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The Japan Self-Defense Forces ( ja, 自衛隊, Jieitai; abbreviated JSDF), also known as the Japanese Armed Forces, are the unified
military force A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Li ...
s of
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
established in 1954. The self-defence forces consists of the
Japan Ground Self-Defense Force Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...
, the
Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force , also simply known as the Japanese Navy, is the maritime warfare branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces, tasked with the naval defense of Japan. The JMSDF was formed following the dissolution of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) after World Wa ...
, and the
Japan Air Self-Defense Force The , JASDF, also informally referred to as the Japanese Air Force, is the air warfare branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces, responsible for the defense of Japanese airspace and for other aerospace operations. The JASDF carries out combat air ...
. They are controlled by the
Ministry of DefenseMinistry of Defence or Ministry of Defense may refer to: * Ministry of defenceMinistry of Defence or Ministry of Defense may refer to: * Ministry of defence, a type of government department responsible for matters of defence Current ministries ...
, with the Prime Minister as commander-in-chief. In recent years, the JSDF has engaged in international
peacekeeping Peacekeeping comprises activities intended to create conditions that favour lasting peace. Research generally finds that peacekeeping reduces civilian and battlefield deaths, as well as reduces the risk of renewed warfare. Within the United Na ...
operations with the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizations through formal ...
. Tensions, particularly with
North Korea North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. It borders China and Russia to the north, at the Yalu River, Yalu (Amnok) and Tu ...

North Korea
, have reignited debate over the status of the JSDF and its relation to Japanese society. Since 2010, the JSDF has refocused from countering the former
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
to the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...
; increased military cooperation with
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...
,
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...
,
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...
,
South Korea South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korea, Korean Peninsula and sharing a Korean Demilitarized Zone, land border with North Korea. Its western border is for ...
,
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bor ...
, the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...
and the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
; and acquired new or updated equipment and hardware.


History


20th century

Japan was deprived of any military capability after being defeated by the Allies in World War II and was forced to sign a surrender agreement presented by General
Douglas MacArthur , birth_date = , birth_place = Little Rock, Arkansas (The Little Rock, The "Little Rock") , government_type = council-manager government, Council-manager , leader_title = List of mayors of Lit ...

Douglas MacArthur
in 1945. It was occupied by U.S. forces and only had a minor domestic police force on which to rely for domestic security and crime. Rising tensions in Europe and Asia due to the Cold War, coupled with leftist-inspired strikes and demonstrations in Japan, prompted some conservative leaders to question the unilateral renunciation of all military capabilities. These sentiments were intensified in 1950 as occupation troops began to be moved to the
Korean War The Korean War (see § Names) was a war fought between North Korea North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. It b ...

Korean War
(1950–53) theater. This left Japan virtually defenseless, vulnerable, and very much aware of the need to enter into a mutual defense relationship with the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
to guarantee the nation's external security. Encouraged by the American occupation authorities, the Japanese government in July 1950 authorized the establishment of a , consisting of 75,000 men equipped with light infantry weapons. In 1952, the , the waterborne counterpart of NPR, was also founded. The
Security Treaty Between the United States and Japan The was signed on 8 September 1951 in San Francisco San Francisco (/Help:IPA/English, ˌsæn fɹənˈsɪskoʊ/; Spanish language, Spanish for "Francis of Assisi, Saint Francis"), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is a cult ...
was signed on 8 September 1951. The treaty allowed to deal with external aggression against Japan while Japanese ground and maritime forces would deal with internal threats and natural disasters. It permitted the United States to act for the sake of maintaining peace in East Asia and exert its power on Japanese domestic quarrels. Accordingly, in mid-1952, the National Police Reserve was expanded to 110,000 men and named the National Safety Forces. The Coastal Safety Force was transferred with it to the National Safety Agency to constitute an embryonic navy. Under Article 9 of the 1947 constitution, which was written by Prime Minister
Kijūrō Shidehara Baron Baron is a rank of nobility or title of honour, often hereditary, in various European countries, either current or historical. The female equivalent is baroness. Typically, the title denotes an aristocrat who ranks higher than a lord ...

Kijūrō Shidehara
under the supervision of the
SCAP SCAP may refer to: * S.C.A.P., an early French manufacturer of cars and engines * Security Content Automation Protocol * ''The Shackled City Adventure Path'', a role-playing game * SREBP cleavage activating protein * Supervisory Capital Assessment ...
, Japan forever renounces war as an instrument for settling international disputes and declared that Japan will never again maintain "land, sea, or air forces or another war potential." Later cabinets interpreted these provisions as not denying the nation the inherent right to self-defense and, with the encouragement of the United States, developed the JSDF step by step. On 1 July 1954, the National Security Board was reorganized as the Defense Agency, and the National Security Force was reorganized afterwards as the
Japan Ground Self-Defense Force Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...
(''de facto'' post-war Japanese
Army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the broadest sense, it is the land-based military branch Military branch ...

Army
), the Coastal Safety Force was reorganized as the
Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force , also simply known as the Japanese Navy, is the maritime warfare branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces, tasked with the naval defense of Japan. The JMSDF was formed following the dissolution of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) after World Wa ...
(''de facto'' post-war Japanese
Navy A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense ...

Navy
), and the
Japan Air Self-Defense Force The , JASDF, also informally referred to as the Japanese Air Force, is the air warfare branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces, responsible for the defense of Japanese airspace and for other aerospace operations. The JASDF carries out combat air ...
(''de facto'' post-war Japanese Air Force) was established as a new branch of JSDF. General
Keizō Hayashi was a Japanese civil servant The civil service is a collective term for a sector of government composed mainly of career civil servants hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives tr ...
was appointed the first Chairman of Joint Staff Council—professional head of the three branches. The enabling legislation for this was the 1954 Self-Defense Forces Act (Act No. 165 of 1954). The Far East Air Force, U.S. Air Force, announced on 6 January 1955 that 85 aircraft would be turned over to the fledgling Japanese air force on about 15 January, the first equipment of the new force. On 19 January 1960, the amended
Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan#REDIRECT Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security Between the United States and Japan {{R from move ...
corrected the unequal status of Japan in the 1951 treaty by adding mutual defense obligations. The U.S. is required to pre-inform Japan of any mobilization by the U.S. Army. The U.S. is also prohibited from exerting any power on domestic issues within Japan. The treaty obligates Japan and the United States to assist each other if there's an armed attack in territories administered by Japan. Because it states that any attack against Japan or the United States in Japanese territory would be dangerous to each country's peace and safety, the revised treaty requires Japan and the United States to maintain capacities to resist common armed attacks; thus, it explains the need for in Japan. This established a security alliance between Japan and the United States. The treaty has lasted longer than any other alliance between two great powers since the
Peace of Westphalia The Peace of Westphalia (german: Westfälischer Friede, ) is the collective name for two peace treaties signed in October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück Osnabrück (; wep, Ossenbrügge; archaic ''Osnaburg'') is a city in the ...
treaties in 1648. In 1983,
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
ese
Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
Yasuhiro Nakasone was a Japanese politician A politician is a person active in party politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such ...

Yasuhiro Nakasone
pledged to make Japan an " unsinkable aircraft carrier in the
Pacific The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. ...

Pacific
", assisting the United States in defending against the threat of
Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a socialist state A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a sovere ...
bombers. Although possession of
nuclear weapon A nuclear weapon (also known as an atom bomb, atomic bomb, nuclear bomb or nuclear warhead, and colloquially as an A-bomb or nuke) is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reaction In nuclear physics Nucl ...
s is not explicitly forbidden in the constitution, Japan, being the only nation to experience the devastation of nuclear attacks, expressed early its abhorrence of nuclear arms and its determination never to acquire them. The
Atomic Energy Basic Law{{Nihongo, The Atmic Energy Basic Law, 原子力基本法, Genshi-ryoku Kihon Hō, Act No. 186 of 1955, lead=yes is a Japanese law passed December 19, 1955. It outlined the basics for the use of nuclear power in Japan. Overview Article 1 (Objective) ...
of 1956 limits research, development, and use of nuclear power to peaceful uses only. Beginning in 1956, national policy embodied "three non-nuclear principles" forbidding the nation to possess or manufacture nuclear weapons or to allow them to be introduced into its territories. In 1976 Japan ratified the
Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law Inte ...
(adopted by the
United Nations Security Council The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed ...

United Nations Security Council
in 1968) and reiterated its intention never to "develop, use, or allow the transportation of nuclear weapons through its territory"; nonetheless, because of its generally high technology level and large number of operating
nuclear power plant A nuclear power plant (sometimes abbreviated as NPP) is a thermal power station A thermal power station is a power station in which heat energy is converted to electricity. Typically, fuel is used to boil water in a large pressure vessel to ...

nuclear power plant
s, Japan is generally considered to be "nuclear capable", i.e., it could develop usable nuclear weapons within one year if the political situation changes significantly. See section 2: "The Self Defense Forces" Thus many analysts consider Japan a ''de facto'' nuclear state. Japan is often said to be a "screwdriver's turn" away from possessing nuclear weapons, or possessing a "bomb in the basement". On 28 May 1999, the Regional Affairs Law was enacted. It allows Japan to automatically participate as "rear support" if the United States wages war under "regional affairs."


21st century

The Anti-Terrorism Special Measures Law was passed on 29 October 2001. It allows the JSDF to contribute by itself to international efforts to the prevention and eradication of terrorism. While on duty, the JSDF can use weapons to protect itself and others who come under its control. Previously Japan's policy was non-involvement. On 27 March 2004, the Japan Defense Agency activated the Special Operations Group with the mandate under the JGSDF as its Counter-terrorist unit. On 8 June 2006, the
Cabinet of Japan The is the executive branch of the government of Japan. It consists of the Prime Minister of Japan, Prime Minister, who is Imperial Investiture, appointed by the Emperor of Japan, Emperor after being designated by the National Diet, and up to ...
endorsed a bill elevating the under the
Cabinet Office The Cabinet Office is a department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geographical and admin ...
to full-fledged cabinet-level . This was passed by the
National Diet The is Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg , alt_coat = Go ...

National Diet
in December 2006 and has been enforced since 9 January 2007. Section 2 of Article 3 of the Self Defense Forces Act was revised on 9 January 2007. JSDF activities abroad were elevated from "miscellaneous regulations" to "basic duties." This fundamentally changed the nature of the JSDF because its activities were no longer solely defensive. JMSDF ships can be dispatched worldwide such as in activities against pirates. The JSDF's first postwar overseas base was established in Djibouti (July 2010). On 18 September 2015, the National Diet enacted the
2015 Japanese military legislation In 2015, Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg , alt_coat = Gol ...
, a series of laws that allow Japan's Self-Defense Forces to collective self-defense of allies in combat for the first time under its constitution. The JSDF may provide material support to allies engaged in combat overseas. The new law also allows JSDF troops to defend weapons platforms belonging to Japan's allies if doing so would somehow contribute to Japan's defense. The justification being that not defending or coming to the aid of an ally under attack weakens an alliances and endangers Japan. These were Japan's broadest changes to its defense laws since World War II. The JSDF Act was amended in 2015 in order to make it illegal for JSDF personnel/staff to participate in collective insubordination or to command forces without authority or in violation of orders, which was stated to be the reason why Japan was involved in China in World War II. A
Credit Suisse Credit Suisse Group AG is a global investment bank Investment is the dedication of an asset to attain an increase in value over a period of time. Investment requires a sacrifice of some present asset, such as time, money, or effort. In f ...

Credit Suisse
survey published in 2015 ranked Japan as the world's fourth most-powerful military behind Russia, China, and United States. Since March 2016, Japan's Legislation for Peace and Security enables seamless responses of the JSDF to any situation to protect the lives and livelihood of Japanese citizens. It also increases proactive contributions to peace and security in the world and deepens cooperation with partners. This enhanced the Japan-US alliance as global partners to promote peace and security in the region and the international community. Japan activated the Amphibious Rapid Deployment Brigade, its first marine unit since World War II, on 7 April 2018. It is trained to counter invaders from occupying . The Ministry of Defense said that beginning 1 October 2018, the maximum age for enlisted personnel and non-commissioned officer applicants would be raised from 26 to 32 in order to secure "a stable supply of Self-Defense Forces ilitarypersonnel amid a declining pool of recruits due to the recently declining birth rate." In March 2019, the Ministry of Defense intended to establish its first regional cyber protection unit in the Western Army of the
Japan Ground Self-Defense Force Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...
(JGSDF) to safeguard defense communications from cyber attacks, such as for personnel deployed on remote islands with no established secure lines. The Ministry of Defense has been developing supersonic glide bombs to strengthen the defense of
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
's remote islands, including the
Senkaku Islands (Senkaku Islands)(Tiaoyutai Islands / Diaoyutai Islands)(Diaoyu Dao and its affiliated islands)Pinnacle Islands , location = Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends fr ...
. The anti-surface strike capability will be used to help the Amphibious Rapid Deployment Brigade’s landing and recapture operations of remote islands. British troops of the
Honourable Artillery Company The Honourable Artillery Company (HAC) was incorporated by royal charter in 1537 by King Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England The King ...
(HAC) conducted a field exercise together for the first time with Japanese GSDF soldiers in Oyama, Shizuoka prefecture on 2 October 2018. This also marked the first time in history that foreign soldiers other than Americans have had field exercises on Japanese soil. The purpose was to improve their strategic partnership and security cooperation. The
JGSDF The Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF, ja, 陸上自衛隊, ''Rikujō Jieitai''), also referred to as the Japanese Army, is the land warfare branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces The Japan Self-Defense Forces ( ja, 自衛隊, Jieitai; ...
and the
Indian Army The Indian Army is the land-based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces The Indian Armed Forces are the military forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organi ...

Indian Army
conducted their first joint military exercise in the Indian state of
Mizoram Mizoram () is a state in northeastern India Northeast India (officially North Eastern Region, NER) is the easternmost region of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the ...

Mizoram
from 27 October to 18 November 2018, practicing anti-terror drills and improving bilateral cooperation between 60 Japanese and Indian officers. Japan and the United States conducted the biggest military exercise around Japan to date in the biennial Keen Sword from 29 October to 2 November 2018. It included a total of 57,000 sailors, marines and airmen. 47,000 service members were from the JSDF and 10,000 from the
U.S. Armed Forces The United States Armed Forces are the Military, military forces of the United States of America. The armed forces consists of six Military branch, service branches: the United States Army, Army, United States Marine Corps, Marine Corps, Unit ...
. A naval supply ship and frigate of the
Royal Canadian Navy , march = "Heart of Oak" , mascot = SONAR (Newfoundland dog) , battles = , website = , commander1 = , Monarchy of Canada, of Can ...
also participated. There were simulations of air combat, ballistic missile defense, and amphibious landings. Japan unveiled the 84-meter long, 2,950-ton Taigei-class submarine on 4 October 2018. Japan's first submarine powered by lithium-ion batteries, it was developed by
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a sovereign stat ...

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
. The
Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force , also simply known as the Japanese Navy, is the maritime warfare branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces, tasked with the naval defense of Japan. The JMSDF was formed following the dissolution of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) after World Wa ...
utilized it for the first time in March 2020. The Japanese government approved the first-ever JSDF dispatch to a peacekeeping operation that was not led by the United Nations. Two JGSDF officers monitored a cease-fire between Israel and Egypt at the Multinational Force and Observers command in the
Sinai peninsula The Sinai Peninsula, or simply Sinai (now usually ) (, ), is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other ...

Sinai peninsula
from 19 April till 30 November 2019. Defense Minister
Takeshi Iwaya is a Japanese politician of the Liberal Democratic Party (Japan), Liberal Democratic Party, a member of the House of Representatives of Japan, House of Representatives in the Diet of Japan, Diet (national legislature). He served as the Minister o ...

Takeshi Iwaya
announced plans to deploy Type 12 surface-to-ship missiles in March 2020. The missiles have a range of 300 km and will be used to protect the southern
Ryukyu Islands The , also known as the or the , are a chain of Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or ...

Ryukyu Islands
. Japan is also developing high-speed gliding missiles with a range of 1000 km. On 10 September 2020, Japan and
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
signed a military pact called the Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement (ACSA). The pact enables the exchange of logistical support and supplies. The purpose is closer cooperation, a Free and Open Indo-Pacific region and to deter Chinese aggression in
Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the cont ...

Asia
. Japan already had such agreements with Australia, Canada, France, UK and USA.


Structure

The
Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
is the
commander-in-chief A commander-in-chief or supreme commander is the person who exercises supreme command and control Command and control is a "set of organizational and technical attributes and processes ... hat A collection of 18th and 19th century men' ...
of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. Military authority runs from the Prime Minister to the cabinet-level
Minister of Defense A defence minister or minister of defence is a cabinet official position in charge of a ministry of defense, which regulates the armed forces in sovereign states. The role of a defence minister varies considerably from country to country; in so ...
of the Japanese Ministry of Defense. The Prime Minister and Minister of Defense are advised by the (currently
Kōji Yamazaki is a Japanese general and who serves as 6th and the incumbent Chief of Staff, Joint Staff of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. Before assuming the post, he was the former Chief of the Ground Staff of the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force, JGSDF from A ...
, 山崎幸二), who heads the . The Joint Staff includes a Senior Enlisted Advisor to the ''Chief of Staff, Joint Staff'', the Vice Chief of Staff, Joint Staff (currently Yutaka Masuko), an Administrative Vice Chief of Staff, as well as numerous departments and special staffs. Each service branch is headed by their respective Chiefs of Staff; the Chief of Staff of the
Japan Ground Self-Defense Force Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...
(JGSDF) (currently Gorō Yuasa), the
Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force , also simply known as the Japanese Navy, is the maritime warfare branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces, tasked with the naval defense of Japan. The JMSDF was formed following the dissolution of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) after World Wa ...
(JMSDF) (currently Hiroshi Yamamura), and the
Japan Air Self-Defense Force The , JASDF, also informally referred to as the Japanese Air Force, is the air warfare branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces, responsible for the defense of Japanese airspace and for other aerospace operations. The JASDF carries out combat air ...
(JASDF) (currently Yoshinari Marumo). The ''Chief of Staff, Joint Staff'', a four star Admiral or General, is the highest-ranking military officer in the Japan Self-Defense Forces, and is the head of the Operational Authority over the Japan Self-Defense Forces, executing orders of the Minister of Defense with directions from the Prime Minister. The ''Chief of Staff, Joint Staff'' supervises the service branches operations, and would assume command in the event of a war, but his or her powers are limited to policy formation and defense coordination during peacetime. The chain of Operational Authority runs from the ''Chief of Staff, Joint Staff'' to the Commanders of the several Operational Commands. Each service branches Chiefs of Staff (JGSDF, JMSDF, JASDF) have administrative control over their own services.


Service branches

*
Japan Ground Self-Defense Force Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...
*
Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force , also simply known as the Japanese Navy, is the maritime warfare branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces, tasked with the naval defense of Japan. The JMSDF was formed following the dissolution of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) after World Wa ...
*
Japan Air Self-Defense Force The , JASDF, also informally referred to as the Japanese Air Force, is the air warfare branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces, responsible for the defense of Japanese airspace and for other aerospace operations. The JASDF carries out combat air ...


Service units

*Five armies *Five maritime districts *Four air defense forces


Defense policy


National Security Council

On 4 December 2013, the
National Security Council#REDIRECT National security council A National Security Council (NSC) is usually an executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State ...
was established, with the aim of establishing a forum which will undertake strategic discussions under the Prime Minister on a regular basis and as necessary on various national security issues and exercising a strong political leadership.


National Security Strategy

On 17 December 2013, National Security Strategy was adopted by Cabinet decision. NSS sets the basic orientation of diplomatic and defense policies related to national security. NSS presents the content of the policy of "Proactive Contribution to Peace" in a concrete manner and promotes better understanding of Japan's national security policy. On 25 July 2018, the Japanese government settled on a 3-year strategy to counter possible cyberattacks against key parts of the nation's infrastructure ahead of the 2020 Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games.


Constitutional limitations

Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution is a clause in the national Constitution of Japan The Constitution of Japan (Shinjitai are the simplified forms of kanji used in Japan since the promulgation of the Tōyō kanji, Tōyō Kanji List in 1946. Some of the new forms found in ''s ...
prohibits Japan from establishing a military or solving international conflicts through violence. However, there has been widespread public debate since 2000 about the possibility of reducing or deleting Article 9 from the constitution. The article is interpreted as meaning that armed forces are legitimate for self-defense. This limits the capabilities of the JSDF as primarily for national defense. Currently, there are no long-range attack capabilities such as
medium Medium may refer to: Science and technology Aviation *Medium bomber, a class of war plane *Tecma Medium, a French hang glider design Communication * Media (communication), tools used to store and deliver information or data * Medium of i ...
or intercontinental missiles,
Strategic bomber A strategic bomber is a medium- to long-range penetration bomber A bomber is a combat aircraft designed to attack ground and naval targets by dropping air-to-ground weaponry (such as bombs), launching aerial torpedo, torpedoes, or deploying ...
s,
tankers Tanker may refer to: Transportation * Tanker, a tank crewman (US) * Tanker (ship), a ship designed to carry bulk liquids ** Chemical tanker, a type of tanker designed to transport chemicals in bulk ** Oil tanker, also known as a petroleum tanker ...
and . The United States military is primarily responsible for offensive duties.


Budget

In 1976, then Prime Minister
Miki Takeo was a Japanese politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective recipient of an award or honor, or a person seeking ...
announced defense spending should be maintained within 1% of Japan's
gross domestic product Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the ...
(GDP), a ceiling that was observed until 1986. As of 2005, Japan's military budget was maintained at about 3% of the national budget; about half is spent on personnel costs, while the rest is for weapons programs, maintenance and operating costs. As of 2011, Japan has the world's eighth-largest military budget. The published military budget of Japan for 2015 was 4.98 trillion yen (approximately US$42 billion, and roughly 1% of Japanese GDP), a rise of 2.8 percent on the previous year.


Anti-ballistic missile deployment

After the North Korean
Kwangmyŏngsŏng-1 Kwangmyŏngsŏng-1 or Gwangmyeongseong-1 ( ko, 광명성 1호, Hanja Hanja (, , or Hancha) is the Korean name for a traditional writing system consisting mainly of Traditional Chinese characters () that was incorporated and used since ...
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satellite
launching in August 1998, which some regarded as a
ballistic missile A ballistic missile follows a ballistic trajectory to deliver one or more warheads on a predetermined target. These weapons are guided only during relatively brief periods—most of the flight is unpowered. Short-range ballistic missiles stay w ...
test, the Japanese government decided to participate in the American
anti-ballistic missile An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a surface-to-air missile designed to counter ballistic missiles (missile defense). Ballistic missiles are used to deliver nuclear weapon, nuclear, Chemical weapon, chemical, Bioagent, biological, or conventiona ...
(ABM) defense program. In August 1999, Japan, Germany and the US governments signed a
Memorandum of Understanding A memorandum of understanding (MoU) is a type of agreement between two (bilateral Bilateral may refer to any concept including two sides, in particular: *Bilateria, bilateral animals *Bilateralism, the political and cultural relations between ...
of joint
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on the
Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System The Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System (Aegis BMD or ABMD) is a United States Department of Defense The United States Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government A fed ...
. In 2003, the Japanese government decided to deploy three types of ABM system, air defense vehicles, sea-based
Aegis The aegis ( ; grc, αἰγίς ''aigís''), as stated in the ''Iliad The ''Iliad'' (; grc, Ἰλιάς, Iliás, ; sometimes referred to as the ''Song of Ilion'' or ''Song of Ilium'') is an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes th ...
and land-based
PAC-3 The MIM-104 Patriot is a surface-to-air missile (SAM) system, the primary of its kind used by the United States Army and several allied nations. It is manufactured by the U.S. defense contractor Raytheon and derives its name from the radar compon ...
ABM. The four Kongō class Aegis destroyers of the
Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force , also simply known as the Japanese Navy, is the maritime warfare branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces, tasked with the naval defense of Japan. The JMSDF was formed following the dissolution of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) after World Wa ...
were modified to accommodate the ABM operational capability. On 17 December 2007, successfully shot down a mock ballistic missile by its
SM-3 The RIM-161 Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) is a ship-based missile system used by the United States Navy ), (unofficial)."''Non sibi sed patriae''" ( en, "Not for self but for country") (unofficial). , colors = Blue and gol ...
Block IA, off the coast of
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Hawaii
. The first PAC-3 (upgraded version of the
MIM-104 Patriot The MIM-104 Patriot is a surface-to-air missile A surface-to-air missile (SAM), also known as a ground-to-air missile (GTAM) or surface-to-air guided weapon (SAGW), is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft ...
) firing test by the
Japan Air Self-Defense Force The , JASDF, also informally referred to as the Japanese Air Force, is the air warfare branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces, responsible for the defense of Japanese airspace and for other aerospace operations. The JASDF carries out combat air ...
was carried out in
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New Mexico
on 17 September 2008. PAC-3 units are deployed in 6 bases near metropolises, including
Tokyo Tokyo (Japanese language, Japanese: , ''Tōkyō'' ), historically known in the west as Tokio and officially the Tokyo Metropolis (, ''Tōkyō-to''), is capital of Japan, the capital and most populous Prefectures of Japan, prefecture of Japan ...

Tokyo
,
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Osaka
,
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Nagoya
,
Sapporo is a city in Japan. It is the largest city north of Tokyo, and the largest city on Hokkaido, the northernmost main island of the country. It is the capital city of Hokkaido, Hokkaido Prefecture and Ishikari Subprefecture. Sapporo lies in the sou ...

Sapporo
, Misawa and
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Okinawa
. Japan participates in the co-research and development of four Aegis components with the US: the
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, the infrared seeker, the kinetic warhead, and the second-stage rocket motor. On 30 July 2018, Japan picked Lockheed Martin Corp to build a $1.2 billion radar for two ground-based Aegis ballistic missile defense stations. These are meant to guard against missile strikes. On the same day, Japan's Defense Ministry said to be considering to withdraw PAC3 missile interceptor units from the country's northern and western region amid an easing of tensions with North Korea. Ministry officials told that North Korea is less likely to fire ballistic missiles after it held a summit with the United States last month. But the officials also said the ministry will maintain its order to destroy any incoming missiles. They added that the ministry will be ready to quickly redeploy the PAC3 units if the situation changes.


Amphibious force

In light of tensions over the
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, Japan began to assemble the Amphibious Rapid Deployment Brigade in 2016, its first marine unit since World War Two, designed to conduct amphibious operations and to recover any Japanese islands taken by an adversary. The Amphibious Rapid Deployment Brigade was activated on 7 April 2018, in a ceremony at JGSDF's Camp Ainoura in Sasebo, on the southwest island of Kyushu. The brigade was established to protect and defend Japanese or Japanese-claimed islands along the edge of the East China Sea, particularly as Chinese defense spending and interest in the area rose.Kubo, Nobuhir
Japan activates first marines since WW2 to bolster defenses against China
. 7 April 2018. ''
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''. Retrieved 2 August 2018
Related to the defense of the southwestern islands, Japan has initiated a program to convert its Izumo-class destroyer two-ship fleet from "helicopter carrier destroyers" to aircraft carriers with a capability to launch the F-35B – to be the first Japanese aircraft carriers since World War II.


Unarmed combat system

The JSDF's self-defence system is known as Jieitaikakutōjutsu (meaning ''Japan Self-Defense Force Combatives'' or ''Self-Defense Forces martial arts''.) The first system was adopted in 1959, based on the bayonet and knife techniques of used during Imperial Japanese Army, Imperial Army times with an added hand-to-hand combat curriculum based on Nippon Kempo and Shodokan Aikido, Tomiki-Ryu Aikido (future Shodokan Aikido). The system was refined in 2006 to 2007, and the new system introduced in 2008 placed a new emphasis on throws and chokeholds, and more aggressive knife defense training.


Missions and deployments

The outer outline of specified quotas for personnel and equipment for each force that were deemed necessary to meet its tasks. Particular elements of each force's mission were also identified. The JGSDF was to defend against any ground invasion and threats to internal security, be able to deploy to any part of the nation, and protect the bases of all three services of the Self-Defense Forces. The JMSDF was to meet invasion by sea, sweep mines, patrol and survey the surrounding waters, and guard and defend coastal waters, ports, bays, and major straits. The JASDF was to provide aircraft, missile interception, fighter units for maritime and ground operations, air reconnaissance and transport for all forces, and maintain airborne and stationary early warning units. The JSDF's Emergency preparedness, disaster relief role is defined in Article 83 of the Self-Defense Forces Law of 1954, requiring units to respond to calls for assistance from prefectural governors to aid in fire suppression, search and rescue, and flood fighting through the reinforcement of embankments and levees. The JSDF has not been used in police actions, nor is it likely to be assigned any internal security tasks in the future. In late June and early July 2014, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and his cabinet agreed to lift the long-term ban on engaging Japanese troops abroad, a prohibition dating to the end of the Second World War, in a bid to strengthen Japan's position against growing Chinese military aggression and North Korean nuclear weapons testing. Though these actions were considered to be in accordance with article 9 of the Japanese constitution forbidding the use of war as a means of setting disputes, the government signaled that it may seek to, in the future, reinterpret the prohibition.


Peacekeeping

In June 1992, the National Diet passed a UN Peacekeeping Cooperation Law which permitted the JSDF to participate in UN medical, refugee repatriation, logistical support, infrastructural reconstruction, election-monitoring, and policing operations under strictly limited conditions. The non-combatant participation of the JSDF in the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) in conjunction with Japanese diplomatic efforts contributed to the successful implementation of the 1991 Paris Peace Accords for Cambodia. Chief Cabinet Secretary Nobutaka Machimura had stated that discussions with Defense Minister Shigeru Ishiba and Foreign Minister Masahiko Komura were taking place regarding the possibility of creating a permanent law for JSDF forces to be deployed in peacekeeping missions outside
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
. The adoption of a permanent peacekeeping law has been considered by the government, according to the Mainichi Daily News. In 2014, the LDP did not make progress due to concerns from Komeito that JSDF forces can be sent to a peacekeeping operation where Japan is not involved. In 2004, the Japanese government ordered a Japanese Iraq Reconstruction and Support Group, deployment of troops to Iraq at the behest of the United States. A contingent of the Japan Self-Defense Forces was sent in order to assist in the U.S.-led Reconstruction of Iraq. This controversial deployment marked a significant turning point in Japan's history, as it marked the first time since the end of World War II that Japan sent troops abroad except for a few minor UN peacekeeping deployments. Public opinion regarding this deployment was sharply divided, especially given that Japan's military is constitutionally structured as solely a self-defense force, and operating in Iraq seemed at best tenuously connected to that mission. The Junichiro Koizumi, Koizumi administration, however, decided to send troops to respond to a request from the US. Even though they deployed with their weapons, because of constitutional restraints, the troops were protected by Special Forces Group (Japan), Japanese Special Forces troops and Australian units. The Japanese soldiers were there purely for humanitarian and reconstruction work, and were prohibited from opening fire on Iraqi insurgents unless they were fired on first. Japanese forces withdrew from Iraq in 2006. Japan provided logistics units for the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force Zone, which supervises the buffer zone in the Golan Heights, monitors Israeli and Syrian military activities, and assists local civilians. Japanese forces are frequent among the international disaster relief teams, with deployments in Rwanda (1994), Honduras (1998), Turkey (1999), West Timor (1999–2000), Afghanistan (2001), Iraq (2003), Iran (2003–2004), Thailand (2004–2005), Indonesia (2005), Russian Federation, Russia (2005), Pakistan (2005), Indonesia (2006), Indonesia (2009), Haiti (2010), Pakistan (2010), New Zealand (2011). In the aftermath of 2010 Haiti earthquake, an earthquake in Haiti, Japan deployed a contingent of troops, including engineers with bulldozers and heavy machinery, to assist the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti. Their duties were peacekeeping, removal of rubble, and the reconstruction of roads and buildings. Self-Defense Forces have conducted overseas activities such as dispatching UN peacekeepers to Cambodia. In 2003, Japan created a law to deal with armed attacks and amended the Self-Defense Forces law. In 2004, Japan dispatched for two and a half years to the Samawa district of southern Iraq under the Special Measures for Iraqi Recovery Support Act.


Naval and air overseas deployments

The
Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force , also simply known as the Japanese Navy, is the maritime warfare branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces, tasked with the naval defense of Japan. The JMSDF was formed following the dissolution of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) after World Wa ...
deployed a force off the coast of Somalia to protect Japanese ships from Piracy in Somalia, Somali Pirates. The force consists of two destroyers (manned by approximately 400 sailors), patrol helicopters, speedboats, eight officers of the Japan Coast Guard to collect criminal evidence and handle piracy suspects, a force of commandos from the elite Special Boarding Unit, and P-3 Orion patrol aircraft in the Gulf of Aden. On 19 June 2009, the Japanese Parliament finally passed an anti-piracy bill, which allows their force to protect non Japanese vessels. In May 2010, Japan announced it intended to build a permanent naval base in Djibouti to provide security for Japanese ships against Somali pirates. Construction of the Japan Self-Defense Force Base Djibouti, JSDF Counter-Piracy Facility in Djibouti commenced in July 2010, completed in June 2011 and opened on 1 July 2011. Initially, the base was to house approximately 170 JSDF personnel and include administrative, housing, medical, kitchen/dining, and recreational facilities as well as an aircraft maintenance hangar and parking apron. The base now houses approximately 200 personnel and two P-3C aircraft.


JSDF Overseas Dispatches

Since 1991, the Japan Self-Defense Forces have conducted international activities to provide support for peacekeeping missions and disaster relief efforts as well as to help prevent conflict and terrorism.


Uniforms, ranks, and insignia

The arm of service to which members of the ground force are attached is indicated by branch insignia and piping of distinctive colors: for infantry, red; artillery, yellow; armor, orange; engineers, violet; ordnance, light green; medical, green; army aviation, light blue; signals, blue; quartermaster, brown; transportation, dark violet; airborne, white; and others, dark blue. The cap badge insignia the JGSDF is a sakura cherry blossom bordered with two ivy branches underneath, and a single chevron centered on the bottom between the bases of the branches; the JMSDF cap badge insignia consists of a fouled anchor underneath a cherry blossom bordered on the sides and bottom by ivy vines; and the JASDF cap badge insignia features a heraldic eagle under which is a star and crescent, which is bordered underneath with stylized wings. See section 2.7: "Uniforms, Ranks, and Insignia" ''(For more, see Defensive meritorious badge)'' There are nine officer ranks in the active JSDF, along with a warrant officer rank, five NCO ranks, and three enlisted ranks. The highest NCO rank, first sergeant (senior chief petty officer in the JMSDF and senior master sergeant in the JASDF), was established in 1980 to provide more promotion opportunities and shorter terms of service as sergeant first class, chief petty officer, or master sergeant. Under the earlier system, the average NCO was promoted only twice in approximately thirty years of service and remained at the top rank for almost ten years.


Recruitment and conditions of service

As of 2016, the total strength of the JSDF was 247,154. In addition, the JSDF maintained a total of 47,900 reservists attached to the three services. The Japanese Constitution abolished conscription on 3 May 1947. Enlistment in the JSDF is voluntary at 18 years of age. When Japan's active and reserve components are combined, the country maintains a lower ratio of military personnel to its population than any member nation of the NATO, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Of the major Asian nations, only
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand keep a lower ratio of personnel in arms. Since India and Indonesia have much larger populations, they have larger numbers of personnel. JSDF uniformed personnel are recruited as self-defense official cadet for a fixed term. Ground forces recruits normally enlist for two years; those seeking training in technical specialties enlist for three. Naval and air recruits normally enlist for three years. Officer candidates, students in the National Defense Academy of Japan, National Defense Academy and National Defense Medical College, and candidate enlist students in technical schools are enrolled for an indefinite period. The National Defense Academy and enlisted technical schools usually require an enrollment of four years, and the National Defense Medical College require six years. When the JSDF was originally formed, women were recruited exclusively for the nursing services. Opportunities were expanded somewhat when women were permitted to join the JGSDF communication service in 1967 and the JMSDF and JASDF communication services in 1974. By 1991, more than 6,000 women were in the JSDF, about 80% of service areas, except those requiring direct exposure to combat, were open to them. The National Defense Medical College graduated its first class with women in March 1991, and the National Defense Academy began admitting women in FY 1992. In total, 20% of JSDF recruits are women. In one of its recent attempts to increase recruitment rates, its marketing campaigns have focused more on women. The JSDF's recruitment levels often fail to meet national targets – in 2018, the
Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force , also simply known as the Japanese Navy, is the maritime warfare branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces, tasked with the naval defense of Japan. The JMSDF was formed following the dissolution of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) after World Wa ...
total number of new recruits was below 60% of its annual goal. JSDF personnel benefits are not comparable to such benefits for active-duty military personnel in other major industrialized nations. Health care is provided at the JSDF Central Hospital, fourteen regional hospitals, and 165 clinics in military facilities and on board ship, but the health care only covers physical examinations and the treatment of illness and injury suffered in the course of duty. There are no commissary or exchange privileges. Housing is often substandard, and military appropriations for facilities maintenance often focus on appeasing civilian communities near bases rather than on improving on-base facilities. In 2010,
Sapporo is a city in Japan. It is the largest city north of Tokyo, and the largest city on Hokkaido, the northernmost main island of the country. It is the capital city of Hokkaido, Hokkaido Prefecture and Ishikari Subprefecture. Sapporo lies in the sou ...

Sapporo
District Court fined the state after a female JASDF member was sexually assaulted by a colleague then forced to retire, while the perpetrator was suspended for 60 days.


Role in Japanese society

Due to the strong anti-militarism and pacifism pervading Japan in the aftermath of World War II, the JSDF was the subject of public ridicule and disdain in its early years. The forces were publicly referred to as "tax thieves" and personnel in uniform were sometimes pelted with stones while out in public. Appreciation of the JSDF continued to grow in the 1980s, with over half of the respondents in a 1988 survey voicing an interest in the JSDF and over 76% indicating that they were favourably impressed. Although the majority (63.5%) of respondents were aware that the primary purpose of the JSDF was maintenance of Defense policy of Japan, national security, an even greater number (77%) saw disaster relief as the most useful JSDF function. The JSDF therefore continued to devote much of its time and resources to disaster relief and other civic action. Between 1984 and 1988, at the request of prefectural governors, the JSDF assisted in approximately 3,100 disaster relief operations, involving about 138,000 personnel, 16,000 vehicles, 5,300 aircraft, and 120 ships and small craft. The disaster relief operations increased its favorability with the public. In addition, the JSDF participated in earthquake disaster prevention operations and disposed of a large quantity of World War II explosive ordnance, especially in Okinawa Prefecture. The forces also participated in public works projects, cooperated in managing athletic events, took part in annual Antarctic expeditions, and conducted aerial surveys to report on ice conditions for fishermen and on geographic formations for construction projects. Especially sensitive to maintaining harmonious relations with communities close to defense bases, the JSDF built new roads, irrigation networks, and schools in those areas. Soundproofing was installed in homes and public buildings near airfields.


Japan Self-Defense Forces Day

The celebrates the foundation of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. It is celebrated every year in Japan since 1966. The Japan Ground Self-Defense Force, JGSDF, Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force, JMSDF and Japan Air Self-Defense Force, JASDF hold annual reviews in rotation. There is also a three-day music event called the JSDF Marching Festival. The date varies per year.


Fleet reviews

The 28th Fleet Review was held in Sagami Bay on 18 October 2015. 42 vessels participated in the celebratory cruise including the and six vessels from Australia, France, India, the Republic of Korea, and the United States. 37 aircraft from the JASDF and the U.S. forces flew over. During the 2018 Self-Defense Forces Day,
Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
Shinzo Abe reviewed JSDF members at Camp Asaka. There were 4,000 troops, 260 tanks and other military vehicles and 40 warplanes. Abe said that they have gained public trust and it is the responsibility of politicians to revise the 1947 constitution to mention the JSDF and give them a sense of pride.


JSDF Marching Festival

The is the JSDF's largest music event held annually around November. It usually takes place in Nippon Budokan for three days. It also features guest bands from other countries. It was established in 1963. It is one of the oldest military tattoos in the Asia-Pacific region. In 2014, the JGSDF Central Band, the JMSDF Tokyo Band, the JASDF Central Band, and the JGSDF Northern and Eastern Army Bands participated as well as special guest bands from the United States Army, Japan, the 3rd Marine Expeditionary Force, the Australian Army, and the Philippine Marine Corps. There were band performances, honor guard display by the 302nd Military Police Company, a drill by the National Defense Academy of Japan, National Defense Academy and taiko drum performance by the JSDF Drum Teams. Material was copied from this source, which is available under
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
.


Fuji Firepower Review

The is the JGSDF's largest annual live-fire drill. It began in 1961 and is open to the public since 1966 for the purpose of deepening public understanding of the JSDF. On 26 August 2018, it was held in front of the defense minister and 24,000 spectators at the East Fuji Maneuver Area in Gotemba, Shizuoka, Gotemba near the foot of Mount Fuji. That was the first time that the Amphibious Rapid Deployment Brigade participated. The drill was based on a scenario of Japanese troops being deployed to recover far-flung islands from enemy forces. It involved about 2,400 troops, 80 tanks and armored vehicles, 60 artillery shells and 20 helicopters and fighter jets.


JSDF museums

These are museums about the JSDF. *JMSDF Kure Museum – about the Japan Maritime Self Defense Force, JMSDF and includes the retired JMSDF Yūshio-class submarine Akishio (SS-579). *JGSDF Public Information Center – it has a museum with real combat equipment and vehicles of the Japan Ground Self Defense Force, JGSDF. *Hamamatsu Air Base – it has a museum about the Japan Air Self Defense Force, JASDF with Japanese aviation, planes, technology, tokusatsu and military history. *Maritime Self-Defense Force Sasebo Museum – it has much historical materials and equipment of the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force. *Kanoya Air Base Museum – it is the Japan Air Self-Defense Force's historical museum in Kanoya City, Kagoshima Prefecture.


Gallery

Image:US Navy 051115-N-8492C-125 The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) destroyer JDS Kongou (DDG 173) sails in formation with other JMSDF ships and ships assigned to the USS Kitty Hawk Carrier Strike Group.jpg, JS Kongō, JS ''Kongō'' (DDG-173), a Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force, JMSDF Kongō class destroyer, ''Kongō''-class destroyer Image:Type10MBT.jpg, Japan Ground Self-Defense Force, JGSDF Type 10 MBT Image:Mitsubishi F-2 landing.JPG, Japan Air Self-Defense Force, JASDF Mitsubishi F-2, F-2 Image:JS Hyūga (DDH-181) in formation with USS George Washington in the East China Sea after Keen Sword 2013, -16 Nov. 2012 a.jpg, and Image:Japan_Ground_Self-Defense_Force_(JGSDF)_Flag_-_Orient_Shield_2017_Opening_Ceremony.png, Japan Ground Self-Defense Force, JGSDF soldiers and U.S. soldiers participate in the Orient Shield 2017 opening ceremony at Camp Shin Yokotsuka, Sept. 11, 2017 Image:Japan Self-Defense Force Flag JSDF.png, Japan Self-Defense Forces flag


See also

* International Peace Cooperation Activities Training Unit * List of modern equipment of the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force *
Security Treaty Between the United States and Japan The was signed on 8 September 1951 in San Francisco San Francisco (/Help:IPA/English, ˌsæn fɹənˈsɪskoʊ/; Spanish language, Spanish for "Francis of Assisi, Saint Francis"), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is a cult ...


Notes

: A. Previously, the director-general of the reported to the Prime Minister. The Defense Agency ceased to exist with the establishment of the cabinet-level Ministry of Defense in 2007. : B. Also known as ''Fujikura Aviation Equipment Corporation''. The company is a major component of the Fujikura, Fujikura group. : C. Better known as ''Nippon Oil & Fats Co., Ltd'' or NOF Corporation. The company's current Japanese trading name is ''Nichiyu Kabushikigaisha''.


References


Sources

*


External links


Ministry of Defense







Japan Air Self-Defense Force Website
* {{Authority control Japan Self-Defense Forces Postwar Japan Aftermath of World War II in Japan Military units and formations established in 1954