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The John Rylands Research Institute and Library is a late-Victorian
neo-Gothic Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic, neo-Gothic, or Gothick) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England. The movement gained momentum and expanded in the first half of the 19th century, as increasingly ...
building on
Deansgate Deansgate is a main road (part of the A56 road, A56) through Manchester City Centre, England. It runs roughly north–south in a near straight route through the western part of the city centre and is the longest road in the city centre at over ...

Deansgate
in
Manchester Manchester () is the most-populous city and metropolitan borough A metropolitan borough is a type of local government district The districts of England (also known as local authority districts or local government districts to distinguis ...

Manchester
, England. The library, which opened to the public in 1900, was founded by
Enriqueta Augustina Rylands Enriqueta Augustina Rylands (31 May 1843 – 4 February 1908) was a British philanthropist who founded the John Rylands Library in Manchester. Early life Enriqueta Augustina was born in Havana, Cuba, and was one of five children including José ...
in memory of her husband,
John Rylands John Rylands (7 February 1801 – 11 December 1888) was an English entrepreneur and philanthropist. He was the owner of the largest textile manufacturing concern in the United Kingdom, and Manchester's first multi-millionaire. After having lea ...

John Rylands
. It became part of The University of Manchester in 1972, and now houses the majority of the Special Collections of The University of Manchester Library, the third largest academic library in the United Kingdom. Special collections built up by both libraries were progressively concentrated in the Deansgate building. The special collections, believed to be among the largest in the United Kingdom, include
medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...

medieval
illuminated manuscript An illuminated manuscript is a formally prepared document A document is a writing, written, drawing, drawn, presented, or memorialized representation of thought, often the manifestation of nonfiction, non-fictional, as well as fictional, con ...
s and examples of early European printing, including a
Gutenberg Bible The Gutenberg Bible (also known as the 42-line Bible, the Mazarin Bible or the B42) was the earliest major book printed using mass-produced movable metal type in Europe. It marked the start of the " Gutenberg Revolution" and the age of printed ...

Gutenberg Bible
, the second largest collection of printing by
William Caxton William Caxton ( 1422 – 1491) was an English merchant A merchant is a person who trades in commodities In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production ...
, and the most extensive collection of the editions of the
Aldine Press The Aldine Press was the printing office started by Aldus Manutius in 1494 in Venice, from which were issued the celebrated Aldine editions of the classics (Latin and Greek masterpieces plus a few more modern works). The first book that was dated ...
of Venice. The
Rylands Library Papyrus P52 The Rylands Library Papyrus P52, also known as the St John's fragment and with an accession reference of Papyrus Rylands Greek 457, is a fragment from a papyrus codex, measuring only at its widest (about the size of a credit card), and conserved ...
has a claim to be the earliest extant
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as ...

New Testament
text. The library holds personal papers and letters of notable figures, among them
Elizabeth Gaskell Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell (''née'' Stevenson; 29 September 1810 – 12 November 1865), often referred to as Mrs Gaskell, was an English novelist, biographer and short story writer. Her novels offer a detailed portrait of the lives of many st ...

Elizabeth Gaskell
and
John Dalton John Dalton (; 6 September 1766 – 27 July 1844) was an English chemist A chemist (from Greek ''chēm(ía)'' alchemy; replacing ''chymist'' from Medieval Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical ...

John Dalton
. The architectural style is primarily neo-Gothic with elements of the
Arts and Crafts movement The arts refers to the theory, human application and physical expression of creativity found in human cultures and Society, societies through Skill, skills and imagination in order to produce Physical object, objects, Natural environment, ...
in the ornate and imposing gatehouse, facing Deansgate, which dominates the surrounding streetscape. The library, granted
Grade I listed status
Grade I listed status
in 1994, is maintained by the
University of Manchester , mottoeng = Knowledge, Wisdom, Humanity , established = 2004 – University of Manchester Predecessor institutions: 1956 – UMIST , mottoeng = By Knowledge and Work , established = 1824 , closed = 2004 (merge ...

University of Manchester
and open for library readers and visitors. The library is one of the museum, library and archive collections of national and international importance under the
Designation Scheme The Designation Scheme is an England, English system that awards "Designated status" to museum, library and archive collections of national and international importance. The Scheme is administered by Arts Council England (ACE). As of 2020, 152 coll ...
for England. As of 2020, 152 collections are officially designated.


History

Enriqueta Rylands purchased a site on Deansgate for her memorial library in 1889 and commissioned a design from architect
Basil Champneys Basil Champneys (17 September 1842 – 5 April 1935) was an English architect and author whose most notable buildings include Manchester Manchester () is the most-populous city and metropolitan borough A metropolitan borough is a type of ...
. Rylands commissioned the Manchester academic Alice Cooke to index the vast library of the which she had purchased and another collection of autographs.Fernanda Helen Perrone, ‘Cooke, Alice Margaret (1867–1940)’,
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography The ''Dictionary of National Biography'' (''DNB'') is a standard work of reference on notable figures from History of the British Isles, British history, published since 1885. The updated ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'' (''ODNB'') ...
, Oxford University Press, 200
accessed 26 Dec 2015
/ref> Mrs Rylands intended the library to be principally
theological Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the divine Divinity or the divine are things that are either related to, devoted to, or proceeding from a deity A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed ...
, and the building, which is a fine example of Victorian Gothic, has the appearance of a
church Church may refer to: Religion * Church (building) A church building, church house, or simply church, is a building used for Christian worship services and other Christian religious activities. The term is usually used to refer to the p ...
, although the concept was of an Oxford college library on a larger scale.Farnie (1989) Champneys presented plans to Mrs Rylands within a week of gaining the commission. Thereafter frequent disagreements arose and Mrs Rylands selected decorative elements, window glass and statues against his wishes. Champneys was given the honour of speaking about the library at a general meeting of the
Royal Institute of British Architects The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) is a professional body Regulatory colleges are legal entities in Canada charged with serving the public interest by regulating the practice of a profession. Most regulatory colleges are establ ...
and was awarded a
Royal Gold Medal The Royal Gold Medal for architecture is awarded annually by the Royal Institute of British Architects on behalf of the British monarch, in recognition of an individual's or group's substantial contribution to international architecture. It is give ...
in 1912. The library was granted
listed building A listed building, or listed structure, is one that has been placed on one of the four statutory lists maintained by Historic England Historic England (officially the Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission for England) is an executive ...
status on 25 January 1952, which was upgraded to Grade I on 6 June 1994. The core of the library's collection was formed around 40,000 books, including many rarities, assembled by
George Spencer, 2nd Earl Spencer George John Spencer, 2nd Earl Spencer, (1 September 1758 – 10 November 1834), styled Viscount Althorp from 1765 to 1783, was a British Whig Whig or Whigs may refer to: Parties and factions In the British Isles * A pejorative nickname for t ...

George Spencer, 2nd Earl Spencer
, which Mrs Rylands purchased from Lord Spencer in 1892 for 210,000 pounds. She had begun acquiring books in 1889 and continued to do so throughout her lifetime.Farnie (1989) Another notable purchase made by Mrs. Rylands was that of over 6,000 manuscripts from the ''Bibliotheca Lindesiana'' of
James Lindsay, 26th Earl of Crawford James Ludovic Lindsay, 26th Earl of Crawford and 9th Earl of Balcarres, FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of envi ...
at Haigh Hall in 1901. Quickly and without discussion, Mrs. Rylands took them off his hands for 155,000 pounds, having made her decision based upon cursory description, as Lord Crawford had never produced a definitive description. After its inauguration on 6 October 1899 (the wedding anniversary of John Rylands and Enriqueta Tennant)Farnie (1989) the library opened to readers and visitors on 1 January 1900. At the time of Enriqueta's death in 1908, the library held more than 50,000 volumes of exceptional quality. In the following years, thanks to bequests, the library acquired 80,000 works and 3,000 manuscripts, which required the construction of an annex behind the main building. The John Rylands Library and the Manchester University Library merged in July 1972 and was named the John Rylands University Library of Manchester. Special collections built up by both libraries were progressively concentrated in the Deansgate building. The building has been extended four times, the first time to designs by Champneys in 1920 after the project was delayed by
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
. The opened in 1962 on the west side and a third extension, south of the first was built in 1969. In January 2003, an appeal to renovate the building was launched. Funds were generated from grants from the University of Manchester and
Heritage Lottery Fund The National Lottery Heritage Fund, formerly the Heritage Lottery Fund (HLF), distributes a share of National Lottery funding, supporting a wide range of heritage projects across the United Kingdom. History The fund's predecessor bodies were ...
and donations from members of the public and companies in Manchester. The project, Unlocking the Rylands, demolished the third extension, refurbished parts of the old building and erected a pitched roof over its reinforced concrete roof. Champneys designed a pitched roof but Mrs Rylands was advised that an internal stone vault would reduce the fire risk and it was not built. The £17 million project was completed by summer 2007 and the library reopened on 20 September 2007.


Location

By the nineteenth century Manchester was a prosperous industrial town and the demands of stimulated the growth of engineering and chemical industries. The town became 'abominably filthy' and was 'often covered, especially during the winter, with dense fogs ... there is at all times a copious descent of soots and other impurities'. This, and the overcrowded site, created many design problems for the architect. During the century most textile manufacture moved to newer mills in the surrounding towns while Manchester remained the centre of trading in cotton goods both for the home and foreign markets but pollution from burning coal and gas remained a considerable nuisance. The site chosen by Mrs Rylands was in a central and fashionable part of the city, but was awkward in shape and orientation and surrounded by tall warehouses, derelict cottages and narrow streets. The position was criticised for its lack of surrounding space and the fact that the valuable manuscript collections were to be housed in "that dirty, uncomfortable city ...
ith The Ith () is a ridge in Germany's Central Uplands Image:Siegtal Eitorf Merten.JPG, upright=1.2, Central Uplands in North Rhine-Westphalia: Siegtal in the Rhenish Massif The Central UplandsDickinson (1964), p.18 ff. (german: die Mittelgebirge ...
not enough light to read by, and the books they already have are wretchedly kept" (written in 1901 about the Crawford MSS.) Mrs Rylands negotiated Deeds of Agreement with her neighbours to fix the heights of future adjacent buildings. The permissible height of the building was fixed at just over 34 feet, but it was suggested that it could be taller at the centre if there was an open area around the edges, at the height of buildings that had been demolished to make way for the construction. Champneys incorporated this suggestion into his design, setting the two towers of the façade twelve feet back from the boundary and keeping the entrance block low, to allow light into the library. He designed the building in a series of tiered steps with an almost flat roof to give a 'liberal concession' to the neighbours' 'right to light'.


Architecture


Exterior

The library was built on a rectangular plan and subsequent extensions are to the rear. It was designed to resemble a church in a decorated neo-Gothic style with Arts and Crafts details. It is constructed of Cumbrian
sandstone Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock of a clast (sand grain), derived from a basalt Basalt (, ) is a fine-grained extrusive igneous rock formed from the rapid cooling of low-viscosity lava rich in magnesium and iron ('' mafic ' ...

sandstone
, the interior a delicately shaded 'Shawk' stone (from
Dalston Dalston () is an area of East London, in the London Borough of Hackney. It is north-east of Charing Cross. Dalston began as a hamlet on either side of Dalston Lane, and as the area urbanised the term also came to apply to surrounding areas inclu ...
, varying in colour between sand and a range of pinks) and the exterior, dark red Barbary stone from Penrith. built around an internal steel framed structure and brick arched flooring. The red 'Barbary plain' sandstone, which Champneys believed 'had every chance of proving durable' for the exterior, was an unusual choice in late Victorian Manchester. It proved relatively successful, as an inspection by Champneys in 1900 revealed little softening by the 'effects of an atmosphere somewhat charged with chemicals' although, by 1909 some repairs were needed. The library has a
crypt A crypt (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in r ...

crypt
above which the building has two unequal storeys giving the impression of three. The ornate Deansgate façade has an
embattled A battlement in defensive architecture, such as that of city wall A defensive wall is a fortification A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized ...
parapet A parapet is a barrier that is an extension of the wall at the edge of a roof A roof is the top covering of a , including all materials and constructions necessary to support it on the walls of the building or on uprights, providing protecti ...
with open-work arcading under which is a central three-
bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface ...
entrance resembling a monastery gatehouse. Its two-centred arched portal has doorways separated by a
trumeau A trumeau is the central Column, pillar or mullion supporting the Tympanum (architecture), tympanum of a large doorway, commonly found in medieval buildings.''Merriam-Webster, Merriam-Webster Dictionary''"trumeau"/ref> An architecture, architectural ...
and tall windows on either side. Above the doors are a pair of small canted
oriel window An oriel window is a form of bay window A bay is a recessed, coastal The coast, also known as the coastline or seashore, is defined as the area where land meets the ocean The ocean (also the sea The sea, connected as the ...
s. Surfaces are decorated with lacy blind tracery and finely-detailed carving. The carving includes the "J. R." monogram, the arms of Rylands, the arms of Rylands' native town, St Helens, and those of five English, two Scottish and two Irish universities and those of
Owens College Owens may refer to: Places in the United States * Owens Station, Delaware * Owens Township, St. Louis County, Minnesota *Owens, Missouri Owens is an unincorporated community in Wright County, Missouri, Wright County, in the U.S. state of Missouri. ...
. On either side of the entrance portal are square two-storey two-bay wings with plain walls with a
string course A belt course, also called a string course or sill course, is a continuous row or layer of stones In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth scie ...
containing
grotesques Since at least the 18th century (in French and German as well as English), grotesque has come to be used as a general adjective for the strange, mysterious, magnificent, fantastic, hideous, ugly, incongruous, unpleasant, or disgusting, and thus ...
and large octagonal
lanterns A lantern is an often portable source of lighting, typically featuring a protective enclosure for the light sourcehistorically usually a candle or a oil lamp, wick in oil, and often a battery-powered light in modern timesto make it easier to ca ...

lanterns
. Behind the entrance portal flanked by square towers is the three-light east window of the reading hall. It has reticulated tracery and shafts in a similar style to the parapet. In front of the library are Art Nouveau
bronze Bronze is an alloy An alloy is an admixture of metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appear ...

bronze
railings with central double gates and lamp standards.


Interior

The main reading room on the first floor, 30 feet above the ground and 12 feet from all four boundaries, was noted for the pleasant contrast between the 'sullen roar' of Manchester and the 'internal cloister quietude of Rylands'. It was lit by oriel windows in the reading alcoves supplemented by high
clerestory In architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734. Architec ...
windows along both sides. Embellishments in the reading room include two large stained glass windows with portraits of religious and secular figures, designed by C. E. Kempe; a series of statues in the reading room by Robert Bridgeman and Sons of Lichfield; and bronze work in the art nouveau style by Singer of Frome. The portraits in sculpture (20) and stained glass (40) represent a selection of personages from the intellectual and artistic history of mankind. The western window contains "Theology" from Moses to Schleiermacher; the eastern "Literature and Art" (including philosophy). The portrait statues of John and Enriqueta Rylands in
white marble Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals Carbonate minerals are those minerals containing the carbonate ion, CO32−. Carbonate divisions Anhydrous carbonates *Calcite group: trigonal **Calcite CaCO3 **Gas ...
, in the reading room, were sculpted by John Cassidy who also executed the allegorical group of 'Theology, Science and Art' in the vestibule. Aside from the main library and reading room with gallery above, the design incorporated Bible and map rooms on the first floor, and conference (lecture) and committee rooms on the ground floor, part of which was intended to be a lending library but never operated as such. A caretaker's house was incorporated in the building until it was demolished for the extension of 1969.


Technology

Electric lighting was chosen as the cleanest and safest alternative to gas but, as the use of electricity was in its early stages, the supply (110 volts DC) was generated on-site. This took some years to achieve due to the inexperience of contractors, but the library became one of the first public buildings in Manchester to be lit by electricity and continued to generate its own supply until 1950. Champneys suggested that, in order to protect the books and manuscripts, 'it will be very desirable to keep the air in the interior of the building as clear and free from smoke and chemical matter (both of which are held in the air of Manchester) as may be possible'. The ground floor was built with numerous air inlets and, although his client felt it would prove impossible to exclude foul air, Champneys installed jute or hessian screens to trap the soot, with water sprays to catch the sulphur and other chemicals, which was a very advanced system for the period. Internal screen doors were employed in the entrance hall to prevent the air being 'fouled by the opening of the outer doors' with internal swing doors between the circulation areas and the main library to 'preserve the valuable books from injury'. By 1900 the ventilation system had evolved to include electric fans to draw in air at pavement level through coke screens sprayed with water.


Collections

On opening in 1900, the library had 70,000 books and fewer than 100 manuscripts and by 2012, more than 250,000 printed volumes and over one million manuscripts and archival items. The main foundation of the library's collections acquired in 1892 was the ''Althorp Library'' of Lord Spencer regarded as one of the finest library collections in private ownership with 43,000 items - 3,000 of which originate from before 1501 (i.e. incunabula). Mrs Rylands paid £210,000 for Spencer's collection which included the and an
incunabula File:Prohemium..JPG, Illumination with doodles and drawings (marginalia), including an open-mouthed human profile, with multiple tongues sticking out. Copulata, "De Anima", f. 2a. HMD Collection, WZ 230 M772c 1485 An incunable or incunabulum (p ...

incunabula
collection of 3,000 items. The incunabula included a few block books and the St Christopher block print (southern Germany, 1423) the latter being the earliest dated block print whose date in undisputed. During subsequent years more than 1,000 more incunabula were added to the collection (from various sources). Owens College Library received
Richard Copley Christie Richard Copley Christie (22 July 1830 – 9 January 1901) was an England, English lawyer, university teacher, philanthropist and bibliophile. He was born at Lenton, Nottingham, Lenton in Nottinghamshire, the son of a mill owner. He was educated a ...

Richard Copley Christie
's library of over 8,000 volumes including many rare books from the
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...

Renaissance
period in 1901. It was part of the Victoria University of Manchester library from 1904 and was transferred to the John Rylands Library building after the merger in 1972. In 1901, Mrs Rylands paid £155,000 for more than 6,000 manuscripts owned by
James Lindsay, 26th Earl of Crawford James Ludovic Lindsay, 26th Earl of Crawford and 9th Earl of Balcarres, FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of envi ...
of
Haigh Hall Haigh Hall is a historic country house in Haigh, Greater Manchester, Haigh, Metropolitan Borough of Wigan, Greater Manchester, England. Built between 1827 and 1840 for James Lindsay, 24th Earl of Crawford, James Lindsay, 7th Earl of Balcarres, it ...
. The ''Bibliotheca Lindesiana'' was one of the most impressive private collections in Britain at the time, both for its size and rarity of some of its contents. Walter Llewellyn Bullock bequeathed 5,000 items (notably early Italian imprints) during the 1930s. The library's collections include exquisite medieval illuminated manuscripts, examples of early European printing including a fine paper copy of the
Gutenberg Bible The Gutenberg Bible (also known as the 42-line Bible, the Mazarin Bible or the B42) was the earliest major book printed using mass-produced movable metal type in Europe. It marked the start of the " Gutenberg Revolution" and the age of printed ...

Gutenberg Bible
and books printed by
William Caxton William Caxton ( 1422 – 1491) was an English merchant A merchant is a person who trades in commodities In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production ...
, and personal papers of distinguished historical figures including Elizabeth Gaskell, John Dalton and
John Wesley John Wesley (; 2 March 1791) was an English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which ha ...

John Wesley
. Nothing is known of the early history of this copy of the Gutenberg Bible before it was acquired by the 2nd Earl Spencer. The library houses
papyrus Papyrus ( ) is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface. It was made from the pith of the papyrus plant, ''Cyperus papyrus'', a wetland sedge. ''Papyrus'' (plural: ''papyri'') can also refer to a do ...

papyrus
fragments known as the
Rylands Papyri The Rylands Papyri are a collection of thousands of papyrus fragments and documents from North Africa and Greece housed at the John Rylands University Library, Manchester, United Kingdom, UK. The collection includes the Rylands Library Papyrus P52, ...
and documents from
North Africa North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in th ...

North Africa
. The most notable are the ''St John Fragment'', believed to be the oldest extant
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as ...

New Testament
text,
Rylands Library Papyrus P52 The Rylands Library Papyrus P52, also known as the St John's fragment and with an accession reference of Papyrus Rylands Greek 457, is a fragment from a papyrus codex, measuring only at its widest (about the size of a credit card), and conserved ...
, the earliest fragment of the text of the canonical Gospel of John; the earliest fragment of the
Septuagint The Greek Old Testament, or Septuagint (, ; from the la, septuaginta, lit=seventy; often abbreviated ''70''; in Roman numerals Roman numerals are a that originated in and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe wel ...
,
Papyrus Rylands 458 Papyrus Rylands 458 (TM 62298; LDAB 3459) is a copy of the Pentateuch in a Greek language, Greek version of the Hebrew Bible known as the Septuagint. It is a papyrus manuscript in roll form. The manuscript has been assigned Palaeography, palaeograp ...
; and
Papyrus Rylands 463 Papyrus Rylands 463 is a copy of the apocryphal Gospel of Mary in Greek language, Greek. It is a papyrus manuscript in roll form. The manuscript has been assigned Palaeography, palaeographically to the 3rd century. It is one of the three manuscrip ...
, a manuscript fragment of the apocryphal Gospel of Mary. Minuscule 702, ε2010 ( von Soden),
Hermann von Soden Baron Hermann von Soden (16 August 1852 – 15 January 1914) was a Germany, German Biblical scholar, minister, professor of divinity, and textual theorist. Life Born in Cincinnati, Ohio, on August 16, 1852, Soden was educated at the University of ...

Hermann von Soden
, ''Die Schriften des neuen Testaments, in ihrer ältesten erreichbaren Textgestalt / hergestellt auf Grund ihrer Textgeschichte'' (Berlin, 1902), vol. 1, p. 169
is a
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
minuscule Letter case is the distinction between the letters Letter, letters, or literature may refer to: Characters typeface * Letter (alphabet) A letter is a segmental symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or ...
manuscript A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, traditionally, any document written by hand – or, once practical typewriter A typewriter is a or machine for characters. Typically, a typewriter has an array ...

manuscript
of the
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as ...

New Testament
, on parchment. Among the papyri from Oxyrhynchus are a homily about women (Inv R. 55247), part of the
Book of Tobit The Book of Tobit () ''Tōbith'' or ''Tōbit'' ( and spellings are also attested) itself from he, טובי ''Tovi'' "my good"; Book of Tobias in the Vulgate from the Greek ''Tōbias'', itself from the Hebrew ''Tovyah'' "Jah, Yah is good" is ...
(Apocrypha) (448), and Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 73, relating to the transfer of a slave. The Arabic papyri were catalogued by
David Samuel Margoliouth David Samuel Margoliouth, FBAFBA may refer to: * Federation of British Artists * Federal Bar Association * Fellow of the British Academy * Filsports Basketball Association * First Baptist Academy (Houston, Texas), United States * First Baptist ...
; his catalogue was published in 1933. In addition to the collections of Spencer, Crawford, Christie and
Bullock Bullock may refer to: Animals * Bullock (in British English), a castrated male bovine animal of any age * Bullock (in North America), a young bull A bull is an intact (i.e., not castrated Castration (also known as orchiectomy or orchid ...
, holdings have been enriched by gifts, permanent loans or purchases of several libraries belonging to institutions and individuals. These include the French Revolution Broadsides donated by the 27th Earl of Crawford in 1924 and the archives of the
Methodist Church of Great Britain The Methodist Church of Great Britain is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Reformation reject the ...
in 1977. In 1924 the library purchased the greater part of the French revolutionary collection of the Bibliotheca Lindesiana; and then on the occasion of the library's semi-jubilee the donated the French Revolutionary Broadsides from the Bibliotheca Lindesiana. Between 1946 and 1988 a number of sections of the Earl of Crawford's library were deposited here, however all but one of these were withdrawn in 1988. Mrs Rylands died in 1908 having bequeathed her private collections and an endowment of £200,000 to enable the library to expand. The funds were used to acquire 180,000 books, 3,000 manuscripts and extend the building. The Librarian, Henry Guppy, invited individuals to deposit their archives for safe keeping in 1921 when there were no
county record office In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer ...
s in Lancashire or Cheshire and the library became one of the first to collect historical family records.


Staff

Librarians at John Rylands before its merger include
Edward Gordon Duff Edward Gordon Duff (16 February 1863 – 28 September 1924), known as Gordon Duff, was a British Bibliography, bibliographer and librarian known for his works on early English printing. Career Duff was born in Liverpool on 16 February 1863. He w ...
in 1899 and 1900 and Henry Guppy between 1899 and 1948 (joint Librarian with Duff until 1900). Duff was responsible for the original library catalogue, compiled between 1893 and 1899: ''Catalogue of the Printed Books and Manuscripts in the John Rylands Library, Manchester''; ed. E. G. Duff. Manchester: J. E. Cornish, 1899. 3 vols. The cataloguing of the books was done by
Alice Margaret Cooke Alice Margaret Cooke (18 September 1867 – 26 January 1940) was a United Kingdom, British historian and writer. Cooke catalogued the books in the John Rylands Library and she helped in the development of higher education for women in Manchester. ...
, a graduate of the Victoria University. Dr Guppy began publication of the ''
Bulletin of the John Rylands Library The ''Bulletin of the John Rylands Library'' is a journal published by Manchester University Press. Articles are meant to enhance the "scholarship and understanding" of the collections of the John Rylands Library. The journal was established in 1 ...
'' in 1903; it later became a journal publishing academic articles and from autumn 1972 the title was changed to the ''
Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester The ''Bulletin of the John Rylands Library'' is a journal published by Manchester University Press. Articles are meant to enhance the "scholarship and understanding" of the collections of the John Rylands Library. The journal was established in 1 ...
'' (further slight changes have occurred since). During the First World War 11 members of staff joined the armed forces; of these only Capt. O. J. Sutton, MC, lost his life while serving. Other noteworthy members of staff were
James Rendel Harris James Rendel Harris (Plymouth Plymouth () is a port city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyc ...
,
Alphonse Mingana Alphonse Mingana (born as Hurmiz Mingana; syr, ܗܪܡܙ ܡܢܓܢܐ, in 1878 at Sharanesh, a village near Zakho (present day Iraq) - died 5 December 1937 Birmingham, England) was an Assyrian people, Assyrian theologian, historian, Syriacist, orie ...

Alphonse Mingana
, the Semitic scholar Professor Edward Robertson (d. 1964) who was the third librarian, and Moses Tyson, keeper of western manuscripts, afterwards librarian of Manchester University Library. Stella Butler, a medical historian, was Head of Special Collections from 2000 until 2009, and she moved to the
University of Leeds , mottoeng = And knowledge will be increased , established = 1831 – Leeds School of Medicine The School of Medicine is the medical school of the University of Leeds, in the city of Leeds, West Yorkshire, England. The School of Medicine wa ...
in 2011 as University Librarian. From 2009-2019, Rachel Beckett was Head of Special Collections and Associate Director of The John Rylands Library. Christopher Pressler was appointed John Rylands University Librarian and Director of The University of Manchester Library in February 2019.


John Rylands Research Institute

The John Rylands Research Institute was originally founded by Acting Librarian David Miller in 1987, to promote, fund and stimulate research on the primary material held at Deansgate. It was relaunched in 2013, with Professor Peter Pormann as director, as a collaboration between The University of Manchester's Faculty of Humanities and The John Rylands Library. The mission of the Institute is to open up the Library's Special Collections to innovative and multidisciplinary research, in partnership with researchers in Manchester and across the globe. Since its inception, the Institute has gained both national and international recognition and has been involved in attracting grants to support research on the collections from funders including the Arts and Humanities Research Council, Leverhulme Trust, British Academy and Marie Curie Foundation. In addition, generous philanthropic donations from Amin Amiri, David Shreeve, The Soudavar Memorial Foundation and Mark Younger, amongst others, have helped to support a range of important projects. In September 2016, Hannah Barker, Professor of British History, took up the role as Director of the John Rylands Research Institute, and in March 2021, the John Rylands Research Institute and The John Rylands Library forged a new partnership as the John Rylands Research Institute and Library. The new John Rylands Research Institute and Library (Rylands for short) will be a dynamic community of world-leading researchers, librarians, curators, archivists, conservators and imaging specialists, all dedicated to working together to open the collections up to innovative and multidisciplinary research and engaging wider audiences in that research.


Governors and Trustees

Mrs Rylands established a board of trustees to hold the library's assets and a council of governors to maintain the building and control expenditure. The council consisted of some representative and some co-optative governors while honorary governors were not members of the council. Both these bodies were dissolved at the merger in 1972. Members of the council of governors included Professor
Arthur Peake Arthur Samuel Peake (1865–1929) was an English biblical scholar, born at Leek, Staffordshire Leek is a market town A market town is a European settlement that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the Middle Ages In th ...
and Professor F. F. Bruce both biblical critics and Rylands Professors of Biblical Criticism and Exegesis.


Visitors

Many notable people including heads of state have visited the library.
Charles, Prince of Wales Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948) is the heir apparent An heir apparent is a person who is first in an order of succession An order of succession or right of succession is the line of ind ...

Charles, Prince of Wales
and the
Duchess of Cornwall Duchess of Cornwall is a courtesy title A courtesy title is a title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academic qu ...

Duchess of Cornwall
have also visited.


See also

*
Grade I listed buildings in Greater Manchester There are 48 Grade I listed buildings in Greater Manchester, England. In the United Kingdom, the term listed building refers to a building or other structure officially designated as being of special architectural, historical or cultural signif ...
*
Listed buildings in Manchester-M3 Manchester Manchester () is the most-populous city and metropolitan borough A metropolitan borough is a type of local government district The districts of England (also known as local authority districts or local government districts t ...


References


Bibliography

*Archer, John H. G., ed. (1986) ''Art and Architecture in Victorian Manchester: ten illustrations of patronage and practice''. Manchester: Manchester University Press (includes a study of the John Rylands Library by John Madden) * *Farnie, D. A. (1989) "Enriqueta Augustina Rylands (1843–1908), Founder of the John Rylands Library", in: ''Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester'' LXXI,2 (summer 1989); pp. 3–38 * Guppy, Henry (1924) ''The John Rylands Library (1899–1924): a record of its history with brief descriptions of the building and its contents''. Manchester: University Press * Guppy, Henry (1929) "How Commerce has Assisted Culture Through the John Rylands Library", in: ''The Soul of Manchester''. Manchester: U. P.; pp. 113–123 * Guppy, Henry (1935) ''The John Rylands Library (1899–1935): a brief record of its history with descriptions of the building and its contents''. Manchester: University Press *Lister, Anthony (1989) "The Althorp Library of Second Earl Spencer, now in the John Rylands University Library of Manchester: its formation and growth". In: ''Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester''; vol. LXXI, no. 2 (summer 1989), pp. 67–86
online version
*McNiven, Peter (2000) "The John Rylands Library, 1972–2000" in: ''Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester'' LXXXII,2-3 (summer & autumn 2000); pp. 3–79 *McNiven, Peter (2000) "An Illustrated Catalogue of 'A Scholars' Paradise: a Centenary Exhibition of Notable Books and Manuscripts' " in: ''Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester'' LXXXII,2-3 (summer & autumn 2000); pp. 85–254 * *Ratcliffe, F. W. (1980) "The John Rylands University Library", in: ''Treasures of the University of Manchester: an exhibition to celebrate the granting of the royal charter to the Victoria University in 1880;
Whitworth Art Gallery The Whitworth is an art gallery in Manchester Manchester () is the most-populous city and metropolitan borough A metropolitan borough is a type of local government district The districts of England (also known as local authority dist ...

Whitworth Art Gallery
, 26 April -- 28 June 1980'' *Sotheby's (1988) ''Books from the John Rylands University Library of Manchester: day of sale 14 April 1988''. London: Sotheby's (98 works were offered for sale, of which a few remained unsold; all the books were rare duplicate copies; the funds raised were used to establish the John Rylands Research Institute in 1989) *Taylor, Frank (1989) "The John Rylands Library, 1936–72" in: ''Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester'' LXXI,2 (summer 1989); pp. 39–66 *Tyson, Moses (1941) "The First Forty Years of the John Rylands Library" in: ''Bulletin of the John Rylands Library''; vol. XXV, pp. 46–66 *''News from the Rylands: the newsletter of the Special Collections Division of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester''. No. 1, winter 2000, etc. Replacing the ''John Rylands Research Institute Newsletter''; 1990–1999.


External links


Library webpages; guide to collections; etc.

John Cassidy, Manchester Sculptor; compiled by Charlie Hulme and Lis Nicolson
{{Authority control Academic libraries in England Libraries in Manchester University of Manchester Library buildings completed in 1899 Buildings at the University of Manchester 1899 establishments in England Grade I listed buildings in Manchester Grade I listed library buildings History of Manchester Museums in Manchester Literary archives Gothic Revival architecture in Greater Manchester Special collections libraries John Rylands Research Institute and Library, *