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The International Criminal Police Organization (ICPO; french: link=no, Organisation internationale de police criminelle), commonly known as Interpol ( , ), is an
international organization An international organization (also known as an international institution or intergovernmental organization) is a stable set of norms and rules meant to govern the behavior of states and other actors in the international system. Organizations m ...
that facilitates worldwide police cooperation and crime control. Headquartered in
Lyon, France Lyon or Lyons (, , ; frp, Liyon, ) is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located at the confluence of the rivers Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, Rodano ; frp, Rôno ; oc, R ...

Lyon, France
, it is the world's largest international police organization, with seven regional bureaus worldwide and a National Central Bureau in all 195 member states. Interpol was conceived during the first International Criminal Police Congress in 1914, which brought officials from 24 countries to discuss cooperation in law enforcement. It was founded in September 1923 as the International Criminal Police Commission (ICPC), adopting many of its current duties throughout the 1930s. After coming under Nazi control in 1938, the agency was effectively moribund until the end of World War II. In 1956, the ICPC adopted a new constitution and the name Interpol, derived from its
telegraphic address A telegraphic address or cable address was a unique identifier code for a recipient of telegraph Telegraphy is the long-distance transmission of textual messages where the sender uses a semaphore system, known to the recipient, rather than ...
used since 1946. Interpol provides investigative support, expertise, and training to law enforcement worldwide, focusing on three major areas of
transnational crimeTransnational crimes are crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term ''crime'' does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition,Farmer, Lindsay ...
:
terrorism Terrorism, in its broadest sense, is the use of intentional violence to achieve political aims. The term is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime Peace is a concept of societal friendship and harmony in the ...
,
cybercrime Cybercrime is a crime that involves a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Com ...
, and
organized crime Organized crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for profit. While organized crime is generally thought of as a form of i ...
. Its broad mandate covers virtually every kind of crime, including
crimes against humanity Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are purposefully committed as part of a widespread or systematic policy, directed against civilians, in times of war War is an intense armed conflict between states, government A g ...
,
child pornography Child pornography (also called CP, child sexual abuse material, CSAM, child porn, or kiddie porn) is pornography Pornography (often shortened to porn) is the portrayal of Human sexual activity, sexual subject matter for the exclusive purpo ...
,
drug trafficking Uncoated tablets, consisting of about 90% acetylsalicylic acid, along with a minor amount of inert fillers and binders. Aspirin is a pharmaceutical drug A medication (also called medicament, medicine, pharmaceutical drug, medicinal drug ...
and production,
political corruption Political corruption is the use of powers by government officials or their network contacts for illegitimate private gain. Forms of corruption Corruption is a form of dishonesty Dishonesty is to act without honesty. It is used to describe a ...
,
intellectual property infringement An intellectual property (IP) infringement is the infringement or violation of an intellectual property right. There are several types of intellectual property rights, such as copyrights, patents, trademarks, industrial designs, and trade secrets. T ...
, and
white-collar crime The term "white-collar crime" refers to financially motivated, nonviolent or non directly violent crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term ''crime'' does not, in modern cr ...
. The agency also facilitates cooperation among national law enforcement institutions through criminal databases and communications networks. Contrary to popular belief, Interpol is itself not a law enforcement agency. Interpol has an annual budget of €142 million, most of which comes from annual contributions by member police forces in 181 countries. It is governed by a General Assembly composed of all member countries, which elects the Executive Committee and the President (currently
Ahmed Naser Al-Raisi Ahmed Naser Al-Raisi (also romanised as Ahmed Nasser Al-Raisi) is an Emirati general. He currently serves as the president of Interpol The International Criminal Police Organization (ICPO; french: link=no, Organisation internationale de poli ...
of the
United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE; ar, الإمارات العربية المتحدة ) or the Emirates ( ar, الإمارات ), is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregio ...

United Arab Emirates
) to supervise and implement Interpol's policies and administration. Day-to-day operations are carried out by the General Secretariat, comprising around 1,000 personnel from over 100 countries, including both police and civilians. The Secretariat is led by the Secretary-General, currently Jürgen Stock, the former deputy head of Germany's Federal Criminal Police Office. Pursuant to its
charter A charter is the grant of authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It is a social scien ...

charter
, Interpol seeks to remain
politically neutral Apoliticism is apathy or antipathy towards all political affiliations. A person may be described as apolitical if they are not interested or involved in politics. Being apolitical can also refer to situations in which people take an Bias, unbiased ...
in fulfilling its mandate, and is thus barred from interventions or activities that are political, military, religious, or racial in nature and from involving itself in disputes over such matters. The agency operates in four languages: Arabic, English, French and Spanish.


History

Until the 19th century, cooperation among police in different national and political jurisdictions was organized largely on an ''ad hoc'' basis, focused on a specific goal or criminal enterprise. The earliest attempt at a formal, permanent framework for international police coordination was the Police Union of German States, formed in 1851 to bring together police from various German-speaking states. Its activities were centered mostly on political dissidents and criminals. A similar plan was launched by Italy in the 1898 Anti-Anarchist Conference of Rome, which brought delegates from 21 European countries to create a formal structure for addressing the international anarchist movement. Neither the conference nor its follow up meeting in St. Petersburg in 1904 yielded results. The early 20th century saw several more efforts to formalize international police cooperation, as growing international travel and commerce facilitated transnational criminal enterprises and fugitives of the law. The earliest was the International Criminal Police Congress hosted by
Monaco Monaco (; ), officially the Principality of Monaco (french: Principauté de Monaco; Monégasque Ligurian: ''Prinçipatu de Mu̍negu''), is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The ...

Monaco
in 1914, which brought police and legal officials from two dozen countries to discuss international cooperation in investigating crimes, sharing investigative techniques, and extradition procedures. The Monaco Congress laid out twelve principles and priorities that would eventually become foundational to Interpol, including providing direct contact between police in different nations; creating an international standard for forensics and data collection; and facilitating the efficient processing of extradition requests. The idea of an international police organization remained dormant due to the First World War. The United States attempted to lead a similar effort in 1922 through the International Police Conference in New York City, but it failed to attract international attention. A year later, in 1923, a new initiative was undertaken at another International Criminal Police Congress in
Vienna Vienna ( ; german: Wien ; bar, Wean, label=Bavarian language, Austro-Bavarian ) is the Capital city, national capital, largest city, and one of States of Austria, nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's List of cities and towns in Austria, mos ...

Vienna
, spearheaded by
Johannes Schober Johannes "Johann" Schober (born November 14, 1874 in Perg; died August 19, 1932 in Baden bei Wien) was an Austrian jurist, law enforcement official, and politician. Schober was appointed Vienna Chief of Police in 1918 and became the founding preside ...
, President of the Viennese Police Department. The 22 delegates agreed to found the International Criminal Police Commission (ICPC), the direct forerunner of Interpol, which would be based in Vienna. Founding members included police officials from Austria, Germany, Belgium, Poland, China, Egypt, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Japan, Romania, Sweden, Switzerland, and
Yugoslavia Yugoslavia (; sh, Jugoslavija / ; sl, Jugoslavija ; mk, Југославија ;; rup, Iugoslavia; hu, Jugoszlávia; Pannonian Rusyn Image:Novi Sad mayor office.jpg, 250px, Mayor office written in four official languages used in the ...

Yugoslavia
. The same year, wanted person notices were first published in the ICPC's International Public Safety Journal. The United Kingdom joined in 1928. The United States did not join INTERPOL until 1938, although a U.S. police officer unofficially attended the 1923 congress. By 1934, the ICPC's membership more than doubled to 58 nations. Following ''
Anschluss The ''Anschluss'' (, or ''Anschluß'' before the German orthography reform of 1996 The German orthography reform of 1996 (') was a change to German spelling German orthography is the orthography used in writing Writing is a med ...

Anschluss
'' in 1938, the Viennese-based organization fell under the control of
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was ...

Nazi Germany
, and the Commission's headquarters were eventually moved to
Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the List of cities in the European Union by ...

Berlin
in 1942. Most member states withdrew their support during this period. From 1938 to 1945, the presidents of the ICPC included Otto Steinhäusl,
Reinhard Heydrich Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich (; ; 7 March 1904 – 4 June 1942) was a high-ranking German SS and police official during the Nazi era and a principal architect of the Holocaust. He was chief of the Reich Security Main Office (includin ...
,
Arthur Nebe (13 November 1894 – 21 March 1945) was a key functionary in the security and police apparatus of Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Ger ...

Arthur Nebe
, and
Ernst Kaltenbrunner Ernst Kaltenbrunner (4 October 190316 October 1946) was a high-ranking Austrian SS official during the Nazi era Nazism (), officially National Socialism (german: Nationalsozialismus; ), is the ideology and practices associated with Adolf ...

Ernst Kaltenbrunner
. All were generals in the , and Kaltenbrunner was the highest ranking SS officer executed after the
Nuremberg Trials#REDIRECT Nuremberg trials#REDIRECT Nuremberg trials {{redirect category shell, {{R from other capitalisation{{R from move ...
{{redirect category shell, {{R from other capitalisation{{R from move ...
. In 1946, after the end of
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, the organization was revived as the International Criminal Police Organization (ICPO) by officials from Belgium, France,
Scandinavia Scandinavia; : ''Skadesi-suolu''/''Skađsuâl''. ( ) is a in , with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. In English usage, ''Scandinavia'' can refer to , , and , sometimes more narrowly to the , or more broadly to include , th ...

Scandinavia
and the UK. Its new headquarters were established in Paris, then from 1967 in
Saint-Cloud Saint-Cloud () is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents ...
, a Parisian suburb. They remained there until 1989 when they were moved to their present location in Lyon. Until the 1980s, Interpol did not intervene in the prosecution of
Nazi war criminals The following is a list of people who were formally indicted for committing war crime A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual Crime, criminal responsibility. Examples of cri ...
in accordance with Article 3 of its
Charter A charter is the grant of authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It is a social scien ...

Charter
, which prohibited intervention in "political" matters. In July 2010, former Interpol President
Jackie Selebi Jacob “Jackie” Sello Selebi (7 March 1950 – 23 January 2015) was the former national commissioner of the South African Police Service and the President of African National Congress Youth League The African National Congress Youth League ...
was found guilty of corruption by the South African High Court in Johannesburg for accepting bribes worth €156,000 ($) from a drug trafficker. After being charged in January 2008, Selebi resigned as president of Interpol and was put on extended leave as National Police Commissioner of South Africa. He was temporarily replaced by Arturo Herrera Verdugo, the National Commissioner of
Investigations Police of Chile Investigations Police of Chile (, PDI) are the civilian police The police are a Law enforcement organization, constituted body of Law enforcement officer, persons empowered by a State (polity), state, with the aim to law enforcement, enforce t ...
and former vice president for the American Zone, who remained acting president until the appointment of Khoo Boon Hui in October 2008. On 8 November 2012, the 81st General Assembly closed with the election of Deputy Central Director of the French Judicial Police, Mireille Ballestrazzi, as the first female president of the organization. In November 2016,
Meng Hongwei Meng Hongwei (; born November 1953) is a former Chinese politician and police officer who was the president of Interpol from 2016 to 2018. He also served as vice-minister of Ministry of Public Security (China), Public Security in China from 2004 t ...

Meng Hongwei
, a politician from the People's Republic of China, was elected president during the 85th Interpol General Assembly, and was to serve in this capacity until 2020. At the end of September 2018, Meng was reported missing during a trip to China, after being "taken away" for questioning by discipline authorities. Chinese police later confirmed that Meng had been arrested on charges of bribery as part of a national anti-corruption campaign. On 7 October 2018, INTERPOL announced that Meng had resigned his post with immediate effect and that the Presidency would be temporarily occupied by Interpol Senior Vice-President (Asia)
Kim Jong Yang Kim Jong Yang (; born 30 October 1961) is a South Korean police officer and the President of Interpol The International Criminal Police Organization (official abbreviation ICPO; french: link=no, Organisation internationale de police crimi ...
of South Korea. On 21 November 2018, Interpol's General Assembly elected Kim to fill the remainder of Meng's term, in a controversial election which saw accusations that the other candidate, Vice President
Alexander Prokopchuk Alexander Vasilyevich Prokopchuk (russian: Александр Васильевич Прокопчук; 18 November 1961) is a Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Eur ...
of Russia, had used Interpol notices to target critics of the Russian government. On 25 November 2021,
Ahmed Naser Al-Raisi Ahmed Naser Al-Raisi (also romanised as Ahmed Nasser Al-Raisi) is an Emirati general. He currently serves as the president of Interpol The International Criminal Police Organization (ICPO; french: link=no, Organisation internationale de poli ...
, inspector general of the
United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE; ar, الإمارات العربية المتحدة ) or the Emirates ( ar, الإمارات ), is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregio ...

United Arab Emirates
's interior ministry, was elected as President. The election was controversial due to the UAE's human rights record, with concerns being raised by some human rights groups (e.g.
Human Rights Watch Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization File:Europe in a suitcase - UK.jpg, upright=1.3, alt=A roomful of people, Europe-Georgia Institute head George Melashvili addresses the audience at the launch of the ...
) and some MEPs.


Constitution

The role of Interpol is defined by the general provisions of its constitution. Article 2 states that its role is: Article 3 states:


Methodology

Contrary to frequent portrayals in popular culture, Interpol is not a
supranational lawSupranational law is a form of international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in relations between nations. It establishes normative guide ...
enforcement agency and has no agents with arresting powers. Instead, it is an international organization that functions as a network of law enforcement agencies from different countries. The organization thus functions as an administrative liaison among the law enforcement agencies of the member countries, providing communications and database assistance, mostly through its central headquarters in Lyon. Interpol's collaborative form of cooperation is useful when fighting international crime because language, cultural, and bureaucratic differences can make it difficult for police officials from different nations to work together. For example, if U.S.
Federal Bureau of Investigation The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the domestic intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concept Conce ...

Federal Bureau of Investigation
(FBI) special agents track a terrorist to Italy, they may not know whom to contact in the
Polizia di Stato The ''Polizia di Stato'' ( State Police or P.S.) is one of the national police forces of Italy. Alongside with the Carabinieri The Carabinieri (, also , ; formally ''Arma dei Carabinieri'', "Arm of Carabineers"; previously ''Corpo dei Carabi ...

Polizia di Stato
(Civil Police), whether the
Carabinieri The Carabinieri (, also , ; formally ''Arma dei Carabinieri'', "Arm of Carabineers"; previously ''Corpo dei Carabinieri Reali'', "Royal Carabineers Corps") are the national gendarmerie Wrong info! --> A vedette of the French Maritime ...

Carabinieri
(Military Police) or
Guardia di Finanza The ''Guardia di Finanza'' (G. di F. or GdF) () is an Italian law enforcement agency under the authority of the Minister of Economy and Finance. It is a militarized police force, forming a part of the Ministry of Economy and Finance, not the Min ...

Guardia di Finanza
(Finance Guard) have jurisdiction over some aspect of the case, or who in the Italian government must be notified of the FBI's involvement. The FBI can contact the Interpol National Central Bureau in Italy, which would act as a liaison between the US and Italian law enforcement agencies. Interpol's databases at the Lyon headquarters can assist law enforcement in fighting international crime. While national agencies have their own extensive crime databases, the information rarely extends beyond one nation's borders. Interpol's databases can track criminals and crime trends around the world, specifically by means of authorized collections of fingerprints and face photos, lists of wanted persons, DNA samples, and travel documents. Interpol's lost and stolen travel document database alone contains more than 12 million records. Officials at the headquarters also analyze these data and release information on crime trends to the member countries. An encrypted Internet-based worldwide communications network allows Interpol agents and member countries to contact each other at any time. Known as I-24/7, the network offers constant access to Interpol's databases. While the National Central Bureaus are the primary access sites to the network, some member countries have expanded it to key areas such as airports and border access points. Member countries can also access each other's criminal databases via the I-24/7 system. Interpol issued 13,377 Red and 3,165 Yellow
Interpol notice An Interpol notice is an international alert circulated by Interpol to communicate information about crimes, criminals, and threats by police in a member state (or an authorised international entity) to their counterparts around the world. The inf ...
s in 2019. , there are currently 62,448 valid Red and 12,234 Yellow notices in circulation. In the event of an international disaster, terrorist attack, or assassination, Interpol can send an Incident Response Team (IRT). IRTs can offer a range of expertise and database access to assist with victim identification, suspect identification, and the dissemination of information to other nations' law enforcement agencies. In addition, at the request of local authorities, they can act as a central command and logistics operation to coordinate other law enforcement agencies involved in a case. Such teams were deployed eight times in 2013. Interpol began issuing in 2009 with hopes that nations would remove visa requirements for individuals travelling for Interpol business, thereby improving response times. In September 2017, the organization voted to accept
Palestine Palestine ( or ) most often refers to: * State of Palestine, a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East * Palestine (region), a geographical and historical region in the Middle East Palestine may also refer to: * Palestinian National Aut ...
and the
Solomon Islands Solomon Islands is a sovereign country consisting of six major islands and over 900 smaller islands in Oceania, to the east of Papua New Guinea and northwest of Vanuatu. It has a land area of , and a population of 652,858. Its capital, Honi ...
as members.


Finances

In 2019, Interpol's operating income was €142 million ($ million), of which 41 per cent were statutory contributions by member countries, 35 per cent were voluntary cash contributions and 24 per cent were in-kind contributions for the use of equipment, services and buildings. With the goal of enhancing the collaboration between Interpol and the private sector to support Interpol's missions, the Interpol Foundation for a Safer World was created in 2013. Although legally independent of Interpol, the relationship between the two is close enough for Interpol's president to obtain in 2015 the departure of
HSBC HSBC Holdings plc is a British multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, ...

HSBC
CEO from the foundation board after the
Swiss Leaks Swiss Leaks (or SwissLeaks) is the name of a journalistic investigation, released in February 2015, of a giant tax evasion scheme allegedly operated with the knowledge and encouragement of the British multinational bank HSBC HSBC Holdings pl ...
allegations. From 2004 to 2010, Interpol's
external auditors An external auditor performs an audit, in accordance with specific laws or rules, of the financial statements of a Company (law), company, government entity, other Juristic person, legal entity, or organization, and is independent of the entity be ...
was the French
Court of AuditA Court of Audit or Court of Accounts is a Supreme audit institution, i.e. a government institution performing financial and/or legal audit (i.e. Statutory audit or External audit) on the executive branch of power. {, class="wikitable sortable" , + ...
. In November 2010, the Court of Audit was replaced by the
Office of the Auditor General of Norway The Office of the Auditor General of Norway ( no, Riksrevisjonen) is the state auditorAn auditor is a person or a firm appointed by a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of peo ...
for a three-year term with an option for a further three years.


Criticism


Abusive requests for Interpol arrests

Despite its politically neutral stance, some have criticized the agency for its role in arrests that critics contend were politically motivated. In their declaration, adopted in Oslo (2010), Monaco (2012), Istanbul (2013), and Baku (2014), the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly (PACE) criticized some OSCE member States for their abuse of mechanisms of the international investigation and urged them to support the reform of Interpol in order to avoid politically motivated
prosecution A prosecutor is a legal representative of the prosecution in states with either the common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law Case law is the collection of past legal decisions written by co ...
. The resolution of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe of 31 January 2014 criticizes the mechanisms of operation of the Commission for the Control of Interpol's files, in particular, non-adversarial procedures and unjust decisions. In 2014, PACE adopted a decision to thoroughly analyse the problem of the abuse of Interpol and to compile a special report on this matter. In May 2015, within the framework of the preparation of the report, the PACE Committee on Legal Affairs and Human Rights organized a hearing, during which both representatives of NGOs and Interpol had the opportunity to speak. According to
Freedomhouse Freedom House is a U.S.-based, Federal government of the United States, U.S. government-funded non-profit non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, Freedom (political), political freedom, and human rig ...
, Russia is responsible for 38% of Interpol's public Red Notices. There currently are "approximately 66,370 valid Red Notices, of which some 7,669 are public." Refugees who are included in the list of Interpol can be arrested when crossing the border. In the year 2008, the office of the
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is a UN agency mandated to aid and protect refugee A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person Forced displacement (also forced migration) is an involuntary or coerce ...
pointed to the problem of arrests of refugees on the request of INTERPOL in connection with politically motivated charges. In 2021, authoritarian governments of countries like China, the United Arab Emirates, Iran, Russia, and Venezuela were accused of abusing Interpol by using it to target political opponents. Despite Interpol’s policy that forbids countries from using the organization to pursue opponents, autocrats have been increasingly abusing the constitution of Interpol. China used Interpol against the
Uyghurs The Uyghurs ( or ; ; ; zh, s=, t=, p=Wéiwú'ěr, IPA: ), alternatively spelled Uighurs, Uyghers, Uygurs or Uigurs, are a Turkic peoples, Turkic ethnic group originating from and culturally affiliated with the general region of Central Asi ...
, where the government issued a Red Notice against activists and other members of the ethnic minority group living abroad. Since 1997, 1,546 cases from 28 countries of detention and deportation of the Uyghurs were recorded. Besides, the UAE was also accused as one of the countries attempting to buy influence in Interpol. Using the Interpol Foundation for a Safer World, the Arab nation gave donations of $54 million. The amount was estimated as equal to the statutory contributions together made by the rest 194 members. It was asserted that the Emirates’ growing influence over Interpol gave it the opportunity to host the General Assembly in 2018, and even in 2020 that was postponed due to the
Covid-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic A pandemic (from , , "all" and , , "local people" the 'crowd') is an of an that has spread across a large region, for instance multiple or worldwide, affecting a substantial numbe ...

Covid-19 pandemic
.


World

Organizations such as Detained in Dubai, Open Dialog Foundation,
Fair Trials International Fair Trials is a UK-registered non-governmental organization File:Europe in a suitcase - UK.jpg, upright=1.3, alt=A roomful of people, Europe-Georgia Institute head George Melashvili addresses the audience at the launch of the "Europe in a suit ...
, Centre for Peace Studies, and
International Consortium of Investigative Journalists The International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ) is an independent, Washington, D.C.-based international network of more than 200 investigative journalists and 100 media organizations in over 70 countries. Launched in 1997 by th ...
, indicate that non-democratic states use Interpol to harass opposition politicians, journalists, human rights activists, and businessmen. The countries accused of abusing the agency include China, Russia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, Iran, Turkey, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Venezuela, and Tunisia. The Open Dialog Foundation's report analysed 44 high-profile political cases which went through the Interpol system. A number of persons who have been granted refugee status in the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
(EU) and the U.S.—including Russian businessman
Andrey Borodin Andrey Fridrikhovich Borodin (russian: Андре́й Фри́дрихович Бороди́н; born Moscow, 24 May 1967) is a Russian financial expert, economist and businessman who until 2011 was President of Bank of Moscow. He and his first de ...
, Chechen Arbi Bugaev, Kazakh opposition politician Mukhtar Ablyazov and his associate Artur Trofimov, and Sri Lankan journalist Chandima Withana —continue to remain on the public INTERPOL list. Some of the refugees remain on the list even after courts have refused to extradite them to a non-democratic state (for example, Pavel Zabelin, a witness in the case of
Mikhail Khodorkovsky Mikhail Borisovich Khodorkovsky (russian: link=no, Михаил Борисович Ходорковский, ; born 26 June 1963) is an exiled Russian businessman, philanthropist and former oligarch, now residing in London. In 2003, Khodorkov ...
, and Alexandr Pavlov, former security chief of the Kazakh oppositionist Ablyazov). Another case is
Manuel Rosales Manuel Antonio Rosales Guerrero (born December 12, 1952, in Santa Bárbara del Zulia) is a Venezuela Venezuela (; ), officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela ( es, link=no, República Bolivariana de Venezuela), is a country on the ...
, a politician who opposed
Hugo Chavez Hugo or HUGO may refer to: People and fictional characters * Victor Hugo, a French poet, novelist, and dramatist of the Romantic movement. * Hugo (name), including lists of people with Hugo as a given name or surname, as well as fictional charac ...
and fled to
Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the State , other_symbol_type = Seal (device), National seal , national_mott ...

Peru
in 2009 and was subject to a red alert on charges of corruption for two weeks. Interpol deleted the request for prosecution immediately. Interpol has also been criticized for mistaking people on yellow alerts. One case was Alondra Díaz-Nuñez, who in April 2015 was apprehended in
Guanajuato City Guanajuato () is a city and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to whic ...

Guanajuato City
, Mexico being mistaken for . Interpol came under heavy criticism from Mexican news and media for helping out Policia Federal Ministerial, Mexican Federal Police, and the U.S Embassy and Consulate in Mexico, in what was believed to be a
kidnapping In criminal law Criminal law is the body of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and infl ...
.


Eastern Europe

The 2013 PACE's Istanbul Declaration of the OSCE cited specific cases of such prosecution, including those of the Russian activist Petr Silaev, financier William Browder, businessman Ilya Katsnelson, Belarusian politician Ales Michalevic, and Ukrainian politician Bohdan Danylyshyn. On 25 July 2014, despite Interpol's Constitution prohibiting them from undertaking any intervention or activities of a political or military nature, the Ukrainian nationalist paramilitary leader Dmytro Yarosh was placed on Interpol's international wanted list at the request of Russian authorities, which made him the only person wanted internationally after the beginning of the conflict between Ukraine and Russia in 2014. For a long time, Interpol refused to place former
President of Ukraine The president of Ukraine ( uk, Президент України, ''Prezydent Ukrainy'') is the Ukrainian Ukrainian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Ukraine * Something relating to Ukrainians an East Slavic people from Eastern ...
Viktor Yanukovych Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych ( uk, Ві́ктор Фе́дорович Януко́вич, ; ; born 9 July 1950) is a Ukrainian politician who served as the fourth President of Ukraine from 2010 until he was removed from office in the 2014 Ukr ...

Viktor Yanukovych
on the wanted list as a suspect by the new
Ukrainian government Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine uk, Кабінет Міністрів України , nativename = , image = Cabinet of Ukraine.png , image_size = 200px , caption = Government seal , state = , d ...
for the mass killing of protesters during
Euromaidan Euromaidan (; uk, Євромайдан, translit=Yevromaidan, literally 'Euro Square') was a wave of demonstrations and civil unrest Civil disorder, also known as civil disturbance, civil unrest, or social unrest is an activity arising f ...
. Yanukovych was eventually placed on the wanted list on 12 January 2015. However, on 16 July 2015, after an intervention of Joseph Hage Aaronson, the British law firm hired by Yanukovych, the international arrest warrant against the former president of Ukraine was suspended pending further review. In December 2014, the
Security Service of Ukraine The Security Service of Ukraine ( ua, Служба безпеки України (СБУ); ''Sluzhba bezpeky Ukrayiny'') or SBU is Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which ...
(SBU) liquidated a sabotage and reconnaissance group that was led by a former agent of the Ukrainian Bureau of INTERPOL that also has family relations in the Ukrainian counter-intelligence agencies. In 2014, Russia made attempts to place Ukrainian politician
Ihor Kolomoyskyi Ihor Valeriyovych Kolomoyskyi ( uk, Ігор Валерійович Коломойський; russian: Игорь Валерьевич Коломойский, Igor Valerevich Kolomoisky; he, איגור קולומויסקי; born 13 February 1963 ...

Ihor Kolomoyskyi
and Ukrainian civic activist Pavel Ushevets, subject to criminal persecution in Russia following his pro-Ukrainian art performance in Moscow, on the Interpol wanted list.


Middle East

According to a report by the Stockholm Center for Freedom that was issued in September 2017, Turkey has weaponized Interpol mechanisms to hunt down legitimate critics and opponents in violation of Interpol's own constitution. The report lists abuse cases where not only arrest warrants but also revocation of travel documents and passports were used by Turkey as persecution tools against critics and opponents. The harassment campaign targeted foreign companies as well. Syrian-Kurd
Salih Muslim Salih Muslim Muhammad (Kurmanji ku, Salih Muslim Mihemed, ar, صالح مسلم محمد, Ṣāliḥ Muslim Muḥammad) is the former co-chairman of the Democratic Union Party (PYD), the main party of the Autonomous Administration of North and ...
was briefly detained at Turkey’s request on 25 February 2018 in
Prague Prague ( ; cs, Praha ; german: Prag, ; la, Praga) is the capital and largest city A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people ...

Prague
, the capital of the
Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Austria to the south, Germany to the west, Poland to the northeast, and Slovakia to ...
, but was released 2 days later, drawing angry protests from Turkey. On 17 March 2018, the Czech authorities dismissed Turkey's request as lacking merit.


Appeals and requests withdrawals

The procedure for filing an appeal with Interpol is a long and complex one. For example, the Venezuelan journalist
Patricia Poleo Patricia Poleo (born 1965) is a Venezuelan journalist and the winner of the King of Spain Journalism Award for her investigation into the whereabouts of Peruvian dictator Alberto Fujimori's right-hand man, Vladimiro Montesinos. She is the daughter ...
and a colleague of Kazakh activist Ablyazov, and Tatiana Paraskevich, who were granted refugee status, sought to overturn the politically motivated request for as long as one and a half years, and six months, respectively. Interpol has previously recognized some requests to include persons on the wanted list as politically motivated, e.g., Indonesian activist
Benny Wenda Benny Wenda is a West Papuan independence leader and Chairman of the United Liberation Movement for West Papua (ULMWP). He is an international lobbyist for the independence of West Papua from Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Repu ...

Benny Wenda
, Georgian politician Givi Targamadze, ex-president of Georgia
Mikheil Saakashvili Mikheil Saakashvili ( ka, მიხეილ სააკაშვილი, romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of ...
, ex-mayor of
Maracaibo ) , motto = "''Muy noble y leal''"(English: "Very noble and loyal") , anthem = , image_map = , mapsize = , map_alt = ...

Maracaibo
and 2006 Venezuelan presidential election candidate
Manuel Rosales Manuel Antonio Rosales Guerrero (born December 12, 1952, in Santa Bárbara del Zulia) is a Venezuela Venezuela (; ), officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela ( es, link=no, República Bolivariana de Venezuela), is a country on the ...
and ex-president of Honduras
Manuel Zelaya Rosales José Manuel Zelaya Rosales (born 20 September 1952)Encyclopædia BritannicaManuel Zelaya/ref> is a Honduran politician who was President of Honduras from 27 January 2006 until 28 June 2009. He is the eldest son of a wealthy businessman, and inhe ...
; these persons have subsequently been removed. However, in most cases, Interpol removes a Red Notice against refugees only after an
authoritarian Authoritarianism is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a mon ...
state closes a criminal case or declares
amnesty Amnesty (from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxi ...
(for example, the cases of Russian activists and political refugees Petr Silaev, Denis Solopov, and Aleksey Makarov, as well as the Turkish sociologist and feminist Pinar Selek).


Diplomacy

In 2016,
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
criticised Interpol for turning down their application to join the General Assembly as an observer. The United States of America supported Taiwan's participation, and the
US Congress The United States Congress is the legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. They are often contrasted wi ...

US Congress
passed legislation directing the Secretary of State to develop a strategy to obtain observer status for Taiwan. The election of Meng Hongwei as president and
Alexander Prokopchuk Alexander Vasilyevich Prokopchuk (russian: Александр Васильевич Прокопчук; 18 November 1961) is a Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Eur ...
, a Russian, as vice president of Interpol for Europe drew criticism in western media and raised fears of Interpol accepting politically motivated requests from China and Russia.


Business

In 2013, Interpol was criticised over its multimillion-dollar deals with such private sector bodies as
FIFA FIFA ( french: Fédération Internationale de Football Association; en, International Federation of Association Football, link=yes; : ''Federación Internacional de Fútbol Asociación''; : ''Internationaler Verband des Association-Fußball'' ...
, Philip Morris, and the pharmaceutical industry. The criticism was mainly about the lack of transparency and potential conflicts of interest, such as Codentify. After the 2015 FIFA scandal, the organization has severed ties with all the private-sector bodies that evoked such criticism, and has adopted a new and transparent financing framework.


Leadership

After the disappearance of
Meng Hongwei Meng Hongwei (; born November 1953) is a former Chinese politician and police officer who was the president of Interpol from 2016 to 2018. He also served as vice-minister of Ministry of Public Security (China), Public Security in China from 2004 t ...

Meng Hongwei
, four American senators accused his presumptive successor,
Alexander Prokopchuk Alexander Vasilyevich Prokopchuk (russian: Александр Васильевич Прокопчук; 18 November 1961) is a Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Eur ...
, of abusing Red Notices, likening his election to "putting a fox in charge of the henhouse". A statement posted by the
Ukrainian Helsinki Human Rights Union All-Ukrainian Association of Public Organizations Ukrainian Helsinki Human Rights Union (UHHRU) was founded by 15 public human rights organizations on 1 April 2004. UHHRU is a non-profit and non-partisan organization. Statutory mission Realization ...
and signed by other NGOs raised concerns about his ability to use his Interpol position to silence Russia's critics. Russian politicians criticized the U.S. accusation as politically motivated interference. On 1 October 2020, the delegate of Interpol's executive committee for Asia,
United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE; ar, الإمارات العربية المتحدة ) or the Emirates ( ar, الإمارات ), is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregio ...

United Arab Emirates
security chief,
Ahmed Naser al-Raisi Ahmed Naser Al-Raisi (also romanised as Ahmed Nasser Al-Raisi) is an Emirati general. He currently serves as the president of Interpol The International Criminal Police Organization (ICPO; french: link=no, Organisation internationale de poli ...
, accused of serious
human rights Human rights are moral A moral (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. ...
abuses in the
Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task whi ...

Middle East
, including against British citizens, was seeking to become the new head of Interpol. Interpol was warned that it could lose credibility if al-Raisi was elected as the president. When al-Raisi was in charge of security and police forces in the UAE, a
Durham University , mottoeng = Her foundations are upon the holy hills ( Psalm 87:1) , established = (university status) , type = Public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the ...

Durham University
PHD student, Matthew Hedges was held for almost six months in solitary confinement, after being arrested in
Dubai Dubai ( ; ar, دبي, translit=Dubayy , ) is the most populous city in the United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE; ar, الإمارات العربية المتحدة ) or the Emirates ( ar, الإمارات ), is a country i ...

Dubai
on spying charges. He was also fed a cocktail of drugs during his imprisonment. Another Briton and a football fan, Ali Ahmad was imprisoned in the UAE for wearing a
Qatar Qatar (, , or ; ar, قطر, Qaṭar ; local vernacular pronunciation: ), officially the State of Qatar,) is a country in Western Asia. It occupies the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula, and shares it ...

Qatar
shirt to a match. He was stabbed with a pocket knife in his chest and arms, struck in the mouth causing him to lose a front tooth, suffocated with a plastic bag and had his clothing set on fire by arresting officers. In an April 2021 report written by the ex-UK DPP, Sir David Calvert-Smith in assistance from IHR Advisors, questions were raised over the influence of the UAE over Interpol, calling out UAE general bidding for Interpol chief as unfit for the role. The report stated that the Emirati general, Ahmed Naser Al-Raisi who bid for the role of Interpol chief was unsuitable for the position following links to human rights abuses. The allegations were made based on several facts drawn by Sir David, including the influential donation worth $50 million made by the UAE and accepted by Interpol in 2017 through an entirely UAE-funded organization based in Geneva, Interpol Foundation for a Safer World. A French human rights lawyer, filed an official complaint on behalf of the Gulf Centre for Human Rights or GCHR against Maj. Gen. Ahmed Naser Al-Raisi in connection with the unauthorized arrest and torture of a GCHR Board member and human rights activist, Ahmed Mansoor. The complaint lodged with the Prosecutor’s Office in Paris on 7 June 2021, was based on the universal jurisdiction concept, seeking to bring Al-Raisi to justice while he was in France in 2021 for his bid to seek the presidency of Interpol. In June 2021, 35 French Parliamentarians, Members of Parliament and Senators, including from the majority and the opposition, urged President
Emmanuel Macron Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric Macron (; born 21 December 1977) is a French politician who has been serving as the president of France The president of France, officially the President of the French Republic (french: Président de la R ...
to oppose the candidacy of the UAE’s General Ahmed Nasser Al-Raisi, citing the accusations of torture against him. It was the second appeal by the deputy of the Rhône, Hubert Julien-Laferrière, who had first written to Macron earlier in 2021. He questioned how a profile like Al-Raisi’s, who was responsible for the torture of political opponent Ahmed Mansoor and of a British academic Matthew Hedges, can become the president of a most respectable institution. In August 2021, reports revealed that the UAE was promoting its candidate,
Ahmed Naser Al-Raisi Ahmed Naser Al-Raisi (also romanised as Ahmed Nasser Al-Raisi) is an Emirati general. He currently serves as the president of Interpol The International Criminal Police Organization (ICPO; french: link=no, Organisation internationale de poli ...
, for the Interpol presidency. Viewed as an “international pariah”, Al-Raisi was receiving increasing condemnation for his involvement in the detention and torture of Ahmed Mansoor, Mathhew Hedges, and Ali Issa Ahmad. Considering that, the Emirates initiated a plan to promote Raisi by organizing his trips to Interpol member countries to gain support. While the UAE was arranging trips for al-Raisi to Interpol’s member countries, opposition against the Emirati candidate amplified. A number of
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
MPs signed a petition to express “deep concern” and reject the candidacy of al-Raisi for the post of Interpol director. British lawyer of Matthew Hedges and Ali Ahmad, Rodney Dixon submitted a complaint and urged the Swedish authorities to arrest al-Raisi upon his arrival in
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that ...

Sweden
. The two Britons also raised a similar request to arrest al-Raisi with the Norwegian police authorities. Both Sweden and
Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language Norwegian (Norwegian: ''norsk'') is a Nort ...

Norway
apply jurisdiction that allows them to open investigations of crime, irrespective of a person’s nationality or the origin country of the crime. In October 2021, the Emirati candidate for Interpol presidency, Naser Al-Raisi had to face further opposition, as the lawyers submitted a complaint to the French Prosecutor in Paris. The claims cited Al-Raisi’s role in the unlawful detention and torture of Ali Issa Ahmad and Matthew Hedges. Filed under the principle of universal jurisdiction, the complaint gave French officials the authority to investigate and arrest foreign nationals. As Raisi is not a head of state, French authorities had all the rights to arrest and question him on entering the French territory. As the General Assembly was approaching, the opposition was rising. In November 2021, a Turkish lawyer Gulden Sonmez filed a criminal complaint against Al-Raisi’s nomination in Turkey, where the vote was to take place. Sonmez said its the Emirates’ attempt to cover its human rights records and to launder its reputation. Besides, Hedges and Ahmad were also expected to file a lawsuit in Turkey against Al-Raisi, ahead of the General Assembly. On 20 December 2021,
The Heritage Foundation The Heritage Foundation (abbreviated to Heritage) is an American conservative Conservatism is an aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (sociology), taste, a ...
called out Interpol presidency, Secretary General Jürgen Stock, for failing to properly vet the police cooperation requests of member nations like Turkey and for the election to presidency of United Arab Emirates’ major general Ahmed Naser al-Raisi, despite credible accusations of torturing detainees including British national, Matthew Hedges. The think tank raised questions on the choices and support of reforms by Interpol for electing member states and members who have a poor record. Stock assured the selection of Raisi asserting that the latter would continue to represent his homeland and not Interpol.


Reform

From 1 to 3 July 2015, Interpol organized a session of the Working Group on the Processing of Information, which was formed specifically in order to verify the mechanisms of information processing. The Working Group heard the recommendations of civil society as regards the reform of the international investigation system and promised to take them into account, in light of possible obstruction or refusal to file crime reports nationally. The Open Dialog Foundation, a human rights organization, recommended that Interpol, in particular: create a mechanism for the protection of rights of people having international refugee status; initiate closer cooperation of the Commission for the Control of Files with human rights NGOs and experts on asylum and extradition; enforce sanctions for violations of Interpol's rules; strengthen cooperation with NGOs, the UN, OSCE, the PACE, and the European Parliament.
Fair Trials International Fair Trials is a UK-registered non-governmental organization File:Europe in a suitcase - UK.jpg, upright=1.3, alt=A roomful of people, Europe-Georgia Institute head George Melashvili addresses the audience at the launch of the "Europe in a suit ...
proposed to create effective remedies for individuals who are wanted under a Red Notice on unfair charges; to penalize nations which frequently abuse the Interpol system; to ensure more transparency of Interpol's work. The Centre for Peace Studies also created recommendations for Interpol, in particular, to delete Red Notices and Diffusions for people who were granted refugee status according to
1951 Refugee Convention Events January * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modification of the , ...
issued by their countries of origin, and to establish an independent body to review Red Notices on a regular basis.


Emblem

The current emblem of Interpol was adopted in 1950 and includes the following elements: * the globe indicates worldwide activity * the olive branches represent peace * the sword represents police action * the scales signify justice *the acronyms "OIPC" and "ICPO", representing the full name of the organization in both English and French.


Membership


Members

Interpol currently has 195 member countries:


Subnational-bureaus

Three
member states of the United Nations Member may refer to: * Military jury A United States military "jury" (or "Members", in military parlance) serves a function similar to an American civilian jury, but with several notable differences. Only a Courts-martial in the United States, Ge ...

member states of the United Nations
are currently not members of Interpol:
North Korea North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. It borders China and Russia to the north, at the Yalu River, Yalu (Amnok) and Tu ...

North Korea
,
Palau Palau (), officially the Republic of Palau ( pau, Beluu er a Belau) and historically ''Belau'', ''Palaos'' or ''Pelew'', is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, t ...

Palau
,
Micronesia Micronesia (, ; from grc, μικρός ''mikrós'' "small" and ''nêsos'' "island") is a subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is ...

Micronesia
FSM, and
Tuvalu Tuvalu ( or ; formerly known as the Ellice Islands Tuvalu ( ; formerly known as the Ellice Islands) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial ...

Tuvalu
.


Offices

In addition to its General Secretariat headquarters in Lyon, Interpol maintains seven regional bureaus and three special representative offices: *
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or cap ...

Buenos Aires
, Argentina *
Brussels Brussels (french: Bruxelles or ; nl, Brussel ), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (french: link=no, Région de Bruxelles-Capitale; nl, link=no, Brusse ...

Brussels
, Belgium (special representative office to the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
) *
Yaoundé Yaoundé (; , ) is the Capital city, capital of Cameroon and, with a population of more than 2.8 million, the second-largest city in the country after the port city Douala. It lies in the Centre Region (Cameroon), Centre Region of the nation at an ...
, Cameroon *
Abidjan Abidjan ( , ; N'Ko script, N’ko: ߊߓߌߖߊ߲߬) is the economic capital of Ivory Coast, Côte d'Ivoire and one of the most populous French-speaking cities in Africa. According to the 2014 census, Abidjan's population was 4.7 million, whi ...

Abidjan
, Côte d'Ivoire *
San Salvador San Salvador (; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smalle ...

San Salvador
, El Salvador *
Addis Ababa Addis Ababa ( am, አዲስ አበባ ' , "new flower"), also known as Finfinne ( om, Finfinne "natural spring") and Sheger ( ', ), is the and largest city of . According to the 2007 census, the city has a population of 2,739,551 inhabitants. ...

Addis Ababa
, Ethiopia (special representative office to the
African Union The African Union (AU) is a continental union A continental union is a regional organization which facilitates pan-continental integration. Continental unions vary from collaborative intergovernmental organization, intergovernmental organiza ...

African Union
) *
Nairobi Nairobi ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller low ...

Nairobi
, Kenya *
Bangkok Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of Thailand Thailand ( th, ประเทศไทย), historically known as Siam, () officially the Kingdom of Thailand, is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern ...

Bangkok
, Thailand *
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
, United States (special representative office to the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
) *
Harare Harare (; formerly Salisbury until 1982) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ...

Harare
, Zimbabwe Interpol's Command and Coordination Centres offer a 24-hour point of contact for national police forces seeking urgent information or facing a crisis. The original is in Lyon with a second in Buenos Aires added in September 2011. A third was opened in Singapore in September 2014. Interpol opened a Special Representative Office to the UN in New York City in 2004 and to the EU in Brussels in 2009. The organization has constructed the Interpol Global Complex for Innovation (IGCI) in Singapore to act as its
research and development Research and development (R&D, R+D), known in Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geogra ...
facility, and a place of cooperation on digital crimes investigations. It was officially opened in April 2015, but had already become active beforehand. Most notably, a worldwide takedown of the SIMDA botnet infrastructure was coordinated and executed from IGCI's Cyber Fusion Centre in the weeks before the opening, as was revealed at the launch event.


Secretaries-general and presidents


Secretary General

Secretaries-general since organization's inception in 1923:


Presidents

Presidents since organization's inception in 1923:


See also

*
Federal Investigation Agency The Federal Investigation Agency ( ur, ; reporting name: FIA) is a border control Border control is the measures taken by a state or a bloc of states to monitor its borders and regulate the movement of people, animals, and goods across th ...
*
Cybercrime Cybercrime is a crime that involves a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of op ...
*
Europol The European Union Agency for Law Enforcement Cooperation, better known under the name Europol, formerly the European Police Office and Europol Drugs Unit, is the law enforcement agency of the European Union (EU) formed in 1998 to handle crimin ...

Europol
, a similar EU-wide organization. *
Intelligence assessment Intelligence assessment is the development of behavior forecasts or recommended courses of action to the leadership of an organisation, based on wide ranges of available overt and covert information Information is processed, organised and ...
*
International Criminal Court The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizatio ...

International Criminal Court
*
Interpol notice An Interpol notice is an international alert circulated by Interpol to communicate information about crimes, criminals, and threats by police in a member state (or an authorised international entity) to their counterparts around the world. The inf ...
* Interpol Terrorism Watch List * * InterPortPolice *
UN Police The United Nations Police (UNPOL) is an integral part of the United Nations peace operations. Currently, about 11 530 UN Police officers from over 90 countries are deployed in 11 United Nations peacekeeping, UN peacekeeping operations and 6 Speci ...


Notes


References


Further reading

*


External links

*
INTERPOL Foundation for a Safer World


In The Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment, edited by Wesley G. Jennings. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

Pp. 17–25 in Understanding and Responding to Terrorism, edited by H. Durmaz, B. Sevinc, A.S. Yayla, and S. Ekici. Amsterdam: IOS Press. {{Coord, 45.7822, N, 4.8484, E, region:FR-ARA_type:landmark, display=title Organizations established in 1923
International organizations based in France Organizations based in France by subject International organizations by country, France International organizations based in Europe by country, France ...
6th arrondissement of Lyon United Nations General Assembly observers 1923 establishments in Austria International law enforcement agencies