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:'' The following
outline Outline or outlining may refer to: * Outline (list), a document summary, in hierarchical list format * Code folding, a method of hiding or collapsing code or text to see content in outline form * Outline drawing, a sketch depicting the outer edg ...
is provided as an overview of and topical guide to law: Law ('' article link'') is the set of rules and principles (laws) by which a society is governed, through enforcement by governmental authorities. Law is also the field that concerns the creation and administration of laws, and includes any and all legal systems.


Nature of law

Law can be described as all of the following: * Academic discipline – the body of knowledge given to - or received by - a disciple (student); a branch or sphere of knowledge, or field of study, that an individual has chosen to specialise in. ** one of the humanities – an academic discipline that studies the human condition, using methods that are primarily analytical, critical, or speculative, as distinguished from the mainly empirical approaches of the natural sciences. * System – set of elements (often called 'components' instead) and relationships which are different from relationships of the set or its elements to other elements or sets. ** part of the legal system – legal scholarship and practice shapes how the law is interpreted and applied in societies


Legal systems

*
List of national legal systems The contemporary national legal systems are generally based on one of four basic systems A system is a group of interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and infl ...
*
Common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law Case law is the collection of past legal decisions written by courts and similar tribunal A tribunal, generally, is any person or institution with authority ...
*
Civil law (legal system) Civil law is a legal system The contemporary national legal systems are generally based on one of four basic systems A system is a group of interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. ...
*
Religious law Religious law includes ethical Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong action (philosophy), behavior".''Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy'"Et ...
** Bahá'í laws **
Biblical law Biblical law refers to the legal aspects of the Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was t ...
, in
Judaism Judaism is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, monotheism, monotheistic, and ethnic religion comprising the collective religious, cultural, and legal tradition and civilization of the Jewish people. It has its roots as an organized religion ...
and
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of ...

Christianity
**
Canon law Canon law (from grc, κανών, , a 'straight measuring rod, ruler A ruler, sometimes called a rule or line gauge, is a device used in geometry and technical drawing, as well as the engineering and construction industries, to measure dis ...
, in Christianity **
Canon (canon law) The word "canon" comes from the Greek ''kanon'', which in its original usage denoted a straight rod that was later the instrument used by architects and artificers as a measuring stick A ruler, sometimes called a rule or line gauge, is a d ...
- a certain rule or norm of conduct or belief prescribed by the Church. The word "canon" comes from the Greek ''kanon'', which in its original usage denoted a straight rod that was later the instrument used by architects and artificers as a measuring stick for making straight lines. *** Canons of the Apostles ***
Canon law of the Anglican Communion The Anglican Communion The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion Communion may refer to: Religion * The Eucharist (also called the Holy Communion or Lord's Supper), the Christian rite involving the eating of bread ...
****
Canon law of the Church of England The Church of England, like the other autonomous member churches of the Anglican Communion, has its own system of canon law. The principal body of canon law enacted since the Reformation is the ''Book of Canons'' approved by the Convocations of Can ...
****
Canon law of the Episcopal Church in the United StatesLike the other autonomous member churches of the Anglican Communion, the Episcopal Church in the United States has its own system of canon law. Unlike the Canon law of the Church of England, system of canon law in the Church of England, which contin ...
***
Canon law of the Catholic Church The canon law of the Catholic Church (Latin for "canon law": ''ius canonicum'') is the system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea of ...
****
Custom (Catholic canon law) In the canon law of the Catholic Church The canon law of the Catholic Church (Latin for "canon law": ''ius canonicum'') is the system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules t ...
- the repeated and constant performance of certain acts for a defined period of time, which, with the approval of the competent legislator, thereby acquire the force of law. A custom is an unwritten law introduced by the continuous acts of the faithful with the consent of the legitimate legislator. ****Decree (Catholic canon law) - an order or law made by a superior authority for the direction of others. ****Dispensation (Catholic canon law) - the exemption from the immediate obligation of law in certain cases. Its object is to modify the hardship often arising from the rigorous application of general laws to particular cases, and its essence is to preserve the law by suspending its operation in such cases. ****Interpretation (Catholic canon law) - canonists provide and obey rules for the interpretation and acceptation of words, in order that legislation is correctly understood and the extent of its obligation is determined. ****Obrogation - the enacting of a contrary law that is a revocation of a previous law. It may also be the partial cancellation or amendment of a law, decree, or legal regulation by the imposition of a newer one. ****Promulgation (Catholic canon law) - the publication of a law by which it is made known publicly, and is required by canon law for the law to obtain legal effect. ** Halakha, in Judaism ** Hindu law ** Jain law ** Patimokkha, in
Theravada Buddhism Theravāda (; Pāli Pali () is a Middle Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan liturgical language native to the Indian subcontinent. It is widely studied because it is the language of the ''Pāli Canon'' or ''Tripiṭaka, Tipiṭaka'' as wel ...
** Sharia, in
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...


Law by source

*Sources of law **
Canon (canon law) The word "canon" comes from the Greek ''kanon'', which in its original usage denoted a straight rod that was later the instrument used by architects and artificers as a measuring stick A ruler, sometimes called a rule or line gauge, is a d ...
**Custom (customary law) ***
Custom (Catholic canon law) In the canon law of the Catholic Church The canon law of the Catholic Church (Latin for "canon law": ''ius canonicum'') is the system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules t ...
**
Precedent A precedent is a principle or rule established in a previous legal case A legal case is in a general sense a dispute between opposing parties which may be resolved by a court A court is any person or institution, often as a government inst ...
of past judicial decisions (''
stare decisis A precedent is a principle or rule established in a previous legal case A legal case is in a general sense a dispute between opposing parties which may be resolved by a court, or by some equivalent legal process. A legal case is typically based ...
'') **Statutory law ***Statute ***Black letter law **Constitutional law ***Constitution ***
Constitutional court A constitutional court is a high court High court usually refers to the superior court In common law systems, a superior court is a court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Ad ...

Constitutional court
**
Sources of international law International law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally recognized as binding between nation A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe ...
***Customary international law ***Treaty ***Juristic writings (such as legal treatises)


Branches of law


Public law

Public law Public law is the part of law that governs relations between legal person In law, a legal person is any person or 'thing' (less ambiguously, any legal entity) that can do the things a human person is usually able to do in law – such as en ...
* Constitutional law * Tax law


Administrative law

*Administrative law *Code of Federal Regulations


Criminal law

* Criminal law (penal law) * Criminal procedure


Substantive law and adjectival law

*Substantive law *
Procedural law Procedural law, adjective law, in some jurisdictions referred to as remedial law, or rules of court comprises the rules by which a court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or g ...


Law of persons

*Person (canon law)


Civil law

* Civil law (common law) * Civil procedure * Civil rights * Common law * Environmental law * Family law


Laws by jurisdictional scope

*International law **Public international law **Conflict of laws (Private international law) ***Dualism (law) ***Legal pluralism **Supranational law **Law of the European Union ***Treaties of the European Union ***Regulation (European Union) ***Directive (European Union) ***European Union decision ***European Union legislative procedure *Municipal law **
Federal law Federal law is the body of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its envir ...
(National law) **State law **Local ordinance


History

History of law *Cuneiform law *Babylonian law *Ancient Greek law *Roman law *Early Germanic law *Legal history of the Catholic Church **''Jus antiquum''


Basic legal concepts

*''Ignorantia juris non excusat'' *Presumption of innocence **Presumption (canon law) *Treason *
Rights Rights are legal Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is desc ...
(Outline) *Rule of law


People who have influenced law


Canon law

*Aquinas, St. Thomas (wrote influential ''
Treatise on Law ''Treatise on Law'' is Thomas Aquinas' major work of philosophy of law, legal philosophy. It forms questions 90–108 of the ''Prima Secundæ'' ("First
art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use ...

art
of the Second
art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use ...

art
) of the Summa Theologica, ''Summa Theologiæ'', Aquinas' masterw ...
'') *Benedict XIV, Pope *Gratian ("Father of Canon Law", founder of canon law jurisprudence; canon law as legal system) *Hostiensis (most influential decretist) *Gregory IX, Pope (promulgated the ''Decretales Gregorii IX'') *Gasparri, Pietro (codified the 1917 Code of Canon Law) *John Paul II, Pope (promulgated the
1983 Code of Canon Law The 1983 Code of Canon Law (abbreviated 1983 CIC from its Latin title ''Codex Iuris Canonici''), also called the Johanno-Pauline Code, is the "fundamental body of ecclesiastical laws for the Latin Church". It is the second and current comprehens ...
and the 1990
Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches The ''Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches'' ( la, Codex Canonum Ecclesiarum Orientalium, abbreviated CCEO) is the title of the 1990 codification of the common portions of the Canon Law Canon law (from grc, κανών, , a 'straight measurin ...
) *Penyafort, Raymond of (patron of canon lawyers, codified ''Decretales Gregorii IX'') *Photios I of Constantinople (writer of a nomocanon)


Civil law

*Napoleon *Justinian


Common law

*Blackstone, Sir William *Holmes, Oliver Wendell


Other legal systems

*Hammurabi *Moses *Mohammed


Lists

;Sources of law *
Lists of legislation This list consists of lists of legislation Legislation is the process or product of enrolled bill, enrolling, enactment of a bill, enacting, or promulgation, promulgating law by a legislature, parliament, or analogous Government, governing body. ...
*
Lists of case law Lists of case law cover instances of case law, legal decisions in which the law was analyzed to resolve ambiguities for deciding current cases. They are organized alphabetically, by topic or by country. Alphabetical lists These lists are pan-juris ...
*
List of treaties This list of treaties contains known agreements, pacts, peaces, and major contracts between states, armies, governments, and tribal groups. Before AD 1200 1200–1299 1300–1399 1400–1499 1500–1599 1600–1699 1700–1799 ...
;Legislatures *
List of legislatures by country This is a list of legislatures by country. A "legislature" is the generic name for the national parliaments and congresses that act as a plenary general Deliberative assembly, assembly of Representative democracy, representatives and that have th ...
;Courts * List of constitutional courts * List of special tribunals and courts * List of courts in England and Wales *
List of High Courts of India #REDIRECT High courts of India#REDIRECT High courts of India The High courts of India are the principle civil courts of original jurisdiction In common law (legal system), common law legal systems original jurisdiction of a court is the power ...
;Prisons * List of prisons ** List of United Kingdom prisons **United States ***
List of U.S. federal prisons The Federal Bureau of Prisons The Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) is a United States federal law enforcement agency under the Department of Justice responsible for the care, custody, and control of incarcerated individuals. History The fed ...
*** List of U.S. state prisons ***List of U.S. military prisons ;International law *
Environmental agreements This is a list of international environmental agreements. Most of the following agreements are legally binding for countries that have formally ratified them. Some, such as the Kyoto Protocol, differentiate between types of countries and each n ...
* List of international public law topics * List of international trade topics * List of international declarations ;Judges *
List of judges of the High Court of Australia The High Court of Australia is composed of seven Justices: the Chief Justice of Australia and six other Justices. There have been 55 Justices who have served as Justices of the High Court since its formation under the ''Judiciary Act 1903''. Und ...
* List of chief justices of the Supreme Court of Canada *
List of justices of the Supreme Court of the United States #REDIRECT List of justices of the Supreme Court of the United States #REDIRECT List of justices of the Supreme Court of the United States#REDIRECT List of justices of the Supreme Court of the United States The Supreme Court of the United States ...
** List of justices of the Supreme Court of the United States by court composition **
List of justices of the Supreme Court of the United States by seat#REDIRECT List of justices of the Supreme Court of the United States by seat {{Redirect category shell, {{R from move ...
*
List of Lords of Appeal in Ordinary This is a list of life peerage A peerage is a legal system historically comprising various hereditary title Hereditary titles, in a general sense, are nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, ...
* List of Senators of the College of Justice ;Privy council members * Historical lists of Privy Counsellors *
List of current members of the British Privy Council This is a list of the current members of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom The Privy Council of the United Kingdom, officially Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, or known simply as the Privy Council, is a formal body of ad ...
*
List of current members of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada Members of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada use the title The Honourable if they are ordinary members. Prime Ministers, Governors General and Chief Justices automatically are given the title The Right Honourable. While Governors General have ...
*
List of members of the Privy Council of Northern Ireland This is a list of members of the Privy Council of Northern Ireland The Privy Council of Northern Ireland is a formal body of advisors to the sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The ...
* List of members of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada ;Caselaw *List of copyright case law *List of Judicial Committee of the Privy Council cases *List of United Kingdom House of Lords cases **List of notable United Kingdom House of Lords cases *List of Supreme Court of Canada cases *List of United States Supreme Court cases ;Legislation *List of Uniform Acts (United States) *List of United States federal legislation ;Other *List of business law topics *Outline of criminal justice *List of topics in logic *List of environmental law journals *List of legal abbreviations *List of Ayatollahs *List of individuals executed by the federal government of the United States *List of law journals *List of jurists *List of Latin phrases *List of Latin legal terms *List of largest law firms by revenue *Lists of law schools *
List of national legal systems The contemporary national legal systems are generally based on one of four basic systems A system is a group of interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and infl ...
*List of protective service agencies *List of real estate topics *List of riots *List of software patents *List of top United States patent recipients


External links

* Legal news and information network for attorneys and other legal professionals * Encyclopaedic project of the academic initiative in JurisPedia * Legal articles, news, and interactive maps * WorldLII – World Legal Information Institute * CommonLII – Commonwealth Legal Information Institute * AsianLII – Asian Legal Information Institute * AustLII – Australasian Legal Information Institute * BAILII – British and Irish Legal Information Institute * CanLII – Canadian Legal Information Institute * NZLII – New Zealand Legal Information Institute * PacLII – Pacific Islands Legal Information Institute


Notes

{{Outline footer Outlines of laws and legal topics, law Wikipedia outlines, law Law, * Law-related lists, *