''Anglican Breviary'' is the Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Christianity, Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherent ...

Anglican Breviary
. Other names in
Latin liturgical rites Latin liturgical rites, or Western liturgical rites, are Catholic rites of public worship employed by the Latin Church , native_name_lang = la , image = San Giovanni in Laterano - Rome.jpg , imagewidth = 250px , ...
for the Liturgy of the Hours include "Diurnal and Nocturnal Office", "Ecclesiastical Office", ''Cursus ecclesiasticus'', or simply ''cursus''.


Origins

The General Instruction of the Liturgy of Hours in the Roman Rite states: "The public and communal prayer of the people of God is rightly considered among the first duties of the Church. From the very beginning the baptized 'remained faithful to the teaching of the apostles, to the brotherhood, to the breaking of bread and to the prayers' (Acts 2 :42). Many times the Acts of the Apostles testifies that the Christian community prayed together. The testimony of the early Church shows that individual faithful also devoted themselves to prayer at certain hours. In various areas the practice soon gained ground of devoting special times to prayer in common."
Early Christians The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religi ...
were in fact continuing the Jewish practice of reciting prayers at certain hours of the day or night. In the
Psalms The Book of Psalms ( or ; he, תְּהִלִּים, , lit. "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms, the Psalter or "the Psalms", is the first book of the ("Writings"), the third section of the Tanakh The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh ...

Psalms
are found expressions like "in the morning I offer you my prayer"; "At midnight I will rise and thank you"; "Evening, morning and at noon I will cry and lament"; "Seven times a day I praise you". The
Apostles upright=1.35, Jesus and his Twelve Apostles, Chi-Rho symbol ☧, Catacombs of Domitilla">Chi_Rho.html" ;"title="fresco with the Chi Rho">Chi-Rho symbol ☧, Catacombs of Domitilla, Rome In Christian theology and ecclesiology, apostles, parti ...

Apostles
observed the Jewish custom of praying at the third, sixth, and ninth hours, and at midnight (Acts 10:3, 9; 16:25; etc.). The Christian prayer of that time consisted of almost the same elements as the Jewish: recital or chanting of psalms and reading of the Old Testament, to which were soon added readings of the Gospels, Acts, and epistles, and
canticle A canticle (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the ...
s. Other elements were added later in the course of the centuries. From the time of the early Church, the practice of seven fixed prayer times have been taught; in ''
Apostolic Tradition The Apostolic Tradition (or Egyptian Church Order) is an early Christian treatise which belongs to the genre of the Church Orders. It has been described to be of "incomparable importance as a source of information about church life and liturgy i ...
'', Hippolytus instructed Christians to pray seven times a day "on rising, at the lighting of the evening lamp, at bedtime, at midnight" and "the third, sixth and ninth hours of the day, being hours associated with Christ's Passion."


Canonical hours


Previous structure

By the time of
Benedict of Nursia Benedict of Nursia ( la, Benedictus Nursiae; it, Benedetto da Norcia; la, label=Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin, is non-literary Literature broadly is any collection of written Writing is a m ...

Benedict of Nursia
(ca. 500 CE), the monastic Divine Office was composed of seven daytime hours and one at night. In his ''
Rule of St. Benedict The ''Rule of Saint Benedict'' ( la, Regula Sancti Benedicti) is a book of precepts written in 516 by Benedict of Nursia ( AD 480–550) for monks living communally under the authority of an abbot. The spirit of Saint Benedict's Rule is summed u ...
'', he associated the practice with Psalm 118/119:164, "Seven times a day I praise you", and Psalm 118/119:62, "At midnight I rise to praise you". Of these eight hours,
Prime A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that is not a Product (mathematics), product of two smaller natural numbers. A natural number greater than 1 that is not prime is called a composite number. For example, 5 is prime ...
and
Compline Compline ( ), also known as Complin, Night Prayer, or the Prayers at the End of the Day, is the final church service (or office An office is a space where an Organization, organization's employees perform Business administration, adminis ...
may be the latest to appear, because the 4th-century
Apostolic Constitutions The ''Apostolic Constitutions'' or ''Constitutions of the Holy Apostles'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the a ...
VIII iv 34 do not mention them in the exhortation "Offer up your prayers in the morning, at the third hour, the sixth, the ninth, the evening, and at cock-crowing". The eight are known by the following names, which do not reflect the times of day at which in the second millennium they have traditionally been recited, as shown by the use of the word "noon", derived from
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
'' (hora) nona'', to mean midday, not 3 in the afternoon: *
Matins Matins (also Mattins) is a canonical hour In the practice of Christianity, canonical hours mark the divisions of the day in terms of Fixed prayer times#Christianity, fixed times of prayer at regular intervals. A book of hours, chiefly a bre ...
(during the night, at about 2 a.m.); also called
Vigil A vigil, from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in ...
and perhaps composed of two or three
Nocturns Nocturns (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repub ...
*
Lauds Lauds is a canonical hour In the practice of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, ...
or Dawn Prayer (at dawn, about 5 a.m., but earlier in summer, later in winter) *
Prime A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that is not a Product (mathematics), product of two smaller natural numbers. A natural number greater than 1 that is not prime is called a composite number. For example, 5 is prime ...
or Early Morning Prayer (First Hour = approximately 6 a.m.) *
Terce Terce, or Third Hour, is a fixed time of prayer of the Divine Office in almost all the Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Chr ...
or Mid-Morning Prayer (Third Hour = approximately 9 a.m.) *
Sext Sext, or Sixth Hour, is a fixed time of prayer of the Divine Office of almost all the traditional Christian liturgies. It consists mainly of psalm The Book of Psalms ( or ; he, תְּהִלִּים, , lit. "praises"), commonly referred to s ...
or Midday Prayer (Sixth Hour = approximately 12 noon) *
None None may refer to: * Zero, the mathematical concept of the quantity "none" * Empty set, the mathematical concept of the collection of things represented by "none" *''none'', an indefinite pronoun An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun In linguistics ...
or Mid-Afternoon Prayer (Ninth Hour = approximately 3 p.m.) *
Vespers Vespers is a service of evening prayer, one of the canonical hours In the practice of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life ...

Vespers
or Evening Prayer ("at the lighting of the lamps", about 6 p.m.) *
Compline Compline ( ), also known as Complin, Night Prayer, or the Prayers at the End of the Day, is the final church service (or office An office is a space where an Organization, organization's employees perform Business administration, adminis ...
or Night Prayer (before retiring, about 7 p.m.) This arrangement of the Divine Office is described by Benedict. However, it is found in
John Cassian John Cassian, also known as John the Ascetic and John Cassian the Roman ( la, Ioannes Eremita Cassianus, ''Ioannus Cassianus'', or ''Ioannes Massiliensis''; – ), was a Christian monk Christian monasticism is the devotional practice of Chris ...
's ''Institutes'' and ''Conferences'', which describe the
monastic Monasticism (from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ...
practices of the
Desert Fathers The Desert Fathers or Desert Monks were early Christian hermit A hermit, or eremite (adjectival form In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, a ...
of Egypt.


Current structure in the Roman Rite

After the
Second Vatican Council The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, commonly known as the , or , was the 21st ecumenical council An ecumenical council (or oecumenical council; also general council) is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological e ...
, which decided that the hour of prime should be suppressed,
Pope Paul VI Pope Paul VI ( la, Paulus VI; it, Paolo VI; born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini, ; 26 September 18976 August 1978) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the ...
decreed a new arrangement of the Liturgy of the Hours. The structure of the offices, the distribution of psalms, and the prayers were updated. The distinction, already expressed in the 1960
Code of Rubrics The Code of Rubrics is a three-part liturgical document promulgated in 1960 under Pope John XXIII, which in the form of a code (law), legal code indicated the canon law of the Catholic Church, liturgical and sacramental law governing the celebration ...
, between the three major hours (Matins, Lauds and Vespers) and the minor hours (Terce, Sext, None and Compline) has been retained. * The ''Officium lectionis'', or Office of Readings, (formerly
Matins Matins (also Mattins) is a canonical hour In the practice of Christianity, canonical hours mark the divisions of the day in terms of Fixed prayer times#Christianity, fixed times of prayer at regular intervals. A book of hours, chiefly a bre ...
) – major hour * Lauds or Morning Prayer – major hour *
Daytime Prayer In Christianity, the Little Hours or minor hours are the canonical hours other than the three major hours. In the Syriac Orthodox Church and the Indian Orthodox Church, two denominations in Oriental Orthodox Christianity, these fixed prayer times ...
– minor hour or hours, one or more of: ** Terce or Midmorning Prayer before Noon ** Sext or Midday Prayer ** None or Afternoon or Midafternoon Prayer * Vespers or Evening Prayer – major hour * Compline or Night Prayer – minor hour All hours, including the minor hours, start with the
versicleIn Christian liturgical worship, preces ( ) () are short petitions that are said or sung as versicles and responses by the officiant and Wiktionary:congregation, congregation respectively. This form of prayer is one of the oldest in Christianity, f ...
from Ps 70 (69) v. 2 (as do all offices in the traditional
breviary A breviary (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it b ...
except Matins and Compline): V. ''Deus, in adiutorium meum intende''; R. ''Domine, ad adiuvandum me festina'' (God, come to my assistance; Lord, make haste to help me), followed by the
doxology A doxology (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: Myce ...
. The verse is omitted if the hour begins with the Invitatory (Morning Prayer/Lauds or the Office of Reading). The Invitatory is the introduction to the first hour said on the current day, whether it be the Office of Readings or Morning Prayer. The opening is followed by a
hymn A hymn is a type of song A song is a musical composition Musical composition can refer to an piece or work of , either or , the of a musical piece or to the process of creating or writing a new piece of music. People who create ...

hymn
. The hymn is followed by
psalmody The Book of Psalms ( or ; he, תְּהִלִּים, , lit. "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms, the Psalter or "the Psalms", is the first book of the ''Ketuvim'' ("Writings"), the third section of the Tanakh, and a book of the Ch ...

psalmody
. The psalmody is followed by a scripture reading. The reading is called a chapter (''capitulum'') if it is short, or a lesson (''lectio'') if it is long. The reading is followed by a versicle. The hour is closed by an oration followed by a concluding versicle. Other components are included depending on the exact type of hour being celebrated. In each office, the psalms and canticle are framed by
antiphon An antiphon (Greek language, Greek ἀντίφωνον, ἀντί "opposite" and φωνή "voice") is a short chant in Christianity, Christian ritual, sung as a refrain. The texts of antiphons are the Psalms. Their form was favored by St Ambrose a ...
s, and each concludes with the traditional Catholic
doxology A doxology (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: Myce ...
.


Major hours

The major hours are the Office of Readings, Morning (or Lauds) and Evening Prayer (or Vespers). The Office of Readings consists of: * opening versicle or invitatory * a hymn * three psalms or portions of psalms * a long passage from scripture, usually arranged consecutively from the same book of the Bible for one or more weeks * a long patristic or magisterial passage or, on the feast of a saint, a hagiographical passage concerning the saint * on nights preceding Sundays and feast days, the office may be expanded to a ''
vigil A vigil, from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in ...
'' by inserting three
Old Testament The Old Testament (often abbreviated OT) is the first division of the Christian biblical canon A biblical canon or canon of scripture is a set of texts (or "books") which a particular Jewish or Christian religious community regards as aut ...
canticles and a reading from the
gospels Gospel originally meant the Christian message ("the gospel"), but in the 2nd century it came to be used also for the books in which the message was set out. In this sense a gospel can be defined as a loose-knit, episodic narrative of the words and ...
* the hymn ''
Te Deum The "Te Deum" (, ; from its incipit The incipit () of a text is the first few words of the text, employed as an identifying label. In a musical composition File:Chord chart.svg, 250px, Jazz and rock genre musicians may memorize the melod ...
'' (on Sundays, solemnities, and feasts, except in Lent) * the concluding prayer * a short concluding verse (especially when prayed in groups) The character of Morning Prayer is that of praise; of Evening Prayer, that of thanksgiving. Both follow a similar format: * opening versicle or (for morning prayer) the invitatory * a hymn, composed by the Church * two psalms, or parts of psalms with a scriptural canticle. At Morning Prayer, this consists of a psalm of praise, a canticle from the Old Testament, followed by another psalm. At Evening Prayer this consists of two psalms, or one psalm divided into two parts, and a scriptural canticle taken from the
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as ...

New Testament
. * a short passage from scripture * a
responsory A responsory or respond is a type of chant in western Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ...
, typically a verse of scripture, but sometimes liturgical poetry * a canticle taken from the
Gospel of Luke The Gospel according to Luke ( el, Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Λουκᾶν , translit=Euangélion katà Loukân), also called the Gospel of Luke or simply Luke, tells of the origins, Nativity of Jesus, birth, Ministry of Jesus, ministry, Cr ...
: the Canticle of Zechariah (''Benedictus'') for morning prayer, and the Canticle of Mary (''
Magnificat The Magnificat (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the ...

Magnificat
'') for evening prayer * intercessions, composed by the Church * the
Lord's Prayer The Lord's Prayer, also called the Our Father ( la, Pater Noster), is a central Christian prayer Christian prayer is an important activity in Christianity, and there are several different forms used for this practice. Christian prayers are div ...
* the concluding prayer, composed by the Church * a blessing given by the
priest A priest is a religious leader Clergy are formal leaders within established religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social w ...

priest
or
deacon A deacon is a member of the diaconate, an office in Christianity, Christian churches that is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions. Major Christian churches, such as the C ...

deacon
leading Morning or Evening Prayer, or in the absence of clergy and in individual recitation, a short concluding versicle.


Minor hours

The daytime hours follow a simpler format, like a very compact form of the Office of Readings: * opening versicle * a hymn * three short psalms, or, three pieces of longer psalms; in the daytime hours when only one is said it follows a variable psalmody which usually opens with part of the longest psalm, psalm 118/119; when all three are said this psalmody is used at one of the hours, while the other two follow the complementary psalmody which consists of 119/120–121/122 at Terce, 122/123–124/125 at Sext and 125/126–127/128 at None * a very short passage of scripture, followed by a responsorial verse * the concluding prayer * a short concluding verse (V. ''Benedicamus Domino.'' R. ''Deo gratias.'') Night prayer (Compline) has the character of preparing the soul for its passage to eternal life: * opening versicle * an
examination of conscience Examination of conscience is a review of one's past thoughts, words, actions, and omissions for the purpose of ascertaining their conformity with, or deviation from, the moral law. Among Christians, this is generally a private review; secular intel ...
* a hymn * a psalm, or two short psalms; The psalms of Sunday – Psalm 90/91 or 4 and 133/134 – may always be used as an alternative to the psalm(s) appointed on weekdays * a short reading from scripture * the responsory ''In manus tuas, Domine'' (Into Your Hands, Lord) * the Canticle of Simeon, ''
Nunc dimittis The Nunc dimittis (), also known as the Song of Simeon or the Canticle of Simeon, is a canticle taken from the second chapter of the Gospel of Luke The Gospel according to Luke ( el, Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Λουκᾶν , translit=Euan ...

Nunc dimittis
'', from the Gospel of Luke, framed by the antiphon ''Salva nos'' (Save us Lord) * a concluding prayer * a short blessing (''Noctem quietam et finem perfectum concedat nobis Dominus omnipotens.'' Amen.) *
Marian antiphon Marian hymns are Christian song A song is a musical composition File:Chord chart.svg, 250px, Jazz and rock genre musicians may memorize the melodies for a new song, which means that they only need to provide a chord chart to guide improv ...
without versicle and concluding prayer; either one of the four traditional seasonal antiphons, or ''Sub Tuum'', or another antiphon approved by the local episcopal conference; the ''Regina Caeli'' is always used in Eastertide.


Liturgical variation

In addition to the distribution of almost the whole Psalter over a four-week cycle, the Church also provides appropriate hymns, readings, psalms, canticles and antiphons, for use in marking specific celebrations in the
Roman Calendar The Roman calendar was the calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the designation of a single, specific ...
, which sets out the order for the
liturgical year The liturgical year, also known as the church year or Christian year, as well as the kalendar, consists of the cycle of liturgy, liturgical seasons in Christian churches that determines when feast days, including Calendar of saints, celebrati ...

liturgical year
. These selections are found in the 'Proper of Seasons' (for
Advent Advent is a season of the liturgical year The liturgical year, also known as the church year or Christian year, as well as the kalendar, consists of the cycle of liturgy, liturgical seasons in Christian churches that determines when fea ...

Advent
,
Christmas Christmas is an annual festival commemorating Nativity of Jesus, the birth of Jesus Christ, observed primarily on December 25 as a religious and cultural celebration among billions of people Observance of Christmas by country, around the world ...

Christmas
,
Lent Lent (Latin: ''Quadragesima'', 'Fortieth') is a Solemnity, solemn religious moveable feast#Lent, observance in the Christian liturgical calendar commemorating the Temptation of Jesus, 40 days Jesus spent fasting in the desert, according to the ...

Lent
and
Easter Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the ''Book of Common Prayer''; "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher''The Whole Works of the Most Rev. James Ussher, Volume 4'' and Samuel Pepys''The Diary of Samuel Pe ...

Easter
), and the 'Proper of Saints' (for
feast days The calendar of saints is the traditional Christian method of organizing a liturgical year by associating each day with one or more saint In religious belief, a saint is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of Q-D-Š, ho ...

feast days
of the Saints).


Usage

An Invitatory precedes the
canonical hours In the practice of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth. It is t ...
of the day beginning with the versicle "Lord, open my lips. And my mouth will proclaim your praise" (Ps 50/51 v.17), and continuing with an antiphon and the Invitatory Psalm, usually Psalm 94/95. All psalms and canticles are accompanied by antiphons. Unless the Invitatory is used, each Hour begins with the versicle "God, come to my assistance. Lord, make haste to help me" (Ps 69/70 v.2), followed by a hymn. Each Hour concludes with a prayer followed by a short versicle and response. Matins or the Office of Readings is the longest hour. Before Pope Pius X's reform, it involved the recitation of 18 psalms on Sundays and 12 on
feria ''Feria'' is a day other than the sabbath day In Abrahamic religions, the Sabbath (; ) is a day set aside for rest and worship. According to the Book of Exodus, the Sabbath is a day of rest on the seventh day, Ten Commandments, commanded by God t ...

feria
l days. Pope Pius X reduced this to 9 psalms or portions of psalms, still arranged in three "nocturns", each set of three psalms followed by three short readings, usually three consecutive sections from the same text. Pope Paul VI's reform reduced the number of psalms or portions of psalms to three, and the readings to two, but lengthened these. On feast days the Te Deum is sung or recited before the concluding prayer. After Pius X's reform, Lauds was reduced to four psalms or portions of psalms and an Old Testament canticle, putting an end to the custom of adding the last three psalms of the Psalter (148–150) at the end of Lauds every day. The number of psalms or portions of psalms is now reduced to two, together with one Old Testament canticle chosen from a wider range than before. After these there is a short reading and response and the singing or recitation of the ''
Benedictus Benedictus may refer to: Music * Benedictus (Song of Zechariah), ''Benedictus'' (''Song of Zechariah''), the canticle sung at Lauds, also called the Canticle of Zachary * The second part of the Sanctus, part of the Eucharistic prayer * Benedictus ...
''. Vespers has a very similar structure, differing in that Pius X assigned to it five psalms (now reduced to 2 psalms and a New Testament canticle) and the ''Magnificat'' took the place of the ''Benedictus''. On some days in Pius X's arrangement, but now always, there follow ''Preces'' or intercessions. In the present arrangement, the Lord's Prayer is also recited before the concluding prayer. Terce, Sext and None have an identical structure, each with three psalms or portions of psalms. These are followed by a short reading from Scripture, once referred to as a "little chapter" (capitulum), and by a versicle and response. The Lesser Litany (
Kyrie Kyrie, a transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elements or symbols, or that rep ...

Kyrie
and the Lord's Prayer) of Pius X's arrangement have now been omitted. Prime and Compline also were of similar structure, though different from Terce, Sext and None.


Books used

In monasteries and cathedrals, celebration of the Liturgy of the Hours became more elaborate. Served by monks or canons, regular celebration required a Psalter for the psalms, a
lectionary A lectionary ( la, lectionarium) is a book or listing that contains a collection of scripture Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious traditions consider to be sac ...
for the Scripture readings, other books for patristic and hagiographical readings, a collectary for the orations, and also books such as the antiphonary and the responsoriary for the various chants. These were usually of large size, to enable several monks to chant together from the same book. Smaller books called breviaries (a word that etymologically refers to a compendium or abridgment) were developed to indicate the format of the daily office and assist in identifying the texts to be chosen. These developed into books that gave in abbreviated form (because they omitted the chants) and in small lettering the whole of the texts, and so could be carried when travelling.
Pope Innocent III Pope Innocent III ( la, Innocentius III; 1160 or 1161 – 16 July 1216), born Lotario dei Conti di Segni (anglicized as Lothar of Segni Segni (, ) is an Italy, Italian town and ''comune'' located in Lazio. The city is situated on a hilltop i ...

Pope Innocent III
made them official in the
Roman Curia The Roman Curia ( la, Romana Curia ministerium suum implent) comprises the administrative institutions of the Holy See The Holy See ( lat, Sancta Sedes, ; it, Santa Sede ), also called the See of Rome or Apostolic See, is the jurisdi ...
, and the itinerant
Franciscan , image = FrancescoCoA PioM.svg , image_size = 250px , caption = A cross, Christ's arm and Saint Francis's arm, a universal symbol of the Franciscans , abbreviation = OFM , predecessor = , ...
friar A friar is a brother A brother is a man A man is an adult male Male (♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete known as sperm. A male gamete can fuse with a larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of fert ...
s adopted the ''Breviarium Curiae'' and soon spread its use throughout Europe. By the 14th century, these breviaries contained the entire text of the canonical hours. The invention of printing made it possible to produce them in great numbers. In its final session, the
Council of Trent The Council of Trent ( la, Concilium Tridentinum), held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent (or Trento, in northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of ...

Council of Trent
entrusted to the Pope the revision of the breviary. With his
Apostolic Constitution An apostolic constitution ( la, constitutio apostolica) is the most solemn form of legislation Legislation is the process or product of enrolling, enacting, or promulgating Promulgation is the formal proclamation or the declaration that a ...
''Quod a nobis'' of 9 July 1568,
Pope Pius V Pope Pius V (17 January 1504 – 1 May 1572), born Antonio Ghislieri (from 1518 called Michele Ghislieri, O.P.), was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian ...

Pope Pius V
promulgated an edition of the breviary, known as the
Roman Breviary The Roman Breviary (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repub ...
, which he imposed in the same way in which, two years later, he imposed his
Roman Missal The Roman Missal ( la, Missale Romanum) is the liturgical book of the Roman Rite that contains the texts and rubric A rubric is a word or section of text that is traditionally written or printed in red ink for emphasis. The word derives from ...
. Using language very similar to that in the bull ''
Quo primum ''Quo primum'' (''from the first'') is the incipit The incipit () of a text is the first few words of the text, employed as an identifying label. In a musical composition File:Chord chart.svg, 250px, Jazz and rock genre musicians may memor ...
'', with which he promulgated the Missal – regarding, for instance, the perpetual force of its provisions – he made it obligatory to use the promulgated text everywhere. He totally prohibited adding or omitting anything: "No one whosoever is permitted to alter this letter or heedlessly to venture to go contrary to this notice of Our permission, statute, ordinance, command, precept, grant, indult declaration, will decree and prohibition. Should anyone, however, presume to commit such an act, he should know that he will incur the wrath of Almighty God and of the Blessed Apostles Peter and Paul." It is obvious that he did not thereby intend to bind his successors.
Pope Clement VIII Pope Clement VIII ( la, Clemens VIII; 24 February 1536 – 3 March 1605), born Ippolito Aldobrandini, was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, ...

Pope Clement VIII
made changes that he made obligatory on 10 May 1602, 34 years after Pius V's revision. Urban VIII made further changes, including "a profound alteration in the character of some of the hymns. Although some of them without doubt gained in literary style, nevertheless, to the regret of many, they also lost something of their old charm of simplicity and fervour."Breviary
in Catholic Encyclopedia. The article also spoke of "blemishes which disfigure this book."
For the profound revision of the book by Pope Pius X see
Reform of the Roman Breviary by Pope Pius X The Reform of the Roman Breviary by Pope Pius X was promulgated by that Pope with the apostolic constitution An apostolic constitution ( la, constitutio apostolica) is the most solemn form of legislation Legislation is law which has been pro ...
. Finally, a new revision was made by
Pope Paul VI Pope Paul VI ( la, Paulus VI; it, Paolo VI; born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini, ; 26 September 18976 August 1978) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the ...
with his Apostolic Constitution ''Laudis Canticum'' of 1 November 1970. Many of the complicated rubrics (or instructions) that governed recitation of the Liturgy were clarified, and the actual method of praying the office was made simpler. Prime had already been abolished by the Second Vatican Council. Of the three intermediate Hours of Terce, Sext and None, only one was to be of strict obligation. Recitation of the psalms and a much increased number of canticles was spread over four weeks instead of one. By a personal decision of Pope Paul VI against the majority view of the revising commission, three imprecatory psalms (58, 83, and 109) were omitted from the psalter and some similar verses were omitted from other psalms, as indicated in the heading of each. These omissions, lamented by Joseph Briody, are attributed in the General Instruction of the Liturgy of the Hours to "certain psychological difficulties, even though the imprecatory psalms themselves may be found quoted in the New Testament, e.g. , and in no way are intended to be used as curses". Two typical editions of the revised Liturgy of the Hours (''Liturgia Horarum'') according to the Roman Rite have been published by Rome. The current typical edition is the ''Liturgia Horarum, editio typica altera'', promulgated in 1985 (printed between 1985 and 1987, and reprinted in 2000). This uses the New Vulgate Latin Bible for the readings, psalms and canticles rather than the Clementina. It has changed the text of some of the readings and responsories in line with the New Vulgate, and it provides the ''Benedictus'' and ''Magnificat'' on each Sunday with three antiphons that reflect the three-year cycle of Gospel readings. Pope Urban VIII's lamented alterations of the hymns are undone. Verse numberings are added to the Psalms and the longer Scripture readings, while the Psalms are given both the
Septuagint The Greek Old Testament, or Septuagint (, ; from the la, septuaginta, lit=seventy; often abbreviated ''70''; in Roman numerals Roman numerals are a that originated in and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe wel ...
numbering and (in parentheses) that of the
Masoretic text The Masoretic Text (MT or 𝕸; he, נוסח המסורה, Nusakh Ham'mas'sora) is the authoritative Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic languag ...
. New texts, taken from the ''
Missale Romanum The Roman Missal ( la, Missale Romanum) is the liturgical book Liturgy is the customary public worship Worship is an act of religion, religious wikt:devotion, devotion usually directed towards a deity. For many, worship is not about an emotio ...
'', have been added in an appendix for solemn blessings and the penitential acts. Thus far, this second Latin typical edition has only been translated in the "Liturgy of the Hours for Africa" The earlier edition has appeared in two English translations, one under the title "Liturgy of the Hours", the other as "The Divine Office".


Obligation of recitation

In the
Latin Church , native_name_lang = la , image = San Giovanni in Laterano - Rome.jpg , imagewidth = 250px , alt = Façade of the Archbasilica of St. John in Lateran , caption = Archbasilica of Saint Joh ...
of the Catholic Church, bishops, priests, and deacons planning to become priests are obliged to recite the full sequence of the hours each day, observing as closely as possible the associated times of day, and using the text of the approved liturgical books that apply to them.canon 276 §2 3²
of the
1983 Code of Canon Law The 1983 Code of Canon Law (abbreviated 1983 CIC from its Latin title ''Codex Iuris Canonici''), also called the Johanno-Pauline Code, is the "fundamental body of ecclesiastical laws for the Latin Church". It is the second and current comprehens ...
Permanent deacons A deacon is a member of the diaconate, an office in Christianity, Christian churches that is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions. Major Christian churches, such as the C ...
are to do so to the extent determined by their
Episcopal Conference #REDIRECT Episcopal conference#REDIRECT Episcopal conference An episcopal conference, sometimes called a conference of bishops, is an official assembly of the Bishop (Catholic Church), bishops of the Catholic Church in a given territory. Episcopal ...
. Members of
institutes of consecrated life An institute of consecrated life is an association of faithful in the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church ...
, societies of apostolic life, or other religious associations (e.g., Benedictine oblates, Third Order Dominicans) who are not clerics and are therefore not subject to these obligations are bound according to the norm of their constitutions. Members of such institutes and societies who are deacons, priests, or bishops, remain bound to their more severe obligation as clergy. Latin Church clerics can lawfully fulfill their obligation to pray the Office using the edition of the
Roman Breviary The Roman Breviary (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repub ...
promulgated by
John XXIII Pope John XXIII ( la, Ioannes; it, Giovanni; born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, ; 25 November 18813 June 1963) was Bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is ...
in 1961 rather than the current edition of the Liturgy of the Hours. While the 2007 ''
motu proprio In law, ''motu proprio'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the pow ...
'' ''
Summorum Pontificum ''Summorum Pontificum'' (English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually bec ...
'' states that communities belonging to institutes of religious life and societies of apostolic life require authorization only by their major superiors to use the 1962 edition of the
Roman Missal The Roman Missal ( la, Missale Romanum) is the liturgical book of the Roman Rite that contains the texts and rubric A rubric is a word or section of text that is traditionally written or printed in red ink for emphasis. The word derives from ...
for their conventual or community
Mass Mass is the quantity Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude, which illustrate discontinuity and continuity. Quantities can be compared in terms of "more", "less", or "equal", or by assigning a numerical value ...
frequently, habitually or permanently; it makes no such statement regarding use of the 1962 Roman Breviary, which however could be allowed by their constitutions. Laity, especially if they are involved in ministries of the Church (lector, cantor, extraordinary minister of Holy Communion, catechists, religious education directors or school principals, altar servers, those contemplating religious life or the seminary), are strongly encouraged to participate. The constitutions of some institutes of consecrated life, in particular many congregations of Benedictine monks and nuns but also others, oblige them to follow an arrangement of the Psalter whereby all the psalms are recited in the course of a single week, partly through an extension of the Office of Readings, and by maintaining the Hour of Prime.


Historical development


Judaism and the early church

The canonical hours stemmed from
Jewish prayer Jewish prayer ( he, תְּפִלָּה, ; plural ; yi, תּפֿלה, tfile , plural ; Yinglish There are some Yiddish words used in English language context. An English sentence that uses these words sometimes is said to be in Yinglis ...
. This "sacrifice of praise" began to be substituted for the sacrifices of animals. In Roman cities, the
bell A bell is a struck idiophone, directly struck idiophone percussion instrument. Most bells have the shape of a hollow cup that when struck vibrates in a single strong strike tone, with its sides forming an efficient resonator. The strike may be ...

bell
in the
forum Forum (plural forums or fora) may refer to: Common uses * Forum (legal), designated space for public expression in the United States *Forum (Roman), open public space within a Roman city **Roman Forum, most famous example *Internet forum, discus ...
rang the beginning of the business day at about six o'clock in the morning (Prime, the "first hour"), noted the day's progress by striking again at about nine o'clock in the morning (Terce, the "third hour"), tolled for the lunch break at noon (Sext, the "sixth hour"), called the people back to work again at about three o'clock in the afternoon (None, the "ninth hour"), and rang the close of the business day at about six o'clock in the evening (the time for evening prayer). The healing of the crippled man at the temple gate occurred as
Peter Peter may refer to: People * List of people named Peter, a list of people and fictional characters with the given name * Peter (given name) ** Saint Peter (died 60s), apostle of Jesus, leader of the early Christian Church * Peter (surname), a sur ...

Peter
and
John John is a common English name and surname: * John (given name) John is a common English name and surname: * John (given name) * John (surname), including a list of people who have the name John John may also refer to: New Testament Works ...
were going to the temple to pray () at the "ninth hour" of prayer (about three pm). The decision to include
Gentiles Gentile () is a word that usually means "someone who is not a Jew Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards develope ...
among the community of believers, arose from a vision Peter had while praying at noontime, () the "sixth hour". The early church was known to pray the Psalms (), which have remained a part of the canonical hours. By 60 AD, the
Didache The ''Didache'' (; ), also known as The Lord's Teaching Through the Twelve Apostles to the Nations (Διδαχὴ Κυρίου διὰ τῶν δώδεκα ἀποστόλων τοῖς ἔθνεσιν), is a brief anonymous early Christian ...

Didache
recommended disciples to pray the Lord's Prayer three times a day; this practice found its way into the canonical hours as well.
Pliny the Younger Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, born Gaius Caecilius or Gaius Caecilius Cilo (61 – c. 113), better known as Pliny the Younger (), was a lawyer, author, and magistrate of Ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study ...

Pliny the Younger
(63 – c. 113), mentions not only fixed times of prayer by believers, but also specific services – other than the Eucharist – assigned to those times: "they met on a stated day before it was light, and addressed a form of prayer to Christ, as to a divinity, ... after which it was their custom to separate, and then reassemble, to eat in common a harmless meal." By the second and third centuries, such
Church Fathers The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church were ancient and influential Christian theologians Christian theology is the theology Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the Divinity, di ...
as
Clement of Alexandria Titus Flavius Clemens, also known as Clement of Alexandria ( grc, Κλήμης ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς; – ), was a Christian theologian #REDIRECT Christian theology #REDIRECT Christian theology Christian theology is the theology of Chr ...
,
Origen Origen of Alexandria, ''Ōrigénēs''; Coptic language, Coptic: Ϩⲱⲣⲓⲕⲉⲛ Origen's Greek name ''Ōrigénēs'' () probably means "child of Horus" (from , "Horus", and , "born"). ( 184 – 253), also known as Origen Adamantius, was an ...

Origen
, and
Tertullian Tertullian (; la, Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus; 155 AD – 220 AD) was a prolific early Christian The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religio ...

Tertullian
wrote of the practice of Morning and Evening Prayer, and of the prayers at terce, sext, and none. Daily morning and evening prayer preceded daily Mass, for the Mass was first limited to Sundays and then gradually spread to some feast days. The daily prayer kept alive the theme of gratitude from the Sunday "Eucharist" (which means gratitude). The prayers could be prayed individually or in groups. By the third century, the Desert Fathers began to live out Paul's command to "pray without ceasing" () by having one group of monks pray one fixed-hour prayer while having another group pray the next prayer.


Middle Ages

As the format of unbroken fixed-hour prayer developed in the
Christian monastic Christian monasticism is the devotional practice of Christians Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus i ...
communities in the East and West, longer prayers soon grew, but the cycle of prayer became the norm in daily life in
monasteries A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monk A monk (, from el, μοναχός, ''monachos'', "single, solitary" via Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical l ...

monasteries
. By the fourth century, the characteristics of the canonical hours more or less took their present shape. For secular (non-monastic) clergymen and lay people, the fixed-hour prayers were by necessity much shorter. In many churches and basilicas staffed by monks, the form of the fixed-hour prayers was a hybrid of secular and monastic practice. In the East, the development of the Divine Services shifted from the area around Jerusalem to
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germa ...

Constantinople
. In particular,
Theodore the Studite Theodore the Studite (also known as Theodorus Studita, Saint Theodore of Stoudios, and Saint Theodore of Studium; 759–826) was a Byzantine Greeks, Byzantine Greek monasticism, monk and abbot of the Stoudios Monastery in Constantinople. He played ...
(c. 758 – c. 826) combined a number of influences from the Byzantine court ritual with monastic practices common in
Asia Minor Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of ...

Asia Minor
, and added thereto a number of hymns composed by himself and his brother Joseph (see
Typicon Typikon (or ''typicon'', ''typica''; gr, , "that of the prescribed form"; Slavonic: Тvпико́нъ ''Typikonə'' or Оуставъ, ''ustavə'') is a liturgical book Liturgy is the customary public worship Worship is an act of religi ...
for further details). In the West, Benedict in his famous
Rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionma ...
modeled his guidelines for the prayers on the customs of the
basilica In Ancient Roman architecture, a basilica is a large public building with multiple functions, typically built alongside the town's Forum (Roman), forum. The basilica was in the Latin West equivalent to a stoa in the Greek East. The building ...

basilica
s of
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...

Rome
. It was he who expounded the concept in Christian prayer of the inseparability of the spiritual life from the physical life. The
Benedictines The Benedictines, officially the Order of Saint Benedict ( la, Ordo Sancti Benedicti, abbreviated as OSB), are a monastic Monasticism (from Ancient Greek , , from , , 'alone'), or monkhood, is a religion, religious way of life in which one ...
began to call the prayers the ''Opus Dei'' or "Work of God." As the Divine Office grew more important in the life of the church, the rituals became more elaborate. Soon, praying the Office began to require various books, such as a
psalter Image:Utrecht 15v 2.jpg, 330px, Folio 15b of the Utrecht Psalter illustrates Psalm 27 A psalter is a volume containing the Book of Psalms, often with other devotional material bound in as well, such as a liturgical calendar and litany of the Sai ...

psalter
for the psalms, a lectionary to find the assigned scripture reading for the day, a
Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Gree ...

Bible
to proclaim the reading, a
hymnal A hymnal or hymnary is a collection of hymn A hymn is a type of song, usually religious and partially coincident with devotional song, specifically written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deitie ...
for singing, etc. As
parish A parish is a territorial entity in many Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ ( ...
es grew in the Middle Ages away from
cathedral A cathedral is a church Church may refer to: Religion * Church (building) A church building, church house, or simply church, is a building used for Christian worship services and other Christian religious activities. The term is used ...

cathedral
s and basilicas, a more concise way of arranging the hours was needed. So, a sort of list developed called the
Breviary A breviary (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it b ...
, which gave the format of the daily office and the texts to be used. The spread of breviaries eventually reached Rome, where Pope Innocent III extended its use to the Roman Curia. The
Franciscans , image = FrancescoCoA PioM.svg , image_size = 250px , caption = A cross, Christ's arm and Saint Francis's arm, a universal symbol of the Franciscans , abbreviation = OFM , predecessor = , ...
sought a one-volume breviary for its friars to use during travels, so the order adopted the '' Breviarium Curiae'', but substituting the
Gallican The Gallican Church was the Roman Catholic Church in France from the time of the Declaration of the Clergy of France (1682) to that of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy (1790) during the French Revolution. Gallicanism was the theory that the p ...
Psalter for the Roman. The Franciscans gradually spread this breviary throughout Europe.
Pope Nicholas III Pope Nicholas III ( la, Nicolaus III; Wiktionary:circa, c. 1225 – 22 August 1280), born Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 25 November 1277 to his death. He was a Roman nobleman who had ...
would then adopt the widely used Franciscan breviary to be the breviary used in Rome. By the 14th century, the breviary contained the entire text of the canonical hours.


Roman Rite since the Council of Trent


Revision by Pope Pius V

The Council of Trent in its final session on 4 December 1563 entrusted the reform of the breviary to the then pope,
Pius IV Pope Pius IV (31 March 1499 – 9 December 1565), born Giovanni Angelo Medici, was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1.3 billion Catholics . As the world's o ...

Pius IV
. On 9 July 1568,
Pope Pius V Pope Pius V (17 January 1504 – 1 May 1572), born Antonio Ghislieri (from 1518 called Michele Ghislieri, O.P.), was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian ...

Pope Pius V
, the successor to Pius IV who closed the Council of Trent, promulgated an edition, known as the Roman Breviary, with his
Apostolic Constitution An apostolic constitution ( la, constitutio apostolica) is the most solemn form of legislation Legislation is the process or product of enrolling, enacting, or promulgating Promulgation is the formal proclamation or the declaration that a ...
''Quod a nobis'', imposing it in the same way in which, two years later, he imposed his Roman Missal and using language very similar to that in the bull ''Quo primum'' with which he promulgated the Missal, regarding, for instance, the perpetual force of its provisions, the obligation to use the promulgated text in all places, and the total prohibition of adding or omitting anything, declaring in fact: "No one whosoever is permitted to alter this letter or heedlessly to venture to go contrary to this notice of Our permission, statute, ordinance, command, precept, grant, indult declaration, will decree and prohibition. Should anyone, however, presume to commit such an act, he should know that he will incur the wrath of Almighty God and of the Blessed Apostles Peter and Paul." With the same bull, Pius V ordered the general abolition of all breviaries other than his reformed breviary, with the same exception that he was to make in his ''Quo primum'' bull: he allowed those legitimately in use for at least 200 years to continue. Examples of such breviaries are the
Benedictine The Benedictines, officially the Order of Saint Benedict ( la, Ordo Sancti Benedicti, abbreviated as OSB), are a Christian monasticism, monastic Religious order (Catholic), religious order of the Catholic Church following the Rule of Saint Be ...
('' Breviarium Monasticum''), the
Carmelite The Carmelites, formally known as the Order of the Brothers of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel ( la, Ordo Fratrum Beatissimæ Virginis Mariæ de Monte Carmelo) or sometimes simply as Carmel by synecdoche, is a Roman Catholic Roman or R ...

Carmelite
, the
Carthusian The Carthusians, also known as the Order of Carthusians ( la, Ordo Cartusiensis), are an enclosed religious order Enclosed religious orders or ''cloistered clergy'' are religious orders whose members strictly separate themselves from the affai ...
, the
Dominican Dominican may refer to: * Someone or something from or related to the Dominican Republic The Dominican Republic ( ; es, República Dominicana, ) is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the C ...
, the
Premonstratensian The Order of Canons Regular of Prémontré (), also known as the Premonstratensians, the Norbertines and, in Britain Britain usually refers to: * United Kingdom, a sovereign state in Europe comprising the island of Great Britain, the north-easte ...
, and the Ambrosian. St. Mark's Basilica in Venice, along with the four churches under its jurisdiction, retained its own unique liturgies, psalms, and Latin translations into the 19th century. Many other churches whose local rites predated Pius V's breviary by 200 years or more, such as that of Mantua, continued to use their own breviaries, liturgical calendars, and psalms, as well.


Further revision between the 16th to 20th centuries

Later popes altered the Roman Breviary of Pope Pius V. Pope Clement VIII instituted obligatory changes on 10 May 1602, 34 years after Pius V's revision.
Pope Urban VIII Pope Urban VIII ( la, Urbanus VIII; baptised 5 April 1568 – 29 July 1644), born Maffeo Barberini, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 6 August 1623 to his death in 1644. As pope, he expanded the papal territ ...

Pope Urban VIII
made further changes, including "a profound alteration in the character of some of the hymns. Although some of them without doubt gained in literary style, nevertheless, to the regret of many, they also lost something of their old charm of simplicity and fervour."
Pope Pius X Pope Pius X ( it, Pio X; born Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto; 2 June 1835 – 20 August 1914) was head of the Catholic Church as Pope from August 1903 to his death in 1914. Pius X is known for vigorously opposing Modernism in the Catholic Churc ...

Pope Pius X
made a radical revision of the Roman Breviary, to be put into effect, at latest, on 1 January 1913. See
Reform of the Roman Breviary by Pope Pius X The Reform of the Roman Breviary by Pope Pius X was promulgated by that Pope with the apostolic constitution An apostolic constitution ( la, constitutio apostolica) is the most solemn form of legislation Legislation is law which has been pro ...
.
Pope Pius XII Pope Pius XII ( it, Pio XII), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (; 2 March 18769 October 1958), was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, ...
allowed the use of a new translation of the Psalms from the Hebrew and established a special commission to study a general revision, concerning which all the Catholic bishops were consulted in 1955. His successor,
Pope John XXIII Pope John XXIII ( la, Ioannes; it, Giovanni; born Giuseppe Angelo Roncalli, ; 25 November 18813 June 1963) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian deno ...
, implemented these revisions in 1960.


Revision following the Second Vatican Council


Latin typical editions

Following the Second Vatican Council, the Catholic Church's Latin Church, hoping to restore their character as the prayer of the entire church, revised the liturgical book for the celebration of the Divine Office, and published it under the title "Liturgy of the Hours". The Council itself abolished the office of Prime, and envisioned a manner of distributing the psalms over a period of more than 1 week. In the succeeding revision, the character of Matins was changed to an Office of Readings so that it could be used at any time of the day as an office of Scriptural and patristic readings. Furthermore, the period over which the Psalter is recited has been expanded from one week to four. The Latin hymns of the Roman Office were in many cases restored to the pre-Urban form, albeit several of them were shortened. This new "Liturgy of the Hours" (''Liturgia Horarum'' in Latin) is published by ''
Libreria Editrice Vaticana The Vatican Publishing House ( it, Libreria Editrice Vaticana; la, Officina libraria editoria Vaticana; LEV) is a publisher established by the Holy See in 1926. It is responsible for publishing official documents of the Roman Catholic Church, inc ...
'' in four volumes, arranged according to the liturgical seasons of the church year. * Volume I: Advent & Christmastide * Volume II: Lent, the Sacred Triduum & Eastertide * Volume III: Weeks 1 to 17 of the Year * Volume IV: Weeks 18 to 34 of the Year The current liturgical books for the celebration of the Liturgy of the Hours in Latin are those of the ''editio typica altera'' (second typical edition) promulgated in 1985 and re-issued by the Vatican Publishing House – ''Libreria Editrice Vaticana –'' in 2000 and 2003. Midwest Theological Forum has published an edition "''iuxta typicam''" with updating of the celebration of saints. It is arranged in six volumes: * Volume I: Advent & Christmastide * Volume II: Lent, & the Sacred Triduum * Volume III: Eastertide * Volume IV: Weeks 1 to 14 of the Year * Volume V: Weeks 12 to 24 of the Year * Volume VI: Weeks 21 to 34 of the Year Although most priests and other clerics in the Latin Church now use the new Liturgy of the Hours, some (such as those in the
Priestly Fraternity of Saint Peter The Priestly Fraternity of Saint Peter ( la, Fraternitas Sacerdotalis Sancti Petri; FSSP) is a traditionalist Catholic Traditionalist Catholicism is a set of religious beliefs and practices comprising customs, traditions, liturgical forms, ...
or similar societies) continue to use the Breviary as revised by
Pope Pius X Pope Pius X ( it, Pio X; born Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto; 2 June 1835 – 20 August 1914) was head of the Catholic Church as Pope from August 1903 to his death in 1914. Pius X is known for vigorously opposing Modernism in the Catholic Churc ...

Pope Pius X
, the latest edition of which was issued under
Pope John XXIII Pope John XXIII ( la, Ioannes; it, Giovanni; born Giuseppe Angelo Roncalli, ; 25 November 18813 June 1963) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian deno ...
. The ''motu proprio''
Summorum Pontificum ''Summorum Pontificum'' (English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually bec ...
in 2007 authorized every
Latin Church , native_name_lang = la , image = San Giovanni in Laterano - Rome.jpg , imagewidth = 250px , alt = Façade of the Archbasilica of St. John in Lateran , caption = Archbasilica of Saint Joh ...
cleric to use this edition to fulfill his canonical obligation to pray the Divine Office. An English/Latin parallel edition was published by Baronius Press in April 2012.


Official English translations

Three English translations are in use.


=The Divine Office (non-ICEL translation)

= ''The Divine Office'' was produced by a commission set up by the Episcopal Conferences of Australia, England and Wales, Ireland and Scotland. First published in 1974 by HarperCollins, this edition is the official English edition for use in the dioceses of the above countries as well as many other dioceses around the world, especially in Asian and African countries. It is arranged in three volumes: *Volume I:
Advent Advent is a season of the liturgical year The liturgical year, also known as the church year or Christian year, as well as the kalendar, consists of the cycle of liturgy, liturgical seasons in Christian churches that determines when fea ...

Advent
, Christmastide & Weeks 1–9 of the Year *Volume II:
Lent Lent (Latin: ''Quadragesima'', 'Fortieth') is a Solemnity, solemn religious moveable feast#Lent, observance in the Christian liturgical calendar commemorating the Temptation of Jesus, 40 days Jesus spent fasting in the desert, according to the ...

Lent
and Eastertide *Volume III: Ordinary Time, Weeks of the Church Year 6–34. The psalms are taken (with slight adaptations) from the 1963 Grail Psalms, while the Scripture readings and non-Gospel canticles are taken from various versions of the Bible, including the Revised Standard Version, the Jerusalem Bible, the Good News Bible, the New English Bible and Ronald Knox's Translation of the Vulgate. Some of the canticles taken from the Revised Standard Version were amended slightly to conform the English text to the Vulgate in ''The Divine Office''. The intercessions, concluding prayers, antiphons, short responses, responsories, second readings in the Office of Readings, Te Deum and Glory be to the Father are all translations approved by the Episcopal Conferences mentioned and confirmed by the Holy See in December 1973. The Gospel canticles (''
Benedictus Benedictus may refer to: Music * Benedictus (Song of Zechariah), ''Benedictus'' (''Song of Zechariah''), the canticle sung at Lauds, also called the Canticle of Zachary * The second part of the Sanctus, part of the Eucharistic prayer * Benedictus ...
,
Magnificat The Magnificat (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the ...

Magnificat
, Nunc Dimittis'') are from the 1963 Grail Translation, but an appendix at the end of the book gives the English Language Liturgical Consultation (ELLC)) versions of the Gospel canticles as alternatives. Collins also publishes shorter editions of ''The Divine Office'': *''Daily Prayer'' – comprising the complete Divine Office, except for the Office of Readings (but the full Office of Readings are printed for Christmas, Good Friday and Holy Saturday) *''Morning & Evening Prayer'' – comprising the complete Morning, Evening and Night prayers from the Divine Office *''Shorter Morning & Evening Prayer'' – comprising the Psalter for Morning, Evening and Night prayers and a selection of texts from the liturgical seasons and feasts. Between 2005 and 2006, Collins republished ''The Divine Office'' and its various shorter editions with a new cover and revised Calendar of the Movable Feasts. Besides these shorter editions of ''The Divine Office'', there used to be ''A Shorter Prayer During the Day'' comprising the Psalter for the Middle Hours also published by Collins. The last known reprint year is 1986, but this edition is now out of print. In 2009, ''Prayer during the day'' was published by Catholic Truth Society.


=Liturgy of the Hours (ICEL translation)

= The ''Liturgy of the Hours'', produced by the International Commission on English in the Liturgy, was first published in 1975 by Catholic Book Publishing Company in the USA. This edition is the official English edition for use in the US, Canada and some other English-speaking dioceses. It is in four volumes, an arrangement identical to the original Latin typical edition. The psalms are taken (slightly adapted) from the 1963 Grail Psalms, while the Scripture readings and non-Gospel canticles are taken from the original 1970 first edition ''
New American Bible The New American Bible (NAB) is an English translation English usually refers to: * English language * English people English may also refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * ''English'', an adjective for something of, from, or relate ...
''. The prayers and intercessions are translated by the International Commission on English in the Liturgy (ICEL). The ELLC versions are used for items such as the Gospel canticles. An additional feature are psalm-prayers at the end of many Psalms, which were ICEL's translation of the ''Liber Orationum Psalmographus'', the Book of Psalm-Prayers which originated in the Mozarabic Rite. Shorter editions of the ''Liturgy of the Hours'' are also available from various publishers: ''Christian Prayer'' (Daughters of St Paul and Catholic Book Publishing Company), ''Shorter Christian Prayer'' (Catholic Book Publishing Company) and ''Daytime Prayer'' (Catholic Book Publishing Company). In 2007, Liturgy Training Publications released the ''Mundelein Psalter'', containing Morning, Evening and Night Prayers and the Office for the Dead, with the 1963 Grail translation of the Psalms set to specially composed chant, and with hymns translated from the hymns of the Latin ''Liturgia Horarum''. The ''Divine Office'' and the ''Liturgy of the Hours'' editions are both based on the Latin 1971 editio typica.


=Liturgy of the Hours (ICEL/African translation)

= In 2009, on the occasion of the Synod of African Bishops in Rome, the Catholic Church in Africa, through Paulines Publications Africa, published a new English edition of the Liturgy of the Hours based on the ''Liturgia Horarum, editio typica altera''. The antiphons and orations in this edition are taken from ICEL's 1975 translation of the Liturgy of the Hours, with independent translations for the offices for the new saints added to the General Roman Calendar as well as the ''Benedictus'' and ''Magnificat'' antiphons for the 3-year cycle on Sundays added in the ''Liturgia Horarum, editio typica altera''. The Psalms are taken from the ''Revised Grail Psalter'' with the rest of the biblical texts taken from the ''New American Bible''. To date, this is the only official English edition of the Office that is based on the ''Liturgia Horarum, editio typica altera''.


Anglican Use

Following the establishment of the personal ordinariates for former Anglican Communion, Anglicans in the 2009 apostolic constitution ''Anglicanorum coetibus'', there was sought an Anglican Use form of the Office that reflects Anglican tradition. In the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham in England and Wales, the ''Customary of Our Lady of Walsingham'' was adopted. In 2020, the ''Divine Worship: Daily Office'' was announced as the new Divine Office of the Anglican Use personal ordinariates. There are two editions: the ''North American Edition'' released in late 2020 for use by the Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter and the ''Commonwealth Edition'' to be released in 2021 to replace the Customary in the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham and introduce an office for the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of the Southern Cross in Australia, Japan, and Oceania. While developed primarily from the Anglican tradition, the Divine Worship: Daily Office is considered to be a specific use of the Liturgy of the Hours.


See also

*Angelus *Book of hours *Plenarium *Ramsha *The Little Office of the Immaculate Conception


Notes


References


External links


"General Instruction" from the Breviary
by the Rev. E.J. Quigley

*[http://prayer.rosaryshop.com/discoveringPrayerNoSound.pdf Discovering Prayer: How to Pray the Liturgy of the Hours] by Seth H. Murray (also availabl
with audio samples


– A timeline of official 20th century breviaries
Divinum Officium
– an online dynamic version of the Breviarium Romanum according to the rubrics of 1960 {{DEFAULTSORT:Liturgy Of The Hours Liturgy of the Hours, Christian prayer books Catholic liturgy