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Lisbon (; pt, Lisboa ) is the capital and the largest city of
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who ...

Portugal
, with an estimated population of 544,851 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2. extends beyond the city's administrative limits with a population of around 2.7 million people, being the 11th-most populous urban area in the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
.Demographia: World Urban Areas
- demographia.com, 06.2021
About 2.9 million people live in the
Lisbon metropolitan area The Lisbon Metropolitan Area ( pt, Área Metropolitana de Lisboa; abbreviated as AML) is a metropolitan areas in Portugal, metropolitan area in Portugal centered on Lisbon, the capital and largest city of the country. The metropolitan area, cove ...
, which represents approximately 27% of the country's population.Diário da República, 1.ª série — N.º 176 — 12 de setembro de 2013
– Assembly of the Republic (Portugal), 2013
It is mainland
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered ...

Europe
's westernmost capital city and the only one along the Atlantic coast. Lisbon lies in the western
Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese language, Aragonese and Occitan language, Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl, Península Eibérica * eu, Iberiar penintsula also known as Iberia, is a peni ...

Iberian Peninsula
on the and the River
Tagus The Tagus ( ; es, Tajo ; pt, Tejo ; see below) is the longest river in the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese and Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl, Península Eib ...

Tagus
. The westernmost portions of its metro area, the
Portuguese Riviera The Portuguese Riviera (Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variant ...
, form the westernmost point of
Continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical region ...

Continental Europe
, culminating at
Cabo da Roca Cabo da Roca () or Cape Roca is a cape which forms the westernmost point of the Sintra Mountain Range, of mainland Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A count ...

Cabo da Roca
. Lisbon is recognised as an alpha-level global city because of its importance in finance, commerce, media, entertainment, arts, international trade, education and tourism. Lisbon is one of two Portuguese cities (alongside
Porto Porto or Oporto () is the List of cities in Portugal, second-largest city in Portugal, the capital of the Porto District, and one of the Iberian Peninsula's major urban areas. Porto city proper, which is the entire concelho, municipality of Porto ...

Porto
) to be recognised as a global city. It is one of the major economic centres on the continent, with a growing financial sector and one of the largest container ports on Europe's Atlantic coast. Additionally, Humberto Delgado Airport served 29 million passengers in 2018, being the busiest airport in Portugal, the 3rd busiest in the Iberian Peninsula and the 20th busiest in Europe. The motorway network and the
high-speed rail High-speed rail (HSR) is a type of rail transport that runs significantly faster than traditional rail traffic, using an integrated system of specialised rolling stock The term rolling stock in the rail transport Rail transport (also k ...
system of
Alfa Pendular Alfa Pendular is the name of the Pendolino Pendolino (from Italian language, Italian ''pendolo'' "pendulum", and ''-ino,'' a diminutive suffix) is an Italy, Italian family of tilting trains used in Italy, Spain, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, Finlan ...

Alfa Pendular
links the main cities of Portugal to Lisbon. The city is the 9th-most-visited city in
Southern Europe Southern Europe is the southern region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth a ...

Southern Europe
, after
Istanbul Istanbul ( , ; tr, İstanbul ), formerly known as Constantinople, is the List of largest cities and towns in Turkey, largest city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural and historic center. The city straddles the Bosporus strait, and lie ...

Istanbul
,
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...

Rome
,
Barcelona Barcelona ( , , ) is a city on the coast of northeastern Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within ci ...

Barcelona
,
Milan Milan (, , Milanese: ; it, Milano ) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the List of cities in Italy, second-most populous city proper in Italy after Rome. The city proper has a population of about 1.4 million, while its ...

Milan
,
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Athens
,
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding ...

Venice
,
Madrid Madrid ( , ) is the capital and most populous city of Spain. The city has almost 3.4 million inhabitants and a Madrid metropolitan area, metropolitan area population of approximately 6.7 million. It is the Largest cities of the Europ ...

Madrid
and
Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central-Northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsula delimited by the Al ...

Florence
with 3,539,400 tourists in 2018. The
Lisbon region Lisboa Region ( pt, Região de Lisboa, ) is one of the seven NUTS II designated regions of Portugal, which coincides with the NUTS III subregion Lisbon metropolitan area, Lisboa Metropolitan Region. The region covers an area of 3001.95 km2 (th ...
has a higher GDP PPP per capita than any other
region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental geography). Geographic re ...
in Portugal. Its GDP amounts to US$96.3 billion and thus $32,434 per capita. The city occupies the 40th place of highest gross earnings in the world. Most of the headquarters of
multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whethe ...
s in Portugal are located in the Lisbon area. It is also the political centre of the country, as its seat of
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...
and residence of the
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional ch ...
. Lisbon is one of the
oldest cities in the world This is a list of present-day cities by the time period over which they have been continuously inhabited as a city. The age claims listed are generally disputed. Differences in opinion can result from different definitions of "city" as well as "co ...
, and the second-oldest European capital city (after
Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens rect 15 475 48 ...

Athens
), predating other modern European capitals by centuries.
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened ...

Julius Caesar
made it a
municipium Municipium (pl. municipia) is the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the p ...
called ''Felicitas Julia'', adding to the name ''
Olissipo Municipium Cives Romanorum Felicitas Julia Olisipo (in Latin: ''Olisippo'' or ''Ulyssippo'' ; in Greek language, Greek: ''Ολισσιπο'', ''Olissipo'', or ''Ολισσιπόνα'', ''Olissipóna'') was the ancient name of modern-day Lisbon while ...

Olissipo
''. After the
fall of the Roman Empire The fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called the fall of the Roman Empire or the fall of Rome) was the loss of central political control in the Western Roman Empire The Western Roman Empire comprises the western provinces of the Roma ...
it was ruled by a series of
Germanic tribes This list of ancient s is an inventory of ancient Germanic cultures, tribal groupings and other alliances of Germanic tribes and civilisations in ancient times. The information comes from various ancient historical documents, beginning in the 2nd ...

Germanic tribes
from the 5th century; later it was captured by the
Moors '' of Alfonso X, c. 1285 The term Moor is an Endonym and exonym, exonym first used by Christian Europeans to designate the Muslims, Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily and Malta during the Middle Ages. The Moors init ...

Moors
in the 8th century. In 1147
Afonso Henriques Afonso IOr also ''Affonso'' (Archaic Portuguese-Galician) or ''Alphonso'' ( Portuguese-Galician) or ''Alphonsus'' (Latin version), sometimes rendered in English as ''Alphonzo'' or ''Alphonse'', depending on the Spanish or French influence. (; bo ...

Afonso Henriques
conquered the city and since then it has been the political, economic and cultural center of Portugal.


Etymology

Lisbon's name may have been derived from
Proto-Celtic The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the ancestral proto-language In the tree model In historical linguistics Historical linguistics, also termed diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change ...
or
Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: ...
'' Olisippo'', ''Lissoppo'', or a similar name which other visiting peoples like the ancient Phoenicians, Greeks and Romans adapted accordingly, such as the pre-Roman appellation for the Tagus River, ''Lisso'' or ''Lucio''. Classical authors writing in Latin and Greek, including
Strabo Strabo''Strabo'' (meaning "squinty", as in strabismus Strabismus is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object. The eye that is focused on an object can alternate. The condition may be pre ...

Strabo
,
Solinus Gaius Julius Solinus was a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power o ...
, and
Martianus Capella Martianus Minneus Felix Capella (fl. c. 410–420) was a Latin literature, Latin prose writer of Late antiquity, Late Antiquity, one of the earliest developers of the system of the seven liberal arts that structured early medieval education. H ...
, referred to popular legends that the city of Lisbon was founded by the mythical hero Ulysses (
Odysseus Odysseus ( ; grc-gre, Ὀδυσσεύς, Ὀδυσεύς, OdysseúsOdyseús, ), also known by the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken ...

Odysseus
). Lisbon's name was written ''Ulyssippo'' in Latin by the geographer
Pomponius Mela Pomponius Mela, who wrote around AD 43, was the earliest Roman geographer. He was born in Tingentera (now Algeciras) and died  AD 45. His short work (''De situ orbis libri III.'') remained in use nearly to the year 1500. It occupies less th ...
, a native of
Hispania Hispania ( ; ) was the Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testame ...

Hispania
. It was later referred to as "Olisippo" by
Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder#REDIRECT Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, including animals, fungus, fungi, ...

Pliny the Elder
and by the Greeks as ''Olissipo'' (Ὀλισσιπών) or ''Olissipona'' (Ὀλισσιπόνα). Another claim repeated in non-academic literature is that the name of Lisbon could be traced back to Phoenician times, referring to a supposedly Phoenician term ''Alis-Ubo'', meaning "safe harbour". Although modern archaeological excavations show a Phoenician presence at this location since 1200BC, this folk etymology has no historical credibility. Lisbon's name is commonly abbreviated as "LX" or "Lx", originating in an antiquated spelling of Lisbon as ‘‘Lixbõa’’. While the old spelling has since been completely dropped from usage and goes against modern language standards, the abbreviation is still commonly used.


History


Origins

During the
Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is t ...
period, the region was inhabited by Pre-Celtic tribes, who built religious and funerary monuments,
megalith A megalith is a large Rock (geology), stone that has been used to construct a prehistoric structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones. There are over 35,000 in Europe alone, located widely from Sweden to the Mediterranean ...

megalith
s,
dolmen A dolmen () is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb A megalith is a large pre-historic stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones. There are over 35,000 in Europe alone, l ...

dolmen
s and
menhir Dry Tree menhir – a standing stone at Goonhilly Downs Cornwall">Goonhilly_Downs.html" ;"title="Dry Tree menhir – a standing stone at Goonhilly Downs">Dry Tree menhir – a standing stone at Goonhilly Downs Cornwall A menhir (from Britton ...

menhir
s, which still survive in areas on the periphery of Lisbon. The
Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the northern Indian subcontinent and the Iranian Plateau. Some European languages of ...
Celt The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: Celtic a collection of Indo-European peoples. "The Celts, an ancient Indo-Europe ...

Celt
s invaded in the 1st millennium BC, mixing with the Pre-Indo-European population, thus giving rise to Celtic-speaking local tribes such as the Cempsi or
SefesThe Sefes sometimes also known as Cempsi were a people of ancient Iberia The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese language, Aragonese and Occitan language, Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl, Península ...
. Although the first fortifications on Lisbon's Castelo hill are known to be no older than the 2nd century BC, recent archaeological finds have shown that
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's pa ...
people occupied the site from the 8th to 6th centuries BC. This indigenous settlement maintained commercial relations with the Phoenicians, which would account for the recent findings of Phoenician pottery and other material objects. Archaeological excavations made near the Castle of São Jorge (''Castelo de São Jorge'') and
Lisbon Cathedral The Cathedral of Saint Mary Major ( pt, Santa Maria Maior de Lisboa or ''Metropolitan Cathedral of St. Mary Major''), often called Lisbon Cathedral or simply the Sé ('), is a Roman Catholic cathedral located in Lisbon, Portugal. The oldest church ...

Lisbon Cathedral
indicate a Phoenician presence at this location since 1200 BC, and it can be stated with confidence that a Phoenician trading post stood on a site now the centre of the present city, on the southern slope of Castle hill. The sheltered harbour in the
Tagus River The Tagus ( ; es, Tajo ; pt, Tejo ; see #Name, below) is the longest river in the Iberian Peninsula. The river rises in the Montes Universales in mid-eastern Spain, flows , generally west with two main south-westward sections, to empty int ...

Tagus River
estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed Coast, coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zone between river environments and maritime envir ...

estuary
was an ideal spot for an
Iberian Iberian refers to Iberia (disambiguation), Iberia. Most commonly Iberian refers to: *Someone or something originating in the Iberian Peninsula, namely from Spain, Portugal and Andorra. The term ''Iberian'' is also used to refer to anything pertain ...

Iberian
settlement and would have provided a secure harbour for unloading and provisioning Phoenician ships. The Tagus settlement was an important centre of commercial trade with the inland tribes, providing an outlet for the valuable metals, salt and salted-fish they collected, and for the sale of the renowned in antiquity. According to a persistent legend, the location was named for the mythical
Ulysses Ulysses is the Roman name for Odysseus, a hero in ancient Greek literature. Ulysses may also refer to: People * Ulysses (given name), including a list of people with this name Places in the United States * Ulysses, Kansas * Ulysses, Kentucky * U ...

Ulysses
, who founded the city when he sailed westward to the ends of the known world.


Roman era

Following the defeat of
Hannibal Hannibal (; xpu, 𐤇𐤍𐤁𐤏𐤋, ''Ḥannibaʿl''; 247 – between 183 and 181 BC) was a Carthaginian general and statesman who commanded the forces of Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient Ancient Carthage, ...

Hannibal
in 202 BC during the
Punic wars The Punic Wars were a series of wars (taking place between 264 and 146BC) that were fought between the Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the ancient Rome, classical Roman civilization, run thr ...
, the Romans determined to deprive
Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient , on the eastern side of the in what is now . Carthage was the most important trading hub of the Ancient Mediterranean and one of the most affluent cities of the . The city developed from a n colony ...

Carthage
of its most valuable possession:
Hispania Hispania ( ; ) was the Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testame ...

Hispania
(the Iberian Peninsula). The defeat of Carthaginian forces by
Scipio Africanus Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus (, , ; 236/235–183 BC) was a Roman general and statesman, most notable as one of the main architects of Rome's victory against Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient Ancient Carthage, Cartha ...
in Eastern Hispania allowed the pacification of the west, led by Consul
Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus 250px, Iberian Peninsula circa 100 BC Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus (or Gallaecus or Callaecus) (180 BC113 BC) was a consul Consul (abbrev. ''cos.''; Latin plural ''consules'') was the title of one of the two chief Roman magistrate, magistrat ...
. Decimus obtained the alliance of
Olissipo Municipium Cives Romanorum Felicitas Julia Olisipo (in Latin: ''Olisippo'' or ''Ulyssippo'' ; in Greek language, Greek: ''Ολισσιπο'', ''Olissipo'', or ''Ολισσιπόνα'', ''Olissipóna'') was the ancient name of modern-day Lisbon while ...

Olissipo
(which sent men to fight alongside the Roman Legions against the northwestern Celtic tribes) by integrating it into the empire, as the ''Municipium Cives Romanorum Felicitas Julia''. Local authorities were granted self-rule over a territory that extended ; exempt from taxes, its citizens were given the privileges of Roman citizenship, and it was then integrated with the Roman province of
Lusitania Lusitania (; ) or Hispania Lusitana was an ancient Iberian Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin: ''provincia'', pl. ''provinciae'') were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Roman Italy that were controlled by the Roma ...

Lusitania
(whose capital was
Emerita Augusta Augusta Emerita, also called Emerita Augusta, was a Roman Colonia founded in 25 BC in present day Mérida, Spain Mérida () is a city and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporatio ...
). Lusitanian raids and rebellions during Roman occupation required the construction of a wall around the settlement. During
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles through ...

Augustus
' reign, the Romans also built a great theatre; the Cassian Baths (underneath ''Rua da Prata''); temples to
Jupiter Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System. It is a gas giant A gas giant is a giant planet composed mainly of hydrogen Hydrogen is the chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol H and at ...
, Diana,
Cybele Cybele ( ; Phrygian: ''Matar Kubileya/Kubeleya'' "Kubileya/Kubeleya Mother", perhaps "Mountain Mother"; Lydian Lydian may refer to: * Lydians, an ancient people of Anatolia * Lydian language, an ancient Anatolian language * Lydian alphabet * ...
, Tethys and Idea
Phrygia In classical antiquity, Phrygia (; grc, Φρυγία, ''Phrygía'' ; tr, Frigya) (also known as the Kingdom of Muska) was a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now Asian Turkey, centred on the Sangarios River. After its co ...
e (an uncommon cult from
Asia Minor Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of ...

Asia Minor
), in addition to temples to the Emperor; a large
necropolis A necropolis (plural necropolises, necropoles, necropoleis, necropoli) is a large, designed cemetery A cemetery, burial ground or graveyard is a place where the remains of dead people are burial, buried or otherwise interred. The word ''cem ...

necropolis
under ''''; a large forum and other buildings such as
insulae The Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it ...
(multi-storied apartment buildings) in the area between Castle Hill and the historic city core. Many of these ruins were first unearthed during the mid-18th century (when the recent discovery of
Pompeii Pompeii (, ) was an ancient city located in what is now the ''comune The (; plural: ) is a of , roughly equivalent to a or . Importance and function The provides essential public services: of births and deaths, , and maintenan ...

Pompeii
made Roman archaeology fashionable among Europe's upper classes). The city prospered as
piracy Piracy is an act of robbery Robbery is the crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term ''crime'' does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted ...

piracy
was eliminated and technological advances were introduced, consequently ''Felicitas Julia'' became a center of trade with the Roman provinces of
Britannia Britannia () is the national personification upright=0.9, An early example of National personification in a gospel book dated 990: Germania.html"_;"title="Sclavinia,_Germania">Sclavinia,_Germania,_Sclavinia,_Germania,_Gallia">Germania.ht ...

Britannia
(particularly
Cornwall Cornwall (; kw, Kernow ) is a Historic counties of England, historic county and Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county in South West England. It is recognised as one of the Celtic nations, and is the homeland of the Cornish people ...

Cornwall
) and the
Rhine ), Surselva Surselva Region is one of the eleven administrative districts Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many si ...

Rhine
. Economically strong, Olissipo was known for its
garum Garum is a fermented Fermentation is a metabolic Metabolism (, from el, μεταβολή ''metabolē'', "change") is the set of life Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that have biological proces ...
(a fish sauce highly prized by the elites of the empire and exported in
amphora An amphora (; grc, ἀμφορεύς, ''amphoreús''; English plural: amphorae or amphoras) is a type of container with a pointed bottom and characteristic shape and size which fit tightly (and therefore safely) against each other in storag ...
e to Rome), wine, salt, and horse-breeding, while Roman culture permeated the hinterland. The city was connected by a broad road to Western Hispania's two other large cities,
Bracara Augusta Braga ( , ; cel-x-proto, Bracara) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd editio ...

Bracara Augusta
in the province of
Tarraconensis Hispania Tarraconensis was one of three Roman provinces in Hispania. It encompassed much of the northern, eastern and central territories of modern Spain along with the Norte Region, Portugal, Norte Region of modern Portugal. Southern Spain, the r ...

Tarraconensis
(Portuguese
Braga Braga ( , ; cel-x-proto, Bracara) is a and a in the northwestern district of , in the historical and cultural . The city has a resident population of 192,494 inhabitants (in 2011), representing the seventh largest municipality in Portugal (by ...

Braga
), and
Emerita Augusta Augusta Emerita, also called Emerita Augusta, was a Roman Colonia founded in 25 BC in present day Mérida, Spain Mérida () is a city and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporatio ...
, the capital of
Lusitania Lusitania (; ) or Hispania Lusitana was an ancient Iberian Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin: ''provincia'', pl. ''provinciae'') were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Roman Italy that were controlled by the Roma ...

Lusitania
. The city was ruled by an
oligarchical Oligarchy (; ) is a form of power structure in which Power (social and political), power rests with a small number of people. These people may or may not be distinguished by one or several characteristics, such as nobility, Celebrity (disambiguati ...
council dominated by two families, the Julii and the Cassiae, although regional authority was administered by the Roman Governor of Emerita or directly by Emperor
Tiberius Tiberius Caesar Augustus (; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March AD 37) was the second Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titl ...

Tiberius
. Among the majority of
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
speakers lived a large minority of Greek traders and slaves. Olissipo, like most great cities in the Western Empire, was a center for the dissemination of Christianity. Its first attested
Bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Moravian Chu ...
was Potamius (c. 356), and there were several
martyr A martyr (, ''mártys'', "witness", or , ''marturia'', stem Stem or STEM may refer to: Biology * Plant stem, the aboveground structures that have vascular tissue and that support leaves and flowers ** Stipe (botany), a stalk that supports some ...

martyr
s during the period of persecution of the Christians: Verissimus, Maxima, and Julia are the most significant examples. By the time of the
Fall of Rome The fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called the fall of the Roman Empire or the fall of Rome) was the loss of central political control in the Western Roman Empire The Western Roman Empire comprises the western provinces of the Roma ...
, Olissipo had become a notable Christian center.


Middle Ages

Following the disintegration of the Western Roman Empire, there were
barbarian A barbarian is a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Bioc ...

barbarian
invasions; between 409 and 429 the city was occupied successively by
Sarmatian The Sarmatians (; : ; la, Sarmatae , ) were a large that existed in , flourishing from about the fifth century BC to the fourth century AD. Originating in the central parts of the , the Sarmatians were part of the wider . They started migra ...
s,
Alans The Alans or Alāns (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of th ...

Alans
and
Vandals The Vandals were a Germanic peoples, Germanic people who first inhabited what is now southern Poland. They established Vandal Kingdom, Vandal kingdoms on the Iberian Peninsula, Mediterranean islands, and North Africa in the fifth century. The ...
. The Germanic
Suebi The Suebi (or Suebians, also spelled Suevi, Suavi) were a large group of Germanic peoples The Germanic peoples were a historical group of people living in Central Europe and Scandinavia. Since the 19th century, they have traditionally been d ...
, who established a kingdom in
Gallaecia Gallaecia, also known as Hispania Gallaecia, was the name of a Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin: ''provincia'', pl. ''provinciae'') were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Roman Italy that were controlled by the R ...

Gallaecia
(modern
Galicia Galicia may refer to: Geographic regions * Galicia (Spain), a region and autonomous community of northwestern Spain ** Gallaecia, a Roman province ** The post-Roman Kingdom of the Suebi, also called the Kingdom of Gallaecia ** The medieval Kingdom ...
and northern Portugal), with its capital in ''Bracara Augusta'', also controlled the region of Lisbon until 585. In 585, the Suebi Kingdom was integrated into the Germanic
Visigothic The Visigoths (; la, Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi) were an early Germanic people who, along with the Ostrogoths, constituted the two major political entities of the Goths within the Roman Empire in late antiquity, or what is kno ...
Kingdom of Toledo, which comprised all of the Iberian Peninsula: Lisbon was then called ''Ulishbona''. On 6 August 711, Lisbon was taken by
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...

Muslim
forces. These conquerors, who were mostly
Berbers Berbers or ''Imazighen'' ( ber, translit=Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ, ⵎⵣⵗⵏ; singular: , ) are an ethnic group mostly concentrated in North Africa, specifically Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, the Canary Islands, and to a lesser ...
and
Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, : , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, : , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an mainly inhabiting the . In modern usage the term refers to those who originate from an Arab co ...

Arab
s from
North Africa North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in th ...

North Africa
and the
Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task whi ...

Middle East
, built many mosques and houses, rebuilt the city wall (known as the ''Cerca Moura'') and established administrative control, while permitting the diverse population (
MuwalladThe ''Muladi'' ( es, muladí, , pl. ; pt, muladi, , pl. ; ca, muladita, or , , pl. or ; ar, مولد, trans. ''muwallad'', pl. , ''muwalladūn'' or , ''muwalladīn'') were Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam, a Mo ...
,
Mozarabs , representing the Apocalypse. 10th century. The Mozarabs ( es, mozárabes ; pt, moçárabes ; ca, mossàrabs ; from ar, مستعرب, musta‘rab, lit=Arabized) is a modern historical term for the Iberian Peninsula, Iberian Christians who lived ...
,
Berbers Berbers or ''Imazighen'' ( ber, translit=Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ, ⵎⵣⵗⵏ; singular: , ) are an ethnic group mostly concentrated in North Africa, specifically Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, the Canary Islands, and to a lesser ...
,
Arabs The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technica ...

Arabs
,
Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), ...

Jews
, ''
Zanj Zanj ( ar, زَنْج, adj. , ''Zanjī''; fa, زنگی, Zangi, Ottoman Turkish Ottoman Turkish ( ota, لِسانِ عُثمانى, , ; tr, Osmanlı Türkçesi) was the standardized register (sociolinguistics), register of the Turkish langu ...
'' and ''
Saqaliba upright=1.3, The Rus trading slaves with the Khazars: ''Trade in the East Slavs, East Slavic Camp'' by Sergei Ivanov (painter), Sergei Ivanov (1913). Many saqaliba slaves came from Europe to the Abbasid Caliphate via the Volga trade route from Eas ...
'') to maintain their socio-cultural lifestyles.
Mozarabic Mozarabic, also called Andalusi Romance ( mxi, latino, link=no), was a continuum Continuum may refer to: * Continuum (measurement) Continuum theories or models explain variation as involving gradual quantitative transitions without abrupt ch ...
was the native language spoken by most of the Christian population although Arabic was widely known as spoken by all religious communities. Islam was the official religion practised by the Arabs, Berbers, Zanj, Saqaliba and
MuwalladThe ''Muladi'' ( es, muladí, , pl. ; pt, muladi, , pl. ; ca, muladita, or , , pl. or ; ar, مولد, trans. ''muwallad'', pl. , ''muwalladūn'' or , ''muwalladīn'') were Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam, a Mo ...
(
muwalladThe ''Muladi'' ( es, muladí, , pl. ; pt, muladi, , pl. ; ca, muladita, or , , pl. or ; ar, مولد, trans. ''muwallad'', pl. , ''muwalladūn'' or , ''muwalladīn'') were Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam, a Mo ...
un). The Muslim influence is still visible in the
Alfama The Alfama () is the oldest neighborhood of Lisbon Lisbon (; pt, Lisboa ) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 544,851 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2. Grande Lisboa, ...

Alfama
district, an old quarter of Lisbon that survived the : many place-names are derived from Arabic and the Alfama (the oldest existing district of Lisbon) was derived from the Arabic "''al-hamma''. For a brief time, Lisbon was an independent Muslim kingdom known as the Taifa of Lisbon (1022–1094), before being conquered by the larger Taifa of Badajoz. In 1108 Lisbon was raided and occupied by Norway, Norwegian crusaders led by Sigurd I of Norway, Sigurd I on their way to the Holy Land as part of the Norwegian Crusade and occupied by crusader forces for three years. It was taken by the Moorish Almoravids in 1111. In 1147, as part of the ''Reconquista'', crusader knights led by Afonso I of Portugal Siege of Lisbon, besieged and reconquered Lisbon. The city, with around 154,000 residents at the time, was returned to Christian rule. The reconquest of Portugal and re-establishment of Christianity is one of the most significant events in Lisbon's history, described in the chronicle ''Expugnatione Lyxbonensi'', which describes, among other incidents, how the local bishop was killed by the crusaders and the city's residents prayed to the Virgin Mary as it happened. Some of the Muslim residents converted to Roman Catholicism and most of those who did not convert fled to other parts of the Islamic world, primarily Muslim Spain and
North Africa North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in th ...

North Africa
. All mosques were either completely destroyed or converted into churches. As a result of the end of Muslim rule, spoken Arabic quickly lost its place in the everyday life of the city and disappeared altogether. With its central location, Lisbon became the capital city of the new Portuguese territory in 1255. The first Portuguese university was founded in Lisbon in 1290 by King Dinis I of Portugal, Denis I; for many years the ''Studium Generale'' (''General Study'') was transferred intermittently to Coimbra, where it was installed permanently in the 16th century as the University of Coimbra. In 1384, the city was besieged by King Juan I of Castille, as a part of the ongoing 1383–1385 Crisis. The result of the siege was a victory for the Portuguese led by Nuno Álvares Pereira. During the last centuries of the Middle Ages, the city expanded substantially and became an important trading post with both Northern European and Mediterranean cities.


Early Modern

Most of the Portuguese expeditions of the Age of Discovery left Lisbon during the period from the end of the 15th century to the beginning of the 17th century, including Vasco da Gama's expedition to India in 1498. In 1506, 3,000 Sephardi Jews, Jews were Lisbon massacre, massacred in Lisbon. The 16th century was Lisbon's golden era: the city was the European hub of commerce between History of Portugal (1415–1578), Africa, Portuguese India, India, the Nanban trade, Far East and later, Colonial Brazil, Brazil, and acquired great riches by exploiting the trade in spices, slaves, sugar, textiles and other goods. This period saw the rise of the exuberant Manueline style in architecture, which left its mark in many 16th-century monuments (including Lisbon's Belém Tower and Jerónimos Monastery, which were declared UNESCO World Heritage Sites). A description of Lisbon in the 16th century was written by Damião de Góis and published in 1554. The Iberian Union, succession crisis of 1580, initiated a sixty-year period of dual monarchy in Portugal and Spain under the Habsburg Spain, Spanish Habsburgs. This is referred to as the "Philippine Dominion" (''Domínio Filipino''), since all Philippine Dynasty, three Spanish kings during that period were called Philip (''Filipe''). In 1589 Lisbon was the target of an incursion by the English Armada led by Francis Drake, while Elizabeth I, Queen Elizabeth supported a Portuguese pretender in Antonio, Prior of Crato, but support for Crato was lacking and the expedition was a failure. The Portuguese Restoration War, which began with a coup d'état organised by the nobility and bourgeoisie in Lisbon and executed on 1 December 1640, restored Portuguese independence. The period from 1640 to 1668 was marked by periodic skirmishes between Portugal and Spain, as well as short episodes of more serious warfare until the Treaty of Lisbon (1668), Treaty of Lisbon was signed in 1668. In the early 18th century, gold from Brazil allowed John V of Portugal, King John V to sponsor the building of several Baroque churches and theatres in the city. Prior to the 18th century, Lisbon had experienced several significant earthquakes – eight in the 14th century, five in the 16th century (including the 1531 Lisbon earthquake, 1531 earthquake that destroyed 1,500 houses and the 1597 earthquake in which three streets vanished), and three in the 17th century. On 1 November 1755, the city was destroyed by another 1755 Lisbon earthquake, devastating earthquake, which killed an estimated 30,000 to 40,000 Lisbon residents of a population estimated at between 200,000 and 275,000, and destroyed 85 percent of the city's structures. Among several important buildings of the city, the Ribeira Palace and the Hospital Real de Todos os Santos were lost. In coastal areas, such as Peniche Municipality, Peniche, situated about north of Lisbon, many people were killed by the following tsunami. By 1755, Lisbon was one of the largest cities in Europe; the catastrophic event shocked the whole of Europe and left a deep impression on its collective psyche. Voltaire wrote a long poem, ''Poême sur le désastre de Lisbonne'', shortly after the quake, and mentioned it in his 1759 novel ''Candide'' (indeed, many argue that this critique of optimism was inspired by that earthquake). Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. also mentions it in his 1857 poem, ''The Deacon's Masterpiece, or The Wonderful One-Hoss Shay.'' After the 1755 earthquake, the city was rebuilt largely according to the plans of Prime Minister Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, the Marquis of Pombal, 1st Marquis of Pombal; the lower town began to be known as the ''Baixa Pombalina'' (Pombaline Lower Town, Pombaline central district). Instead of rebuilding the medieval town, Pombal decided to demolish what remained after the earthquake and rebuild the city centre in accordance with principles of modern urban design. It was reconstructed in an open rectangular plan with two great squares: the ''Praça do Rossio'' and the ''Praça do Comércio''. The first, the central commercial district, is the traditional gathering place of the city and the location of the older cafés, theatres and restaurants; the second became the city's main access to the River Tagus and point of departure and arrival for seagoing vessels, adorned by a triumphal arch (1873) and a monument to King Joseph I of Portugal, Joseph I.


Modern era

In the first years of the 19th century, Portugal was invaded by the troops of Napoléon Bonaparte, forcing Queen Maria I of Portugal, Maria I and Prince-Regent John VI of Portugal, John (future John VI) to flee temporarily to Brazil. By the time the new King returned to Lisbon, many of the buildings and properties were pillaged, sacked or destroyed by the invaders. During the 19th century, the Liberal movement introduced new changes into the urban landscape. The principal areas were in the ''Baixa'' and along the ''Chiado'' district, where shops, tobacconists shops, cafés, bookstores, clubs and theatres proliferated. The development of industry and commerce determined the growth of the city, seeing the transformation of the Passeio Público (Lisbon), Passeio Público, a Pombaline era park, into the Avenida da Liberdade, as the city grew farther from the Tagus. Lisbon was the site of the Lisbon Regicide, regicide of Carlos I of Portugal in 1908, an event which culminated two years later in the establishment of the First Republic. The city refounded its university in 1911 after centuries of inactivity in Lisbon, incorporating reformed former colleges and other non-university higher education schools of the city (such as the ''Escola Politécnica'' – now ''Faculdade de Ciências''). Today there are two public universities in the city (University of Lisbon and New University of Lisbon), a public university institute (ISCTE - Lisbon University Institute) and a polytechnic (Portugal), polytechnic institute (IPL – Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa). During Portugal in World War II, World War II, Lisbon was one of the very few neutral, open European Atlantic ports, a major gateway for refugees to the U.S. and a haven for spies. More than 100,000 refugees were able to flee Nazi Germany via Lisbon. During the Estado Novo (Portugal), Estado Novo regime (1926–1974), Lisbon was expanded at the cost of other districts within the country, resulting in nationalist and monumental projects. New residential and public developments were constructed; the zone of Belém (Lisbon), Belém was modified for the Portuguese World Exhibition, 1940 Portuguese Exhibition, while along the periphery new districts appeared to house the growing population. The inauguration of the bridge over the Tagus allowed a rapid connection between both sides of the river. Lisbon was the site of three revolutions in the 20th century. The first, the 5 October 1910 revolution, brought an end to the Portuguese monarchy and established the highly unstable and corrupt Portuguese First Republic. The 28 May 1926 coup d'état, 6 June 1926 revolution ended the first republic and firmly established the Estado Novo (Portugal), Estado Novo, or the Portuguese Second Republic, as the ruling regime.


Contemporary

The Carnation Revolution, which took place on 25 April 1974, ended the right-wing Estado Novo (Portugal), Estado Novo regime and reformed the country to become as it is today, the Portuguese Third Republic. In the 1990s, many of the districts were renovated and projects in the historic quarters were established to modernise those areas, for instance, architectural and patrimonial buildings were renovated, the northern margin of the Tagus was re-purposed for leisure and residential use, the Vasco da Gama Bridge was constructed and the eastern part of the municipality was re-purposed for Expo '98 to commemorate the 500th anniversary of Vasco da Gama's sea voyage to India, a voyage that would bring immense riches to Lisbon and cause many of Lisbon's landmarks to be built. In 1988, a fire in the historical district of Chiado saw the destruction of many 18th-century Pombaline style buildings. A series of restoration works has brought the area back to its former self and made it a high-scale shopping district. The Lisbon Agenda was a European Union agreement on measures to revitalise the EU economy, signed in Lisbon in March 2000. In October 2007 Lisbon hosted the 2007 EU Summit, where an agreement was reached regarding a new EU governance model. The resulting Treaty of Lisbon was signed on 13 December 2007 and came into force on 1 December 2009. Lisbon has been the site for many international events and programmes. In 1994, Lisbon was the European Capital of Culture. On 3 November 2005, Lisbon hosted the MTV Europe Music Awards 2005, MTV European Music Awards. On 7 July 2007, Lisbon held the ceremony of the "New 7 Wonders Of The World" election, in the Estádio da Luz, Luz Stadium, with live transmission for millions of people all over the world. Every two years, Lisbon hosts the Rock in Rio#Lisboa, Portugal, and Madrid, Spain, Rock in Rio Lisboa Music Festival, one of the largest in the world. Lisbon hosted the ''NATO summit'' (19–20 November 2010), a summit (meeting), summit meeting that is regarded as a periodic opportunity for Heads of State and Head of Government, Heads of Government of NATO member states to evaluate and provide strategic direction for Alliance activities. The city hosts the Web Summit and is the head office for the G7+, Group of Seven Plus (G7+). In 2018 it hosted the Eurovision Song Contest 2018, Eurovision Song Contest for the first time as well as the Michelin Guide, Michelin Gala. On 11 July 2018, the Aga Khan IV, Aga Khan officially chose the Henrique de Mendonça Palace, located on Rua Marquês de Fronteira, as the ''Divan'', or seat, of the global Nizari Isma'ilism, Nizari Muslim Imamate.


Geography


Physical geography

Lisbon is located at , situated at the mouth of the
Tagus River The Tagus ( ; es, Tajo ; pt, Tejo ; see #Name, below) is the longest river in the Iberian Peninsula. The river rises in the Montes Universales in mid-eastern Spain, flows , generally west with two main south-westward sections, to empty int ...

Tagus River
and is the westernmost capital of a mainland European country. The westernmost part of Lisbon is occupied by the Monsanto Forest Park, a urban park, one of the largest in Europe, and occupying 10% of the municipality. The city occupies an area of , and its city boundaries, unlike those of most major cities, coincide with those of the municipality. The rest of the urbanised area of the Lisbon urban area, known generically as Grande Lisboa Subregion, Greater Lisbon ( pt, Grande Lisboa) includes several administratively defined cities and municipalities, in the north bank of the Tagus River. The larger
Lisbon metropolitan area The Lisbon Metropolitan Area ( pt, Área Metropolitana de Lisboa; abbreviated as AML) is a metropolitan areas in Portugal, metropolitan area in Portugal centered on Lisbon, the capital and largest city of the country. The metropolitan area, cove ...
includes the Península de Setúbal, Setúbal Peninsula to the south.


Climate

Lisbon has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification, Köppen: ''Csa'') with mild, rainy winters and warm to hot, dry summers. The average annual temperature is , during the day and at night. In the coldest month – January – the highest temperature during the day typically ranges from , the lowest temperature at night ranges from and the average sea temperature is .Lisbon average sea temperature
– seatemperature.org.
In the warmest month – August – the highest temperature during the day typically ranges from , the lowest temperature at night ranges from and the average sea temperature is around . Among European capitals, Lisbon ranks among those with the warmest winters and has the mildest winter nights out of any major European city, with an average of in the coldest month, and in the warmest month. The coldest temperature ever recorded in Lisbon was in February 1956. The highest temperature ever recorded in Lisbon was on 4 August 2018. The city has around 2,806 hours of sunshine per year, averaging 4.6 hours of sunshine per day in December and 11.4 hours of sunshine per day in July, though when disregarding the duration of the day August is actually the sunniest, with over 80% chance of direct sunlight hitting the ground. Lisbon has around of precipitation per year. November and December are the wettest months, accounting for a third of the total annual precipitation. July and August are the driest.


Civil parishes

The municipality of Lisbon included 53 ''freguesias'' (civil parishes) until November 2012. A new law ("Lei n.º 56/2012") reduced the number of ''freguesias'' to the following 24: * Ajuda * Alcântara (Lisbon), Alcântara * Alvalade (Lisbon), Alvalade * Areeiro (Lisbon), Areeiro * Arroios * Avenidas Novas * Beato (Lisbon), Beato * Belém (Lisbon), Belém * Benfica (Lisbon), Benfica * Campo de Ourique * Campolide * Carnide * Estrela (Lisbon), Estrela * Lumiar * Marvila (Lisbon), Marvila * Misericórdia * Olivais (Lisbon), Olivais * Parque das Nações * Penha de França * Santa Clara (Lisbon), Santa Clara * Santa Maria Maior (Lisbon), Santa Maria Maior * Santo António (Lisbon), Santo António * São Domingos de Benfica * São Vicente (Lisbon), São Vicente


Neighborhoods

Locally, Lisbon's inhabitants may commonly refer to the spaces of Lisbon in terms of historic ''Bairros de Lisboa'' (Bairro, neighbourhoods). These communities have no clearly defined boundaries and represent distinctive quarters of the city that have in common a historical culture, similar living standards, and identifiable architectural landmarks, as exemplified by the ''Bairro Alto'', ''Alfama'', ''Chiado'', and so forth.


Alcântara

Although today it is quite central, it was once a mere suburb of Lisbon, comprising mostly farms and country estates of the nobility with their palaces. In the 16th century, there was a brook there which the nobles used to promenade in their boats. During the late 19th century, Alcântara became a popular industrial area, with many small factories and warehouses. In the early 1990s, Alcântara began to attract youth because of the number of pubs and discothèques. This was mainly due to its outer area of mostly commercial buildings, which acted as barriers to the noise-generating nightlife (which acted as a buffer to the residential communities surrounding it). In the meantime, some of these areas began to become gentrified, attracting loft developments and new flats, which have profited from its river views and central location. The riverfront of Alcântara is known for its nightclubs and bars. The area is commonly known as ''docas'' (docks), since most of the clubs and bars are housed in converted dock warehouses.


Alfama

The oldest district of Lisbon, it spreads down the southern slope from the Castle of São Jorge to the River Tagus. Its name, derived from the Arabic language, Arabic ''Al-hamma'', means fountains or baths. During the Islamic invasion of Iberia, the Alfama constituted the largest part of the city, extending west to the Baixa neighbourhood. Increasingly, the Alfama became inhabited by fishermen and the poor: its fame as a poor neighbourhood continues to this day. While the caused considerable damage throughout the capital, the Alfama survived with little damage, thanks to its compact labyrinth of narrow streets and small squares. It is a historical quarter of mixed-use buildings occupied by Fado bars, restaurants, and homes with small shops downstairs. Modernising trends have invigorated the district: old houses have been re-purposed or remodelled, while new buildings have been constructed. Fado, the typically Portuguese style of melancholy music, is common (but not obligatory) in the restaurants of the district.


Mouraria

The Mouraria, or Moorish quarter, is one of the most traditional neighbourhoods of Lisbon, although most of its old buildings were demolished by the Estado Novo (Portugal), Estado Novo between the 1930s and the 1970s. It takes its name from the fact that after the reconquest of Lisbon, the Muslims who remained were confined to this part of the city. In turn, the Jews were confined to three neighbourhoods calle
"Judiarias"
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Bairro Alto

Bairro Alto (literally ''the upper quarter'' in Portuguese language, Portuguese) is an area of central Lisbon that functions as a residential, shopping and entertainment district; it is the center of the Portuguese capital's nightlife, attracting hipster youth and members of various music subcultures. Lisbon's Punk subculture, Punk, Gay (term), Gay, Metal, Goth subculture, Goth, Hip hop music, Hip Hop and Reggae scenes all find a home in the ''Bairro'' with its many clubs and bars that cater to them. The crowds in the Bairro Alto are a multicultural mix of people representing a broad cross-section of modern Portuguese society, many of them being entertainment seekers and devotees of various music genres outside the mainstream, Fado, Portugal's national music, still survives in the midst of the new nightlife.


Baixa

The heart of the city is the ''Baixa'' or city centre; the Pombaline Baixa is an elegant district, primarily constructed after the , taking its name from its benefactor, Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, 1st Marquis of Pombal, who was the minister of Joseph I of Portugal (1750–1777) and a key figure during the Portuguese The Enlightenment, Enlightenment. Following the 1755 disaster, Pombal took the lead in rebuilding Lisbon, imposing strict conditions and guidelines on the construction of the city, and transforming the organic street plan that characterised the district before the earthquake into its current grid pattern. As a result, the Pombaline Baixa is one of the first examples of earthquake construction, earthquake-resistant construction. Architectural models were tested by having troops march around them to simulate an earthquake. Notable features of Pombaline structures include the ''Pombaline cage'', a symmetrical wood-lattice framework aimed at distributing earthquake forces, and inter-terrace walls that were built higher than roof timbers to inhibit the spread of fires.


Beato

The parish of Beato (Lisbon), Beato stands out for the new cultural dynamics it has been experiencing in recent years. The manufacturing districts and the industrial facilities by the riverside docks are the place of choice for contemporary art galleries, iconic bars, and gourmet restaurants that simmer in the streets. This reality has not gone unnoticed by the national press, and Visão, TimeOut, or Jornal de Negócios have already made notice of this parish that hides treasures such as the National Museum of the Azulejo or the Palacio do Grilo.


Belém

Belém is famous as the place from which many of the great Portugal, Portuguese explorers set off on their voyages of discovery. In particular, it is the place from which Vasco da Gama departed for India in 1497 and Pedro Álvares Cabral departed for Brazil in 1499. It is also a former royal residence and features the 17th – 18th-century Belém Palace, a former royal residence now occupied by the President of Portugal, and the Ajuda Palace, begun in 1802 but never completed. Perhaps Belém's most famous feature is its tower, Belém Tower, Torre de Belém, whose image is much used by Lisbon's tourist board. The tower was built as a fortified lighthouse late in the reign of Manuel I of Portugal, Dom Manuel l (1515–1520) to guard the entrance to the port. It stood on a little island on the right side of the
Tagus The Tagus ( ; es, Tajo ; pt, Tejo ; see below) is the longest river in the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese and Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl, Península Eib ...

Tagus
, surrounded by water. Belém's other major historical building is the ''Jerónimos Monastery, Lisbon, Mosteiro dos Jerónimos'' (Jerónimos Monastery), which the Belém Tower, Torre de Belém was built partly to defend. Belém's most notable modern feature is the Padrão dos Descobrimentos (Monument to the Discoveries) built for the Portuguese World Fair in 1940. In the heart of Belém is the ''Praça do Império'': gardens centred upon a large fountain, laid out during World War II. To the west of the gardens lies the ''Centro Cultural de Belém''. Belém is one of the most visited Lisbon districts. Here is located the Estádio do Restelo, house of Belenenses.


Chiado

The Chiado is a traditional shopping area that mixes old and modern commercial establishments, concentrated specially in the Rua do Carmo and the Rua Garrett. Locals as well as tourists visit the Chiado to buy books, clothing and pottery as well as to have a cup of coffee. The most famous café of Chiado is ''A Brasileira'', famous for having had poet Fernando Pessoa among its customers. The Chiado is also an important cultural area, with several museums and theatres, including the opera. Several buildings of the Chiado were destroyed in a fire in 1988, an event that deeply shocked the country. Thanks to a renovation project that lasted more than 10 years, coordinated by celebrated architect Siza Vieira, the affected area has now virtually recovered. The ornate, late 18th-century Estrela Basilica is the main attraction of this district. The church with its large dome is located on a hill in what was at the time the western part of Lisbon and can be seen from great distances. The style is similar to that of the Mafra National Palace, late baroque and neoclassical. The façade has twin bell towers and includes statues of saints and some allegorical figures. São Bento Palace, the seat of the Portuguese parliament and the official residences of the Prime Minister of Portugal and the President of the Assembly of the Republic of Portugal, are in this district. Also in this district is Estrela Park, a favorite with families. There are exotic plants and trees, a duck pond, various sculptures, a children's playground, and many cultural events going on throughout the year, including outdoor cinema, markets, and music festivals.


Parque das Nações

Parque das Nações (Park of Nations) is the newest district in Lisbon; it emerged from an urban renewal program to host the 1998 World Exhibition of Lisbon, also known as Expo'98. The area suffered massive changes giving Parque das Nações a futuristic look. A long-lasting legacy of the same, the area has become another commercial and higher-end residential area for the city. Central in the area is the Gare do Oriente (Orient railway station), one of the main transport hubs of Lisbon for trains, buses, taxis, and the metro. Its glass and steel columns are inspired by Gothic architecture, lending the whole structure a visual fascination (especially in sunlight or when illuminated at night). It was designed by the architect Santiago Calatrava from Valencia, Spain. The Parque das Nações is across the street. The area is pedestrian-friendly with new buildings, restaurants, gardens, the Casino Lisboa, Portugal, Casino Lisbon, the FIL building (International Exhibition and Fair), the Camões Theatre and the ''Oceanário de Lisboa'' (Lisbon Oceanarium), which is the second-largest in the world. The district's Altice Arena has become Lisbon's "jack-of-all-trades" performance arena. Seating 20,000, it has staged events from concerts to basketball tournaments.


Politics

Carlos Moedas took office as the 78th and current List of mayors of Lisbon, Mayor of Lisbon on 18 October 2021, following the 2021 Portuguese local elections, 2021 local elections.


Local election results 1976–2021


Culture

The city of Lisbon is rich in architecture; Romanesque architecture, Romanesque, Gothic architecture, Gothic, Manueline, Baroque, Modernism, Modern and Postmodern constructions can be found all over Lisbon. The city is also crossed by historical boulevards and monuments along the main thoroughfares, particularly in the upper districts; notable among these are the ''Avenida da Liberdade'' (Avenue of Liberty), ''Avenida Fontes Pereira de Melo'', ''Avenida Almirante Reis'' and ''Avenida da República'' (Avenue of the Republic). Lisbon is home to numerous prominent museums and art collections, from all around the world. The National Museum of Ancient Art, which has one of the List of largest art museums, largest art collections in the world, and the National Coach Museum, which has the world's largest collection of royal coaches and carriages, are the two most visited museums in the city. Other notable national museums include the National Archaeology Museum, Portugal, National Museum of Archaeology, the Museum of Lisbon, the National Azulejo Museum, the National Museum of Contemporary Art (Portugal), National Museum of Contemporary Art, and the National Museum of Natural History and Science, Lisbon, National Museum of Natural History & Science. Prominent private museums and galleries include the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum, Gulbenkian Museum (run by the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, one of the List of wealthiest charitable foundations, wealthiest foundations in the world), which houses one of the largest private collections of antiquaries and art in the world, the Berardo Collection Museum, which houses the private collection of Portuguese billionaire Joe Berardo, the Museum of Art, Architecture and Technology, and the Museum of the Orient. Other popular museums include the Electricity Museum, the Ephemeral Museum, the Museu da Água, and the Museu Benfica, among many others. Lisbon's Opera House, the ''Teatro Nacional de São Carlos'', hosts a relatively active cultural agenda, mainly in autumn and winter. Other important theatres and musical houses are the ''Centro Cultural de Belém'', the ''Teatro Nacional D. Maria II'', the Gulbenkian Foundation, and the ''Teatro Camões''. The monument to ''Christ the King'' (Christ the King (Almada), Cristo-Rei) stands on the southern bank of the Tagus River, in Almada. With open arms, overlooking the whole city, it resembles the Corcovado monument in Rio de Janeiro, and was built after World War II, as a memorial of thanksgiving for Portugal's being spared the horrors and destruction of the war. 13 June is Lisbon´s holiday in honour of the city's saint, Anthony of Lisbon ( pt, Santo António). Saint Anthony, also known as ''Saint Anthony of Padua'', was a wealthy Portuguese bohemian who was Canonisation, canonised and made Doctor of the Church after a life preaching to the poor. Although Lisbon’s patron saint is Saint Vincent of Saragossa, whose remains are housed in the Lisbon Cathedral, Sé Cathedral, there are no festivities associated with this saint. Eduardo VII Park, the second-largest park in the city following the ''Parque Florestal de Monsanto'' (Monsanto Forest Park), extends down the main avenue (Avenida da Liberdade), with many flowering plants and green spaces, that includes the permanent collection of subtropical and tropical plants in the winter garden ( pt, Estufa Fria). Originally named ''Parque da Liberdade'', it was renamed in honour of Edward VII who visited Lisbon in 1903. Lisbon is home every year to the Lisbon Gay & Lesbian Film Festival, the Lisboarte, the DocLisboa – Lisbon International Documentary Film Festival, the Festival Internacional de Máscaras e Comediantes, the Lisboa Mágica – Street Magic World Festival, the Monstra – Animated Film Festival, the Lisbon Book Fair, the Peixe em Lisboa – Lisbon Fish and Flavours, and many others. Lisbon has two sites listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site: Belém Tower and Jerónimos Monastery. Furthermore, in 1994, Lisbon was the European Capital of Culture and, in 1998, organised the Expo '98 (''1998 Lisbon World Exposition''). Lisbon is also home to the Lisbon Architecture Triennial, the Moda Lisboa (Fashion Lisbon), ExperimentaDesign – Biennial of Design and LuzBoa – Biennial of Light. In addition, the mosaic Portuguese pavement (''Calçada Portuguesa'') was born in Lisbon, in the mid-1800s. The art has since spread to the rest of the Portuguese Speaking world. The city remains one of the most expansive examples of the technique, nearly all walkways and even many streets being created and maintained in this style. In May 2018, the city hosted the Eurovision Song Contest 2018, 63rd edition of the Eurovision Song Contest, after the victory of Salvador Sobral with the song "''Amar pelos dois''" in Kyiv on 13 May 2017.


Demographics

The historical population of the city was around 35,000 in 1300 AD. Up to 60,000 in 1400 AD, and rising to 70,000 in 1500 AD. Between 1528 and 1590 the population went from 70,000 to 120,000. The population was about 150,000 in 1600 AD, and almost 200,000 in 1700 AD. The Lisbon metropolitan area incorporates two NUTS III (European statistical subdivisions): ''Grande Lisboa'' (Greater Lisbon), along the northern bank of the
Tagus River The Tagus ( ; es, Tajo ; pt, Tejo ; see #Name, below) is the longest river in the Iberian Peninsula. The river rises in the Montes Universales in mid-eastern Spain, flows , generally west with two main south-westward sections, to empty int ...

Tagus River
, and ''Península de Setúbal'' (Setúbal Peninsula), along the southern bank. These two subdivisions make for the ''Região de Lisboa'' (Lisbon Region). The population density of the city itself is . Lisbon has 544,851 inhabitants within the administrative center on the area of only 100.05 km2 Administratively defined cities that exist in the vicinity of the capital are in fact part of the metropolitan perimeter of Lisbon. The urban area has a population of 2,666,000 inhabitants, being the eleventh largest urban area in the European Union. The whole metropolis of Lisbon (metropolitan area) has about 3 million inhabitants. According to official government data, the
Lisbon metropolitan area The Lisbon Metropolitan Area ( pt, Área Metropolitana de Lisboa; abbreviated as AML) is a metropolitan areas in Portugal, metropolitan area in Portugal centered on Lisbon, the capital and largest city of the country. The metropolitan area, cove ...
has 3,643,876 inhabitants. Other sources also show a similar number, according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development – 2,797,612 inhabitants; according to the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations – 2,890,000; according to the European Statistical Office Eurostat – 2,839,908; according to the Brookings Institution has 2,968,600 inhabitants.


Economy

The
Lisbon region Lisboa Region ( pt, Região de Lisboa, ) is one of the seven NUTS II designated regions of Portugal, which coincides with the NUTS III subregion Lisbon metropolitan area, Lisboa Metropolitan Region. The region covers an area of 3001.95 km2 (th ...
is the wealthiest region in Portugal and it is well above the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
's GDP per capita average – it produces 45% of the Portuguese GDP. Lisbon's economy is based primarily on the tertiary sector. Most of the headquarters of multinationals operating in Portugal are concentrated in the Grande Lisboa Subregion, especially in the Oeiras Municipality, Portugal, Oeiras municipality. The
Lisbon metropolitan area The Lisbon Metropolitan Area ( pt, Área Metropolitana de Lisboa; abbreviated as AML) is a metropolitan areas in Portugal, metropolitan area in Portugal centered on Lisbon, the capital and largest city of the country. The metropolitan area, cove ...
is heavily industrialized, especially the south bank of the
Tagus The Tagus ( ; es, Tajo ; pt, Tejo ; see below) is the longest river in the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese and Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl, Península Eib ...

Tagus
river (Rio Tejo). The Lisbon region is rapidly growing, with GDP (PPP) per capita calculated for each year as follows: €22,745 (2004) – €23,816 (2005) – €25,200 (2006) – €26,100 (2007). The Lisbon metropolitan area had a List of cities by GDP, GDP amounting to $110.4 billion, and $32,434 per capita. The country's chief Port of Lisbon, seaport, featuring one of the largest and most sophisticated regional markets on the Iberian Peninsula, Lisbon and its heavily populated surroundings are also developing as an important financial centre and a dynamic technological hub. Automobile manufacturers have erected factories in the suburbs, for example, AutoEuropa. Lisbon has the largest and most developed mass media sector of Portugal and is home to several related companies ranging from leading television networks and radio stations to newspaper of record, major newspapers. The Euronext Lisbon stock exchange, part of the pan-European Euronext system together with the stock exchanges of Amsterdam, Brussels and Paris, is tied with the New York Stock Exchange since 2007, forming the multinational NYSE Euronext group of stock exchanges. The lisbonite industry has very large sectors in oil, as refineries are found just across the Tagus, textile mills, shipyards and fishing. Before Portugal's sovereign debt crisis and an Portuguese economic crisis of the 2010s, EU-IMF rescue plan, for the decade of 2010 Lisbon was expecting to receive many state-funded investments, including building a new airport, a new bridge, an expansion of the Lisbon Metro underground, the construction of a mega-hospital (or central hospital), the creation of two lines of a TGV to join
Madrid Madrid ( , ) is the capital and most populous city of Spain. The city has almost 3.4 million inhabitants and a Madrid metropolitan area, metropolitan area population of approximately 6.7 million. It is the Largest cities of the Europ ...

Madrid
,
Porto Porto or Oporto () is the List of cities in Portugal, second-largest city in Portugal, the capital of the Porto District, and one of the Iberian Peninsula's major urban areas. Porto city proper, which is the entire concelho, municipality of Porto ...

Porto
, Vigo and the rest of Europe, the restoration of the main part of the town (between the Marquês de Pombal roundabout and Terreiro do Paço), the creation of a large number of bike lanes, as well as modernization and renovation of various facilities. Lisbon was the World's most livable cities#Most Liveable Cities Index, 10th most "livable city" in the world in 2019 according to lifestyle magazine ''Monocle (2007 magazine), Monocle.'' Tourism is also a significant industry; a 2018 report stated that the city receives an average of 4.5 million tourists per year. Hotel revenues alone generated €714.8 million in 2017, an increase of 18.7% over 2016. ''Lisboa'' was elected the "World's Leading City Destination and World's Leading City Break Destination 2018".


Transport


Metro

The Lisbon Metro connects the city centre with the upper and eastern districts, and also reaches some suburbs that are part of the
Lisbon metropolitan area The Lisbon Metropolitan Area ( pt, Área Metropolitana de Lisboa; abbreviated as AML) is a metropolitan areas in Portugal, metropolitan area in Portugal centered on Lisbon, the capital and largest city of the country. The metropolitan area, cove ...
, such as Amadora and Loures. It is the fastest way to get around the city and it provides a good number of interchanging stations with other types of transportation. From the Lisbon Airport station to the city centre it may take roughly 25 mins. As of 2018, the Lisbon Metro comprises four lines, identified by individual colours (blue, yellow, green and red) and 56 stations, with a total length of 44.2 km. Several expansion projects have been proposed, being the most recent the transformation of the Green Line into a circular line and the creation of two more stations (Santos and Estrela (Lisbon), Estrela).


Trams

A traditional form of public transport in Lisbon is the tram. Introduced in 1901, electric trams were originally imported from the US, and called the ''americanos''. The earliest trams can still be seen in the Museu da Carris (the Public Transport Museum). Other than on the modern Line 15, the Trams in Lisbon, Lisbon tramway system still employs small (four-wheel) vehicles of a design dating from the early twentieth century. These distinctive yellow trams are one of the tourist icons of modern Lisbon, and their size is well suited to the steep hills and narrow streets of the central city.


Trains

There are four CP Urban Services, commuter train lines departing from Lisbon: the Sintra, Azambuja, Cascais and Sado lines (operated by CP – Comboios de Portugal), as well as a fifth line to Setúbal (operated by Fertagus), which crosses the
Tagus The Tagus ( ; es, Tajo ; pt, Tejo ; see below) is the longest river in the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese and Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl, Península Eib ...

Tagus
river via the 25 de Abril Bridge. The major railway stations are Santa Apolónia Station, Santa Apolónia, Rossio Train Station, Rossio, Gare do Oriente, Entrecampos, and Cais do Sodré railway station, Cais do Sodré.


Buses

The local bus service within Lisbon is operated by Carris. There are other commuter bus services from the city (connecting cities outside Lisbon, and connecting these cities to Lisbon): Vimeca, Rodoviária de Lisboa, Transportes Sul do Tejo, Boa Viagem, Barraqueiro are the main ones, operating from different terminals in the city. Lisbon is connected to its suburbs and throughout Portugal by an extensive motorway network. There are three circular motorways around the city; the 2ª Circular, the IC17 (CRIL), and the A9 (CREL).


Bridges and ferries

The city is connected to the far side of the Tagus by two important bridges: * The 25 de Abril Bridge, inaugurated (as Ponte António de Oliveira Salazar, Salazar) on 6 August 1966, and later renamed after the date of the Carnation Revolution, was the longest suspension bridge in Europe. * The Vasco da Gama Bridge, inaugurated in May 1998 is, at , the longest bridge in Europe. The foundations for a third bridge across the Tagus have already been laid, but the overall project has been postponed due to the economic crisis in Portugal and all of Europe. Another way of crossing the river is by taking the ferry. The operator is Transtejo & Soflusa, which runs from different locations within the city: Cacilhas, Seixal Municipality, Seixal, Montijo, Portugal, Montijo, Porto Brandão and Trafaria under the brand Transtejo and to Barreiro (city), Barreiro under the brand Soflusa.


Air travel

Humberto Delgado Airport is located within the city limits. It is the headquarters and hub for TAP Portugal as well as a hub for Easyjet, Azores Airlines, Ryanair, EuroAtlantic Airways, White Airways, and Hi Fly (airline), Hi Fly. A second airport has been proposed, but the project has been put on hold because of the Portuguese and European economic crisis, and also because of the long discussion on whether a new airport is needed. However, the last proposal is a military airbase in Montijo, Portugal, Montijo that would be replaced by a civil airport. So, Lisbon would have two airports, the current airport in the north and a new one in the south of the city. Cascais Aerodrome, 20 km West of the city centre, in Cascais, offers commercial domestic flights.


Cycling

Following the Covid-19 pandemic, Lisbon has seen a significant increase in cycling and plans to expand the current Gira bike hire system from 600 bikes to 1,500 by summer 2021. Many of these bikes will be electric to deal with Lisbon's hills. The city will also expand its network of cycle paths.


Public transportation statistics

The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Lisbon, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 59 min. 11.5% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 14 min, while 23.1% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 6 km, while 10% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.


Education


International schools

In Greater Lisbon area, particularly in the
Portuguese Riviera The Portuguese Riviera (Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variant ...
, an area popular with expats and foreign nationals, there are numerous international schools, including the Carlucci American International School of Lisbon (only American school in Portugal), Saint Julian's School (British), Saint Dominic's International School (British), Deutsche Schule Lissabon (German), Instituto Español Giner de los Ríos (Spanish), and Lycée Français Charles Lepierre (French).


Higher education

In the city, there are three public universities and a university institute. The University of Lisbon, which is the largest university in Portugal, was created in 2013 with the union of the Technical University of Lisbon and the Classical University of Lisbon (which was known as the University of Lisbon). The New University of Lisbon, founded in 1973, is another public university in Lisbon and is known internationally by its Nova School of Business and Economics (Nova SBE), its economics and management faculty. The third public university is Universidade Aberta. Additionally, there's ISCTE - Lisbon University Institute (founded in 1972), a university institute that provides degrees in all academic disciplines. Major private institutions of higher education include the Portuguese Catholic University, focused on law and management, as well as the Lusíada University, the Universidade Lusófona, and the Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa, among others. The total number of enrolled students in higher education in Lisbon was, for the 2007–2008 school year, of 125,867 students, of whom 81,507 in the Lisbon's public institutions.


Libraries

Lisbon is home to Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal, the Portuguese national library, which has over 3 million books and manuscripts. The library has some rare books and manuscripts, such as an original Gutenberg Bible and original books by Erasmus, Christophe Platin and Aldus Manutius. Torre do Tombo National Archive, Torre do Tombo, the national archive, is one of the most important archives in the world, with over 600 years and one of the oldest active Portuguese institutions. There are, among several others, the Arquivo Histórico Ultramarino and the Arquivo Histórico Militar.


Sports

Lisbon has a long tradition in sports. It hosted several matches, including the UEFA Euro 2004, final, of the UEFA Euro 2004 championship. The city also played host to the final of the 2001 IAAF World Indoor Championships and the European Fencing Championships in 1983 and 1992, as well as the 2003 World Men's Handball Championship, and the 2008 European Judo Championships. From 2006 to 2008, Lisbon was the starting point for the Dakar Rally. The city hosted the 2014 UEFA Champions League Final, 2014 and 2020 UEFA Champions League Final, 2020 UEFA Champions League finals. In 2008 and 2016, the city hosted the European Triathlon Championships. Lisbon has a leg at the Volvo Ocean Race.


Football

The city hosts three association football clubs in Portugal's highest league, the Primeira Liga. S.L. Benfica, Sport Lisboa e Benfica, commonly known as simply ''Benfica'', has won 37 league titles in addition to two UEFA Champions League, European Cups. Lisbon's second-most successful club is Sporting CP, Sporting Clube de Portugal (commonly known as ''Sporting'' and often referred to as ''Sporting Lisbon'' abroad to prevent confusion with other teams with the same name), winner of 19 league titles and the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup. A third club, C.F. Os Belenenses (commonly ''Belenenses'' or ''Belenenses Lisbon''), based in the Belém, Lisbon, Belém quarter, has solely won one league title. Other major clubs in Lisbon include Atlético Clube de Portugal, Atlético, Casa Pia A.C., Casa Pia, and Clube Oriental de Lisboa, Oriental. Lisbon has two UEFA elite stadium, UEFA category four stadiums; Benfica's Estádio da Luz (''Stadium of Light''), with a capacity of over 65,000 and Sporting's Estádio José Alvalade, with a capacity of over 50,000. The Estádio da Luz held both the 2014 UEFA Champions League Final, 2014 and 2020 UEFA Champions League Final. There is also Belenenses' Estádio do Restelo, with a capacity of over 30,000. The Estádio Nacional, in nearby Oeiras Municipality, Portugal, Oeiras, has a capacity of 37,000 and was used exclusively for Portugal national football team, Portuguese international football matches and cup finals until the construction of larger stadia in the city. It held the 1967 European Cup Final.


Other sports

Other sports, such as basketball, futsal, team handball, handball, roller hockey (quad), roller hockey, rugby union and volleyball are also popular; the latter's national stadium is in Lisbon. There are many other sports facilities in Lisbon, ranging from athletics, sailing, golfing to mountain-biking. Lisboa and Troia golf course are two of many stunning golf courses located in Lisbon. Every March the city hosts the Lisbon Half Marathon, while in September the Portugal Half Marathon.


International relations


Union of Luso-Afro-Americo-Asiatic Capital Cities

Lisbon is part of the Union of Luso-Afro-Americo-Asiatic Capital Cities from 28 June 1985, establishing brotherly relations with the following cities: * Bissau, Guinea-Bissau * Dili, East Timor * Luanda, Angola * * Maputo, Mozambique * Panaji (Panjim), India * Praia, Cape Verde * Rio de Janeiro, Brazil * São Tomé, São Tomé and Príncipe


Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities

Lisbon is part of the Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities from 12 October 1982 establishing brotherly relations with the following cities: * Andorra la Vella, Andorra * Asunción, Paraguay * Bogotá, Colombia * Buenos Aires, Argentina * Caracas, Venezuela * Guatemala City, Guatemala * Havana, Cuba * La Paz, Bolivia * Lima, Peru *
Madrid Madrid ( , ) is the capital and most populous city of Spain. The city has almost 3.4 million inhabitants and a Madrid metropolitan area, metropolitan area population of approximately 6.7 million. It is the Largest cities of the Europ ...

Madrid
, Spain * Managua, Nicaragua * Mexico City, Mexico * Montevideo, Uruguay * Panama City, Panama * Quito, Ecuador * Rio de Janeiro, Brazil * San Jose (Costa Rica), San Jose, Costa Rica * San Juan (Puerto Rico), San Juan, Puerto Rico, United States * San Salvador, El Salvador * Santiago, Chile * Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic * Tegucigalpa, Honduras


Cooperation agreements

Lisbon has additional cooperation agreements with the following cities: * Algiers, Algeria, since 1988 * Asunción, Paraguay, since 2014 * Bangkok, Thailand, since 2016 * Beijing, China, since 2007 * Bethlehem, Palestine, since 1995 * Budapest, Hungary, since 1992 * Buenos Aires, Argentina, since 1992 * Curitiba, Brazil, since 2005 * Gdańsk, Poland, since 2001 * Guimarães, Portugal, since 1993 * Haimen, China, since 2011 * Kyiv, Ukraine, since 2000 *
Madrid Madrid ( , ) is the capital and most populous city of Spain. The city has almost 3.4 million inhabitants and a Madrid metropolitan area, metropolitan area population of approximately 6.7 million. It is the Largest cities of the Europ ...

Madrid
, Spain, since 1979 * Malacca City, Malaysia, since 1984 * Manila, Philippines, since 2003 * Miami, United States, since 1987 * Montevideo, Uruguay, since 1993 * Moscow, Russia, since 1997 * Paris, France, since 1998 * Qingdao, China, since 2010 * Rabat, Morocco, since 1988 * Santa Catarina, Cape Verde, Santa Catarina, Cape Verde, since 1997 * Sofia, Bulgaria, since 2001 * Toronto, Canada, since 1987 * Tunis, Tunisia, since 1993 * Zagreb, Croatia, since 1977


See also

* List of people from Lisbon * List of tallest buildings in Lisbon


References


Bibliography


External links


Visit Portugal
– Official page by the Government of Portugal
Associação de Turismo de Lisboa
– Official site of the Lisbon Tourism Association
OTLIS
– Official site of the Lisbon Region Transport Operators Consortium
Portal das Nações
Official site of Parque das Nações in Lisbon
Lisbon voted European City of the Year 2012 – Award
– Portuguese American Journal
TVL
Lisbon TV {{Authority control Lisbon, Capitals in Europe Cities in Portugal Marinas in Portugal Phoenician colonies in Portugal Populated coastal places in Portugal Populated places in Lisbon District Port cities and towns in Portugal Recipients of the Order of the Tower and Sword Roman towns and cities in Portugal Municipalities of Lisbon District Populated places established in the 2nd millennium BC 2nd-millennium BC establishments