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Qocho (,
Mongolian Mongolian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Mongolia, a country in Asia * Mongolian people, or Mongols * Mongolia (1911–24), the government of Mongolia, 1911–1919 and 1921–1924 * Mongolian language * Mongolian alphabet * Mongo ...

Mongolian
' "id."), also known as Idiqut, ("holy wealth"; "glory"; "lord of fortune") was a
UyghurUyghur may refer to: * Uyghurs, a Turkic ethnic group living in Eastern and Central Asia * Uyghur language, a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Uyghurs ** Uyghur alphabets, any of four systems used to write the language * Uyghur Khaganate, a T ...
kingdom created in 843, with strong
Chinese Buddhist Chinese Buddhism or Han Buddhism has shaped Chinese culture in a wide variety of areas including art, politics, Chinese literature, literature, Chinese philosophy, philosophy, Chinese medicine, medicine and material culture. The translation o ...

Chinese Buddhist
and Tocharian influences. It was founded by Uyghur refugees fleeing the destruction of the
Uyghur Khaganate The Uyghur Khaganate (or Uyghur Empire or Uighur Khaganate, self defined as Toquz-Oghuz country; otk, 𐱃𐰆𐰴𐰕:𐰆𐰍𐰕:𐰉𐰆𐰑𐰣, Toquz Oγuz budun, Tang-era names, with modern Hanyu Pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often a ...

Uyghur Khaganate
after being driven out by the
Yenisei Kirghiz The Yenisei Kyrgyz ( otk, 𐰶𐰃𐰺𐰴𐰕:𐰉𐰆𐰑𐰣, Qïrqïz bodun), were an ancient Turkic people who dwelled along the upper Yenisei River in the southern portion of the Minusinsk Depression from the 3rd century BCE to the 13th c ...
. They made their summer capital in Qocho (also called ''Qara-Khoja'', modern
Gaochang District Gaochang (; ) is the only district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or counties, seve ...
of
Turpan Turpan (also known as Turfan or Tulufan, zh, 吐鲁番, pinyin: Tǔlǔfán, ug, تۇرپان) is a prefecture-level city A prefectural-level municipality (), prefectural-level city or prefectural city is an administrative division of the ...

Turpan
) and winter capital in Beshbalik (modern
Jimsar County Jimsar County is a county in Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, China. It contains an area of . According to the 2002 census, it has a population of 130,000. Near the town of Jimsar are the ruins of the ancient city of Beiting () or Ti ...
, also known as Ting Prefecture). Its population is referred to as the "Xizhou Uyghurs" after the old Tang Chinese name for Gaochang, the Qocho Uyghurs after their capital, the Kucha Uyghurs after another city they controlled, or the Arslan (lion) Uyghurs after their king's title.


Timeline

In 843 a group of Uyghurs migrated southward under the leadership of Pangtele and occupied
Karasahr Karasahr or Karashar ( ug, قاراشەھەر, Qarasheher, 6=Қарашәһәр), which was originally known, in the Tocharian languages The Tocharian (sometimes Tokharian) languages ( or ), also known as ''Arśi-Kuči'', Agnean-Kuchean or Kuche ...
and
Kucha 250px, Location of Kucha within Aksu in yellow Kucha or Kuche (also: ''Kuçar'', ''Kuchar''; ug, كۇچار, Кучар; zh, t=wikt:龜茲, 龜茲, p=Qiūcí also zh, t=wikt:库车, 库车, p=Kùchē; sa, Kucina), was an ancient Buddhist ki ...
, taking them from the
Tibetan Empire The Tibetan Empire (, ; ) was an empire centered on the Tibetan Plateau, formed as a result of imperial expansion under the Yarlung dynasty heralded by its 33rd king, Songsten Gampo in the 7th century. The empire further expanded under the 38th ...

Tibetan Empire
. In 856, this group of Uyghurs received royal recognition from the
Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organiza ...
. At this time their capital was in Karasahr (Yanqi). In 866, Pugu Jun declared himself khan and adopted the title of ''idiqut''. The Kingdom of Qocho captured Xizhou (
Gaochang Gaochang (; Old Uyghur The Old Uyghur language () was a Turkic language which was spoken in Qocho from the 9th–14th centuries and in Gansu Gansu (; Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Kansu) is a landlocked provinces ...
), Tingzhou (
Beshbalik Jimsar County is a county in Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang Xinjiang, SASM/GNC: ''Xinjang''; zh, c=, p=Xīnjiāng; alternately romanized as Sinkiang; officially Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) is an autonomous region ...
, or Beiting), Changbaliq (near
Ürümqi Ürümqi or Urumchi (, ; ug, ئۈرۈمچى, CTA: ''Ürümçi'', ; zh, s=乌鲁木齐, zh, p=Wūlǔmùqí), abbreviated Wushi ( zh, s=乌市, links=no, zh, p=Wūshì, links=no, labels=no), formerly known as Dihua or Tihwa ( zh, s=迪化, l ...
) and Luntai ( Bugur) from the
Guiyi Circuit The Guiyi Circuit, also known as the Guiyi Army (, 848–1036 AD), was a regional military command and later autonomous regime nominally subordinate to the Chinese Tang dynasty and later on the Five_Dynasties and Ten_Kingdoms period, Five Dynasti ...

Guiyi Circuit
. The Uyghur capital was moved to Xizhou (Gaochang/Qocho), which the Uyghurs called Idiqutshari.
Beshbalik Jimsar County is a county in Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang Xinjiang, SASM/GNC: ''Xinjang''; zh, c=, p=Xīnjiāng; alternately romanized as Sinkiang; officially Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) is an autonomous region ...
became their summer residence. In 869 and 870 the Kingdom of Qocho attacked the Guiyi Circuit but was repelled. In 876 the Kingdom of Qocho seized
Yizhou Yi Prefecture or Yizhou may refer to: * Yi Prefecture (Shandong) (), active between the 7th and 18th centuries * Yi Prefecture (Guangxi) (), active between the 7th and 13th centuries * Yi Prefecture (Hebei) * Yi Prefecture (Korea), now known as Ui ...

Yizhou
from the Guiyi Circuit, after which it came to be called
KumulKumul may refer to: Place name *Kumul Khanate, a semi-autonomous vassal state within the Qing Empire and the Republic of China *Hami, also known as Kumul, in Xinjiang Animal *Kumul (bird), ''Paradisaea raggiana'', the national bird of Papua New Gui ...

Kumul
. In 880, Qocho attacked Shazhou (
Dunhuang Dunhuang () is a county-level city A county-level municipality (), county-level city or county city, formerly known as prefecture-controlled city (1949–1970: ; 1970–1983: ), is a county-level administrative division of the Peo ...
) but was repelled. By 887 they were settled under an agrarian lifestyle in the region of Qocho. In 904, Zhang Chengfeng of the
Guiyi Circuit The Guiyi Circuit, also known as the Guiyi Army (, 848–1036 AD), was a regional military command and later autonomous regime nominally subordinate to the Chinese Tang dynasty and later on the Five_Dynasties and Ten_Kingdoms period, Five Dynasti ...

Guiyi Circuit
attacked Qocho and seized Yizhou (
Hami Hami (Kumul) is a prefecture-level city in Eastern Xinjiang, China. It is well known as the home of sweet Hami melons. In early 2016, the former Hami county-level city was merged with Hami Prefecture to form the Hami prefecture-level city with th ...

Hami
/Kumul) and Xizhou (
Gaochang Gaochang (; Old Uyghur The Old Uyghur language () was a Turkic language which was spoken in Qocho from the 9th–14th centuries and in Gansu Gansu (; Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Kansu) is a landlocked provinces ...
). This occupation ended after the Jinshan Kingdom's loss to the
Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom The Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom (), also referred to as the Hexi Uyghur Khaganate, Uyghurs, was established in 894 around Zhangye, Gan Prefecture in modern Zhangye. The kingdom lasted from 894 to 1036; during that time, many of Ganzhou's residents conve ...
in 911. In 954 Ilig Bilgä Tengri rose to power. In 981 Arslan Bilgä Tengri ilig rose to power. In 984 Arslan Bilgä Tengri ilig became Süngülüg Khagan. In the same year a
Song dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976), personal name Zhao Kua ...
envoy reached Qocho and gave an account of the city: In 996 Bügü Bilgä Tengri ilig succeeded Süngülüg Khagan. In 1007 Alp Arsla Qutlugh Kül Bilgä Tengri Khan succeeded Bügü Bilgä Tengri ilig. In 1008
Manichaean Manichaeism (; in New Persian New Persian ( fa, فارسی نو), also known as Modern Persian () and Dari (), is the final stage of the Persian language Persian (), also known by its endonym An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name' ...
temples are converted to
Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, an ...

Buddhist
temples. In 1024 Kül Bilgä Tengri Khan succeeded Alp Arsla Qutlugh Kül Bilgä Tengri Khan. In 1068 Tengri Bügü il Bilgä Arslan Tengri Uighur Tärkän succeeded Kül Bilgä Tengri Khan. By 1096, Qocho had lost Aksu, Tumshuk, and
Kucha 250px, Location of Kucha within Aksu in yellow Kucha or Kuche (also: ''Kuçar'', ''Kuchar''; ug, كۇچار, Кучар; zh, t=wikt:龜茲, 龜茲, p=Qiūcí also zh, t=wikt:库车, 库车, p=Kùchē; sa, Kucina), was an ancient Buddhist ki ...
to the
Karakhanids The Kara-Khanid Khanate (), also known as the Karakhanids, Qarakhanids, Ilek Khanids or the Afrasiabids (), was a Turkic khanate A khaganate or khanate was a political entity ruled by a khan, khagan Khagan or Qaghan ( otk, 𐰴𐰍 ...
. In 1123 Bilgä rose to power. He was succeeded by Yur Temur at some point. In 1128 the Kingdom of Qocho became a vassal of the
Qara Khitai The Qara Khitai or Kara Khitai (; mn, Хар Хятан; literally "Black Khitan people, Khitan") empire (1124–1218), also known as the Western Liao () dynasty, officially the Great Liao (), was a Sinicization, sinicized dynastic empire in C ...
. In 1209 the Kingdom of Qocho became a vassal of the
Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire of the 13th and 14th centuries was the List of largest empires, largest contiguous land empire in history and the second largest empire by landmass, second only to the British Empire. Originating in Mongolia in East Asia, the ...
. In 1229, Barčuq Art iduq-qut succeeded Yur Temur. In 1242 Kesmez iduq-qut succeeded Barčuq Art iduq-qut. In 1246 Salïndï Tigin iduq-qut succeeded Kesmez iduq-qut. In 1253 Ögrünch Tigin iduq-qut succeeded Salïndï Tigin iduq-qut. In 1257 Mamuraq Tigin iduq-qut succeeded Ögrünch Tigin iduq-qut, who was executed for supporting the Ogodeid branch of the Genghisid family. In 1266 Qosqar Tigin iduq-qut succeeded Mamuraq Tigin iduq-qut. In 1280 Negüril Tigin iduq-qut succeeded Qosqar Tigin iduq-qut. In 1318 Negüril Tigin iduq-qut died. The Kingdom of Qocho became part of the
Chagatai Khanate The Chagatai Khanate, or Chagatai Ulus ( mn, Цагаадайн улс; uz, Chigʻatoy ulusi; ; fa, خانات جغتای), was a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate that comprised the lands ruled by Chagatai Khan, second son of Genghis Khan ...
. In 1322 Tämir Buqa iduq-qut rose to power. In 1330 Senggi iduq-qut succeeded Tämir Buqa iduq-qut. In 1332 Taipindu iduq-qut succeeded Senggi iduq-qut. In 1352 Ching Timür iduq-qut succeeded Taipindu iduq-qut and was the last known ruler governor of the kingdom. By the 1370s the Kingdom of Qocho ceased to exist.


Religion

Mainly
Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish language, the most widely spoken Turkic language * T ...
and Tocharian, but also
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...

Chinese
and
Iranian peoples The Iranian peoples or Iranic peoples are a diverse Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the norther ...
such as the
Sogdia Sogdia () ( sog, soɣd) or Sogdiana was an ancient Iranian peoples, Iranian civilization between between the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya, and in present-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. Sogdiana was also a province of the Ac ...
ns were assimilated into the
UyghurUyghur may refer to: * Uyghurs, a Turkic ethnic group living in Eastern and Central Asia * Uyghur language, a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Uyghurs ** Uyghur alphabets, any of four systems used to write the language * Uyghur Khaganate, a T ...
Kingdom of Qocho. Chinese were among the population of Qocho. Peter B. Golden writes that the Uyghurs not only adopted the
writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communic ...

writing system
and religious faiths of the Sogdians, such as
Manichaeism Manichaeism (; in New Persian New Persian ( fa, فارسی نو), also known as Modern Persian () and Dari (), is the final stage of the Persian language Persian (), also known by its endonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to ...
,
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and ...

Buddhism
, and
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of ...

Christianity
, but also looked to the Sogdians as "mentors" while gradually replacing them in their roles as
Silk Road The Silk Road () was and is a network of trade routes connecting the Eastern world, East and Western culture, West, from the 2nd century BCE to the 18th century CE. It was central to the economic, cultural, political, and religious interactions ...

Silk Road
traders and purveyors of culture.


Manichaeism

The Uyghur ruling family of Qocho were mainly practitioners of
Manichaeism Manichaeism (; in New Persian New Persian ( fa, فارسی نو), also known as Modern Persian () and Dari (), is the final stage of the Persian language Persian (), also known by its endonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to ...
until the early 11th century, although by the 960s, they also supported
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and ...

Buddhism
. When
Al-Muqtadir Abu’l-Faḍl Jaʿfar ibn Ahmad al-Muʿtaḍid ( ar, أبو الفضل جعفر بن أحمد المعتضد) (895 – 31 October 932 CE), better known by his regnal name al-Muqtadir bi-llāh ( ar, المقتدر بالله, "Mighty in God"), wa ...
(r. 908-932) of the
Abbasid Caliphate The Abbasid Caliphate ( or ar, اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّةُ, ') was the third caliphate A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the tit ...

Abbasid Caliphate
began persecuting Manichaeans in what is now
Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق, translit=Komarî Êraq), is a country i ...

Iraq
, the ruler of Qocho sent a letter to
Nasr II Nasr ibn Ahmad or Nasr II ( fa, نصر دوم), nicknamed "the Fortunate", was the ruler (''amir An emir (; ar, أمير ' ), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, can refer to a king of the King of the Romans (variant used in ...
of the
Samanid Empire The Samanid Empire ( fa, سامانیان, Sāmāniyān) also known as the Samanian Empire, Samanid dynasty, Samanid amirate, or simply Samanids) was a Sunni Islam, Sunni Iranian peoples, Iranian empire, from 819 to 999. The empire was centred in ...
threatening to retaliate against
Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...
in his realm. Manichaean monks accompanied Uyghur embassies from 934-951 while between 965-1022, the accompanying monks were Buddhists. Manichaeism in Qocho probably reached its peak in 866 and was gradually replaced by Buddhism afterward. This shift was noticeable by 1008 when Manichaean temples were converted to Buddhist temples. Part of the reason for Manichaeism's decline may have been the lifestyle of the Manichaean clergy. A decree discovered in
Turpan Turpan (also known as Turfan or Tulufan, zh, 吐鲁番, pinyin: Tǔlǔfán, ug, تۇرپان) is a prefecture-level city A prefectural-level municipality (), prefectural-level city or prefectural city is an administrative division of the ...

Turpan
reports that Manichaean clerics lived in great comfort, possessed estates with serfs and slaves, ate fine food, and wore expensive garments.


Chinese Buddhism

Tang rule over Qocho and Turfan left a lasting Chinese Buddhist influence on the area. Tang names remained on more than 50 Buddhist temples with
Emperor Taizong of Tang Emperor Taizong of Tang (28January 59810July 649), previously Prince of Qin, personal name Li Shimin, was the second emperor of the Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled fr ...
's edicts stored in the "Imperial Writings Tower " and Chinese dictionaries like Jingyun, Yupian, Tang yun, and da zang jing (Buddhist scriptures) stored inside the Buddhist temples. Uyghur Buddhists studied the Chinese language and used Chinese books like the ''
Thousand Character Classic The ''Thousand Character Classic'' (), also known as the ''Thousand Character Text'', is a Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. I ...
'' and the ''
Qieyun The ''Qieyun'' () is a Chinese language, Chinese rhyme dictionary, published in 601 during the Sui dynasty. The book was a guide to proper reading of classical texts, using the ''fanqie'' method to indicate the pronunciation of Chinese characters ...
''. It was written that "In Qocho city were more than fifty monasteries, all titles of which are granted by the emperors of the Tang dynasty, which keep many Buddhist texts as the
Tripiṭaka ''Tripiṭaka'' () or ''Tipiṭaka'' (), meaning "Triple Basket", is the traditional term for ancient collections of Buddhist sacred scriptures. The Pāli Canon The Pāli Canon is the standard collection of scripture Religio ...
, Tangyun, Yupuan, Jingyin etc." The Uyghurs of Qocho continued to produce the Chinese ''Qieyun'' rime dictionary and developed their own pronunciations of Chinese characters. They viewed the Chinese script as "very prestigious" so when they developed the
Old Uyghur alphabet The Old Uyghur alphabet was used for writing the Old Uyghur language Old or OLD may refer to: Places *Old, Baranya, Hungary *Old, Northamptonshire, England *Old Street station, a railway and tube station in London (station code OLD) *OLD, IAT ...

Old Uyghur alphabet
, based on the Syriac script, they deliberately switched it to vertical like Chinese writing from its original horizontal position in Syriac. Persian monks still maintained a Manichaean temple in the kingdom but the 10th century Persian geography book ''
Hudud al-'Alam The ''Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam'' ( ar, حدود العالم, "Boundaries of the World" or "Limits of the World") is a 10th-century geography book written in Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' ...
'' called Qocho, the capital city, a "Chinese town".


Ethnicity

While the Uyghur language is a Turkic language, James A. Millward claimed that the Uyghurs were generally "
Mongoloid Mongoloid () is an Historical race concepts, obsolete racial grouping of various people indigenous to large parts of Asia, the Americas, and some regions in Oceania. The term is derived from a now-disproven theory of biological race. In the past, ...
" (an archaic term meaning "appearing ethnically Eastern or Inner Asian"), giving as an example the images of Uyghur patrons of Buddhism in Bezeklik, temple 9, until they began to mix with the Tarim Basin's original,
Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family A language family is a group of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation ...
-speaking "
Caucasoid The Caucasian race (also Caucasoid or Europid, Europoid) is an Historical race concepts, obsolete racial classification of human beings based on a now-disproven theory of biological race. The ''Caucasian race'' was historically regarded as a b ...
" inhabitants, such as the so-called
Tocharians The Tocharians, or Tokharians (American English, US: or ; British English, UK: ), were speakers of Tocharian languages, Indo-European languages known from around 7600 documents from around 400 to 1200 AD, found on the northern edge of the Tarim ...
. Buddhist Uyghurs created the Bezeklik murals.


Religious conflict


Kara-Khanid Khanate

The Uyghurs of Qocho were Buddhists whose religious identity were intertwined with their religion. Qocho was a Buddhist state with both state-sponsored
Mahayana Buddhism Mahāyāna (; "Great Vehicle") is a term for a broad group of Buddhism, Buddhist traditions, Buddhist texts#Mahāyāna texts, texts, Buddhist philosophy, philosophies, and practices. Mahāyāna Buddhism developed in India (c. 1st century BCE on ...
and
Manichaeism Manichaeism (; in New Persian New Persian ( fa, فارسی نو), also known as Modern Persian () and Dari (), is the final stage of the Persian language Persian (), also known by its endonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to ...
. The Uyghurs sponsored the construction of many of the temple-caves in what is now called the
Bezeklik Caves The Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves (, UyghurUyghur may refer to: * Uyghurs, a Turkic ethnic group living in Eastern and Central Asia * Uyghur language, a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Uyghurs ** Uyghur alphabets, any of four systems use ...
. Although they retained some of their culture, they were heavily influenced by the indigenous peoples of western China and abandoned the
Old Turkic alphabet The Old Turkic script (also known as variously Göktürk script, Orkhon script, Orkhon-Yenisey script, Turkic runes) was the alphabet used by the Göktürks and other early Turkic peoples, Turkic khanates from the 8th to 10th centuries to re ...
in favor of a modified
Sogdian alphabet The Sogdian alphabet was originally used for the Sogdian language The Sogdian language was an Eastern Iranian languages, Eastern Iranian language spoken mainly in the Central Asian region of Sogdia (capital: Samarkand; other chief cities: Panjak ...

Sogdian alphabet
, which later came to be known as the
Old Uyghur alphabet The Old Uyghur alphabet was used for writing the Old Uyghur language Old or OLD may refer to: Places *Old, Baranya, Hungary *Old, Northamptonshire, England *Old Street station, a railway and tube station in London (station code OLD) *OLD, IAT ...

Old Uyghur alphabet
. The Idiquts (the title of the Qocho rulers) ruled independently until they become a
vassal A vassal or liege subject is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord Lord is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power (social and political), power over others, acting as a master, a chief ...
state of the
Qara Khitai The Qara Khitai or Kara Khitai (; mn, Хар Хятан; literally "Black Khitan people, Khitan") empire (1124–1218), also known as the Western Liao () dynasty, officially the Great Liao (), was a Sinicization, sinicized dynastic empire in C ...
(Chinese: "Western Liao"). The Buddhist Uyghurs frequently came into conflict with their western Muslim neighbors. Muslim Turks described the Uyghurs in a number of derogatory ways. For example, the '"Compendium of the Turkic Dialects" by
Mahmud al-Kashgari Mahmud ibn Hussayn ibn Muhammed al-Kashgari, ''Maḥmūd ibnu 'l-Ḥussayn ibn Muḥammad al-Kāšġarī'', tr, Kaşgarlı Mahmûd, ug, مەھمۇد قەشقىرى, ''Mehmud Qeshqiri'' / Мәһмуд Қәшқири uz, Mahmud Qashg'ariy / М ...
> states that "just as the thorn should be cut at its root, so the Uighur should be struck on the eye". They also used the derogatory word "Tat" to describe the Buddhist Uyghurs, which means "infidels". Uyghurs were also called dogs. While al-Kashgari displayed a different attitude towards the Turk diviners beliefs and "national customs", he expressed towards Buddhism a hatred in his Diwan where he wrote the verse cycle on the war against Uyghur Buddhists. Buddhist origin words like toyin (a cleric or priest) and Burxān or Furxan (meaning Buddha, acquiring the generic meaning of "idol" in the Turkic language of Kashgari) had negative connotations to Muslim Turks. The Uyghurs were subjected to attacks by Muslim Turks, according to Kashgari's work. The
Kara-Khanid Khanate The Kara-Khanid Khanate (), also known as the Karakhanids, Qarakhanids, Ilek Khanids or the Afrasiabids (), was a Turkic khanate that ruled Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to C ...

Kara-Khanid Khanate
's ruler
Sultan Satuq Bughra Khan Abdulkarim Satuq Bughra Khan ( ug, سۇلتان سۇتۇق بۇغراخان; also spelled Satuk; died 955) was a Kara-Khanid Khanate, Kara-Khanid khan; in 934, he was one of the first Turkic peoples, Turkic rulers to convert to Islam, which promp ...
razed Qocho's Buddhist temples in the Minglaq province across the Ili region . Buddhist murals at the
Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves The Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves (, Uyghur: ېىزەكلىك مىڭ ئۆيى ) is a complex of Buddhist cave grottos dating from the 5th to 14th century between the cities of Turpan and Shanshan ( Loulan) at the north-east of the Taklamakan De ...
were damaged by local Muslim population whose religion proscribed figurative images of sentient beings, the eyes and mouths in particular were often gouged out. Pieces of murals were also broken off for use as fertilizer by the locals. The Islamic-Buddhist conflict from the 11th to 12th centuries are still recalled in the forms of the
Khotan Hotan (also known as Gosthana, Gaustana, Godana, Godaniya, Khotan, Hetian, Hotien) is a major oasis In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study ...

Khotan
Imam Asim Sufi shrine celebration and other Sufi holy site celebrations. Bezeklik's ''Thousand Buddha Caves'' are an example of the religiously motivated vandalism against portraits of religious and human figures. According to Kashgari's ''Three Turkic Verse Cycles'', the "infidel tribes" suffered three defeats, one at the hands of the Karakhanids in the Irtysh Valley, one by unspecified Muslim Turks, and one inflicted upon "a city between the Tangut and China.", Qatun Sini, at the hands of the Tangut Khan. The war against Buddhist, shamanist, and
Manichaean Manichaeism (; in New Persian New Persian ( fa, فارسی نو), also known as Modern Persian () and Dari (), is the final stage of the Persian language Persian (), also known by its endonym An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name' ...
Uyghurs was considered a
jihad Jihad (; ar, جهاد, jihād ) is an Arabic word which literally means "striving" or "struggling", especially with a praiseworthy aim. In an Islamic context, it can refer to almost any effort to make personal and social life conform with Go ...
by the Kara-Khanids. Imams and soldiers who died in the battles against the Uyghur Buddhists and Khotan are revered as saints. It's possible the Muslims drove some Uyghur Buddhist monks towards taking asylum in the Tangut
Western Xia The Western Xia or the Xi Xia (), officially the Great Xia (), also known as the Tangut Empire, and known as ''Mi-nyak''Stein (1972), pp. 70–71. to Tanguts and Tibetans, was a Tangut people, Tangut-ruled empire and a Dynasties in C ...

Western Xia
dynasty.


Mongol rule

In 1209, the Kara-Khoja ruler
Baurchuk Art Tekin Baurchuk Art Tekin (known also as ''Idikut Baurchuk'', ''Idikut Barchuq'') was a ruler, with a title of Idikut, of the Buddhism, Buddhist Uyghurs, Uyghur Kara-Khoja Kingdom (856-1389) in Jimsar County, Beshbalik (near present-day Ürümqi), Gaochan ...
declared his allegiance to the Mongols under
Genghis Khan ''Chinggis Khaan'' ͡ʃʰiŋɡɪs xaːŋbr>Mongol script The classical or traditional Mongolian script, also known as the , was the first Mongolian alphabet, writing system created specifically for the Mongolian language, and was the most ...

Genghis Khan
and the kingdom existed as a vassal state until 1335. After submitting to the Mongols, the Uyghurs served the Mongol rulers as bureaucrats, providing the expertise that the initially illiterate nomads lacked. Qocho continued exist as a vassal to the Mongols of the
Yuan dynasty The Yuan dynasty (), officially the Great Yuan (; xng, , , literally "Great Yuan State"), was a successor state Successor is someone who, or something which succeeds or comes after (see success and succession) Film and TV * ''The Succ ...
, and were allied to the Yuan against the
Chagatai Khanate The Chagatai Khanate, or Chagatai Ulus ( mn, Цагаадайн улс; uz, Chigʻatoy ulusi; ; fa, خانات جغتای), was a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate that comprised the lands ruled by Chagatai Khan, second son of Genghis Khan ...
. Eventually the Chagatai khan
Ghiyas-ud-din Baraq Baraq was a khan of the Chagatai Khanate The Chagatai Khanate, or Chagatai Ulus ( mn, Цагаадайн улс; uz, Chigʻatoy ulusi; ; fa, خانات جغتای), was a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate that comprised the lands ruled b ...
eliminated Yuan influence over Qocho. When the Mongols placed the Uyghurs in control of the Koreans at court, the Korean king objected. Emperor Kublai Khan rebuked the Korean king, saying that the Uyghur king ranked higher than the Karluk Kara-Khanid ruler, who in turn was ranked higher than the Korean King, who was ranked last, because the Uyghurs surrendered to the Mongols first, the Karluks surrendered after the Uyghurs, and the Koreans surrendered last, and that the Uyghurs surrendered peacefully without violently resisting. A hybrid court was used when
Han Chinese The Han Chinese (), or the Han people (), is an East Asian East Asia is the east East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north North is one of the four ...
and Uyghurs were in involved in legal issues.
Alans The Alans or Alāns (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power o ...

Alans
were recruited into the Mongol forces with one unit called the
Asud The Asud ( Mongolian Cyrillic: , IPA: //) were a military group of Alani origin. The Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; ) are an East Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia Mongolia (, Mongolian langu ...
or "Right Alan Guard", which was combined with "recently surrendered" soldiers, Mongols, and Chinese soldiers stationed in the area of the former kingdom of Qocho. In Beshbalik (now
Jimsar County Jimsar County is a county in Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, China. It contains an area of . According to the 2002 census, it has a population of 130,000. Near the town of Jimsar are the ruins of the ancient city of Beiting () or Ti ...
), the
Mongols The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an East Asian people, East Asian ethnic group indigenous peoples, native to the Inner Mongolia, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China, Mongolia an ...

Mongols
established a Chinese military colony led by Chinese general Qi Kongzhi.


Conquest by Muslim Chagatais

The last Buddhist Uyghurs of Qocho and Turpan were converted to Islam by force during a
Jihad Jihad (; ar, جهاد, jihād ) is an Arabic word which literally means "striving" or "struggling", especially with a praiseworthy aim. In an Islamic context, it can refer to almost any effort to make personal and social life conform with Go ...
(holy war) at the hands of the
Chagatai Khanate The Chagatai Khanate, or Chagatai Ulus ( mn, Цагаадайн улс; uz, Chigʻatoy ulusi; ; fa, خانات جغتای), was a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate that comprised the lands ruled by Chagatai Khan, second son of Genghis Khan ...
ruler
Khizr Khoja Khizr Khwaja Khan (d. 1399, also known as Khizr Khoja) was the son of Tughlugh Timur and Khan of Moghulistan during the Chagatai Khanate, reigning from 1390 to 1399 AD. Reign as Khan of Moghulistan Khizr Khoja took the throne of Moghulistan after ...
(r. 1389-1399).
Mirza Haidar DughlatMirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat Beg (1499 or 1500–1551) was a Chagatai Turco-Mongol military general, ruler of Kashmir Kashmir, ks, کٔشیٖر, kaśīr is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19 ...
's ''Tarikh-i-Rashidi'' (c. 1540, in
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
) wrote, "(
Khizr Khoja Khizr Khwaja Khan (d. 1399, also known as Khizr Khoja) was the son of Tughlugh Timur and Khan of Moghulistan during the Chagatai Khanate, reigning from 1390 to 1399 AD. Reign as Khan of Moghulistan Khizr Khoja took the throne of Moghulistan after ...
) undertook a campaign against Karakhodja and Turfan, two very important towns in China, and forced their inhabitants to become Muslims...". The Chagatai Khanate also conquered Hami, where the Buddhist religion was also purged and replaced with Islam. Ironically after being converted to Islam, the descendants of the Uyghurs in Turpan failed to retain memory of their Buddhist legacy and were led believe that the "infidel Kalmuks" (
Dzungar people The name Dzungar people, also written as Zunghar (literally ''züüngar'', from the Mongolian for "left hand"), referred to the several Mongol Oirats, Oirat tribes who formed and maintained the Dzungar Khanate in the 17th and 18th centuries. His ...
) were the ones who built Buddhist monuments in their area.
The Encyclopaedia of Islam The ''Encyclopaedia of Islam'' (''EI'') is an encyclopaedia An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia (British English) is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of knowledge either from all branches or from a particular field or disc ...
wrote "By then the Turks of the Turfan ..forgetting all the other highlights of their past, they attributed the Buddhist and other monuments to the "infidel Kalmuks". The Islamic conversion forced on the Buddhist city of Hami was the final blow to Uyghur Buddhism, although some Buddhist influence in the names of Turpan Muslims still remained. Since Islam reached them much after other cities in the Tarim Basin, personal names of pre-Islamic Old Uyghur origin are still used in Hami and Turpan while Uyghurs to the west use mostly Islamic names of Arabic origin. Cherrypicking of history of Xinjiang with the intention of projecting an image of either irreligiousity or piousness of Islam in Uyghur culture has been done for various reasons. The Uyghurs of Taoyuan are the remnants of Uyghurs from Turpan from the Kingdom of Qocho.


List of kings (''idiquts'')

The Kingdom of Qocho's rulers trace their lineage to Qutlugh of the Ediz dynasty of the Uyghur Khaganate. There are numerous gaps in our knowledge of the Uyghur rulers of Qocho prior to the thirteenth century. The title of the ruler of Qocho was ''idiqut'' or ''iduq qut''. In 1308, Nolen Tekin was granted the title Prince of Gaochang by the Yuan Emperor Ayurbarwada. The following list of rulers is drawn mostly from Turghun Almas, ''Uyghurlar'' (Almaty, 1992), vol. 1, pp. 180–85. Named rulers based on various sources of other languages are also included.https://www2.ihp.sinica.edu.tw/file/4479VVAuKec.pdf *850–866: Pan Tekin (Pangtele) *866–871: Boko Tekin
... *940–948: Irdimin Khan *948–985: Arslan (Zhihai) Khan
... *954: Ilig Bilgä T gri *981: Arslan Bilgä T gri ilig *996-1007: Bügü Bilgä T gri ilig *1007-1024: Alp Arsla Qutlugh Kül Bilgä T gri Qan *1024: Kül Bilgä T gri Qan *1068: T gri Bügü il Bilgä Arslan Tngri Uighur Tärkän *1123: Bilgä *1126–????: Bilge (Biliege/Bilgä) Tekin
... *????–????: Isen Tomur
... *1208/1229–1235/1241: Baurchuq (Barchukh) Art Tekin *1229: Yue-er Tie-mu-er *1235/1242–1245/1246: Qusmayin (Kesmez) *1246–1253/1255: Salun (Salindi) Tekin *1253/1255–1257/1265: Oghrunzh (Ogrunch) Tekin *1257/1265–1265/1266: Mamuraq Tekin *1266–1276/1280: Qozhighar (Qosqar) Tekin *1276/1280–1318: Nolen (Neguril) Tekin *1309/1318: Kiräsiz iduq-qut *1309/1318-1326/1334: Köncök iduq-qut *1318/1322–1327/1330: Tomur (Tamir) Buqa *1327/1330–1331/1332: Sunggi (Senggi) Tekin *1331/1332–1335/1352: Taypan (Taipingnu) *1335–1353: Yuelutiemur *1352-1360: Ching Timür iduq-qut *1353–????: Sangge


Image gallery

File:Dunhuang Uighur king.jpg, Uyghur king from Turfan File:Uigure-bezeklik-17.jpg, Uyghur Prince from the Bezeklik murals File:Uigure-bezeklik-19.jpg, Uyghur noble from the Bezeklik murals File:Manichaean Temple Banner (MIK III 6283).jpg, Uyghur
Manichaean Manichaeism (; in New Persian New Persian ( fa, فارسی نو), also known as Modern Persian () and Dari (), is the final stage of the Persian language Persian (), also known by its endonym An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name' ...
Elect depicted on a temple banner from Qocho File:Museum für Indische Kunst Dahlem Berlin Mai 2006 064.jpg, Uyghur Princesses from the Bezeklik murals File:Museum für Indische Kunst Dahlem Berlin Mai 2006 063.jpg, Uyghur Princes from the Bezeklik murals File:Museum für Indische Kunst Dahlem Berlin Mai 2006 067.jpg, Uyghur donor from the Bezeklik murals File:ManichaeanElectaeKocho10thCentury.jpg, Uyghur Manichaean Electae from Qocho File:Museum für Indische Kunst Dahlem Berlin Mai 2006 066.jpg, Uyghur Manichaean clergymen from Qocho File:Manicheans.jpg, Manicheans from Qocho File:Museum für Indische Kunst Dahlem Berlin Mai 2006 061.jpg, Mural from a Nestorian temple in Qocho


See also

*
Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves The Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves (, Uyghur: ېىزەكلىك مىڭ ئۆيى ) is a complex of Buddhist cave grottos dating from the 5th to 14th century between the cities of Turpan and Shanshan ( Loulan) at the north-east of the Taklamakan De ...
*
Kara Del Kara Del or Qara Del was a Mongol kingdom that existed in Hami in present-day Xinjiang. It was founded by the Yuan prince Gunashiri, a descendant of Chagatai Khan, in the late 14th century (c.1389), and ruled by the Chagatayids thereafter until ...

Kara Del
*
Ming–Turpan conflict The Ming–Turpan conflict () were a series of conflicts between the Ming dynasty#REDIRECT Ming dynasty {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from move {{R from other capitalisation ... and Khanate of Turpan that erupted due to disputes over border ...
*
Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom The Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom (), also referred to as the Hexi Uyghur Khaganate, Uyghurs, was established in 894 around Zhangye, Gan Prefecture in modern Zhangye. The kingdom lasted from 894 to 1036; during that time, many of Ganzhou's residents conve ...
* Islamization and Turkification of Xinjiang *
History of the Uyghur people Uyghur nationalist historians in the People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, wi ...
*
History of Xinjiang Xinjiang Xinjiang, SASM/GNC: ''Xinjang''; zh, c=, p=Xīnjiāng; alternately romanized as Sinkiang; officially Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) is an autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to a ...


References


Citations


Sources

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


Further reading

* * {{DEFAULTSORT:Qocho 843 establishments Former countries in Chinese history History of Buddhism in China History of Xinjiang Turkic rump states