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The Isles of Scilly (; kw, Syllan or ') is an
archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as ...

archipelago
off the southwestern tip of
Cornwall Cornwall (; kw, Kernow ) is a historic county and ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are ar ...

Cornwall
,
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
. One of the islands, St Agnes, is the most southerly point in
Britain Britain usually refers to: * United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United ...

Britain
, being over further south than the most southerly point of the
British mainland Great Britain is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_(right),_are_large_islands_of_north-west_Europe image:Small_Island_in_Lower_Saranac_Lake.jpg.html ...

British mainland
at
Lizard PointLizard Point may refer to: * Lizard Point, Cornwall, the southernmost point on the British mainland * Lizard Point, Queensland, a rock outcrop in Australia * Lizard Point, Antarctica, on the Beardmore Glacier * ''Lizard Point'', an instrumental comp ...
. The total population of the islands at the 2011 census was 2,203. Scilly forms part of the
ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are areas of England to which lord-lieutenant, lord-lieutenants are appointed. Lega ...

ceremonial county
of
Cornwall Cornwall (; kw, Kernow ) is a historic county and ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are ar ...

Cornwall
, and some services are combined with those of Cornwall. However, since 1890, the islands have had a separate local authority. Since the passing of the Isles of Scilly Order 1930, this authority has had the status of a
county council A county council is the elected administrative body governing an area known as a county. This term has slightly different meanings in different countries. Members are elected in County Council elections. Ireland The county councils created und ...
and today is known as the Council of the Isles of Scilly. The adjective "Scillonian" is sometimes used for people or things related to the archipelago. The
Duchy of Cornwall The Duchy of Cornwall ( kw, Duketh Kernow) is one of two royal duchies in England Currently, there are two duchies in England; the royal Duchy of Lancaster and the royal Duchy of Cornwall. Unlike historic duchy, duchies in England, these are no ...

Duchy of Cornwall
owns most of the freehold land on the islands. Tourism is a major part of the local economy, along with agriculture—particularly the production of
cut flowers Cut flowers are flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom Cherry blossoms in Paris in full bloom. In botany, blossoms are the flowers of stone fruit fruit tree, trees (genus ''Prunus'') and of some other plants with a similar ...
.


History


Early history

The islands may correspond to the
Cassiterides The Cassiterides (“Tin Islands”, from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. ...
('Tin Isles') believed by some to have been visited by the
Phoenicia Phoenicia () was an ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsWordNet Search – 3 ...
ns, and mentioned by the
Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''Éllines'' ) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has cer ...
. However, the archipelago itself does not contain much tin. The isles were off the coast of the Brittonic Celtic kingdom of
Dumnonia Dumnonia is the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of t ...
and later its offshoot, Kernow (
Cornwall Cornwall (; kw, Kernow ) is a historic county and ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are ar ...

Cornwall
), and may have been a part of these polities until their conquest by the English in the 10th century AD. It is likely that until relatively recent times the islands were much larger and perhaps joined into one island named Ennor. Rising sea levels flooded the central plain around 400–500 AD, forming the current 55 islands and islets, if an island is defined as "land surrounded by water at high tide and supporting land vegetation". The word ' is a contraction of the Old Cornish ' (', mutated to '), meaning 'the land' or the 'great island'. Evidence for the older large island includes: * A description written during Roman times designates Scilly "" in the
singular Singular may refer to: * Singular, the grammatical number In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and verb agreement (linguistics), agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", ...
, indicating either a single island or an island much bigger than any of the others. * Remains of a prehistoric farm have been found on Nornour, which is now a small rocky
skerry A skerry is a small rocky island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll ( ...
far too small for farming.Dudley, Dorothy. "Excavations on Nor'Nour in the Isles of Scilly, 1962–6", in ''The Archaeological Journal'', CXXIV, 1967 (includes the description of over 250 Roman fibulae found at the site) There once was an Iron Age British community here that extended into Roman times. This community was likely formed by immigrants from Brittany, probably the Veneti who were active in the tin trade that originated in mining activity in Cornwall and Devon. * At certain low tides the sea becomes shallow enough for people to walk between some of the islands. This is possibly one of the sources for stories of drowned lands, e.g.
Lyonesse Lyonesse is a kingdom which, according to legend, consisted of a long strand of land stretching from Land's End at the southwestern tip of Cornwall, England to what is now the Isles of Scilly in the Celtic Sea portion of the Atlantic Ocean. It w ...
. * Ancient field walls are visible below the high tide line off some of the islands (e.g.
Samson In the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical collection of Hebrew language, Hebrew scriptures, including the Torah, the Nevi'im, and the Ketuvim. These texts are almost exclusively i ...
). * Some of the
Cornish language Cornish (Standard Written Form: or ) is a Southwestern Brittonic language, Southwestern Brittonic language of the Celtic language family. It is a List of revived languages, revived language, having become extinct as a living community langua ...
place names also appear to reflect past shorelines, and former land areas.
Weatherhill, Craig Craig Weatherhill (1950 or 1951 – 18 or 19 July 2020) was a Cornish people, Cornish archaeologist, novelist and writer on the history, archaeology, place names and mythology of Cornwall. Weatherhill attended school in Falmouth, Cornwall, Falm ...
(2007) ''Cornish Placenames and Language''. Wilmslow: Sigma Leisure
* The whole of
southern England Southern England, or the South of England, also known as the South, is an area of England consisting of its southernmost part, with cultural, economic and political differences from the Midlands The Midlands is the central part of England ...

southern England
has been steadily sinking in opposition to
post-glacial rebound Post-glacial rebound (also called isostatic rebound or crustal rebound) is the rise of land masses after the removal of the huge weight of ice sheet In , an ice sheet, also known as a continental glacier, is a mass of that covers surroundi ...
in Scotland: this has caused the
ria A ria (; gl, ría) is a coastal inlet An inlet is an indentation of a shoreline, usually long and narrow, such as a small bay or arm, that often leads to an enclosed body of water, body of salt water, such as a Sound (geography), sound, bay ...

ria
s (drowned river valleys) on the southern Cornish coast, e.g.
River Fal The River Fal ( kw, Dowr Fala) flows through Cornwall Cornwall (; kw, Kernow ) is a historic county and ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas o ...
and the Tamar Estuary. Offshore, midway between
Land's End Land's End ( kw, Penn an Wlas or ''Pedn an Wlas'') is a headland and tourist and holiday complex in western Cornwall Cornwall (; kw, Kernow ) is a Historic counties of England, historic county and Ceremonial counties of England, ceremon ...

Land's End
and the Isles of Scilly, is the supposed location of the mythical lost land of
Lyonesse Lyonesse is a kingdom which, according to legend, consisted of a long strand of land stretching from Land's End at the southwestern tip of Cornwall, England to what is now the Isles of Scilly in the Celtic Sea portion of the Atlantic Ocean. It w ...
, referred to in
Arthurian King Arthur ( cy, Brenin Arthur, kw, Arthur Gernow, br, Roue Arzhur) was a Legend, legendary Celtic Britons, British leader who, according to Historians in England during the Middle Ages, medieval histories and Romance (heroic literature), ...

Arthurian
literature, of which
Tristan Tristan (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Rom ...
is said to have been a prince. This may be a
folk memoryFolk memory is a term sometimes used to describe stories, folklore Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group. These include oral t ...
of inundated lands, but this legend is also common among the Brythonic peoples; the legend of Ys is a parallel and cognate legend in
Brittany Brittany (; french: link=no, Bretagne ; br, Breizh, or ; Gallo: ''Bertaèyn'' ) is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to ...
as is that of in
Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It is bordered by England to the Wales–England border, east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. It ...

Wales
. Scilly has been identified as the place of exile of two heretical 4th century bishops, Instantius and Tiberianus, who were followers of
Priscillian Priscillian (in Latin: ''Priscillianus''; Gallaecia, - Augusta Treverorum, Gallia Belgica, ) was a wealthy nobleman of Roman Hispania who promoted a strict form of Christian asceticism. He became bishop of Ávila in 380. Certain practices of his f ...
.


Norse and Norman period

In 995,
Olaf Tryggvason Olaf Tryggvason (960s – 9 September 1000) was King of Norway The Norwegian monarch is the head of state of Norway, which is a constitutional monarchy, constitutional and hereditary monarchy with a parliamentary system. The Norwegian monarchy ...
became King Olaf I of
Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language Norwegian (Norwegian: ''norsk'') is a Nort ...

Norway
. Born 960, Olaf had raided various European cities and fought in several wars. In 986 he met a Christian
seer The efficiency of air conditioners is often rated by the seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) which is defined by the Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute The Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI), fo ...

seer
on the Isles of Scilly. He was probably a follower of
Priscillian Priscillian (in Latin: ''Priscillianus''; Gallaecia, - Augusta Treverorum, Gallia Belgica, ) was a wealthy nobleman of Roman Hispania who promoted a strict form of Christian asceticism. He became bishop of Ávila in 380. Certain practices of his f ...
and part of the tiny Christian community that was exiled here from Spain by
Emperor Maximus Magnus Maximus (; cy, Macsen Wledig ; 28 August 388) was Roman emperor in the western portion of the Roman Empire, Empire from 383 to 388. He usurped the throne from emperor Gratian in 383 through negotiation with emperor Theodosius I. He was ...
for
Priscillianism Priscillianism was a Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ...
. In
Snorri Sturluson Snorri Sturluson (Old Norse: ; ; 1179 – 23 September 1241) was an Icelandic historian, poet, and politician. He was elected twice as lawspeaker of the Icelandic parliament, the Althing. He is commonly thought to have authored or compiled port ...
's Royal Sagas of Norway, it is stated that this seer told him:
Thou wilt become a renowned king, and do celebrated deeds. Many men wilt thou bring to faith and baptism, and both to thy own and others' good; and that thou mayst have no doubt of the truth of this answer, listen to these tokens. When thou comest to thy ships many of thy people will conspire against thee, and then a battle will follow in which many of thy men will fall, and thou wilt be wounded almost to death, and carried upon a shield to thy ship; yet after seven days thou shalt be well of thy wounds, and immediately thou shalt let thyself be baptised.
The legend continues that, as the seer foretold, Olaf was attacked by a group of
mutineers Mutiny is a revolt among a group of people (typically of a military, of a crew or of a crew of Piracy, pirates) to oppose, change, or overthrow an organization to which they were previously loyal. The term is commonly used for a rebellion among ...

mutineers
upon returning to his ships. As soon as he had recovered from his wounds, he let himself be baptised. He then stopped raiding Christian cities, and lived in England and Ireland. In 995, he used an opportunity to return to Norway. When he arrived, the Haakon Jarl was facing a revolt. Olaf Tryggvason persuaded the rebels to accept him as their king, and Jarl Haakon was murdered by his own slave, while he was hiding from the rebels in a pig sty. With the
Norman Conquest The Norman Conquest (or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army made up of thousands of Normans, Duchy of Brittany, Bretons, County of Flanders, Flemish, and men from other Kingdom of France, French ...
, the Isles of Scilly came more under centralised control. About 20 years later, the
Domesday survey Domesday Book () – the Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language spoken after the Norman conquest of England, Norman conquest (1066) until the late 15th century. The English language underwent ...
was conducted. The islands would have formed part of the "
Exeter Exeter () is a city in Devon Devon (, archaically known as Devonshire) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') ...
Domesday" circuit, which included Cornwall,
Devon Devon (, archaically known as Devonshire) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Ch ...

Devon
, Dorset,
Somerset ( en, All The People of Somerset) , locator_map = , coordinates = , region = South West England South West England is one of nine official regions of England The regions, formerly known as the government office regions, are the ...

Somerset
, and
Wiltshire Wiltshire (; abbreviated Wilts) is a Ceremonial counties of England, county in South West England with an area of . It is landlocked and borders the counties of Dorset, Somerset, Hampshire, Gloucestershire, Oxfordshire and Berkshire. The count ...
. In the mid-12th century, there was reportedly a Viking attack on the Isles of Scilly, called by the Norse,Anderson, Joseph (Ed.) (1893) ''
Orkneyinga saga The ''Orkneyinga saga'' (Old Norse: ; also called the ''History of the Earls of Orkney'' and ''Jarls' Saga'') is a narrative of the history of the Orkney and Shetland islands and their relationship with other local polities, particularly Norw ...

Orkneyinga saga
''. Translated by Jón A. Hjaltalin & Gilbert Goudie. Edinburgh. James Thin and Mercat Press (1990 reprint).
recorded in the '—
Sweyn Asleifsson Sweyn Asleifsson or Sveinn Ásleifarson ( 1115 – 1171) was a twelfth-century Viking who appears in the ''Orkneyinga Saga''. Early career Sweyn was born in Caithness in the early twelfth century, to Olaf Hrolfsson and his wife Åsleik. According ...
"went south, under Ireland, and seized a barge belonging to some monks in Syllingar and plundered it." (Chap LXXIII)
...the three chiefs—Swein, Þorbjörn and Eirik—went out on a plundering expedition. They went first to the Suðreyar ebrides and all along the west to the Syllingar, where they gained a great victory in Maríuhöfn on Columba's-mass June and took much booty. Then they returned to the Orkneys.
"" literally means "Mary's Harbour/Haven". The name does not make it clear if it referred to a harbour on a larger island than today's St Mary's, or a whole island. It is generally considered that Cornwall, and possibly the Isles of Scilly, came under the dominion of the English Crown late in the reign of
Æthelstan Æthelstan or Athelstan (; ang, Æðelstān ; on, Aðalsteinn; ; – 27 October 939) was King of the Anglo-Saxons This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island ...
( 924–939). In early times one group of islands was in the possession of a confederacy of hermits. (r. 1100–35) gave it to the who established a priory on Tresco, which was abolished at the
Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity in Vatican City Vatican City (), officially the Vatican City State ( it, Stato della Cit ...
.


Later Middle Ages and early modern period

At the turn of the 14th century, the Abbot and convent of Tavistock Abbey petitioned the king,
statthat they hold certain isles in the sea between Cornwall and Ireland, of which the largest is called Scilly, to which ships come passing between France, Normandy, Spain,
Bayonne Bayonne (; eu, Baiona ; oc, label=Gascon dialect, Gascon, Baiona ; es, Bayona) is a city and Communes of France, commune and one of the two Subprefectures in France, sub-prefectures of the Departments of France, department of Pyrénées-Atla ...

Bayonne
,
Gascony Gascony (; french: Gascogne ; oc, Gasconha ; eu, Gaskoinia) was a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region ...
, Scotland, Ireland, Wales and Cornwall: and, because they feel that in the event of a war breaking out between the kings of England and France, or between any of the other places mentioned, they would not have enough power to do justice to these sailors, they ask that they might exchange these islands for lands in Devon, saving the churches on the islands appropriated to them.
William le Poer, coroner of Scilly, is recorded in 1305 as being worried about the extent of wrecking in the islands, and sending a petition to the King. The names provide a wide variety of origins, e.g. Robert and Henry Sage (English), Richard de Tregenestre (Cornish), Ace de Veldre (French), Davy Gogch (possibly Welsh, or Cornish), and Adam le Fuiz Yaldicz (Spanish?). It is not known at what point the islanders stopped speaking the
Cornish language Cornish (Standard Written Form: or ) is a Southwestern Brittonic language, Southwestern Brittonic language of the Celtic language family. It is a List of revived languages, revived language, having become extinct as a living community langua ...
, but the language seems to have gone into decline in Cornwall beginning in the
Late Middle Ages The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in musical com ...
; it was still dominant between the islands and Bodmin at the time of the Reformation, but it suffered an accelerated decline thereafter. The islands appear to have lost the old Celtic language before parts of
Penwith Penwith (; kw, Pennwydh) is an area of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom, located on the peninsula of the same name. It is also the name of a former Non-metropolitan district, local government district, whose council was based in Penzance. ...
on the mainland, in contrast to the history of
Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britai ...
or
Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig ), also known as Scots Gaelic and Gaelic, is a Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, cànanan Goidhealach; gv, çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups o ...
. During the
English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, ...
, the Parliamentarians captured the isles, only to see their garrison mutiny and return the isles to the
Royalists A royalist supports a particular monarch as head of state for a particular monarchy, kingdom, or of a particular dynasty, dynastic claim. In the abstract, this position is royalism. It is distinct from monarchism, which advocates a monarchica ...

Royalists
. By 1651 the Royalist governor, , was using the islands as a base for
privateering A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war. Since robbery under arms was a common aspect of seaborne trade, until the early 19th century all merchant ships carried arms. A sovereign or deleg ...
raids on Commonwealth and Dutch shipping. The Dutch admiral
Maarten Tromp Maarten Harpertszoon Tromp (also written as ''Maerten Tromp''; 23 April 1598 – 31 July 1653) was a Dutch army general Army general is a title used in many countries to denote the rank of general nominally commanding an army in the field ...
sailed to the isles and on arriving on 30 May 1651 demanded compensation. In the absence of compensation or a satisfactory reply, he declared war on England in June. It was during this period that the Three Hundred and Thirty Five Years' War started between the isles and the
Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...

Netherlands
. In June 1651,
Admiral Robert Blake General at Sea Robert Blake (27 September 1598 – 17 August 1657) was an important naval commander of the Commonwealth of England and one of the most famous English admirals of the 17th century. His successes have been considered to have "n ...
recaptured the isles for the Parliamentarians. Blake's initial attack on Old Grimsby failed, but the next attacks succeeded in taking Tresco and
Bryher Bryher ( kw, Breyer "place of hills") is one of the smaller of the inhabited islands of the Isles of Scilly. History The name of the island is recorded as ''Brayer'' in 1336 and ''Brear'' in 1500. Geography The island is a procession of promin ...
. Blake placed a battery on Tresco to fire on St Mary's, but one of the guns exploded, killing its crew and injuring Blake. A second battery proved more successful. Subsequently, Grenville and Blake negotiated terms that permitted the Royalists to surrender honourably. The Parliamentary forces then set to fortifying the islands. They built
Cromwell's Castle Cromwell's Castle is an artillery fort overlooking New Grimsby harbour on the island of Tresco, Isles of Scilly, Tresco in the Isles of Scilly. It comprises a tall, circular gun tower and an adjacent gun platform, and was designed to prevent en ...
—a gun platform on the west side of Tresco—using materials scavenged from an earlier gun platform further up the hill. Although this poorly sited earlier platform dated back to the 1550s, it is now referred to as King Charles's Castle. The Isles of Scilly served as a place of exile during the English Civil War. Among those exiled there was
Unitarian Unitarian or Unitarianism may refer to: Christian and Christian-derived theologies A Unitarian is a follower of, or a member of an organisation that follows, any of several theologies referred to as Unitarianism: * Unitarianism (1565–present), ...
Jon Biddle. During the night of 22 October 1707, the isles were the scene of one of the worst maritime disasters in British history, when out of a fleet of 21 Royal Navy ships headed from
Gibraltar ) , anthem = "God Save the Queen" , song = "Gibraltar Anthem" , image_map = Gibraltar location in Europe.svg , map_alt = Location of Gibraltar in Europe , map_caption = United Kingdom shown in pale green , mapsize = 290px , image_map2 = ...

Gibraltar
to
Portsmouth Portsmouth ( ) is a port and island city status in the United Kingdom, city with Unitary authorities of England, unitary authority status in the ceremonial county of Hampshire, southern England. It is the most densely populated city in the Unit ...

Portsmouth
, six were driven onto the cliffs. Four of the ships sank or capsized, with at least 1,450 dead, including the commanding
admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navy, navies, and in many navies is the highest rank. In the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth nations and the United States, a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full" general officer, general in ...

admiral
Sir
Cloudesley Shovell Admiral of the Fleet (Royal Navy), Admiral of the Fleet Sir Cloudesley Shovell (c. November 1650 – 22 or 23 October 1707) was an England, English naval officer. As a junior officer he saw action at the Battle of Solebay and then at the Battle ...
. There is evidence for inundation by the tsunami caused by the
1755 Lisbon earthquake The 1755 Lisbon earthquake, also known as the Great Lisbon earthquake, impacted Kingdom of Portugal, Portugal, the Iberian Peninsula, and Northwest Africa on the morning of Saturday, 1 November, All Saints' Day, Feast of All Saints, at around 09 ...

1755 Lisbon earthquake
. The islands appear to have been raided frequently by
Barbary pirate The Barbary pirates, or Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, were Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: ...
s to enslave residents to support the
Barbary slave trade The Barbary slave trade refers to slave markets on the Barbary Coast The terms Barbary Coast, Barbary, Berbery or Berber Coast were used in English-language sources (similarly to equivalent terms in other languages) from the 16th century t ...
.


Governors of Scilly

An early governor of Scilly was Thomas Godolphin, whose son
Francis Francis may refer to: People *Pope Francis Pope Francis ( la, Franciscus; it, Francesco; es, link=, Francisco; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio, 17 December 1936) is the head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State since ...
received a lease on the Isles in 1568. They were styled ''Governors of Scilly'' and the Godolphins and their Osborne relatives held this position until 1834. In 1834 Augustus John Smith acquired the lease from the Duchy for £20,000. Smith created the title ''Lord Proprietor of the Isles of Scilly'' for himself, and many of his actions were unpopular. The lease remained in his family until it expired for most of the Isles in 1920 when ownership reverted to the Duchy of Cornwall. Today, the Dorrien-Smith estate still holds the lease for the island of Tresco. * 1568–1608 Sir Francis Godolphin (1540–1608) * 1608–1613 Sir William Godolphin of Godolphin (1567–1613) * 1613–1636 William Godolphin (1611–1636) * 1636–1643 Sidney Godolphin (poet), Sidney Godolphin (1610–1643) * 1643–1646 Francis Godolphin (1605–1667), Sir Francis Godolphin of Godolphin (1605–1647) * 1647–1648 Anthony Buller (1613–1679), Anthony Buller (Parliamentarian) * 1649–1651 John Grenville, 1st Earl of Bath, Sir John Grenville (Royalist) * 1651–1660 Joseph Hunkin (Governor of Scilly), Joseph Hunkin (Parliamentary control) * 1660–1667 Francis Godolphin (1605–1667), Sir Francis Godolphin of Godolphin (1605–1667) (restored to office) * 1667–1700 Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin (1645–1712) * 1700–1732 Sidney Godolphin (colonel), Sidney Godolphin (1652–1732) * 1733–1766 Francis Godolphin, 2nd Earl of Godolphin (1678–1766) * 1766–1785 Francis Godolphin, 2nd Baron Godolphin (1706–1785) * 1785–1799 Francis Osborne, 5th Duke of Leeds (1751–1799) * 1799–1831 George Osborne, 6th Duke of Leeds (1775–1838) * 1834–1872 Augustus Smith (politician), Augustus Smith (1804–1872) * 1872–1918 Thomas Smith-Dorrien-Smith (1846–1918) * 1918–1920 Arthur Dorrien-Smith (1876–1955)


Geography

The Isles of Scilly form an archipelago of five inhabited islands (six if Gugh is counted separately from St Agnes) and numerous other small rocky islets (around 140 in total) lying off
Land's End Land's End ( kw, Penn an Wlas or ''Pedn an Wlas'') is a headland and tourist and holiday complex in western Cornwall Cornwall (; kw, Kernow ) is a Historic counties of England, historic county and Ceremonial counties of England, ceremon ...

Land's End
. The islands' position produces a place of great contrast; the ameliorating effect of the sea, greatly influenced by the North Atlantic Current, means they rarely have frost or snow, which allows local farmers to grow flowers well ahead of those in mainland Britain. The chief agricultural product is cut flowers, mostly daffodils. Exposure to Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic winds also means that spectacular winter gales lash the islands from time to time. This is reflected in the landscape, most clearly seen on Tresco where the lush Tresco Abbey Gardens, Abbey Gardens on the sheltered southern end of the island contrast with the low calluna, heather and bare rock sculpted by the wind on the exposed northern end. Natural England has designated the Isles of Scilly as National Character Area 158. As part of a 2002 marketing campaign, the plant conservation charity Plantlife chose sea thrift (''Armeria maritima'') as the "floral emblem, county flower" of the islands. This table provides an overview of the most important islands: (1) Inhabited until 1855. In 1975 the islands were designated as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. The designation covers the entire archipelago, including the uninhabited islands and rocks, and is the smallest such area in the UK. The islands of Annet and Samson have large terneries and the islands are well populated by pinniped, seals. The Isles of Scilly are the only British haunt of the lesser white-toothed shrew (''Crocidura suaveolens''), where it is known locally as a "''teak''" or "''teke''". The islands are famous among birdwatching, birdwatchers for their ability to attract rare birds from all corners of the globe. The peak time of year for this is generally in October when it is not unusual for several of the rarest birds in Europe to share this archipelago. One reason for the success of these islands in producing rarities is the extensive coverage these islands get from birdwatchers, but archipelagos are often favoured by rare birds which like to make landfall and eat there before continuing their journeys and often arrive on far-flung islands first.


Tidal influx

The tidal range at the Isles of Scilly is high for an open sea location; the maximum for St Mary's is . Additionally, the inter-island waters are mostly shallow, which at spring tides allows for dry land walking between several of the islands. Many of the northern islands can be reached from Tresco, including Bryher, Samson and St Martin's (requires very low tides). From St Martin's White Island, Little Ganilly and Great Arthur are reachable. Although the sound between St Mary's and Tresco, The Road, is fairly shallow, it never becomes totally dry, but according to some sources it should be possible to wade at extreme low tides. Around St Mary's several minor islands become accessible, including Taylor's Island on the west coast and Tolls Island on the east coast. From Saint Agnes, Gugh becomes accessible at each low tide, via a tombolo.


Climate

The Isles of Scilly have a temperate Oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification: ''Cfb''), which borders a humid subtropical climate (Cf) under the Trewartha climate classification. The average annual temperature is , the warmest place in the British Isles. Winters are, by far, the warmest in the UK due to the moderating effects of the North Atlantic Current, North Atlantic Drift of the Gulf Stream. Despite being on exactly the same latitude as Winnipeg in Canada, snow and frost are extremely rare. The maximum snowfall was on 1987 United Kingdom and Ireland cold wave, 12 January 1987. Summer heat is moderated by the Atlantic Ocean and summer temperatures are not as warm as on the mainland. However, the Isles are one of the sunniest areas in the southwest with an average of seven hours per day in May. The lowest temperature ever recorded was and the highest was . The isles have never recorded a temperature below freezing between May and November. Precipitation (the overwhelming majority of which is rain) averages about per year. The wettest months are from October to January, while April and May are the driest months.


Geology

All the islands of Scilly are all composed of granite rock of Cisuralian, Early Permian age, an exposed part of the Cornubian batholith. The Irish Sea Glacier terminated just to the north of the Isles of Scilly during the last Ice Age.


Fauna


Government


National government

Politically, the islands are part of England, one of the four countries of the United Kingdom. They are represented in the Parliament of the United Kingdom, UK Parliament as part of the St Ives (UK Parliament constituency), St Ives constituency. As part of the United Kingdom, the islands Brexit, were part of the European Union and were represented in the European Parliament as part of the multi-member South West England (European Parliament constituency), South West England constituency.


Local government

Historically, the Isles of Scilly were administered as one of the hundreds of Cornwall, although the Cornwall quarter sessions had limited jurisdiction there. For judicial purposes, High Sheriff, shrievalty purposes, and Lord Lieutenant, lieutenancy purposes, the Isles of Scilly are "deemed to form part of the county of Cornwall". The archipelago is part of the
Duchy of Cornwall The Duchy of Cornwall ( kw, Duketh Kernow) is one of two royal duchies in England Currently, there are two duchies in England; the royal Duchy of Lancaster and the royal Duchy of Cornwall. Unlike historic duchy, duchies in England, these are no ...

Duchy of Cornwall
– the duchy owns the freehold of most of the land on the islands and the duke exercises certain formal rights and privileges across the territory, as he does in Cornwall proper. The Local Government Act 1888 allowed the Local Government Board to establish in the Isles of Scilly "councils and other local authorities separate from those of the county of Cornwall"... "for the application to the islands of any act touching local government." Accordingly, in 1890 the ''Isles of Scilly Rural District Council'' (the RDC) was formed as a ''sui generis'' Unitary Authority, unitary authority, outside the administrative county of Cornwall. Cornwall County Council provided some services to the Isles, for which the RDC made financial contributions. The Isles of Scilly Order 1930 granted the council the "powers, duties and liabilities" of a
county council A county council is the elected administrative body governing an area known as a county. This term has slightly different meanings in different countries. Members are elected in County Council elections. Ireland The county councils created und ...
. Section 265 of the Local Government Act 1972 allowed for the continued existence of the RDC, but renamed as the ''Council of the Isles of Scilly''. This unusual status also means that much administrative law (for example relating to the functions of local authorities, the health service and other public bodies) that applies in the rest of England applies in modified form in the islands. The Council of the Isles of Scilly is a separate authority to the Cornwall Council unitary authority, and as such the islands are not part of the administrative county of Cornwall. However the islands are still considered to be part of the Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of Cornwall. With a total population of just over 2,000, the council represents fewer inhabitants than many English parish councils in England, parish councils, and is by far the smallest English unitary council. , 130 people are employed full-time equivalent, full-time by the council to provide local services (including water supply and air traffic control). These numbers are significant, in that almost 10% of the adult population of the islands is directly linked to the council, as an employee or a councillor. The Council consists of 21 elected councillors—13 of whom are returned by the Wards and electoral divisions of the United Kingdom, ward of St Mary's, and two from each of four "off-island" wards (St Martin's, St Agnes, Bryher, and Tresco). The Isles of Scilly Council election, 2013, latest elections took place on 2 May 2013; all 20 elected were Independent (politician), independents (one seat remained vacant). The council is headquartered at Town Hall, by The Parade park in Hugh Town, and also performs the administrative functions of the Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, AONB Partnership and the Inshore Fisheries and Conservation Authority. Some aspects of local government are shared with Cornwall, including Healthcare in Cornwall, health, and the Council of the Isles of Scilly together with Cornwall Council form a Local Enterprise Partnership. In July 2015 a devolution in the United Kingdom, devolution deal was announced by the Second Cameron ministry, government under which Cornwall Council and the Council of the Isles of Scilly are to create a plan to bring health and social care services together under local control. The Local Enterprise Partnership is also to be bolstered.


Flags

Two flags are used to represent Scilly: * The Scillonian Cross, selected by readers of ''Scilly News'' in a 2002 vote and then registered with the Flag Institute as the flag of the islands. * The flag of the Council of the Isles of Scilly, which incorporates the council's logo and represents the council. An adapted version of the old Board of Ordnance flag has also been used, after it was left behind when munitions were removed from the isles. The "Cornish Ensign" (the Cornish cross with the Union Jack in the canton) has also been used.


Emergency services

The Isles of Scilly form part of the Devon and Cornwall Police force area. There is a police station in Hugh Town. The Cornwall Air Ambulance helicopter provides cover to the islands. The islands have their own independent fire brigade – the Isles of Scilly Fire and Rescue Service – which is staffed entirely by retained firefighters on all the inhabited islands. The emergency ambulance service is provided by the South Western Ambulance Service with full-time paramedics employed to cover the islands working with Ambulance attendant, emergency care attendants.


Education

Education is available on the islands up to age 16. There is one federated school, Five Islands Academy, which provides primary schooling at sites on St Agnes, St Mary's, St Martin's and Tresco, and secondary schooling at a site on St Mary's. Secondary students from outside St Mary's live at a school boarding house (Mundesley House) during the week. In 2004, 92.9% of pupils (26 out of 28) achieved five or more GCSEs at grade C and above, compared to the English average of 53.7%. Sixteen- to eighteen-year-olds are entitled to a free sixth form place at a state school or sixth form college on the mainland, and are provided with free flights and a grant towards accommodation. Suitably qualified students after age eighteen attend universities and colleges on the mainland.


Economy


Historical context

Since the mid-18th century the Scillonian economy has relied on trade with the mainland and beyond as a means of sustaining its population. Over the years the nature of this trade has varied, due to wider economic and political factors that have seen the rise and fall of industries such as kelp harvesting, harbour pilot, pilotage, smuggling, fishing, shipbuilding and, latterly, floriculture, flower farming. In a 1987 study of the Scillonian economy, Neate found that many farms on the islands were struggling to remain profitable due to increasing costs and strong competition from overseas producers, with resulting diversification into tourism. Recent statistics suggest that agriculture on the islands now represents less than 2% of all employment.''Isles of Scilly Integrated Area Plan 2001–2004'', Isles of Scilly Partnership 2001


Tourism

Today, tourism is estimated to account for 85% of the islands' income. The islands have been successful in attracting this investment due to their special environment, favourable summer climate, relaxed culture, efficient co-ordination of tourism providers and good transport links by sea and air to the mainland, uncommon in scale to similar-sized island communities.''Isles of Scilly Local Plan: A 2020 Vision'', Council of the Isles of Scilly, 2004''Isles of Scilly 2004, imagine...'', Isles of Scilly Tourist Board, 2004 The majority of visitors stay on St Mary's, Isles of Scilly, St Mary's, which has a concentration of holiday accommodation and other amenities. Of the other inhabited islands, Tresco is run as a timeshare resort, and is consequently the most obviously tourist-oriented.
Bryher Bryher ( kw, Breyer "place of hills") is one of the smaller of the inhabited islands of the Isles of Scilly. History The name of the island is recorded as ''Brayer'' in 1336 and ''Brear'' in 1500. Geography The island is a procession of promin ...
and St Martin's, Isles of Scilly, St Martin's are more unspoilt, although each has a hotel and other accommodation. St Agnes has no hotel and is the least-developed of the inhabited islands. The islands' economy is highly dependent on tourism, even by the standards of other island communities. "The concentration [on] a small number of sectors is typical of most similarly sized UK island communities. However, it is the degree of concentration, which is distinctive along with the overall importance of tourism within the economy as a whole and the very limited manufacturing base that stands out". Tourism is also a highly seasonal industry owing to its reliance on outdoor recreation, and the lower number of tourists in winter results in a significant constriction of the islands' commercial activities. However, the tourist season benefits from an extended period of business in October when many birding, birdwatchers ("twitchers") arrive.


Ornithology

Because of its position, Scilly is the first landing for many migrant birds, including extreme rarities from North America and Siberia. Scilly is situated far into the Atlantic Ocean, so many American vagrant birds will make first European landfall in the archipelago. If an extremely rare bird turns up, the island will see a significant increase in numbers of birdwatchers. This type of birding, chasing after rare birds, is called "Birdwatching#Birding, birdwatching and twitching, twitching". The islands are home to ornithologist Will Wagstaff.


Employment

The predominance of tourism means that "tourism is by far the main sector throughout each of the individual islands, in terms of employment... [and] this is much greater than other remote and rural areas in the United Kingdom". Tourism accounts for approximately 63% of all employment. Businesses dependent on tourism, with the exception of a few hotels, tend to be small enterprises typically employing fewer than four people; many of these are family run, suggesting an entrepreneurial culture among the local population. However, much of the work generated by this, with the exception of management, is low skilled and thus poorly paid, especially for those involved in cleaning, catering and retail. Because of the seasonality of tourism, many jobs on the islands are seasonal and part-time, so work cannot be guaranteed throughout the year. Some islanders take up other temporary jobs 'out of season' to compensate for this. Due to a lack of local casual labour at peak holiday times, many of the larger employers accommodate guest workers, who come to the islands for the summer to have a ‘working holiday’.


Taxation

The islands were not subject to Income Tax, income tax until 1954, and there was no motor vehicle excise duty levied until 1971.


Transport

St Mary's is the only island with a significant road network and the only island with public highways; in 2005 there were 619 registered vehicles on the island. The island also has taxicab, taxis and a tour bus. Vehicles on the islands are exempt from annual MOT tests. Roads and streets across Scilly have very few signs or markings, and route numbers (of the three A roads in Great Britain, A roads on St Mary's) are not marked at all. Fixed-wing aircraft services, operated by Isles of Scilly Skybus, operate from Land's End Airport, Land's End, Newquay Cornwall Airport, Newquay and Exeter International Airport, Exeter to St Mary's Airport. A scheduled helicopter service has operated from a new Penzance Heliport to both St Mary's Airport, Isles of Scilly, St Mary's Airport and Tresco Heliport since 2020. The helicopter is the only direct flight to the island of Tresco. By sea, the Isles of Scilly Steamship Company provides a passenger and cargo service from Penzance to St Mary's, which is currently operated by the ''Scillonian III'' passenger ferry, supported until summer 2017 by the ''Gry Maritha'' cargo vessel and now by the ''Mali Rose''. The other islands are linked to St. Mary's by a network of inter-island launch (boat), launches. St Mary's Harbour is the principal harbour of the Isles of Scilly, and is located in Hugh Town.


Tenure

The freehold land of the islands is the property of the Duchy of Cornwall (except for Hugh Town on St Mary's, which was sold to the inhabitants in 1949). The duchy also holds as duchy property, part of the duchy's landholding. All the uninhabited islands, islets and rocks and much of the untenanted land on the inhabited islands is managed by the Isles of Scilly Wildlife Trust, which leases these lands from the Duchy for the rent of one daffodil per year. The trust currently has four full-time salaried staff and 12 trustees, who are all residents of the Isles. The full trust board is responsible for policy whilst a management team is responsible for day-to-day administration. Its small income and the small number of staff have led to the trust adopting a policy of recruiting volunteers to help it carry out its extensive work programme. While volunteers of all ages are welcome, most are young people who are studying for qualifications in related fields, such as conservation and land management. Limited housing availability is a contentious yet critical issue for the Isles of Scilly, especially as it affects the feasibility of residency on the islands. Few properties are privately owned, with many units being let by the
Duchy of Cornwall The Duchy of Cornwall ( kw, Duketh Kernow) is one of two royal duchies in England Currently, there are two duchies in England; the royal Duchy of Lancaster and the royal Duchy of Cornwall. Unlike historic duchy, duchies in England, these are no ...

Duchy of Cornwall
, the council and a few by housing associations. The management of these subsequently affects the possibility of residency on the islands.Martin D, 'Heaven and Hell', in ''Inside Housing'', 31 October 2004 The Duchy Tenants Association was formed in 1996 by a number of tenants of the Duchy of Cornwall. Housing demand outstrips supply, a problem compounded by restrictions on further development designed to protect the islands' unique environment and prevent the infrastructural carrying capacity from being exceeded. This has pushed up the prices of the few private properties that become available and, significantly for the majority of the islands' populations, it has also affected the rental sector where rates have likewise drastically increased.''Sub Regional Housing Markets in the South West'', South West Housing Board, 2004S. Fleming et al., ''"In from the cold" A report on Cornwall’s Affordable Housing Crisis'', Liberal Democrats, Penzance, 2003 High housing costs pose significant problems for the local population, especially as local incomes (in Cornwall) are only 70% of the national average, whilst house prices are almost £5,000 higher than the national average. This in turn affects the retention of 'key workers' and the younger generation, which consequently affects the viability of schools and other essential community services. The limited access to housing provokes strong local politics. It is often assumed that tourism is to blame for this, attracting newcomers to the area who can afford to outbid locals for available housing. Many buildings are used for tourist accommodation which reduces the number available for local residents. Second homes are also thought to account for a significant proportion of the housing stock, leaving many buildings empty for much of the year.''The Cornishman'', "Islanders in dispute with Duchy over housing policy", 19 August 2004


Culture


People

According to the 2001 UK census, 97% of the population of the islands are white British, with nearly 93% of the inhabitants born in the islands, in mainland Cornwall or elsewhere in England. Since EU enlargement in 2004, a number of A8 countries, central Europeans have moved to the island, joining the Australians, New Zealanders and South Africans who traditionally made up most of the islands' overseas workers. By 2005, their numbers were estimated at nearly 100 out of a total population of just over 2,000. The Isles have also been referred to as "the land that crime forgot", reflecting lower crime levels than national averages.


Sport

One continuing legacy of the isles' past is Cornish pilot gig, gig racing, wherein fast rowing boats ("gigs") with crews of six (or in one case, seven) race between the main islands. Gig racing has been said to derive from the race to collect marine salvage, salvage from shipwrecks on the rocks around Scilly, but the race was actually to deliver a harbour pilot, pilot onto incoming vessels, to guide them through the hazardous reefs and shallows. (The boats are correctly termed "pilot gigs"). The World Pilot Gig Championships are held annually over the May Day bank holiday weekend. The event originally involved crews from the Islands and a few crews from Cornwall, but in the intervening years the number of gigs attending has increased, with crews coming from all over the South-West and further afield. The Isles of Scilly feature what is reportedly the smallest association football, football league in the world, the Isles of Scilly Football League. The league's two clubs, Woolpack Wanderers and Garrison Gunners, play each other 17 times each season and compete for two cups and for the league title. The league was a launching pad for the Adidas "Dream Big" Campaign in which a number of famous professional footballers (including David Beckham) arrive on the island to coach the local children's side. The two share a ground, Garrison Field, but travel to the mainland for part of the year to play other non-professional clubs. In December 2006, Sport England published a survey which revealed that residents of the Isles of Scilly were the most active in England in sports and other fitness activities. 32% of the population participate at least three times a week for 30 minutes or more. There is a golf club with a nine-hole course (each with two tees) situated on the island of St Mary's, near Porthloo and Telegraph, Isles of Scilly, Telegraph. The club was founded in 1904 and is open to visitors.


Media

The islands are served by the Halangy Down radio and television transmitter on St Mary's north of Telegraph at . It is a relay of the main transmitter at Redruth (Cornwall) and broadcasts BBC Radio BBC Radio 1, 1, BBC Radio 2, 2, BBC Radio 3, 3, BBC Radio 4, 4 and BBC Radio Cornwall and the range of Freeview (UK), Freeview television and BBC radio channels known as 'Freeview Light'. Radio Scilly, a community radio station, was launched in September 2007. In January 2020, Radio Scilly was rebranded as Islands FM. There is no local newspaper; ''Scilly Now & Then'' is a free community magazine produced eight times a year and is available to mainland subscribers; while ''The Scillonian'' is published twice yearly and reports on matters of local interest. There is an active news forum on the news and information websites scillytoday.com and thisisscilly.com. Internet access is available across the inhabited islands by means of fibre broadband provided by BT Group, BT. The islands connected via fibre are St. Mary's, Tresco and Bryher. St. Martins, St. Agnes and Gugh are connected via microwave link from St. Mary's, with fibre cabinets on each island, including Robert. Three vendors provide 3G mobile phone service across the archipelago, although coverage does vary between vendors. Vodafone and O2 (UK), O2 provide strong 4G coverage across all the islands, whilst EE Limited, EE's is somewhat limited beyond Gugh towards St. Agnes. The Isles of Scilly were featured on the TV programme ''Seven Natural Wonders'' as one of the wonders of South West England. Since 2007 the islands have featured in the BBC series ''An Island Parish'', following various real-life stories and featuring in particular the newly appointed ''Chaplain to the Isles of Scilly''. A 12-part series was filmed in 2007 and first broadcast on BBC2 in January 2008. After Reverend David Easton left the islands in 2009, the series continued under the same name but focused elsewhere.


Novels

The heroine of Walter Besant's novel ''Armorel of Lyonesse'' came from Samson, and about half the action of the novel takes place in the Isles of Scilly. The events of Nevil Shute's novel ''Marazan'' occur, in part, around these islands. Five children's books written by Michael Morpurgo, ''Why the Whales Came'', ''The Sleeping Sword'', ''The Wreck of the Zanzibar'', ''Arthur, High King of Britain'' and ''Listen to the Moon'' are set around the Isles of Scilly. ''The Riddle of Samson'', a novel by Andrew Garve (a pen name of Paul Winterton) is set mainly around the Isles of Scilly. In ''Jacob's Room'', by Virginia Woolf, the hero and a friend of his sail around the islands. The novels that make up ''The Cortes Trilogy'' by John Paul Davis take place in the Isles of Scilly. ''Stone in the Blood'' by Colin Jordan and David England is set on the islands both in 1974 and the Iron Age, when most of Scilly was still one joined landmass. The 1969 novel "And to my nephew Albert I leave the island what I won off Fatty Hagen in a poker game..." by David Forrest ( penname of writing duo David Eliades and Robert Forrest Webb) is set on a tiny fictional Scilly island just outside the territorial jurisdiction of Britain.The book is a farce about the Cold War between the USSR and the USA.


Song

Scilly is mentioned in the traditional British naval song "Spanish Ladies". Scilly is mentioned in the song "Phenomenal Cat" by The Kinks on their album ''The Kinks Are the Village Green Preservation Society''. "Isles of Scilly" is a song by the Icelandic artist Catmanic.


Notable people

* Saint Lide a bishop who lived on the island of St Helen's in the Isles of Scilly. * John Godolphin (1617 in Scilly – 1678) an English jurist and writer, an admiralty judge under the Commonwealth. * Augustus John Smith (1804 in London – 1872 in Plymouth) Lord Proprietor of the Isles of Scilly for over thirty years. In 1834 he acquired the lease on the Isles of Scilly from the Duchy of Cornwall for £20,000. Liberal MP for Truro 1857–1865. * Sir Frederick Hervey-Bathurst, 3rd Baronet (1807 in Scilly – 1881 in Wiltshire) a famous English cricketer * John Edmund Sharrock Moore ARCS (1870 in Rossendale – 1947 in Penzance) an English biologist, lead two expeditions to Tanganyika. During the 1920s he moved to Tresco. * David Hunt (ornithologist), David Hunt (1934 in Devonport – 1985 in India) an English ornithologist and horticulturalist in Tresco and at the Island Hotel where he became the gardener in 1964. He was killed by a tiger in India * Stella Turk, MBE (1925 Scilly – 2017 in Camborne) a British zoologist, naturalist, and conservationist. Worked on marine biology and conservation, particularly on marine molluscs and mammals. * Sam Llewellyn (born 1948 in Tresco)Biography of Llewellyn
retrieved 12 October 2017
a British author of literature for children and adults. * Stephen Richard Menheniott (1957–1976) an 18-year-old English man with learning difficulties who was murdered by his father on the Isles of Scilly in 1976. *Neville Wakefield (born 1963) an art curator. * Malcolm Bell (cricketer), Malcolm Bell (born 1969 in Hugh Town) a former English cricketer. Bell was a right-handed batsman who bowled right-arm medium pace.


See also

* List of shipwrecks of the Isles of Scilly * List of extreme points of the United Kingdom * Three Hundred and Thirty Five Years' War


References


Further reading

* ''Isles of Scilly Guidebook''. Friendly Guides (2015). *


External links


Council of the Isles of Scilly

Isles of Scilly Tourist Information Centre Website

Guidebook and detailed maps of Scilly

Isles of Scilly Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty Website
*
Cornwall Record Office Online Catalogue for Scilly
*
Images of the Isles of Scilly
at the Historic England Archive
Geology of the Isles of Scilly
{{DEFAULTSORT:Scilly, Isles of Isles of Scilly, Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty in England Birdwatching sites in England Celtic Sea Dark-sky preserves in the United Kingdom Duchy of Cornwall Hundreds of Cornwall, Isles of Scilly Local government districts in Cornwall, Isles of Scilly Natural regions of England Nature Conservation Review sites NUTS 2 statistical regions of the European Union, Isles of Scilly Ramsar sites in England Special Protection Areas in England