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Jena (; ) is a German
city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a ...
and the second largest city in
Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The ...
. Together with the nearby cities of
Erfurt Erfurt ( , ; ) is the and largest city in the state of , central Germany. It is located in the southern part of the , within the wide valley of the . It is located south-west of , south-west of , north of and north-east of . Together wit ...

Erfurt
and
Weimar Weimar (; la, Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''St ...

Weimar
, it forms the central metropolitan area of Thuringia with approximately 500,000 inhabitants, while the city itself has a population of about 110,000. Jena is a centre of education and research; the Friedrich Schiller University was founded in 1558 and had 18,000 students in 2017 and the Ernst-Abbe-Fachhochschule Jena counts another 5,000 students. Furthermore, there are many institutes of the leading German research societies. Jena was first mentioned in 1182 and stayed a small town until the 19th century, when industry developed. For most of the 20th century, Jena was a world centre of the optical industry around companies like
Carl Zeiss Carl Zeiss (; 11 September 1816 – 3 December 1888) was a German scientific instrument maker, optician and businessman who founded the workshop of Carl Zeiss in 1846, which is still in business today as Carl Zeiss AG. Zeiss gathered a group ...
, Schott and
Jenoptik Jenoptik AG is a German integrated photonics group that divides its activities into three photonics-based divisions Light & Optics, Light & Production and Light & Safety. The company's customers around the world mainly include companies in the ...

Jenoptik
(since 1990). As one of only a few medium-sized cities in Germany, it has some high-rise buildings in the city centre, like the JenTower. These also have their origin in the former Carl Zeiss factory. Between 1790 and 1850, Jena was a focal point of the German
Vormärz ' (; English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World languag ...
as well as of the student liberal and unification movement and
German Romanticism , (1774–1840)'' Moonrise by the Sea,'' 1822, 55x71 cm German Romanticism was the dominant intellectual movement of German-speaking countries in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, influencing philosophy, aesthetics, literature and criticism. ...
. Notable persons of this period in Jena were
Friedrich Schiller Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (, short: ; 10 November 17599 May 1805) was a Germans, German playwright, poet, and philosopher. During the last seventeen years of his life (1788–1805), Schiller developed a productive, if complicated, ...

Friedrich Schiller
,
Alexander von Humboldt Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (14 September 17696 May 1859) was a , , , , and proponent of philosophy and . He was the younger brother of the Prussian minister, philosopher, and (1767–1835). Humboldt's quantitative work ...

Alexander von Humboldt
,
Johann Gottlieb Fichte Johann Gottlieb Fichte (; ; 19 May 1762 – 29 January 1814) was a German philosopher who became a founding figure of the philosophical movement known as German idealism, which developed from the theoretical and ethical writings of Immanuel Kan ...

Johann Gottlieb Fichte
,
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (; ; 27 August 1770 – 14 November 1831) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For cit ...
,
Novalis Georg Philipp Friedrich Freiherr von Hardenberg (2 May 1772 – 25 March 1801), better known by his pen name Novalis (), was an 18th-century German aristocrat, poet, author, mystic A mystic is a person who practices mysticism, or a reference to ...

Novalis
and
August Wilhelm Schlegel August Wilhelm (after 1812: von) Schlegel (; ; 8 September 176712 May 1845), usually cited as August Schlegel, was a German poet, translator and critic, and with his brother Friedrich Schlegel the leading influence within Jena Romanticism. His tr ...
. The city's economy is based on the high-technology industry and research. The optical and precision industry is the leading branch to date, while software engineering, other digital businesses and biotechnology are of growing importance. Furthermore, Jena is also a service hub for the surrounding regions. Jena lies in a hilly landscape in the east of Thuringia, within the wide valley of the
Saale The Saale (), also known as the Saxon Saale (german: Sächsische Saale) and Thuringian Saale (german: Thüringische Saale), is a river in Germany Germany (german: Deutschland, ), officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in . It ...

Saale
river. Due to its rocky landscape, varied substrate and mixed forests, Jena is known in Germany for the wide variety of wild
orchids Orchidaceae ( ), commonly called the orchid family, is a diverse and widespread family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social ...

orchids
which can be found within walking distance of the town. Local nature reserves are maintained by volunteers and
NABU Nabu ( akk, cuneiform: 𒀭𒀝 Nabû syr, ܢܵܒܼܘܼ\ܢܒܼܘܿ\ܢܵܒܼܘܿ Nāvū or Nvō or Nāvō) is the ancient Mesopotamian patron god of literacy Literacy is popularly understood as an ability to read and write Writi ...
.


History


Middle Ages

Until the
High Middle Ages The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in musical c ...
, the
Saale The Saale (), also known as the Saxon Saale (german: Sächsische Saale) and Thuringian Saale (german: Thüringische Saale), is a river in Germany Germany (german: Deutschland, ), officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in . It ...

Saale
was the border between
Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic languages ** List of ancient Germanic peoples and tribes * Germanic languages :* Proto-Germanic language, a reconstructed proto-language of ...

Germanic
regions in the west and
Slavic
Slavic
regions in the east. Owing to its function as a river crossing, Jena was conveniently located. Nevertheless, there were also some more important Saale crossings like the nearby cities of
Naumburg Naumburg () is a town in (and the administrative capital of) the district Burgenlandkreis, in the state of Saxony-Anhalt, Central Germany. It has a population of around 33,000. The Naumburg Cathedral became a UNESCO World Heritage site A ...
to the north and
Saalfeld Saalfeld (german: Saalfeld/Saale) is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the wor ...
to the south, so that the relevance of Jena was more local during the Middle Ages. The first unequivocal mention of Jena was in an 1182 document. The first local rulers of the region were the Lords of
Lobdeburg
Lobdeburg
with their eponymous castle near Lobeda, roughly south of the city centre on the eastern hillside of the Saale valley. In the 13th century, the Lords of Lobdeburg founded two towns in the valley: Jena on the west bank and Lobeda – which is one of Jena's constituent communities today – to the south on the east bank. Around 1230, Jena received town rights and a regular city grid was established between today's Fürstengraben, Löbdergraben, Teichgraben and Leutragraben. The city got a marketplace, main church, town hall, council and city walls during the late 13th and early 14th centuries making it into a fully fledged town. In this time, the city's economy was based mainly on wine production on the warm and sunny hillsides of the Saale valley. The two monasteries of the
Dominicans Dominican may refer to: * Someone or something from or related to the Dominican Republic ( , stress on the "mi"), on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles, in the Caribbean ** People of the Dominican Republic ** Demographics of the Domin ...
(1286) and the
Cistercian The Cistercians, () officially the Order of Cistercians ( la, (Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis, abbreviated as OCist or SOCist), are a Catholic religious order of monks and nuns that branched off from the Benedictines and follow the Rule of Saint Be ...
s (1301) rounded out Jena's medieval appearance. As the political circumstances in Thuringia changed in the middle of the 14th century, the weakened Lords of Lobdeburg sold Jena to the aspiring Wettins in 1331. Jena obtained the
Gotha Gotha () is the fifth-largest city in Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazi ...

Gotha
municipal law and the citizens strengthened their rights and wealth during the 14th and 15th centuries. Moreover, the Wettins were more interested in their residence in the nearby city of
Weimar Weimar (; la, Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''St ...

Weimar
, and so Jena could develop itself relatively autonomously.


Early modern period

The
Protestant Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity Western Christianity is one of two sub-divisions of Christianity Christianity is an Abra ...
was brought to the city in 1523.
Martin Luther Martin Luther (; ; 10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citiz ...

Martin Luther
visited the town to reorganize the clerical relations and Jena became an early centre of his doctrine. In the following years, the Dominican and the
Carmelite The Carmelites, formally known as the Order of the Brothers of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel ( la, Ordo Fratrum Beatissimæ Virginis Mariæ de Monte Carmelo) or sometimes simply as Carmel by synecdoche, is a Roman Catholic Roman or R ...

Carmelite
convents were attacked by the townsmen and abolished in 1525 (Carmelite) and 1548 (Dominican). An important step in Jena's history was the foundation of the
university A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several Discipline (academia), academic disciplines. Universities typ ...
in 1558. Ernestine Elector John Frederick the Magnanimous founded it, because he had lost his old university in
Wittenberg Wittenberg ( , ; Low Saxon Low Saxon or Lower Saxon may refer to: Geography *Lower Saxony Lower Saxony (german: Niedersachsen ; nds, Neddersassen; stq, Läichsaksen) is a German state (''Land'') situated in Northern Germany, northwestern ...
to the Albertines after the
Schmalkaldic War The Schmalkaldic War (german: link=no, Schmalkaldischer Krieg) refers to the short period of violence from 1546 until 1547 between the forces of Emperor Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire (simultaneously King Charles I of Spain), commanded by t ...
. During the
Little Ice Age The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling that occurred after the Medieval Warm Period The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) also known as the Medieval Climate Optimum, or Medieval Climatic Anomaly was a time of warm climate Climate is the ...
,
wine-growing
wine-growing
declined in the 17th century, so that the new university became one of the most important sources of income for the city. The same century brought a boom in printing business caused by the rising importance of books (and the population's ability to read) in the Lutheran doctrine, and Jena was the second-largest printing location in Germany after
Leipzig Leipzig (, ; Upper Saxon: ) is the most populous city in the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony. With a population of 605,407 inhabitants as of 2021 (1.1 million residents in the larger urban zone), it surpasses the Saxon c ...

Leipzig
. The list of the so-called " Seven Wonders of Jena" was composed by students of the university at this time, supposedly as a test of local knowledge in order to confirm that a person who claimed to have studied in Jena was actually familiar with the city. Beginning in the 16th century, the Ernestine dynasty saw many territorial partitions. Initially, Jena remained a part of
Saxe-Weimar Saxe-Weimar (german: Sachsen-Weimar) was one of the History of Saxony, Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine duchies, Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin, Wettin dynasty in present-day Thuringia. The chief town and capital was Weimar. The Weimar ...
, but in 1672 it became the capital of its own small duchy (
Saxe-Jena The Duchy of Saxe-Jena was one of the Saxon Duchies held by the Ernestine line of the Wettin Dynasty. Established in 1672 for Bernhard Bernhard is both a given name and a surname. Notable people with the name include: Given name *Bernhard of ...
). In 1692, after two dukes (
Bernhard II
Bernhard II
and Johann Wilhelm), the dukes of Saxe-Jena died out and the duchy became part of
Saxe-Eisenach Saxe-Eisenach (german: Sachsen-Eisenach) was an Ernestine duchy ruled by the Saxon House of Wettin The House of Wettin () is a dynasty of German counts, dukes, prince-electors and monarch, kings that once ruled territories in the present- ...
and, in 1741, of the
Duchy of Saxe-Weimar Saxe-Weimar (german: Sachsen-Weimar) was one of the Saxon The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of early Germanic * * * * peoples whose name was given in the early Midd ...
, to which it belonged until 1809. From 1809 to 1918, Jena was part of the Duchy (from 1815 Grand Duchy) of
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (german: Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) was a historical German state, created as a duchy A duchy, also called a dukedom, is a , territory, , or domain ruled by a or , a high-ranking nobleman hierarchically second to the or ...
, which from 1871 was also part of the
German Empire The German Empire or the Imperial State of Germany,, officially '.Herbert Tuttle Herbert Tuttle (1846–1894) was an American historian. Biography Herbert Tuttle was born in Bennington, Vermont Bennington is a New England town, town ...
.


19th century

Around 1790, the university became the largest and most famous one among the German states and made Jena the centre of idealist philosophy (with professors like
Johann Gottlieb Fichte Johann Gottlieb Fichte (; ; 19 May 1762 – 29 January 1814) was a German philosopher who became a founding figure of the philosophical movement known as German idealism, which developed from the theoretical and ethical writings of Immanuel Kan ...

Johann Gottlieb Fichte
,
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (; ; 27 August 1770 – 14 November 1831) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For cit ...
,
Friedrich Schiller Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (, short: ; 10 November 17599 May 1805) was a Germans, German playwright, poet, and philosopher. During the last seventeen years of his life (1788–1805), Schiller developed a productive, if complicated, ...

Friedrich Schiller
and
Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (; 27 January 1775 – 20 August 1854), later (after 1812) von Schelling, was a German philosopher. Standard histories of philosophy make him the midpoint in the development of German idealism, situating him be ...

Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling
) and of the early
Romanticism Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe towards the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to ...
(with poets like Novalis, the brothers
August August is the eighth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, ...
and
Friedrich Schlegel Karl Wilhelm Friedrich (after 1814: von) Schlegel (; ; 10 March 1772 – 12 January 1829) was a German poet A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may describe themselves as such or be described as such by others. A poet may simply be a ...
, and
Ludwig Tieck Johann Ludwig Tieck (; ; 31 May 177328 April 1853) was a German poet, fiction writer, translator, and critic. He was one of the founding fathers of the Romantic movement in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Early life Tieck was born in Berl ...

Ludwig Tieck
). In 1794, the poets
Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of G ...

Goethe
and
Schiller Johann Christoph Friedrich (von) Schiller (, short: ; 10 November 17599 May 1805) was a German poet, philosopher, physician, historian, and playwright. During the last seventeen years of his life (1788–1805), Schiller developed a productive, i ...

Schiller
met at the university and established a long lasting friendship. Consequently, the reputation of the University and the Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach as particularly liberal and open-minded was enhanced. On 14 October 1806,
Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General o ...
fought and defeated the
Prussian Prussia, , Old Prussian: ''Prūsa'' or ''Prūsija'' was a historically prominent Germans, German state that originated in 1525 with Duchy of Prussia, a duchy centered on the Prussia (region), region of Prussia on the southeast coast of the Balt ...
army here in the
Battle of Jena-Auerstedt A battle is an occurrence of combat in warfare between opposing military units of any number or size. A war usually consists of multiple battles. In general, a battle is a military engagement that is well defined in duration, area, and force c ...
, near the district of Vierzehnheiligen. Resistance against the French occupation was strong, especially among the students. Many of the students fought in the
Lützow Free Corps Lützow Free Corps ( ) was a volunteer force of the Prussian army during the Napoleonic Wars. It was named after its commander, Ludwig Adolf Wilhelm von Lützow. The Corpsmen were also widely known as the “''Lützower Jäger (military), Jäger'' ...
in 1813. Two years later, the
Urburschenschaft The Urburschenschaft () was the first ...
fraternity was founded in the city. During the later 19th century, the famous biologist
Ernst Haeckel Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (; 16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was a German zoologist Zoology ()The pronunciation of zoology as is usually regarded as nonstandard, though it is not uncommon. is the branch of biology that stud ...

Ernst Haeckel
was professor at the university. The expansion of science and medicine faculties was closely linked to the industrial boom that Jena saw after 1871. The initial spark of industrialization in Jena was the (relatively late) connection to the railway. The Saal Railway (''Saalbahn'', opened in 1874) was the connection from
Halle Halle may refer to: Places Germany * Halle (Saale), also called Halle an der Saale, a city in Saxony-Anhalt ** Halle (region), a former administrative region in Saxony-Anhalt ** Bezirk Halle, a former administrative division of East Germany ** Hall ...
and
Leipzig Leipzig (, ; Upper Saxon: ) is the most populous city in the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony. With a population of 605,407 inhabitants as of 2021 (1.1 million residents in the larger urban zone), it surpasses the Saxon c ...

Leipzig
along the Saale valley to
Nuremberg Nuremberg ( ; german: link=no, Nürnberg ; in the local East Franconian dialect: ''Nämberch'' ) is the second-largest city of the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Bavaria after its capital Munich, and its 518,370 (2019) inhabitants ...

Nuremberg
and the
Weimar–Gera railway The Weimar–Gera railway is a line in the German state of Thuringia, connecting the city of Weimar via Jena, Stadtroda and Hermsdorf, Thuringia, Hermsdorf to Gera. It was built by the Weimar-Gera Railway Company (''Weimar-Geraer Eisenbahn-Gesellsch ...
(opened 1876) connected Jena with
Frankfurt Frankfurt, officially Frankfurt am Main (; Hessian dialects, Hessian: , "Franks, Frank ford (crossing), ford on the Main (river), Main"; french: Francfort-sur-le-Main), is the most populous city in the States of Germany, German state of Hess ...

Frankfurt
and
Erfurt Erfurt ( , ; ) is the and largest city in the state of , central Germany. It is located in the southern part of the , within the wide valley of the . It is located south-west of , south-west of , north of and north-east of . Together wit ...

Erfurt
in the west as well as
Dresden Dresden (, ; wen, label=Sorbian languages, Upper and Lower Sorbian, Drježdźany) is the capital city of the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony and its second most populous city, after Leipzig. It is the List of cities in German ...

Dresden
and
Gera Gera is, with around 93,000 inhabitants, the third-largest city of Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a states of Germany, state of Germany. Located in central Germany, it covers , be ...
in the east. Famous pioneers of the Jenaer industry were
Carl Zeiss Carl Zeiss (; 11 September 1816 – 3 December 1888) was a German scientific instrument maker, optician and businessman who founded the workshop of Carl Zeiss in 1846, which is still in business today as ''Carl Zeiss AG Carl Zeiss AG ...
and
Ernst Abbe Ernst Karl Abbe HonFRMS (23 January 1840 – 14 January 1905) was a German physicist A physicist is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge in an Branches of science, a ...

Ernst Abbe
(with their
Carl Zeiss AG Carl Zeiss AG (), branded as ZEISS, is a German manufacturer of optical systems and optoelectronics, founded in Jena Jena (; ) is a German List of cities and towns in Germany, city and the second largest city in Thuringia. Together with t ...
) as well as
Otto Schott Friedrich Otto Schott (1851–1935) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nati ...

Otto Schott
(
Schott AG Schott AG is a German multinational glass company specializing in the manufacture of glass Glass is a non- crystalline, often transparency and translucency, transparent amorphous solid, that has widespread practical, technological, and de ...
). Since that time, production of optical items, precision machinery and laboratory glassware have been the main branches of Jena's economy;
Jena glass Jena glass (German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language ...
is even named after the city. Zeiss, Abbe and Schott worked also as social reformers who wanted to improve the living conditions of their workers and the local wealth in general. When Zeiss died in 1889, his company passed to the
Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung The Carl-Zeiss- Stiftung (Carl Zeiss Foundation), located in Heidenheim an der Brenz Heidenheim an der Brenz (short: Heidenheim) is a town in Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. It is located near the border with Bavaria, approximately 17&nbs ...
, which uses great amounts of the company's profits for social benefits like research projects at universities etc. This model became an example for other German companies (e.g. the
Robert Bosch Stiftung The Robert Bosch Stiftung GmbH () is a German StiftungA stiftung is an institution/foundation which, with the aid of a property, pursues a purpose determined by the founder. A ''stiftung foundation'' exists to give effect to the stated, non-com ...
). In 1898 it was agreed on with several personalities from the Jenaer industrial sector that the city was in need of an electricity generator and in the first years of the 1900s an electrified tramway was founded in Jena.


20th century

Industrialization fundamentally changed the social structure of Jena. The former academic town became a working-class city; the population rose from 8,000 around 1870 up to 71,000 at the beginning of
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. The city expanded along the Saale valley to the north and the south and its side valleys to the east and the west. In 1901, the
tram A tram (also known as a streetcar or trolley in North America) is a train that runs on tramway track Tramway track is used on tramways or light rail operations. Groove (engineering), Grooved rails (or Rail profile#Grooved rail, girder ...

tram
system started its operation and the university got a new main building (established between 1906 and 1908 on the former castle's site). After the foundation of
Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The ...
in 1920, Jena was one of the three biggest cities (together with
Weimar Weimar (; la, Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''St ...

Weimar
and
Gera Gera is, with around 93,000 inhabitants, the third-largest city of Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a states of Germany, state of Germany. Located in central Germany, it covers , be ...
, while
Erfurt Erfurt ( , ; ) is the and largest city in the state of , central Germany. It is located in the southern part of the , within the wide valley of the . It is located south-west of , south-west of , north of and north-east of . Together wit ...

Erfurt
remained part of
Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-Europ ...
) and became an
independent city An independent city or independent town is a city or town that does not form part of another general-purpose local government entity (such as a province). Historical precursors In the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum R ...
in 1922. The modern optical and glass industry kept booming and the city grew further during Weimar times. During the
Nazi Nazism ( ), officially National Socialism (german: Nationalsozialismus, ), is the ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about th ...

Nazi
period, conflicts deepened in Jena between the influential left-wing milieus (communists and social democrats) and the right-wing Nazi milieus. On the one hand, the university suffered from new restrictions against its independence, but on the other hand, it consolidated the Nazi ideology, for example with a professorship of social anthropology (which sought to scientifically legitimize the
racial policy of Nazi Germany A race is a categorization of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, ...
).
Kristallnacht ''Kristallnacht'' () or the Night of Broken Glass, also called the November Pogrom(s) (german: Novemberpogrome, ), was a pogrom A pogrom is a violent riot aimed at the massacre or expulsion of an ethnic or religious group, particularly on ...

Kristallnacht
in 1938 led to more discrimination against
Jew Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), ...

Jew
s in Jena, many of whom either emigrated or were arrested and murdered by the German government. This weakened the academic milieu, because many academics were Jews (especially in medicine). During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, the Germans operated two subcamps of the
Buchenwald concentration camp Buchenwald (; literally 'beech, beech forest') was a Nazi concentration camp established on hill near Weimar, Nazi Germany, Germany, in July 1937. It was one of the first and the largest of the concentration camps within Germany's Territorial ...
in the city, and a subcamp of the prison in
Sieradz Sieradz ( la, Syradia, yi, שעראַדז, שערעדז, שעריץ, german: 1941-45 Schieratz) is a town on the Warta river in central Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links ...
in
German-occupied Poland German-occupied Poland during World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved World War II by country, the vast majority of th ...
. In 1945, towards the end of
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, Jena was heavily bombed by the American and British Allies. 709 people were killed, 2,000 injured and most of the medieval town centre was destroyed, but in parts restored after the end of the war. No other Thuringian city suffered worse damage, except
NordhausenNordhausen may refer to: * Nordhausen (district), a district in Thuringia, Germany ** Nordhausen, Thuringia, a city in the district **Nordhausen station, the railway station in the city **Free Imperial City of Nordhausen, a free imperial city of the ...
, whose destruction was utter. Jena was occupied by American troops on 13 April 1945 and was left to the Red Army on 1 July 1945. Jena fell within the Soviet zone of occupation in post-World War II Germany. In 1949, it became part of the new
German Democratic Republic German(s) may refer to: * Germany (of or related to) **Germania (historical use) * Germans, citizens of Germany, people of German ancestry, or native speakers of the German language ** For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law **Ger ...
(GDR). The Soviets dismantled great parts of the Zeiss and Schott factories and took them to the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
. On the other hand, the GDR government founded a new
pharmaceutical A medication (also called medicament, medicine, pharmaceutical drug, medicinal drug or simply drug) is a drug used to medical diagnosis, diagnose, cure, therapy, treat, or preventive medicine, prevent disease. Drug therapy (pharmacotherapy) ...
factory in 1950, , which is part of
Bayer Bayer Aktiengesellschaft, AG (; ) is a German multinational corporation, multinational pharmaceutical company, pharmaceutical and life sciences company and one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world. Headquartered in Leverkusen, ...

Bayer
today. In 1953, Jena was a centre of the East German Uprising against GDR policy. The protests with 30,000 participants drew fire from Soviet
tank A tank is an armored fighting vehicle An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is an armed combat vehicle protected by armour, generally combining operational mobility with offensive and defensive capabilities. AFVs can be wheeled or tr ...

tank
s. The following decades brought some radical shifts in city planning. During the 1960s, another part of the historic city centre was demolished to build the
Jen Tower 200px, Skyline of Jena with JenTower The JenTower is a skyscraper in Jena, Germany. Common names The tower has been known by many names, official and unofficial. From 1992 until January 2005, the tower was called the ''Intershop Tower'' after its ...
. The Eichplatz in front of the tower is still unbuilt and its future is still the subject of ongoing heated discussion. Big
Plattenbau , the largest East German (1987) (plural: , german: Platte + Bau, lit=panel/slab' + 'building/ construction) is a building constructed of large, prefabricated Prefabrication is the practice of assembling components of a structure A struct ...

Plattenbau
settlements were developed in the 1970s and 1980s, because the population was still rising and the housing shortage remained a perpetual problem. New districts established in the north (near Rautal) and in the south (around Winzerla and Lobeda). The opposition against the GDR government was reinforced during the late 1980s in Jena, fed by academic and clerical circles. In autumn 1989, the city saw the largest protests in its history before the GDR government was dissolved. After 1990, Jena became part of the refounded state of
Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The ...
. Industry came into a heavy crisis during the 1990s, but finally it managed the transition to the
market economy A market economy is an economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The ide ...
and today, it is one of the leading economic centres of eastern Germany. Furthermore, the university was enlarged and many new research institutes were founded. Especially between 1995 and 1997 several far-right crimes were committed in Jena. The city's far-right scene of the 1990s gave rise to the National Socialist Underground (NSU) terror group. However, the city is no longer considered a far-right hotspot.


Geography and demographics


Topography

Jena is situated in a hilly landscape in eastern Thuringia at the
Saale The Saale (), also known as the Saxon Saale (german: Sächsische Saale) and Thuringian Saale (german: Thüringische Saale), is a river in Germany Germany (german: Deutschland, ), officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in . It ...

Saale
river, between the
Harz The Harz () is a highland area in northern Germany. It has the highest elevations for that region, and its rugged terrain extends across parts of Lower Saxony Lower Saxony (german: Niedersachsen ; nds, Neddersassen; stq, Läichsaksen) is ...

Harz
mountains in the north, the
Thuringian Forest The Thuringian Forest (''Thüringer Wald'' in German language, German), is a mountain range in the southern parts of the Germany, German state of Thuringia, running northwest to southeast. Skirting from its southerly source in foothills to a gorg ...
/
Thuringian Highland The Thuringian Highland, Thuringian Highlands or Thuringian-Vogtlandian Slate MountainsKohl, Horst; Marcinek, Joachim and Nitz, Bernhard (1986). ''Geography of the German Democratic Republic'', VEB Hermann Haack, Gotha, p. 7 ff. . (german: Thüringe ...
in the southwest and the
Ore Mountains The Ore Mountains or Ore Mountain Range () (german: Erzgebirge ; cs, Krušné hory or historically ''Rudohoří'') in Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. Central Europe includes contiguous territories that are somet ...
, in the southeast. The municipal terrain is hilly with rugged slopes at the valley's edges. The city centre is situated at 160 m of elevation, whereas the mountains on both sides of Saale valley rise up to 400 m. On the eastern side those are (from north to south): the ''Gleisberg'' near Kunitz, the ''Jenzig'' near Wogau, the ''Hausberg'' near Wenigenjena, the ''Kernberge'' near Wöllnitz, the ''Johannisberg'' near Lobeda and the ''Einsiedlerberg'' near Drackendorf. On the western side, there are the ''Jägersberg'' near Zwätzen, the ''Windknollen'' north of the city centre, the ''Tatzend'' west of the city centre, the ''Lichtenhainer Höhe'' near Lichtenhain, the ''Holzberg'' near Winzerla, the ''Jagdberg'' near Göschwitz and the Spitzenberg near Maua. The mountains belong to the geological formation of Ilm Saale Plate (
Muschelkalk The Muschelkalk (German for "shell-bearing limestone"; french: calcaire coquillier) is a sequence of sedimentary Sedimentary rocks are types of rock (geology), rock that are formed by the accumulation or deposition of mineral or organic matter, ...

Muschelkalk
) and are relatively flat on their peaks but steep to the valleys in between. Due to its jagged surface, the municipal territory isn't very suitable for agriculture all the more since the most flat areas along the valley were built on during the 20th century. At the mountains is some forest of different leaf trees and pines.


Ecology

32 species of native
orchids Orchidaceae ( ), commonly called the orchid family, is a diverse and widespread family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social ...

orchids
can be found in the Jena area. One of the best places to see them is Leutratal, to the south of the town. ''Ophrys apifera'' even grows at a few locations within the town. Firefly can be seen in the meadows in Paradiespark as well as a variety of native wildflowers. Wildlife on the surrounding mountains includes raven, sand lizard and wood ants. Heron, beaver and muskrat have been seen on the Saale, within the town. Pine martens sometimes come into the town at night, from the mountains, to raid bins.


Climate

Jena has a humid continental climate (Dfb) or an oceanic climate (''Cfb'') according to the Köppen climate classification system. ''(direct
Final Revised Paper
''
Summers are warm and sometimes humid; winters are relatively cold. The city's topography creates a microclimate caused through the basin position with sometimes Inversion (meteorology), inversion in winter (quite cold nights under ) and heat and inadequate air circulation in summer. Annual precipitation is with moderate rainfall throughout the year. Light snowfall mainly occurs from December through February, but snow cover does not usually remain for long. During the Middle Ages, Jena was famous for growing wine on its slopes. Nowadays, the next commercial wine-growing areas are situated down Saale river. Due to its distance to coastal areas and position in the Saale valley, wind speeds tend to be very low; predominant direction is SW.


Administrative division

Jena abuts the district of Saale-Holzland-Kreis, Saale-Holzland with the municipalities of Lehesten, Saale-Holzland, Lehesten, Neuengönna and Golmsdorf in the north, Jenalöbnitz, Großlöbichau and Schlöben in the east and Laasdorf, Zöllnitz, Sulza, Rothenstein, Germany, Rothenstein, Milda, Germany, Milda and Bucha, Saale-Holzland, Bucha in the south and the district of Weimarer Land with the municipalities of Döbritschen, Großschwabhausen and Saaleplatte in the west. The city itself is divided in 30 districts. The inner-city districts are Zentrum, Nord, West, Süd, Wenigenjena (east of Saale, incorporated in 1909) and Kernberge, other big districts are Lobeda (incorporated in 1946) and Winzerla (incorporated in 1922) in the south with large housing complexes. The residual districts are from a more rural constitution:


Demographics

Over the centuries, Jena had mostly been a town of 4,000 to 5,000 inhabitants. The population growth began in the 19th century with an amount of 6,000 in 1840 and of 8,000 in 1870. Then, a demographic boom occurred with a population of 20,000 in 1900, 50,000 in 1920, 73,000 in 1940, 81,000 in 1960 and 104,000 in 1980. The peak was reached in 1988 with a population of 108,000. The bad economic situation in eastern Germany after the reunification resulted in a decline in population, which fell to 99,000 in 1998 before rising again to 107,000 in 2012. The average population growth between 2009 and 2012 was approximately 0.47% p. a, whereas the population in bordering rural regions is shrinking with accelerating tendency. Suburbanization played only a small role in Jena. It occurred after the reunification for a short time in the 1990s, but most of the suburban areas were situated within the administrative city borders. The birth surplus was 62 in 2012, or +0.6 per 1,000 inhabitants (Thuringian average: -4.5; national average: -2.4). The net migration rate was +4.0 per 1,000 inhabitants in 2012 (Thuringian average: -0.8; national average: +4.6). The most important regions of origin of Jena migrants are rural areas of Thuringia, Saxony-Anhalt and Saxony as well as foreign countries like Poland, Russia, Ukraine, Hungary, Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria. Like many other eastern German cities, Jena has a small foreign-born population: circa 4.0% are non-Germans by citizenship and overall 6.2% are migrants (according to 2011 EU census). Differing from the national average, the biggest groups of migrants in Jena are Russians in Germany, Russians, Chinese people in Germany, Chinese and Ukrainians in Germany, Ukrainians. During recent years, the economic situation of the city has improved: the unemployment rate declined from 14% in 2005 to 7% in 2013. Due to the official policy of atheism in the former East Germany, GDR, most of the population is non-religious. 15.9% are members of the Evangelical Church in Central Germany and 6.6% are Catholics (according to 2011 EU census).


Culture, sights and cityscape


Museums

Jena has a great variety of museums: * The ''Optical Museum Jena'' at Carl-Zeiß-Platz shows the history of optical instruments like glasses, microscopes, cameras and telescopes. * The ''Jena Phyletic Museum, Phyletisches Museum'' at Neutor hosts a natural history exhibition with focus on evolution and fossils. * The ''Stadtmuseum & Kunstsammlung'' at Markt square shows the city history of Jena and hosts furthermore an exhibition of modern and contemporary art. * The ''Botanischer Garten'' (botanic garden) at Fürstengraben is one of the oldest botanic gardens in Germany (established in 1794) and hosts 12,000 plants from all over the world. * The ''Romantikerhaus'' at Unterm Markt street hosts an exhibition about the epoque of Jena romantics in German literature. * ''Schillers Gartenhaus'' at Schillergässchen is the former summer house of
Friedrich Schiller Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (, short: ; 10 November 17599 May 1805) was a Germans, German playwright, poet, and philosopher. During the last seventeen years of his life (1788–1805), Schiller developed a productive, if complicated, ...

Friedrich Schiller
and shows an exhibition of his life and his connection to Jena. * The ''Goethe-Gedenkstätte'' at Fürstengraben shows an exhibition about the links between Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Jena (only in summer). * The ''Ernst-Haeckel-Haus'' at Berggasse is the former house of biologist
Ernst Haeckel Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (; 16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was a German zoologist Zoology ()The pronunciation of zoology as is usually regarded as nonstandard, though it is not uncommon. is the branch of biology that stud ...

Ernst Haeckel
and hosts an exhibition about his life. * The ''Schott Glasmuseum'' at Otto-Schott-Straße shows the life of
Otto Schott Friedrich Otto Schott (1851–1935) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nati ...

Otto Schott
and the history of his glass factory, the
Schott AG Schott AG is a German multinational glass company specializing in the manufacture of glass Glass is a non- crystalline, often transparency and translucency, transparent amorphous solid, that has widespread practical, technological, and de ...
. * The ''Museum 1806'' at Cospeda district hosts an exhibition about the Battle of Jena–Auerstedt during the Napoleonic wars. * The University of Jena hosts some important scientific collections. While the collections of antiques and minerals are public, the Oriental Coin Cabinet Jena, oriental coins are only accessed for research.


Image gallery

File:Optisches Museum Jena.jpg, Optisches Museum File:Phyletisches Museum in July 2012.jpg, Phyletisches Museum File:GöhreJena01.JPG, Stadtmuseum File:Romantikerhaus Jena.jpg, Romantikerhaus File:Schillers-Gartenhaus01.JPG, Schillers Gartenhaus File:Jena - botanical garden 08 (aka).jpg, Botanischer Garten File:Cospeda.jpg, Museum 1806 in Cospeda


Cityscape

The historic city centre is located inside the former wall (which is the area between Fürstengraben in the north, Löbdergraben in the east, Teichgraben in the south and Leutragraben in the west). There are only a few historic buildings in this area (e.g. at Oberlauengasse), due to the destruction during World War II and modernization projects in the following decades. The Eichplatz, a big sub-used square covering a large amount of the centre, has not been built on since the 1960s and the discussion about its future is still in process. The wall's defortification took place relatively early in the 18th century – and the first suburbs developed in front of the former city gates. In these areas, some historic building structures from the 18th and early 19th century remained in western Bachstraße and Wagnergasse, in northern Zwätzengasse and in southern Neugasse. The later 19th and early 20th centuries brought a construction boom to Jena, with the city enlarged to the north and south along the Saale valley, to the west along ''Mühltal'' and on the Saale's east side in former Wenigenjena. Compared with the city centre, later substantial losses were much slighter in this areas. During the interwar period, the construction of flats stayed on a high level but suitable ground got less, so that new housing complexes were set up relatively far away from the centre – a problem that remained until today with long journeys and high rents as consequences. Today's Jena is not as compact as other cities in the region, and urban planning is still a challenge. A peculiarity of Jena is the presence of a second old town centre with a market square, town hall, and castle in the former town of Lobeda, which is a district since 1946, located approximately to the south of Jena's centre.


Sights and architectural heritage


Churches

* The main church, St. Michael's, is one of the biggest Gothic architecture, Gothic monuments in Thuringia and was built between 1422 and 1557. It has a bronze slab of
Martin Luther Martin Luther (; ; 10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citiz ...

Martin Luther
's tomb. * The St. John's Church was the church of the extinct village ''Leutra'' west of Jena and later used as the city's cemetery chapel. Since 1811, the Gothic building is the catholic church of Jena. * The Peace Church was built between 1686 and 1693 as new cemetery chapel and is a Baroque evangelical church today. * The Schiller Church east of Saale river is the evangelical parish church of the former village and today's quarter Wenigenjena.
Friedrich Schiller Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (, short: ; 10 November 17599 May 1805) was a Germans, German playwright, poet, and philosopher. During the last seventeen years of his life (1788–1805), Schiller developed a productive, if complicated, ...

Friedrich Schiller
married here in 1790. * The St. Peter's Church is the former city church of Jena's southern district Lobeda. The Gothic church was built around 1480. * The parish church of Vierzehnheiligen (dedicated to the Fourteen Holy Helpers) is a Gothic-style former pilgrimage church established during the 1460s. * The St. Mary's Church in Ziegenhain is a former pilgrimage church in Gothic style, built in the 15th century. File:Stadtkirche St. Michael in Jena 2008-05-24.jpg, Main church St. Michael File:St. Johannes Baptist.JPG, St. John's Church File:Friedenskirche, Jena.jpg, Peace Church File:SchillerkircheJena01.JPG, Schiller Church File:Kirche Lobeda.JPG, Church of Lobeda File:Kirche Vierzehnheiligen.JPG, Church of Vierzehnheiligen File:Jena - Ziegenhain 02.jpg, Church of Ziegenhain


Other sights

* The medieval city wall is preserved in parts (''Anatomieturm'' and ''Roter Turm''), the largest one is the complex around Johannistor and Pulverturm near Johannisplatz. * The town hall at Markt square was built around 1412 and is one of only few Gothic town halls in Germany. It has an astronomical clock featuring the "Snatching Hans" ("''Schnapphans''"). * The Planetarium Jena, planetarium opened in 1926 and was the first large planetarium in the world, with Zeiss projector, technology developed by Carl Zeiss. * The University Main Building stands at the former castle's place and was established in 1908 in early-modern style (Theodor Fischer/Bruno Taut). * The ''Abbeanum'' is a university building by Ernst Neufert in Bauhaus style, built in 1930. * The
Jen Tower 200px, Skyline of Jena with JenTower The JenTower is a skyscraper in Jena, Germany. Common names The tower has been known by many names, official and unofficial. From 1992 until January 2005, the tower was called the ''Intershop Tower'' after its ...
is the city's highest skyscraper, built between 1969 and 1972, with a viewing platform and a sky restaurant. * The ''Haus Auerbach'' is the former house of physicist Felix Auerbach, built by Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer (architect), Adolf Meyer in Bauhaus style in 1924. Near is the ''Haus Zuckerkandl'', another mansion built by Gropius in 1929. * The former Carl Zeiss Factory in the city centre hosts interesting technical architecture from the period between 1880 and 1965, including Germany's first high-rise building, the ''Bau 15'' from 1915. * The monument to John Frederick the Magnanimous (built in 1858) at the Markt square is a landmark of Jena called "Hanfried". * The monument to
Ernst Abbe Ernst Karl Abbe HonFRMS (23 January 1840 – 14 January 1905) was a German physicist A physicist is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge in an Branches of science, a ...

Ernst Abbe
is a building of early-modern architecture by Henry van de Velde (1910). * The Lobdeburg is a castle ruin above Lobeda district and the former seat of the lords of Lobdeburg, founders of Jena. * Naturschutzgebiet Leutratal und Cospoth is an important nature reserve to the southwest. File:Jena Johannistor.jpg, Johannistor, medieval city gate File:Rathaus Jena.JPG, Town hall File:Zeiss-Planetarium 1926 Ernst-Abbe-Stiftung - Jena Thüringen Foto Wolfgang Pehlemann Steinberg PICT0028.jpg, Planetarium File:Universitäts Hauptgebäude. Jena.jpg, University Main Building File:Ernst-Abbe Memorial 2.Jena.jpg, Ernst Abbe Monument File:Pulverturm und Uniturm.jpg, Pulverturm at night File:JenTower Jena.jpg, Jen Tower


Theatre and music

Jena has its own theatre and orchestra, the Jenaer Philharmonie.


Sports

Jena is home to professional football club, FC Carl Zeiss Jena. The club won the DDR-Oberliga three times, the FDGB Cup four times, and reached the final of the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup. Post-unification the club have been less successful and they currently compete in Regionalliga Nordost. In women's football, FF USV Jena is a member of the 2. Frauen-Bundesliga. Both clubs' home stadium is the Ernst-Abbe-Sportfeld. Also, the city's basketball team, Science City Jena played in Basketball Bundesliga in 2007–2008 season and returned to top level in 2015–16 season. In addition, since 2000, the university of Jena has a rugby team. Since 2012, the USV Rugby Jena team has been playing in the 2. Rugby-Bundesliga. Current men's javelin throw world record (98.48) by Jan Železný was achieved in Jena.


Economy and infrastructure


Agriculture, industry and services

Agriculture plays a small role in Jena, only 40% of the municipal territory are in use for farming (compared to over 60% in
Erfurt Erfurt ( , ; ) is the and largest city in the state of , central Germany. It is located in the southern part of the , within the wide valley of the . It is located south-west of , south-west of , north of and north-east of . Together wit ...

Erfurt
and nearly 50% in
Weimar Weimar (; la, Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''St ...

Weimar
). Furthermore, the
Muschelkalk The Muschelkalk (German for "shell-bearing limestone"; french: calcaire coquillier) is a sequence of sedimentary Sedimentary rocks are types of rock (geology), rock that are formed by the accumulation or deposition of mineral or organic matter, ...

Muschelkalk
soil is not very fertile and is often used as pasture for cattle. The only large agricultural area is situated around Isserstedt, Cospeda and Vierzehnheiligen district in the northwest. Wine-growing was discontinued during the
Little Ice Age The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling that occurred after the Medieval Warm Period The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) also known as the Medieval Climate Optimum, or Medieval Climatic Anomaly was a time of warm climate Climate is the ...
around 1800, but is now possible again due to global warming. Nevertheless, the commercial production of wine hasn't yet resumed. Industry is a great tradition in Jena, reaching back to the mid-19th century. In 2012, there were 80 companies in industrial production with more than 20 workers employing 8,300 persons and generating a turnover of more than 1,5 billion Euro. The most important branches are precision machinery, pharmaceuticals, optics, biotechnology and software engineering. Notable companies in Jena are the traditional
Carl Zeiss AG Carl Zeiss AG (), branded as ZEISS, is a German manufacturer of optical systems and optoelectronics, founded in Jena Jena (; ) is a German List of cities and towns in Germany, city and the second largest city in Thuringia. Together with t ...
,
Schott AG Schott AG is a German multinational glass company specializing in the manufacture of glass Glass is a non- crystalline, often transparency and translucency, transparent amorphous solid, that has widespread practical, technological, and de ...
,
Jenoptik Jenoptik AG is a German integrated photonics group that divides its activities into three photonics-based divisions Light & Optics, Light & Production and Light & Safety. The company's customers around the world mainly include companies in the ...

Jenoptik
and as well as new companies like Intershop Communications, Analytik Jena and Carl Zeiss Meditec. Jena has the most market-listed companies and is one of the most important economic centres of east Germany. With companies such as Intershop Communications, Salesforce.com (after the acquisition of Demandware) and ePages as well as several web agencies, Jena is a hub for E-commerce in Germany. Other IT players with regional offices include Accenture or ESET. Jena-Optronik, a subsidiary of the Airbus Group, develops components for spaceflight or satellites in Jena. The city is among Germany's 50 fastest growing regions, with many internationally renowned research institutes and companies, a comparatively low unemployment and a young population structure. Jena was awarded the title "Stadt der Wissenschaft" (city of science) by the ''Stifterverband für die Deutsche Wissenschaft'', a German science association, in 2008. Jena is also a hub of public and private services, specially in education, research and business services. Other important institutions are the High Court of Thuringia and Thuringia's solely university hospital. Furthermore, Jena is a regional centre in infrastructure and retail with many shopping centres. Together with the photonics la
Lichtwerkstatt
and the Krautspace there are makerspaces and hackerspaces enabling start-ups to create their product ideas and realizing their first prototype and business models as well as networking.


Transport


By rail

Jena has no central railway station with connection to all the lines at one point. What is relatively common in many countries is quite unusual for a German city and caused on the one hand by the city's difficult topography and on the other hand by the history, because the two main lines were built by two different private companies. The connection in north–south direction is the Saal Railway with Intercity-Express, ICE trains running from Berlin in the north to Munich in the south once a day stopping at Jena Paradies station, Paradies station and local trains to
Naumburg Naumburg () is a town in (and the administrative capital of) the district Burgenlandkreis, in the state of Saxony-Anhalt, Central Germany. It has a population of around 33,000. The Naumburg Cathedral became a UNESCO World Heritage site A ...
and
Saalfeld Saalfeld (german: Saalfeld/Saale) is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the wor ...
stopping at Jena-Zwätzen station, Zwätzen, Jena Saale station, Saalbahnhof, Paradies and Jena-Göschwitz station, Göschwitz. The connection in west–east direction is the
Weimar–Gera railway The Weimar–Gera railway is a line in the German state of Thuringia, connecting the city of Weimar via Jena, Stadtroda and Hermsdorf, Thuringia, Hermsdorf to Gera. It was built by the Weimar-Gera Railway Company (''Weimar-Geraer Eisenbahn-Gesellsch ...
with regional express trains to Göttingen (via
Erfurt Erfurt ( , ; ) is the and largest city in the state of , central Germany. It is located in the southern part of the , within the wide valley of the . It is located south-west of , south-west of , north of and north-east of . Together wit ...

Erfurt
and
Weimar Weimar (; la, Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''St ...

Weimar
) and Zwickau, Glauchau, Altenburg or Greiz (via
Gera Gera is, with around 93,000 inhabitants, the third-largest city of Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a states of Germany, state of Germany. Located in central Germany, it covers , be ...
) and local trains between Weimar, Jena and Gera. The express trains stop at Jena West station, West station near the city centre and Göschwitz, the local trains furthermore at Neue Schenke. The junction between both lines is the Jena-Göschwitz station, Göschwitz station, approx. south of the city centre. When the Nuremberg–Erfurt high-speed railway opened in 2017, the city lost its connection to the long-distance train network. As compensation, there are new regional express train services to
Halle Halle may refer to: Places Germany * Halle (Saale), also called Halle an der Saale, a city in Saxony-Anhalt ** Halle (region), a former administrative region in Saxony-Anhalt ** Bezirk Halle, a former administrative division of East Germany ** Hall ...
and
Leipzig Leipzig (, ; Upper Saxon: ) is the most populous city in the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony. With a population of 605,407 inhabitants as of 2021 (1.1 million residents in the larger urban zone), it surpasses the Saxon c ...

Leipzig
in the north, and to
Nuremberg Nuremberg ( ; german: link=no, Nürnberg ; in the local East Franconian dialect: ''Nämberch'' ) is the second-largest city of the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Bavaria after its capital Munich, and its 518,370 (2019) inhabitants ...

Nuremberg
in the south.


By road

The two German autobahns, Autobahnen crossing each other nearby at ''Hermsdorf junction'' are the Bundesautobahn 4 (Frankfurt–Dresden) and the Bundesautobahn 9 (Berlin–Munich), which were both built during the 1930s. The A 4 runs quite next to the Lobeda housing complexes and the Leutra district. Therefore, it was rebuilt in the 2000s and got two tunnels to protect the residents and the environment against noise and air pollution. Furthermore, there are two Bundesstraßen crossing in Jena: the Bundesstraße 7 is a connection to
Weimar Weimar (; la, Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''St ...

Weimar
in the west and
Gera Gera is, with around 93,000 inhabitants, the third-largest city of Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a states of Germany, state of Germany. Located in central Germany, it covers , be ...
in the east and the Bundesstraße 88 is a connection along Saale valley to
Naumburg Naumburg () is a town in (and the administrative capital of) the district Burgenlandkreis, in the state of Saxony-Anhalt, Central Germany. It has a population of around 33,000. The Naumburg Cathedral became a UNESCO World Heritage site A ...
in the north and Rudolstadt in the south. Furthermore, there are some roads to Apolda via Isserstedt, Blankenhain via Ammerbach and Stadtroda via Lobeda. Most parts of city centre inside the former walls are pedestrian areas.


By aviation

The next local airports to Jena are the Erfurt–Weimar Airport, approx. to the west and the Leipzig/Halle Airport, approx. to the northeast, which both serve mostly for holiday flights to the Mediterranean and other touristic regions. The next major airports are Frankfurt Airport, Berlin Brandenburg Airport and Munich Airport.


By bike

Despite the hilly terrain in some parts, Jena is a cycling city, due to the many students. Cycling has become more popular in Jena since the 1990s when good quality bike paths began to be built. There are bike lanes along some main streets, though, in comparison to other cities in Germany, there are deficits. For bicycle touring there is the "Saale track" (german: Saale-Radweg) and the "Thuringian city string track" (german: Radweg Thüringer Städtekette). Both of these connect points of tourist interest: the former along the
Saale The Saale (), also known as the Saxon Saale (german: Sächsische Saale) and Thuringian Saale (german: Thüringische Saale), is a river in Germany Germany (german: Deutschland, ), officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in . It ...

Saale
valley from Fichtel Mountains in Bavaria to the Elbe river near Magdeburg, while the latter follows the medieval Via Regia closely and runs from Eisenach via
Erfurt Erfurt ( , ; ) is the and largest city in the state of , central Germany. It is located in the southern part of the , within the wide valley of the . It is located south-west of , south-west of , north of and north-east of . Together wit ...

Erfurt
,
Weimar Weimar (; la, Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''St ...

Weimar
and Jena to Altenburg via
Gera Gera is, with around 93,000 inhabitants, the third-largest city of Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a states of Germany, state of Germany. Located in central Germany, it covers , be ...
.


Trams and buses

The Trams in Jena, Jena tramway network was established in 1901 and enlarged after the German reunification. It connects the major districts with the city centre; there are 5 ordinary lines served in different intervals between 7,5 and 20 minutes. Nevertheless, there are some old single-track segments interfering the services. Furthermore, there is an extensive network of buses, run (like the trams) by the "Jenah" organization, a pun on Jena and the German lit. 'public transport'. Buses of the JES Verkehrsgesellschaft connect Jena with cities and villages in the region.


Education and research

After reunification, the educational system was realigned. The University of Jena, established in 1558, was largely extended. Today there are approximately 21,000 students at this university. Another college is the Ernst-Abbe-Hochschule Jena, a Fachhochschule, University of Applied Sciences founded in 1991 which offers a combination of scientific training and its practical applications. There are also nearly 5,000 students. Further there are six Gymnasium (Germany), Gymnasiums, five state-owned and one Christian (ecumenical). One of the state-owned is a ''Sportgymnasium'', an elite boarding school for young talents in athletics or football. Another state-owned Gymnasium (the Carl-Zeiss-Gymnasium Jena) offers a focus in sciences also as an elite boarding school additionally to the common curriculum. The various research institutes based in Jena include: * The Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology is an important research center and offers a Ph.D. program. * The Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History * The Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry * The IPHT Jena, Institute of Photonic Technology * The Fraunhofer Society, Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering (IOF) * The Leibniz Institute for Age Research, a research center with a Ph.D program * INNOVENT - a private research center * The Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology * Friedrich-Löffler-Institute of Bacterial Infections and Zoonoses * Friedrich-Löffler-Institute of Molecular Pathogenesis * The Jena Center for Bioinformatics


Quality of life

In 2013, according to a study by Kieler Institut für Weltwirtschaft, Jena was ranked as the fifth-most livable city in Germany. According to the 2019 study by Forschungsinstitut Prognos, Jena is one of the most dynamic regions in Germany. It ranks at number 29 of all 401 German regions.


Politics


Mayor and city council

The first freely elected mayor after German reunification was Peter Röhlinger of the Free Democratic Party (Germany), Free Democratic Party (FDP), who served from 1990 to 2006. In 2006 he was succeeded by Albrecht Schröter of the Social Democratic Party of Germany, Social Democratic Party (SPD). Schröter was defeated seeking re-election in 2018 by Thomas Nitzsche of the FDP, who has since served as mayor. The most recent mayoral election was held on 15 April 2018, with a runoff held on 29 April, and the results were as follows: ! rowspan=2 colspan=2, Candidate ! rowspan=2, Party ! colspan=2, First round ! colspan=2, Second round , - ! Votes ! % ! Votes ! % , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Thomas Nitzsche , align=left, Free Democratic Party (Germany), Free Democratic Party , 12,046 , 26.9 , 24,982 , 63.3 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Albrecht Schröter , align=left, Social Democratic Party of Germany, Social Democratic Party , 10,965 , 24.5 , 14,499 , 36.7 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Benjamin Koppe , align=left, Christian Democratic Union of Germany, Christian Democratic Union , 6,314 , 14.1 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Martina Flämmich-Winckler , align=left, The Left (Germany), The Left , 4,999 , 11.2 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Denny Jankowski , align=left, Alternative for Germany , 3,444 , 7.7 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Denis Peisker , align=left, Alliance 90/The Greens , 3,377 , 7.5 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Heidrun Jänchen , align=left, Pirate Party Germany , 2,076 , 4.6 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Sandro Dreßler , align=left, Independent politician, Independent , 918 , 2.1 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Arne Petrich , align=left, Independent politician, Independent , 597 , 1.3 , - ! colspan=3, Valid votes ! 44,736 ! 99.5 ! 39,481 ! 99.3 , - ! colspan=3, Invalid votes ! 210 ! 0.5 ! 294 ! 0.7 , - ! colspan=3, Total ! 44,946 ! 100.0 ! 39,775 ! 100.0 , - ! colspan=3, Electorate/voter turnout ! 85,401 ! 52.6 ! 85,220 ! 46.7 , - , colspan=7, Source
Wahlen in Thüringen
The most recent city council election was held on 26 May 2019, and the results were as follows: ! colspan=2, Party ! Lead candidate ! Votes ! % ! +/- ! Seats ! +/- , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, The Left (Germany), The Left (Die Linke) , align=left, Lena Saniye Güngör , 31,728 , 20.4 , 3.6 , 9 , 2 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Alliance 90/The Greens (Grüne) , align=left, Margret Franz , 30,189 , 19.4 , 8.1 , 9 , 4 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Free Democratic Party (Germany), Free Democratic Party (FDP) , align=left, Alexis Taeger , 20,003 , 12.8 , 8.0 , 6 , 4 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Social Democratic Party of Germany, Social Democratic Party (SPD) , align=left, Katja Glybowskaja , 19,665 , 12.6 , 8.2 , 6 , 4 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Christian Democratic Union of Germany, Christian Democratic Union (CDU) , align=left, Guntram Wothly , 19,649 , 12.6 , 9.6 , 6 , 4 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Alternative for Germany (AfD) , align=left, Denny Jankowski , 15,617 , 10.0 , New , 5 , New , - , , align=left, Citizens for Jena (BfJ) , align=left, Jürgen Häkanson-Hall , 11,677 , 7.5 , 2.9 , 3 , 2 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Free Voters, Free Voters Jena , align=left, Ulrich Schubert , 5,345 , 3.4 , New , 1 , New , - , , align=left, Die Guten , align=left, Anne Neumann , 2,032 , 1.3 , 0.6 , 1 , ±0 , - ! colspan=3, Valid votes ! 52,540 ! % ! ! ! , - ! colspan=3, Invalid votes ! 1,121 ! % ! ! ! , - ! colspan=3, Total ! 53,661 ! 100.0 ! ! 46 ! ±0 , - ! colspan=3, Electorate/voter turnout ! 84,990 ! 63.1 ! 11.6 ! ! , - , colspan=8, Source
Wahlen in Thüringen


Notable people

*
Ernst Abbe Ernst Karl Abbe HonFRMS (23 January 1840 – 14 January 1905) was a German physicist A physicist is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge in an Branches of science, a ...

Ernst Abbe
(1840–1905), physicist, social reformer, partner of
Carl Zeiss Carl Zeiss (; 11 September 1816 – 3 December 1888) was a German scientific instrument maker, optician and businessman who founded the workshop of Carl Zeiss in 1846, which is still in business today as ''Carl Zeiss AG Carl Zeiss AG ...
and
Otto Schott Friedrich Otto Schott (1851–1935) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nati ...

Otto Schott
* Andreas Bauer Kanabas, classical bass * Johannes R. Becher (1891–1958), poet and politician * Hans Berger, discoverer of human EEG * Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld * Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, naturalist, doctor, comparative anatomist and physiologist * Walter von Boetticher (1853–1945), historian and physician studied medicine at Jena * Martin Dwars (b. 1987), retired footballer (goalkeeper) * Johann Gottfried Eichhorn, orientalist and Protestant theologian of the Enlightenment * Robert Enke (1977–2009), footballer (goalkeeper) * Walter Eucken (1891–1950), founder of neoliberal economic theory * Rudolf Eucken (1846–1926), philosopher and winner of the 1908 Nobel Prize for Literature *
Johann Gottlieb Fichte Johann Gottlieb Fichte (; ; 19 May 1762 – 29 January 1814) was a German philosopher who became a founding figure of the philosophical movement known as German idealism, which developed from the theoretical and ethical writings of Immanuel Kan ...

Johann Gottlieb Fichte
, philosopher and early German nationalist * Gottlob Frege (1848–1925), mathematician, logician, and philosopher * Friedrich Fröbel, Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel, inventor of the kindergarten * Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832), poet/writer * Klara Griefahn (1897–1945), physician * Otto Günsche (1917–2003), commander in the Waffen-SS during the Second World War *
Ernst Haeckel Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (; 16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was a German zoologist Zoology ()The pronunciation of zoology as is usually regarded as nonstandard, though it is not uncommon. is the branch of biology that stud ...

Ernst Haeckel
(1834–1919), evolutionary biologist/zoologist * Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, G. W. F. Hegel (1770–1831), philosopher * Friedrich Hölderlin (1770–1843), poet * Albert Woldemar Hollander (1796–1868), educator and pedagog * Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716), polymath and philosopher *
Martin Luther Martin Luther (; ; 10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citiz ...

Martin Luther
(1483–1546), professor of theology, priest, author, composer, Augustinian monk, and seminal figure in the Reformation * August Eduard Martin (1847–1933), obstetrician and gynecologist Martin, August Eduard
In: Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB). Band 16, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1990, , S. 284 f.
* Karl Marx (1818–1883), philosopher/economist * Tilo Medek (1940–2006), composer * Philipp Melanchthon, theologian * Johann Karl August Musäus, author * Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (1844–1900), philosopher *
Novalis Georg Philipp Friedrich Freiherr von Hardenberg (2 May 1772 – 25 March 1801), better known by his pen name Novalis (), was an 18th-century German aristocrat, poet, author, mystic A mystic is a person who practices mysticism, or a reference to ...

Novalis
(1772–1801), poet * Max Reger, composer, pianist, professor and conductor * Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, Friedrich Schelling, philosopher *
Friedrich Schiller Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (, short: ; 10 November 17599 May 1805) was a Germans, German playwright, poet, and philosopher. During the last seventeen years of his life (1788–1805), Schiller developed a productive, if complicated, ...

Friedrich Schiller
, poet/writer * Karoline Schelling, Caroline Böhmer Schlegel Schelling * August Wilhelm von Schlegel, Wilhelm Schlegel, philosopher * Sahra Wagenknecht (b. 1969), German politician * Bernd Schneider (footballer), Bernd Schneider (b. 1973), footballer *
Otto Schott Friedrich Otto Schott (1851–1935) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nati ...

Otto Schott
, inventor of fireproof glass, founder of the Schott glass works * Reinhard Johannes Sorge, poet, dramatist, and Roman Catholic convert * Johann Gustav Stickel, orientalist * Kurt Tucholsky, writer *
Carl Zeiss Carl Zeiss (; 11 September 1816 – 3 December 1888) was a German scientific instrument maker, optician and businessman who founded the workshop of Carl Zeiss in 1846, which is still in business today as ''Carl Zeiss AG Carl Zeiss AG ...
(1816–1888), founder of the Zeiss company


References


External links

* * {{Authority control Jena, Bezirk Gera Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Holocaust locations in Germany