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Supranational Law
Supranational law is a form of international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally recognized as binding between nation A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of anal ..., based on the limitation of the rights of sovereign nations between one another. It is distinguished from public international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally recognized as binding between s. It establishes normative guidelines and a common conceptual framework for states ac ..., because in supranational law, nations explicitly submit their right to make judicial decisions by treaty to a set of common tribunal. The United Nations Security Council The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the Organs of the United Nations, six principal organs of the United Nations (UN) ...
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International Law
International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally recognized as binding between nation A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target. "Level of analysis" is distinct from the term " unit of observation ...s. It establishes normative guidelines and a common conceptual framework for states across a broad range of domains, including war, diplomacy, trade, and human rights. International law aims to promote the practice of stable, consistent, and organized international relations. The sources of international law International law also known as "law of nations" is the name of a body of rules which regulate the conduct of sovereign states in their relations with one another. EditingSources of international law include treaties, customary international law, in ... include in ...
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European Union Law
European Union law is a system of rules operating within the member states of the European Union. Since the founding of the European Coal and Steel Community following World War II, the EU has developed the aim to "promote peace, its values and the well-being of its peoples". The EU has political institutions, social and economic policies, which transcend nation states for the purpose of cooperation and human development (economics), human development. According to its Court of Justice of the European Union, Court of Justice the EU represents "a new legal order of international law".''Van Gend en Loos v Nederlandse Administratie der Belastingen'' (1963Case 26/62/ref> The EU's legal foundations are the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, unanimously agreed by the governments of 27 member states. New members may join, if they agree to follow the rules of the union, and existing states may leave according to their "own constitutional re ...
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Charter Of Fundamental Rights Of The European Union
The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (CFR) enshrines certain civil and political rights, political, economic, social and cultural rights, social, and economic rights for European Union (EU) Citizenship of the European Union, citizens and residents into European Union law, EU law. It was drafted by the European Convention (1999–2000), European Convention and solemnly proclaimed on 7 December 2000 by the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union, Council of Ministers and the European Commission. However, its then legal status was uncertain and it did not have full legal effect until the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon on 1 December 2009. Under the Charter, the European Union must act and legislate consistently with the Charter and the Court of Justice of the European Union, EU's courts will strike down legislation adopted by the EU's institutions that contravenes it. The Charter applies to the Institutions of the European Union and its Me ...
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European Convention On Human Rights
The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR; formally the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms) is an international convention to protect human rights and political freedoms in Europe. Drafted in 1950 by the then newly formed Council of Europe,The Council of Europe should not be confused with the Council of the European Union or the European Council. the convention entered into force on 3 September 1953. All Member states of the Council of Europe, Council of Europe member states are party to the Convention and new members are expected to ratify the convention at the earliest opportunity. The Convention established the European Court of Human Rights (generally referred to by the initials ECHR). Any person who feels their rights have been violated under the Convention by a state party can take a case to the Court. Judgments finding violations are binding on the States concerned and they are obliged to execute them. The Committee of Ministers ...
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Human Rights
Human rights are moral A moral (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman ... principles or norms Norm, the Norm or NORM may refer to: In academic disciplines * Norm (geology), an estimate of the idealised mineral content of a rock * Norm (philosophy), a standard in normative ethics that is prescriptive rather than a descriptive or explanato ...James Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, 13 December 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of PhilosophyHuman Rights Retrieved 14 August 2014 for certain standards of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical ...
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Van Gend En Loos V Nederlandse Administratie Der Belastingen
''Van Gend en Loos v Nederlandse Administratie der Belastingen'' (1963) Case 26/62 was a landmark case of the European Court of Justice which established that provisions of the ''Treaties of Rome, Treaty Establishing the European Economic Community'' were capable of creating legal rights which could be enforced by both natural person, natural and legal persons before the courts of the Community's Member State of the European Union, member states. This is now called the principle of direct effect. The case is acknowledged as being one of the most important, and possibly the most famous development of European Union law. The case arose from the reclassification of a chemical, by the Benelux countries, into a customs category entailing higher customs charges. Preliminary questions were asked by the Dutch Tariefcommissie in a dispute between Van Gend en Loos and the Dutch Tax Authority (Nederlandse Administratie der Belastingen). The European Court of Justice held that this breach ...
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European Parliament
The European Parliament (EP) is one of three Legislature, legislative branches of the European Union and one of its seven Institutions of the European Union, institutions. Together with the Council of the European Union, it adopts European legislation, commonly on the proposal of the European Commission. The Parliament is composed of 705 Member of the European Parliament, members (MEPs). It represents the second-largest democratic electorate in the world (after the Parliament of India) and the largest trans-national democratic electorate in the world (375 million eligible Voting, voters in 2009). Since 1979, the Parliament has been directly elected every five years by the Citizenship of the European Union, citizens of the European Union through universal suffrage. Voter turnout in parliamentary elections decreased each time after 1979 European Parliament election, 1979 until 2019 European Parliament election, 2019, when voter turnout increased by eight percentage points, an ...
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European Court Of Justice
European, or Europeans, may refer to: In general * ''European'', an adjective referring to something of, from, or related to Europe ** Ethnic groups in Europe ** Demographics of Europe ** European cuisine, the cuisines of Europe and other Western countries * ''European'', an adjective referring to something of, from, or related to the European Union ** Citizenship of the European Union ** Demographics of the European Union In publishing *The European (1953 magazine), ''The European'' (1953 magazine), a far-right cultural and political magazine published 1953–1959 *The European (newspaper), ''The European'' (newspaper), a British weekly newspaper published 1990–1998 *The European (2009 magazine), ''The European'' (2009 magazine), a German magazine first published in September 2009 *''European Magazine'', a magazine published in London 1782–1826 *''The New European'', a British weekly pop-up newspaper first published in July 2016 Other uses * * Europeans (band), a British po ...
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Supranationalism
A supranational union is a type of multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a sovereign state that comprises two or more nat ... political union A political union is a type of political entity A polity is an identifiable political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (s ... where negotiated power is delegated to an authority by governments of member nation-state A nation state is a political unit where the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (news ...s. The term is sometimes used to describe the European Union The E ...
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United States Constitution
The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation An organization, or organisation ( Commonwealth English; see spelling differences), is an ... of the United States of America The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., .... This founding document A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation An organization, or organisation ( Commonwealth English; see spelling differences), is an ..., originally comprising seven articles, delineates the national frame of government. Its first three articles embody ...
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Public International Law
International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally recognized as binding between nation A nation is a community A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as Norm (social), norms, religion, values, Convention (norm), customs, or Identity (social science), identity. Communities may share a sense ...s. It establishes normative guidelines and a common conceptual framework for states across a broad range of domains, including war, diplomacy, trade, and human rights. International law aims to promote the practice of stable, consistent, and organized international relations. The sources of international law International law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally recognized as binding between nation A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe ... include in ...
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Nation State
A nation state is a political unit where the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ... and nation A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target. "Level of analysis" is distinct from the term " unit of observation ... are congruent. It is a more precise concept than "country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized social ...", since a country does not need to have a predominant ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a groupi ...
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