In Internet slang
, a troll is a person who starts flame wars
or intentionally upsets people on the Internet
. This is typically done by posting inflammatory and digressive, extraneous
, or off-topic
messages in an online community
(such as a newsgroup
, chat room
, or blog
), with the intent of provoking
readers into displaying emotion
and normalizing tangential discussion.
This is typically for the troll's amusement, or to achieve a specific result such as disrupting a rival's online activities or manipulating a political process.
Both the noun and the verb forms of "troll" are associated with Internet discourse. However, the word has also been used more widely. Media attention in recent years has equated trolling with online harassment
. For example, the mass media have used "troll" to mean "a person who defaces Internet tribute sites with the aim of causing grief to families".
In addition, depictions of trolling have been included in popular fictional works, such as the HBO television program
'', in which a main character encounters harassing persons online and tries to infiltrate their circles by posting negative sexual comments.
Application of the term ''troll'' is subjective
. Some readers may characterize a post as ''trolling'', while others may regard the same post as a legitimate contribution to the discussion, even if controversial. Like any pejorative
term, it can be used as an ''ad hominem
'' attack, suggesting a negative motivation.
As noted in an ''OS News'' article titled "Why People Troll and How to Stop Them" (25 January 2012), "The traditional definition of trolling includes intent. That is, trolls purposely disrupt forums. This definition is too narrow. Whether someone intends to disrupt a thread or not, the results are the same if they do."
Popular recognition of the existence (and prevalence) of non-deliberate, "accidental trolls", has been documented widely, in sources as diverse as Nicole Sullivan's keynote speech
at the 2012 Fluent Conference, titled "Don't Feed the Trolls" Gizmodo
, online opinions on the subject written by Silicon Valley executives and comics.
Regardless of the circumstances, controversial posts may attract a particularly strong response from those unfamiliar with the robust dialogue found in some online, rather than physical, communities. Experienced participants in online forums know that the most effective way to discourage a troll is usually to ignore them, because responding tends to encourage trolls to continue disruptive postshence the often-seen warning: "Please don't feed the trolls". Some believe this to be bad or incomplete advice for effectively dealing with trolls.
" is an image occasionally used to indicate trolling in Internet culture.
At times the word is incorrectly used to refer to anyone with controversial, or differing, opinions.
Such usage goes against the ordinary meaning of troll in multiple ways. While psychologists have determined that the dark triad
traits are common among Internet trolls, some observers claim trolls do not actually believe the controversial views they claim. Farhad Manjoo
criticises this view, noting that if the person really is trolling, they are more intelligent than their critics would believe.
Origin and etymology
There are competing theories of where and when "troll" was first used in Internet slang, with numerous unattested accounts of BBS
origins in the early 1980s or before.
The English noun "troll" in the standard sense of ugly dwarf or giant dates to 1610 and comes from the Old Norse
" meaning giant
The word evokes the trolls of Scandinavian folklore
and children's tales: antisocial, quarrelsome and slow-witted creatures which make life difficult for travellers. Trolls have existed in folklore and fantasy literature for centuries, but online trolling
has been around for as long as the internet has existed.
In modern English usage, "trolling
" may describe the fishing technique
of slowly dragging a lure or baited hook from a moving boat,
'' describes the generally commercial act of dragging a fishing net. Early non-Internet slang use of "trolling" can be found in the military: by 1972 the term "trolling for MiGs
" was documented in use by US Navy
pilots in Vietnam
. It referred to use of "...decoys, with the mission of drawing...fire away..."
The contemporary use of the term is said to have appeared on the Internet in the late 1980s,
but the earliest known attestation according to the ''Oxford English Dictionary
'' is in 1992.
The context of the quote cited in the ''Oxford English Dictionary''
sets the origin in Usenet
in the early 1990s as in the phrase "trolling for newbies", as used in ''alt.folklore.urban'' (AFU).
Commonly, what is meant is a relatively gentle inside joke by veteran users, presenting questions or topics that had been so overdone that only a new user would respond to them earnestly. For example, a veteran of the group might make a post on the common misconception
that glass flows over time
. Long-time readers would both recognize the poster's name and know that the topic had been discussed repeatedly, but new subscribers to the group would not realize, and would thus respond. These types of trolls served as a practice to identify group insiders. This definition of trolling, considerably narrower than the modern understanding of the term, was considered a positive contribution.
One of the most notorious AFU trollers, David Mikkelson,
went on to create the urban folklore website Snopes.com
By the late 1990s, ''alt.folklore.urban'' had such heavy traffic and participation that trolling of this sort was frowned upon. Others expanded the term to include the practice of playing a seriously misinformed user, even in newsgroup
s where one was not a regular; these were often attempts at humor rather than provocation. The noun ''troll'' usually referred to an act of trolling – or to the resulting discussion – rather than to the author, though some posts punned on the dual meaning of ''troll.''
In other languages
, trolling is referred to as ''bái mù'' (), which can be straightforwardly explained as "eyes without pupils", in the sense that whilst the pupil
of the eye is used for vision, the white section of the eye cannot see, and trolling involves blindly talking nonsense over the Internet, having total disregard to sensitivities or being oblivious to the situation at hand, akin to having eyes without pupils. An alternative term is ''bái làn'' (), which describes a post completely nonsensical and full of folly made to upset others, and derives from a Taiwanese slang term for the male genitalia
, where genitalia that is pale white in colour represents that someone is young, and thus foolish. Both terms originate from Taiwan
, and are also used in Hong Kong
and mainland China
. Another term, ''xiǎo bái'' () is a derogatory term for both ''bái mù'' and ''bái làn'' that is used on anonymous posting Internet forums. Another common term for a troll used in mainland China is ''pēn zi'' ().
, means "fishing" and refers to intentionally misleading posts whose only purpose is to get the readers to react, i.e. get trolled. means "laying waste" and can also be used to refer to simple spamming
'' (a thurs
) or ''tröll
'' (a troll
) may refer to trolls, the verbs ''þursa'' (to troll) or ''þursast'' (to be trolling, to troll about) may be used.
, ''nak-si'' (낚시) means "fishing", refers to Internet trolling attempts, as well as purposefully misleading post titles. A person who recognizes the troll after having responded (or, in case of a post title ''nak-si'', having read the actual post) would often refer to themselves as a caught fish.
, more commonly in its Brazilian
(produced in most of Brazil as spelling pronunciation
) is the usual term to denote Internet trolls (examples of common derivate terms are ''trollismo'' or ''trollagem'', "trolling", and the verb ''trollar'', "to troll", which entered popular use), but an older expression, used by those which want to avoid anglicism
s or slang
s, is ''complexo do pombo enxadrista
'' to denote trolling behavior, and ''pombos enxadristas'' (literally, "chessplayer pigeons") or simply ''pombos'' are the terms used to name the trolls. The terms are explained by an adage
or popular saying: "Arguing with ''fulano
'' (i.e., John Doe
) is the same as playing chess
with a pigeon
: it defecates on the table, drops the pieces and simply flies off, claiming victory."
, the term ''krian'' (เกรียน
) has been adopted to address Internet trolls. According to the Royal Institute of Thailand
, the term, which literally refers to a closely cropped hairstyle worn by schoolboys in Thailand, is from the behaviour of these schoolboys who usually gather to play online games and, during which, make annoying, disruptive, impolite, or unreasonable expressions. The term ''top krian'' (ตบเกรียน; "slap a cropped head") refers to the act of posting intellectual replies to refute the messages of Internet trolls and cause them to be perceived as unintelligent.
Trolling, identity, and anonymity
Early incidents of trolling were considered to be the same as flaming
, but this has changed with modern usage by the news media to refer to the creation of any content that targets another person. The Internet dictionary NetLingo suggests there are four grades of trolling: playtime trolling, tactical trolling, strategic trolling, and domination trolling. The relationship between trolling and flaming was observed in open-access forums in California, on a series of modem-linked computers. ''CommuniTree'' was begun in 1978 but was closed in 1982 when accessed by high school teenagers, becoming a ground for trashing and abuse.
Some psychologists have suggested that flaming would be caused by deindividuation
or decreased self-evaluation: the anonymity of online postings would lead to disinhibition
amongst individuals. Others have suggested that although flaming and trolling is often unpleasant, it may be a form of normative behavior that expresses the social identity
of a certain user group. According to Tom Postmes, a professor of social and organisational psychology at the universities of Exeter, England, and Groningen, The Netherlands, and the author of ''Individuality and the Group'', who has studied online behavior for 20 years, "Trolls aspire to violence, to the level of trouble they can cause in an environment. They want it to kick off. They want to promote antipathetic emotions of disgust and outrage, which morbidly gives them a sense of pleasure."
Someone who brings something off topic into the conversation in order to make that person mad is trolling.
The practice of trolling has been documented by a number of academics as early as the 1990s. This included Steven Johnson in 1997 in the book ''Interface Culture'', and a paper by Judith Donath
in 1999. Donath's paper outlines the ambiguity of identity in a disembodied "virtual community
" such as Usenet
Donath provides a concise overview of identity deception
games which trade on the confusion between physical and epistemic community
Trolls can be costly in several ways. A troll can disrupt the discussion on a newsgroup or online forum, disseminate bad advice, and damage the feeling of trust in the online community. Furthermore, in a group that has become sensitized to trollingwhere the rate of deception is highmany honestly naïve questions may be quickly rejected as trolling. This can be quite off-putting to the new user who upon venturing a first posting is immediately bombarded with angry accusations. Even if the accusation is unfounded, being branded a troll may be damaging to one's online reputation.
Susan Herring and colleagues in "Searching for Safety Online: Managing 'Trolling' in a Feminist Forum" point out the difficulty inherent in monitoring trolling and maintaining freedom of speech in online communities: "harassment often arises in spaces known for their freedom, lack of censure, and experimental nature".
Free speech may lead to tolerance of trolling behavior, complicating the members' efforts to maintain an open, yet supportive discussion area, especially for sensitive topics such as race, gender, and sexuality.
In an effort to reduce uncivil behavior by increasing accountability, many web sites (e.g. Reuters
, and Gizmodo
) now require commenters to register their names and e-mail addresses.
"Where Anonymity Breeds Contempt"
''The New York Times'', 29 November 2010.
Corporate, political, and special-interest sponsored trolls
Organizations and countries may utilize trolls to manipulate public opinion as part and parcel of an astroturfing
initiative. Teams of sponsored trolls are sometimes referred to as sockpuppet
A 2016 study by Harvard political scientist Gary King
reported that the Chinese government's 50 Cent Party
creates 440 million pro-government social media posts per year.
The report said that government employees were paid to create pro-government posts around the time of national holidays to avoid mass political protests. The Chinese Government ran an editorial in the state-funded ''Global Times
'' defending censorship
and 50 Cent Party trolls.
A 2016 study for the NATO
Strategic Communications Centre of Excellence on hybrid warfare
notes that the Ukrainian crisis
"demonstrated how fake identities and accounts were used to disseminate narratives through social media, blogs, and web commentaries in order to manipulate, harass, or deceive opponents."
The NATO report describes that a "Wikipedia troll" uses a type of message design where a troll does not add "emotional value" to reliable "essentially true" information in re-posts, but presents it "in the wrong context, intending the audience to draw false conclusions." For example, information, without context, from Wikipedia about the military history of the United States
"becomes value-laden if it is posted in the comment section of an article criticizing Russia for its military actions and interests in Ukraine. The Wikipedia troll is 'tricky', because in terms of actual text, the information is true, but the way it is expressed gives it a completely different meaning to its readers."
Unlike "classic trolls," Wikipedia trolls "have no emotional input, they just supply misinformation
" and are one of "the most dangerous" as well as one of "the most effective trolling message designs."
Even among people who are "emotionally immune to aggressive messages" and apolitical, "training in critical thinking
" is needed, according to the NATO report, because "they have relatively blind trust in Wikipedia sources and are not able to filter information that comes from platforms they consider authoritative."
While Russian-language hybrid trolls use the Wikipedia troll message design to promote anti-Western sentiment
in comments, they "mostly attack aggressively to maintain emotional attachment
to issues covered in articles."
Discussions about topics other than international sanctions during the Ukrainian crisis
"attracted very aggressive trolling" and became polarized, according to the NATO report, which "suggests that in subjects in which there is little potential for re-educating audiences, emotional harm is considered more effective" for pro-Russian Latvian-language trolls.
A 2016 study on fluoridation decision-making in Israel coined the term "Uncertainty Bias" to describe the efforts of power in government, public health and media to aggressively advance agendas by misrepresentation of historical and scientific fact. The authors noted that authorities tended to overlook or to deny situations that involve uncertainty while making unscientific arguments and disparaging comments in order to undermine opposing positions.
''The New York Times
'' reported in late October 2018 that Saudi Arabia
used an online army of Twitter
trolls to harass the late Saudi dissident journalist Jamal Khashoggi
and other critics of the Saudi government.
In October 2018, ''The Daily Telegraph'' reported that Facebook
"banned hundreds of pages and accounts which it says were fraudulently flooding its site with partisan political content – although they came from the US instead of being associated with Russia."
Researcher Ben Radford
wrote about the phenomenon of clown
s in history and modern day in his book ''Bad Clowns'', and found that bad clowns have evolved into Internet trolls.
They do not dress up as traditional clowns but, for their own amusement, they tease and exploit "human foibles" in order to speak the "truth" and gain a reaction.
Like clowns in make-up, Internet trolls hide behind "anonymous accounts and fake usernames".
In their eyes, they are the trickster
and are performing for a nameless audience via the Internet.
Studies conducted in the fields of human–computer interaction
by other researchers have corroborated Radford's analysis on the phenomenon of Internet trolling as a form of deception-serving entertainment
and its correlations to aggressive behaviour
, black humor
, and the Dark tetrad
Trolling correlates positively with sadism
(see Dark triad
). Trolls take pleasure from causing pain
and emotional suffering
Their ability to upset or harm gives them a feeling of power.
conducted in the fields of personality psychology
report that trolling behaviour qualifies as an anti-social behaviour
and is strongly correlated to Sadistic personality disorder
Researches have shown that men
, compared with women
, are more likely to perpetrate trolling behaviour; these gender differences in online anti-social behaviour may be a reflection of gender stereotypes
, where agentic characteristics such as competitiveness and dominance are encouraged in men
The results corroborated that gender (male) is a significant predictor of trolling behaviour, alongside trait psychopathy and sadism to be significant positive predictors.
Moreover, these studies have shown that people who enjoy trolling online tend to also enjoy hurting other people in everyday life, therefore corroborating a longstanding and persistent pattern of psychological sadism.
study on the phenomenon of Internet trolling asserts that anonymity
increases the incidence of the trolling behaviour, and that "the internet is becoming a medium
to invest our anxieties and not thinking about the repercussions of trolling and affecting the victims mentally and incite a sense of guilt and shame within them".
A ''concern troll'' is a false flag pseudonym
created by a user whose actual point of view
is opposed to the one that the troll claims to hold. The concern troll posts in web forums devoted to its declared point of view and attempts to sway the group's actions or opinions while claiming to share their goals
, but with professed "concerns". The goal is to sow fear, uncertainty, and doubt
within the group often by appealing to outrage culture
This is a particular case of sockpuppeting
For example, a person who wishes to shame obese people
, but disguises this impulse as concern for the health of overweight people could be considered a concern troll.
A verifiable example of concern trolling occurred in 2006 when Tad Furtado, a staffer for then-Congressman Charles Bass
), was caught posing as a "concerned" supporter of Bass's opponent, Democrat Paul Hodes
, on several liberal New Hampshire
blogs, using the pseudonyms "IndieNH" or "IndyNH". "IndyNH" expressed concern that Democrats might just be wasting their time or money on Hodes, because Bass was unbeatable.
Hodes eventually won the election.
Although the term "concern troll" originated in discussions of online behavior, it now sees increasing use to describe similar offline behaviors. For example, James Wolcott of ''Vanity Fair
'' accused a conservative ''New York Daily News
'' columnist of "concern troll" behavior in his efforts to downplay the Mark Foley scandal
. Wolcott links what he calls concern trolls to what Saul Alinsky
calls "Do-Nothings", giving a long quote from Alinsky on the Do-Nothings' method and effects:
'' published an op-ed piece by Markos Moulitsas
of the liberal blog ''Daily Kos
'' titled "Dems: Ignore 'Concern Trolls. The concern trolls in question were not Internet participants but rather Republicans offering public advice and warnings to the Democrats. The author defines "concern trolling" as "offering a poisoned apple in the form of advice to political opponents that, if taken, would harm the recipient".
Concern trolls use a different type of bait than the more stereotypical troll in their attempts to manipulate participants and disrupt conversations.
A ''The New York Times
'' article discussed troll activity at 4chan
and at Encyclopedia Dramatica
, which it described as "an online compendium of troll humor and troll lore".
4chan's /b/ board is recognized as "one of the Internet's most infamous and active trolling hotspots". This site and others are often used as a base to troll against sites that their members can not normally post on. These trolls feed off the reactions of their victims because "their agenda is to take delight in causing trouble".
Places like Reddit, 4chan, Kiwi Farms
, and other anonymous message boards are prime real-estate for online trolls. Because there's no way of tracing who someone is, trolls can post very inflammatory content without repercussion.
The online French group Ligue du LOL
has been accused of organized harassment and described as a troll group.
Media coverage and controversy
Mainstream media outlets have focused their attention on the willingness of some Internet users to go to extreme lengths to participate in organized psychological harassment
In February 2010, the Australian government became involved after users defaced the Facebook tribute pages of murdered children Trinity Bates and Elliott Fletcher. Australian communications minister Stephen Conroy
decried the attacks, committed mainly by 4chan users, as evidence of the need for greater Internet regulation, stating, "This argument that the Internet is some mystical creation that no laws should apply to, that is a recipe for anarchy and the wild west." Facebook responded by strongly urging administrators to be aware of ways to ban users and remove inappropriate content from Facebook pages. In 2012, the ''Daily Telegraph
'' started a campaign to take action against "Twitter trolls", who abuse and threaten users. Several high-profile Australians including Charlotte Dawson
, Robbie Farah
, Laura Dundovic
, and Ray Hadley
have been victims of this phenomenon.
Newslaundry covered the phenomenon of "Twitter trolling" in its "Criticles". It has also been characterising Twitter trolls in its weekly podcasts.
In the United Kingdom, contributions made to the Internet are covered by the Malicious Communications Act 1988
as well as Section 127 of the Communications Act 2003
, under which jail sentences were, until 2015, limited to a maximum of six months.
In October 2014, the UK's Justice Secretary, Chris Grayling
, said that "Internet trolls" would face up to two years in jail, under measures in the Criminal Justice and Courts Bill that extend the maximum sentence and time limits for bringing prosecutions.
The House of Lords Select Committee on Communications had earlier recommended against creating a specific offence of trolling. Sending messages which are "grossly offensive or of an indecent, obscene or menacing character" is an offence whether they are received by the intended recipient or not. Several people have been imprisoned in the UK for online harassment
Trolls of the testimonial page of Georgia Varley faced no prosecution due to misunderstandings of the legal system in the wake of the term trolling being popularized. In October 2012, a twenty-year-old man was jailed for twelve weeks for posting offensive jokes to a support group for friends and family of April Jones
As Phillips states, trolling embodies the values that are said to make America the greatest and most powerful nation on earth, due to the liberty and freedom of expression it encourages.
On 31 March 2010, NBC's ''Today
'' ran a segment detailing the deaths of three separate adolescent girls and trolls' subsequent reactions to their deaths. Shortly after the suicide of high school student Alexis Pilkington, anonymous posters began performing organized psychological harassment across various message boards, referring to Pilkington as a "suicidal slut", and posting graphic images on her Facebook
memorial page. The segment also included an exposé of a 2006 accident, in which an eighteen-year-old fatally crashed her father's car into a highway pylon; trolls emailed her grieving family the leaked pictures of her mutilated corpse (see Nikki Catsouras photographs controversy
["Trolling: ''The Today Show'' Explores the Dark Side of the Internet"](_blank)
, 31 March 2010. Retrieved on 4 April 2010.
In 2007, the media was fooled by trollers into believing that students were consuming a drug called Jenkem
, purportedly made of human waste. A user named Pickwick on TOTSE
posted pictures implying that he was inhaling this drug. Major news corporations such as Fox News Channel
reported the story and urged parents to warn their children about this drug. Pickwick's pictures of Jenkem
were fake and the pictures did not actually feature human waste.
In August 2012, the subject of trolling was featured on the HBO television series
''. The character of Neal Sampat
encounters harassing individuals online, particularly looking at 4chan
, and he ends up choosing to post negative comments himself on an economics-related forum. The attempt by the character to infiltrate trolls' inner circles attracted debate from media reviewers critiquing the series.
The publication of the 2015 non-fiction book ''The Dark Net: Inside the Digital Underworld'' by Jamie Bartlett
, a journalist and a representative of the British think tank Demos
, attracted some attention for its depiction of misunderstood sections of the Internet, describing interactions on encrypted sites such as those accessible with the software Tor
. Detailing trolling-related groups and the harassment created by them, Bartlett advocated for greater awareness of them and monitoring of their activities. Professor Matthew Wisnioski wrote for ''The Washington Post
'' that a "league of trolls, anarchists, perverts and drug dealers is at work building a digital world beyond the Silicon Valley offices where our era's best and brightest have designed a Facebook-friendly" surface and agreed with Bartlett that the activities of trolls go back decades to the Usenet
"flame wars" of the 1990s and even earlier.
In February 2019, Glenn Greenwald
wrote that a cybersecurity company New Knowledge "was caught just six weeks ago engaging in a massive scam to create fictitious Russian troll accounts on Facebook and Twitter in order to claim that the Kremlin was working to defeat Democratic Senate nominee Doug Jones
in Alabama. ''The New York Times
'', when exposing the scam, quoted a New Knowledge report that boasted of its fabrications: “We orchestrated an elaborate ‘false flag’ operation that planted the idea that the oy
Moore campaign was amplified on social media by a Russian botnet.'"
The 2020 Democratic
presidential candidate Bernie Sanders
has faced criticism for the behavior of some of his supporters online, but has deflected such criticism, suggesting that "Russians" were impersonating people claiming to be "Bernie Bro
" supporters. Twitter rejected Sanders' suggestion that Russia could be responsible for the bad reputation of his supporters. A Twitter spokesperson told CNBC
: "Using technology and human review in concert, we proactively monitor Twitter to identify attempts at platform manipulation and mitigate them. As is standard, if we have reasonable evidence of state-backed information operations, we’ll disclose them following our thorough investigation to our public archive — the largest of its kind in the industry." Twitter had suspended 70 troll accounts that posted content in support of Michael Bloomberg
's presidential campaign
The 45th American president, Donald J. Trump
, infamously used Twitter to denigrate his political opponents and spread misinformation for which he earned the moniker Troll-In-Chief.
So-called Gold Membership trolling originated in 2007 on 4chan
boards, when users posted fake images claiming to offer upgraded 4chan account privileges; without a "Gold" account, one could not view certain content. This turned out to be a hoax designed to fool board members, especially newcomers. It was copied and became an Internet meme
. In some cases, this type of troll has been used as a scam, most notably on Facebook, where fake Facebook Gold Account upgrade ads have proliferated in order to link users to dubious websites and other content.
The case of ''Zeran v. America Online, Inc.
'' resulted primarily from trolling. Six days after the Oklahoma City bombing
, anonymous users posted advertisements for shirts celebrating the bombing on AOL message boards, claiming that the shirts could be obtained by contacting Mr. Kenneth Zeran. The posts listed Zeran's address and home phone number. Zeran was subsequently harassed.
protests by Anonymous
, commonly known as Project Chanology
, are sometimes labeled as "trolling" by media such as ''Wired
'', and the participants sometimes explicitly self-identify as "trolls".
website ''The Daily Stormer
'' orchestrates what it calls a "Troll Army", and has encouraged trolling of Jewish MP Luciana Berger
and Muslim activist Mariam Veiszadeh
In 2012, after feminist Anita Sarkeesian
started a Kickstarter campaign to fund a series of YouTube videos chronicling misogyny in video games, she received bomb threats at speaking engagements, doxxing threats, rape threats and an unwanted starring role in a video game called Beat Up Anita Sarkeesian.
In 2020, the official Discord
server and Twitch
channel for the U.S. Army Esports
team became a target of trolling, as people sent anti-U.S. Army messages, memes, and references to war crimes committed by the United States
to both. When the team started banning users from their Twitch channel for trolling, they were accused of violating the First Amendment to the United States Constitution
by the ACLU
and Knight First Amendment Institute at Columbia University
. The team has since denied these allegations.
* Walter, T.; Hourizi, R.; Moncur, W.; Pitsillides (2012). Does the Internet Change How We Die And Mourn? An OvervieOnline
Trolling advocacy and safety
The Trolling Academy
– trolling advice, comment, and training
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Background and definitions
Academic and debate
How to Respond to Internet Rage
''New York Times Magazine'', By Mattathias Schwartz; 3 August 2008.
Internet Trolls Are Narcissists, Psychopaths, and Sadists Jennifer Golbeck
for ''Psychology Today
''. 18 September 2014.
Category:Pejorative terms for people