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Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is a landlocked
autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country sub ...
of the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, most populous country, with a Population of China, population of more than 1.4 billio ...

People's Republic of China
. Its border includes most of the length of China's
border Borders are boundaries of or legal s, such as s, , , and other . Borders are established through agreements between political or social entities that control those areas; the creation of these agreements is called . Some borders—such as mos ...
with the country of
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: '; literal translation, lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country in East Asia. It is bordered by Russia Mongolia–Russia ...

Mongolia
. Inner Mongolia also accounts for a small section of China's
border Borders are boundaries of or legal s, such as s, , , and other . Borders are established through agreements between political or social entities that control those areas; the creation of these agreements is called . Some borders—such as mos ...
with
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe. There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly becau ...

Russia
(
Zabaykalsky Krai Zabaykalsky Krai ( rus, Забайкальский край, r=Zabaikal'skii krai, p=zəbɐjˈkalʲskʲɪj kraj, lit. "(The) Transbaikal krai") is a federal subjects of Russia, federal subject of Russia (a krai) that was created on March 1, 2 ...
). Its capital is
Hohhot Hohhot (Mongolian language, Mongolian: ', Хөх хот ''Khökh khot'' Help:IPA/Mongolian, ; ), abbreviated Hushi (), formerly known as Kweisui (), is the Capital (political), capital of Inner Mongolia in the North China, north of the Chi ...
; other major cities include
Baotou Baotou (; mn, Buɣutu qota) is the largest city by urban population An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which pe ...

Baotou
,
Chifeng Chifeng ( zh, s=赤峰市), also known as Ulankhad ( mn, (Улаанхад хот), ''Ulaɣanqada qota'', , "red cliff"), is a prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin Coun ...

Chifeng
,
Tongliao Tongliao (; mn, ''Tüŋliyou qota'', Mongolian Cyrillic.Байшинт хот) is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). Th ...

Tongliao
and Ordos. The Autonomous Region was established in 1947, incorporating the areas of the former
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It shares Maritime boundary, maritime borders with the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the sout ...
provinces of
Suiyuan Suiyuan () was a historical province of China. Suiyuan's capital was Guisui (now Hohhot). The abbreviation was 綏 (pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese, Standard ...
, Chahar, Rehe, Liaobei and Xing'an, along with the northern parts of
Gansu Gansu (, ; alternately romanized as Kansu) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnatio ...

Gansu
and
Ningxia Ningxia (, ; Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Ninghsia), officially the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), is a landlocked Autonomous regions of China, autonomous region in the Northwest China, northwest of the China, Pe ...

Ningxia
. Its area makes it the third largest Chinese administrative subdivision, constituting approximately and 12% of China's total land area. Due to its long span from east to west, Inner Mongolia is geographically divided into eastern and western divisions. The eastern division is often included in Northeastern China (former Manchuria) with major cities including
Tongliao Tongliao (; mn, ''Tüŋliyou qota'', Mongolian Cyrillic.Байшинт хот) is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). Th ...

Tongliao
,
Chifeng Chifeng ( zh, s=赤峰市), also known as Ulankhad ( mn, (Улаанхад хот), ''Ulaɣanqada qota'', , "red cliff"), is a prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin Coun ...

Chifeng
,
Hailaer Hailar District, formerly a county-level city, is an urban District (China), district that serves as the seat of the prefecture-level city Hulunbuir in northeastern Inner Mongolia, China. Hulunbuir, due to its massive size, is a city in administr ...
,
Ulanhot Ulanhot ( mn, ; ), formerly known as Wangin Süm, alternatively Wang-un Süme, Ulaγanqota (Red City) in Classical Mongolian, is a county-level cities, county-level city and the administrative center of Hinggan League in the east of the Inner Mo ...
. The western division is included in Northwestern China, with major cities including
Baotou Baotou (; mn, Buɣutu qota) is the largest city by urban population An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which pe ...

Baotou
,
Hohhot Hohhot (Mongolian language, Mongolian: ', Хөх хот ''Khökh khot'' Help:IPA/Mongolian, ; ), abbreviated Hushi (), formerly known as Kweisui (), is the Capital (political), capital of Inner Mongolia in the North China, north of the Chi ...
. It recorded a population of 24,706,321 in the
2010 census2010 census may refer to: * 2010 Chinese Census * 2010 Dominican Republic Census * 2010 Indonesian census * 2010 Malaysian Census * 2010 Russian Census * 2010 Turkish census * 2010 United States Census * 2010 Zambian census {{Disambiguation ...
, accounting for 1.84% of
Mainland China The term "mainland China" refers to the area directly governed by the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies ...

Mainland China
's total population. Inner Mongolia is the country's 23rd most populous
province-level division Due to China's large Demographics of China, population and geographical area, the administrative divisions of China have consisted of several levels since History of the administrative divisions of China, ancient era. The constitution of China ...
. The majority of the population in the region are
Han Chinese The Han Chinese (), or the Han people (), is an East Asian East Asia is the east East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north North is one of the four ...
, with a sizeable
Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an ethnic group to the , and the of Russia. The Mongols are the principal member of the large family of . The in Western Mongolia as well as the ...
minority close to 5,000,000 (2019) which is the largest Mongolian population in the world (bigger than that in the country of
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: '; literal translation, lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country in East Asia. It is bordered by Russia Mongolia–Russia ...

Mongolia
). Inner Mongolia is one of the most economically developed provinces in China with annual GDP per capita close to US$13,000 (2019), often ranked 5th in the nation. The official languages are
Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy and can compose the administration o ...
and
Mongolian Mongolian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Mongolia, a country in Asia * Mongolian people, or Mongols * Mongolia (1911–24), the government of Mongolia, 1911–1919 and 1921–1924 * Mongolian language * Mongolian alphabet * Mongo ...

Mongolian
, the latter of which is written in the traditional Mongolian script, as opposed to the
Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet The word 'Mongolia' ('Mongol') in Cyrillic script The Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet (Mongolian language, Mongolian: , or , ) is the writing system used for the Khalkha Mongolian, standard dialect of the Mongolian language in the modern state of M ...
, which is used in the state of
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: '; literal translation, lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country in East Asia. It is bordered by Russia Mongolia–Russia ...

Mongolia
(formerly often described as "
Outer Mongolia Outer Mongolia (Mongolian script: or , Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet, Mongolian Cyrillic: or , romanization: ''Gadaad Mongol'' or ''Alr Mongol''; Manchu language, Manchu: ''Tülergi Monggo''; )Huhbator Borjigin. 2004. The history an ...
").


Etymology

In Chinese, the region is known as "Inner Mongolia", where the terms of "Inner/Outer" are derived from
Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeast Asia (mostly in N ...
''dorgi''/''tulergi'' (cf.
Mongolian Mongolian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Mongolia, a country in Asia * Mongolian people, or Mongols * Mongolia (1911–24), the government of Mongolia, 1911–1919 and 1921–1924 * Mongolian language * Mongolian alphabet * Mongo ...

Mongolian
''dotugadu''/''gadagadu''). Inner Mongolia is distinct from
Outer Mongolia Outer Mongolia (Mongolian script: or , Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet, Mongolian Cyrillic: or , romanization: ''Gadaad Mongol'' or ''Alr Mongol''; Manchu language, Manchu: ''Tülergi Monggo''; )Huhbator Borjigin. 2004. The history an ...
, which was a term used by the
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It shares Maritime boundary, maritime borders with the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the sout ...
and previous governments to refer to what is now the independent
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
of
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: '; literal translation, lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country in East Asia. It is bordered by Russia Mongolia–Russia ...

Mongolia
plus the Republic of
Tuva Tuva (; russian: Тува́) or Tyva ( tyv, Тыва), officially the Tyva Republic (russian: Респу́блика Тыва́, r=Respublika Tyva, p=rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə tɨˈva; tyv, Тыва Республика, translit=Tyva Respublika ...

Tuva
in
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe. There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly becau ...

Russia
. The term Inner (Nei) referred to the Nei Fan (Inner Tributary), i.e., those descendants of Genghis Khan who were granted the title khan (king) in the Ming and Qing dynasties and lived in part of southern Mongolia. The region is called Southern Mongolia by its delegation to the
Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization The Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO) is an international organization established to facilitate the voices of unrepresented and marginalised nations and peoples worldwide. It was formed on 11 February 1991 in The Hague Th ...
.


History

Much of what is known about the history of
Greater MongoliaGreater Mongolia may refer to: * In Pan-Mongolism, idea that advocates cultural and political solidarity of Mongols * The contiguous geographical area in which the Mongols primarily live ** The Mongolian Plateau, comprising the majority of this regio ...
, including Inner Mongolia, is known through Chinese chronicles and historians. Before the rise of the Mongols in the 13th century, what is now central and western Inner Mongolia, especially the
Hetao Hetao () is a C-shaped region in northwestern China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populati ...
region, alternated in control between
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...
agriculturalists in the south, and
Xiongnu The Xiongnu (, ) were a tribal confederation A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common action. Usually created by a treaty A treaty is a formal ...

Xiongnu
,
Xianbei The Xianbei (; ) were a Proto-Mongolic Proto-Mongolic is the hypothetical ancestor language of the modern Mongolic languages. It is very close to the Middle Mongol language, the language spoken at the time of Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empir ...
, Khitan,
JurchenJurchen may refer to: * Jurchen people, Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until the 17th century ** Haixi Jurchens, a grouping of the Jurchens as identified by the Chinese of the Ming Dynasty ** Jianzhou Jurchens, a grouping of t ...
, Tujue, and nomadic
Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an ethnic group to the , and the of Russia. The Mongols are the principal member of the large family of . The in Western Mongolia as well as the ...
of the north. The historical narrative of what is now Eastern Inner Mongolia mostly consists of alternations between different Tungusic and
Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an ethnic group to the , and the of Russia. The Mongols are the principal member of the large family of . The in Western Mongolia as well as the ...
tribes, rather than the struggle between nomads and Chinese agriculturalists.


Early history

Slab Grave cultural monuments are found in Northern, Central and Eastern
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: '; literal translation, lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country in East Asia. It is bordered by Russia Mongolia–Russia ...

Mongolia
, Inner Mongolia, North-Western China, Southern, Central-Eastern and Southern Baikal territory. Mongolian scholars prove that this culture related to the
Proto-Mongols The proto-Mongols emerged from an area that had been inhabited by humans and predecessor species as far back as the over 800,000 years ago. The people there went through the and s, forming tribal alliances, peopling, and coming into conflict w ...
. During the
Zhou dynasty The Zhou dynasty ( ; Old Chinese Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China ( ...
, Central and Western Inner Mongolia (the
Hetao Hetao () is a C-shaped region in northwestern China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populati ...
region and surrounding areas) were inhabited by nomadic peoples such as the Loufan, Linhu and , while Eastern Inner Mongolia was inhabited by the Donghu. During the
Warring States period The Warring States period () was an era in ancient Chinese history characterized by warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation. It followed the Spring and Autumn period The Spring and Autumn period was a period i ...
, King Wuling (340–295 BC) of the
state of Zhao Zhao () was one of the seven major states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a ...
based in what is now
Hebei Hebei (; alternately Hopeh) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, f ...
and
Shanxi Provinces
Shanxi Provinces
pursued an expansionist policy towards the region. After destroying the state of Zhongshan in what is now Hebei province, he defeated the Linhu and Loufan and created the
Yunzhong Commandery Yunzhong Commandery ( zh, 雲中郡) was a historical commandery of China. Its territories were located between the Great Wall The Great Wall of China () is a series of fortifications that were built across the historical northern borders of ...
near modern
Hohhot Hohhot (Mongolian language, Mongolian: ', Хөх хот ''Khökh khot'' Help:IPA/Mongolian, ; ), abbreviated Hushi (), formerly known as Kweisui (), is the Capital (political), capital of Inner Mongolia in the North China, north of the Chi ...
. King Wuling of Zhao also built a long wall stretching through the Hetao region. After
Qin Shi Huang Qin Shi Huang (, ; 259–210 BCE), or Shihuangdi, was the founder of the Qin dynasty, and first Emperor of China, emperor of a unified China. Rather than maintain the title of "Chinese king, king" ( ''wáng'') borne by the previous Shang dyna ...
created the first unified Chinese empire in 221 BC, he sent the general
Meng Tian Meng Tian (died 210 BC) was a Chinese inventor and military general of the Qin dynasty who distinguished himself in campaigns against the Xiongnu and in the construction of the Great Wall of China The Great Wall of China () is a series of ...
to drive the Xiongnu from the region and incorporated the old Zhao wall into the Qin dynasty Great Wall of China. He also maintained two commanderies in the region: Jiuyuan and Yunzhong and moved 30,000 households there to solidify the region. After the Qin dynasty collapsed in 206 BC, these efforts were abandoned. During the
Western Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...
,
Emperor Wu
Emperor Wu
sent the general
Wei Qing Wei Qing (died 106 BC), courtesy name Zhongqing, born Zheng Qing in Linfen, Shanxi, was a Chinese military general and politician of the Western Han dynasty who was acclaimed for his Han-Xiongnu War, campaigns against the Xiongnu, and his rags ...

Wei Qing
to reconquer the Hetao region from the Xiongnu in 127 BC. After the conquest, Emperor Wu continued the policy of building settlements in Hetao to defend against the Xiong-Nu. In that same year, he established the commanderies of
Shuofang Shuofang () was an ancient Chinese commandery, situated in the Hetao region in modern-day Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia or Nei Mongol (; ''Öbür Monggol'', /ɵwɵr mɔŋɢɔɮ/, Mongolian Cyrillic: Өвөр Монгол), officially the ...
and Wuyuan in Hetao. At the same time, what is now Eastern Inner Mongolia was controlled by the
Xianbei The Xianbei (; ) were a Proto-Mongolic Proto-Mongolic is the hypothetical ancestor language of the modern Mongolic languages. It is very close to the Middle Mongol language, the language spoken at the time of Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empir ...
, who would, later on, eclipse the Xiongnu in power and influence. During the
Eastern Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...
(25–220 AD), Xiongnu who surrendered to the Han dynasty began to be settled in Hetao and intermingled with the Han immigrants in the area. Later on, during the
Western Jin dynasty Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska Western is a village in Saline County, Nebraska, Saline County, Nebraska, United States. The population was 235 at the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census. History Western was laid out in 1 ...
, it was a Xiongnu noble from Hetao, Liu Yuan, who established the
Han Zhao The Han Zhao (; 304–329 AD), or Former Zhao (), was a dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is th ...
kingdom in the region, thereby beginning the
Sixteen Kingdoms The Sixteen Kingdoms (), less commonly the Sixteen States, was a chaotic period in Chinese history The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty ...
period that saw the disintegration of northern China under a variety of Han and non-Han (including Xiongnu and Xianbei) regimes. The
Sui dynasty The Sui dynasty (, ) was a short-lived Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance. The Sui unified the Northern and Southern dynasties and reinstalled the rule of ethnic Han Chinese, Han in the entirety of ...

Sui dynasty
(581–618) and
Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organiza ...
(618–907) re-established a unified Chinese empire and like their predecessors, they conquered and settled people into Hetao, though once again these efforts were aborted when the Tang empire began to collapse. Hetao (along with the rest of what now consists Inner Mongolia) was then taken over by the
Khitan Empire The Liao dynasty (; Khitan: ''Mos Jælud''; ), also known as the Liao Empire, officially the Great Liao (), the Khitan Empire or the Khitan (Qidan) State (Khitan: ''Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur''), was an empire and imperial dynasty in East ...
(Liao dynasty), founded by the
Khitans The Khitan people (Khitan small script The Khitan small script () was one of two writing systems used for the now-extinct Khitan language Khitan or Kitan ( in large script or in small, ''Khitai''; , ''Qìdānyǔ''), also known as Liao, is a n ...

Khitans
, a nomadic people originally from what is now the southern part of Manchuria and Eastern Inner Mongolia. They were followed by the
Western Xia The Western Xia or the Xi Xia (), officially the Great Xia (), also known as the Tangut Empire, and known as ''Mi-nyak''Stein (1972), pp. 70–71. to Tanguts and Tibetans, was a Tangut people, Tangut-ruled empire and a Dynasties in C ...

Western Xia
of the Tanguts, who took control of what is now the western part of Inner Mongolia (including Western Hetao). The Khitans were later replaced by the
Jurchens Jurchen (Manchu language, Manchu: ''Jušen'', ; zh, 女真, ''Nǚzhēn'', ) is a term used to collectively describe a number of East Asian people, East Asian Tungusic languages, Tungusic-speaking peoples, descended from the Donghu people. They ...
, precursors to the modern
Manchus The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeast Asia (mostly in N ...
, who established the Jin dynasty over Manchuria and Northern China.


Mongol and Ming periods

After
Genghis Khan Genghis Khan (August 18, 1227), born Temüjin, was the founder and first () of the , which became the in history after his death. He came to power by uniting many of the s of , and, after being proclaimed the universal , or ''Genghis Khan'', he ...

Genghis Khan
unified the
Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an ethnic group to the , and the of Russia. The Mongols are the principal member of the large family of . The in Western Mongolia as well as the ...

Mongol
tribes in 1206 and founded the
Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire of the 13th and 14th centuries was the List of largest empires, largest contiguous land empire in history and the second largest empire by landmass, second only to the British Empire. Originating in Mongolia in East Asia, the ...
, the Tangut
Western Xia The Western Xia or the Xi Xia (), officially the Great Xia (), also known as the Tangut Empire, and known as ''Mi-nyak''Stein (1972), pp. 70–71. to Tanguts and Tibetans, was a Tangut people, Tangut-ruled empire and a Dynasties in C ...

Western Xia
empire was ultimately conquered in 1227, and the
JurchenJurchen may refer to: * Jurchen people, Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until the 17th century ** Haixi Jurchens, a grouping of the Jurchens as identified by the Chinese of the Ming Dynasty ** Jianzhou Jurchens, a grouping of t ...
Jin dynasty fell in 1234. In 1271,
Kublai Khan Kublai (; also spelled Qubilai or Kübilai; mn, Хубилай, Khubilai ; ; 23 September  1215 – 18 February 1294), also known by his temple name as Emperor Shizu of Yuan, was the fifth khagan-Emperor of China, emperor of the Mongol Empir ...

Kublai Khan
, the grandson of Genghis Khan established the
Yuan dynasty The Yuan dynasty (), officially the Great Yuan (; xng, , , literally "Great Yuan State"), was a successor state Successor is someone who, or something which succeeds or comes after (see success and succession) Film and TV * ''The Succe ...
. Kublai Khan's summer capital
Shangdu Even though Matteo Ricci and Bento de Góis had already Cathay#Identifying China as Cathay, proven that Cathay is simply another name for China, the English cartographer John Speed in 1626 continued the tradition of showing "Cathaya, the Chief ...
(aka Xanadu) was located near present-day Dolonnor. During that time
Ongud The Ongud (also spelled Ongut or Öngüt; Mongolian Mongolian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Mongolia, a country in Asia * Mongolian people, or Mongols * Mongolia (1911–24), the government of Mongolia, 1911–1919 and 1921–1 ...
and Khunggirad peoples dominated the area of what is now Inner Mongolia. After the Yuan dynasty was overthrown by the Han-led
Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an eth ...

Ming dynasty
in 1368, the Ming captured parts of Inner Mongolia including Shangdu and
Yingchang Yingchang () was one of the important cities in the Yuan dynasty. It was situated on Lake Taal Nor in modern Heshigten Banner, Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia or Nei Mongol (; ''Öbür Monggol'', /ɵwɵr mɔŋɢɔɮ/, Mongolian Cyrillic: Ө ...
. The Ming rebuilt the
Great Wall of China The Great Wall of China () is a series of fortifications that were built across the historical northern borders of ancient Chinese states and Imperial China as protection against Eurasian nomads, various nomadic groups from the Eurasian Step ...

Great Wall of China
at its present location, which roughly follows the southern border of the modern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (though it deviates significantly at the Hebei-Inner Mongolia border). The Ming established the Three Guards composed of the Mongols there. Soon after the Tumu incident in 1449, when the Oirat ruler
Esen taishi Esen ( mn, Эсэн; ) was a powerful Oirat taishi and the ''de facto'' ruler of the Northern Yuan dynasty The Northern Yuan () was a dynastic regime ruled by the Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; ) are ...

Esen taishi
captured the Chinese emperor, Mongols flooded south from Outer Mongolia to Inner Mongolia. Thus from then on until 1635, Inner Mongolia was the political and cultural center of the Mongols during the
Northern Yuan dynasty The Northern Yuan () was a dynastic regime ruled by the Mongols, Mongol Borjigin clan based in the Mongolian Plateau. It operated as a rump state after the collapse of the Yuan dynasty of China in 1368 and lasted until its conquest by the Jurchen ...

Northern Yuan dynasty
.


Qing period

The eastern Mongol tribes near and in Manchuria, particularly the
Khorchin The Khorchin (Хорчин, ''Horçin''; ''Qorčin''; ) are a subgroup of the Mongols that speak the Khorchin dialect of Mongolian and predominantly live in northeastern Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia or Nei Mongol (; ''Öbür Monggol'', ...
and Southern
Khalkha The Khalkha ( mn, Халх, ''Halh'', ) is the largest subgroup of Mongols, Mongol people in modern Mongolia since the 15th century. The Khalkha, together with Chahars, Ordos Mongols, Ordos and Tumed, were directly ruled by Borjigin khans until t ...
in today's Inner Mongolia intermarried, formed alliances with, and fought against the
JurchenJurchen may refer to: * Jurchen people, Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until the 17th century ** Haixi Jurchens, a grouping of the Jurchens as identified by the Chinese of the Ming Dynasty ** Jianzhou Jurchens, a grouping of t ...
tribes until
Nurhaci Nurhaci (1559 – 30 September 1626) was a Jurchen people, Jurchen chieftain who rose to prominence in the late 16th century in Manchuria. He was a member of the House of Aisin-Gioro, and reigned as the founding Khan (title), khan of the Later J ...

Nurhaci
, the founder of the new Jin dynasty, consolidated his control over all groups in the area in 1593. The
Manchus The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeast Asia (mostly in N ...
gained far-reaching control of the Inner Mongolian tribes in 1635, when Ligden Khan's son surrendered the
ChakharChahar or Chakhar may refer to: Mongolian uses * Chahar Mongols, a Mongol tribe * Chakhar Mongolian (Chakhar), a Mongolian dialect spoken by the Chahar tribe * Chahar Province, a former province of China named after them * Chahar Right Front Banner, ...
Mongol tribes to the
Manchus The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeast Asia (mostly in N ...
. The Manchus subsequently invaded Ming China in 1644, bringing it under the control of their newly established
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
. Under the Qing dynasty (1636–1912),
Greater MongoliaGreater Mongolia may refer to: * In Pan-Mongolism, idea that advocates cultural and political solidarity of Mongols * The contiguous geographical area in which the Mongols primarily live ** The Mongolian Plateau, comprising the majority of this regio ...
was administered in a different way for each region: * "Outer Mongolia": This region corresponds to the modern state of
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: '; literal translation, lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country in East Asia. It is bordered by Russia Mongolia–Russia ...

Mongolia
, plus the Russian-administered region of
Tannu Uriankhai Tannu Uriankhai ( tyv, Таңды Урянхай, ; mn, Тагна Урианхай, ''Tagna Urianhai''; russian: Урянхайский край, ''Urjanchajskij kraj'', ; ) is a historic region of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire of th ...
, and a part of northern
Xinjiang Xinjiang (),, SASM/GNC: ''Xinjang''; zh, c=, p=Xīnjiāng; alternately romanized as Sinkiang officially the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) and formerly romanized as Sinkiang, is a landlocked autonomous region An autonomous ...

Xinjiang
. It included the four leagues (''aimag'') of the
Khalkha Mongols The Khalkha ( mn, Халх, ''Halh'', ) is the largest subgroup of Mongol people The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; ) are an East Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia Mongolia (, Mongolian language, Mongol ...
north of the
Gobi The Gobi Desert () is a large desert or brushland region in East Asia. It covers parts of North China, Northern and Northeast China, Northeastern China and of Southern Mongolia. The desert basins of the Gobi are bounded by the Altai Mountains ...

Gobi
, as well as the
Tannu Uriankhai Tannu Uriankhai ( tyv, Таңды Урянхай, ; mn, Тагна Урианхай, ''Tagna Urianhai''; russian: Урянхайский край, ''Urjanchajskij kraj'', ; ) is a historic region of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire of th ...
and Khovd regions in northwestern Mongolia, which were overseen by the General of Uliastai from the city of
Uliastai Uliastai ( mn, Улиастай; ), also spelled Uliyasutai or Oulia-Sontai, and sometimes known as Javkhlant, is a city in Mongolia Mongolia (, Mongolian language, Mongolian: , Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: ') is a landlocked cou ...
. * "Inner Mongolia": This region corresponded to most of modern Inner Mongolia and some neighbouring areas in
Liaoning Liaoning (), is a coastal province in Northeast China Northeast China, is a geographical region of China. It usually corresponds specifically to the three province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country ...
and
Jilin Jilin (; alternately romanized as Kirin or Chilin) is one of the three provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrat ...

Jilin
provinces. The
banners A banner can be a flag A flag is a piece of textile, fabric (most often rectangular or quadrilateral) with a distinctive design and colours. It is used as a symbol, a signalling device, or for decoration. The term ''flag'' is also used to re ...
and tribes in this region came under six leagues (''chuulghan''):
Jirim
Jirim
, Juuuda,
JosutuThe Josutu League ( mn, ǰosutu-yin čiɣulɣan, ) was the southernmost league of Inner Mongolia during Qing rule Mongolia under Qing rule was the rule of the Qing dynasty over the Mongolian steppe, including the Outer Mongolian 4 aimags and I ...
,
Xilingol Xilingol, Xilin Gol, Shiliin Gol or Xilinguole Aimag/League (; mn, ''Shiliyin gool ayimag'', Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet, Mongolian cyrillic.Шилийн Гол аймаг) is one of 12 Leagues of China, leagues of Inner Mongolia. The seat is X ...
,
Ulanqab Ulanqab or Ulan Chab (; mn, ''Ulaɣančab qota''; Mongolian cyrillic.Улаанцав хот) is a region administered as a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" ...
, and Yekejuu. * "Taoxi Mongolia": The Alashan Öölüd and Ejine Torghuud banners were separate from the aimags of Outer Mongolia and the chuulghans of Inner Mongolia. This territory is equivalent to modern-day Alxa League, the westernmost part of what is now Inner Mongolia. * The Chahar Banners of Inner Mongolia, Banners were controlled by the military commander of Chahar (now Zhangjiakou). Their extent corresponded to southern Ulanqab and Bayannur in modern Inner Mongolia, plus the region around Zhangjiakou in
Hebei Hebei (; alternately Hopeh) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, f ...
province. At the same time, the jurisdiction of some border departments of Zhili Province, Zhili and Shanxi provinces also belonged to this region. * The Guihua Tümed banner was controlled by the military commander of Suiyuan (now
Hohhot Hohhot (Mongolian language, Mongolian: ', Хөх хот ''Khökh khot'' Help:IPA/Mongolian, ; ), abbreviated Hushi (), formerly known as Kweisui (), is the Capital (political), capital of Inner Mongolia in the North China, north of the Chi ...
). This corresponds to the vicinities of the modern city of
Hohhot Hohhot (Mongolian language, Mongolian: ', Хөх хот ''Khökh khot'' Help:IPA/Mongolian, ; ), abbreviated Hushi (), formerly known as Kweisui (), is the Capital (political), capital of Inner Mongolia in the North China, north of the Chi ...
. At the same time, the jurisdiction of some border departments of modern Shanxi province also belonged to this region. * The Hulunbuir region in what is now northeastern Inner Mongolia was part of the jurisdiction of the General of Heilongjiang, one of the three generals of Manchuria. The Inner Mongolian Chahar Mongols, Chahar leader Ligdan Khan, a descendant of Genghis Khan, opposed and fought against the Qing until he died of smallpox in 1634. Thereafter, the Inner Mongols under his son Ejei Khan surrendered to the Qing and was given the title of Prince (), and Inner Mongolian nobility became closely tied to the Qing royal family and intermarried with them extensively. Ejei Khan died in 1661 and was succeeded by his brother Abunai. After Abunai showed disaffection with Manchu Qing rule, he was placed under house arrest in 1669 in Shenyang and the Kangxi Emperor gave his title to his son Borni. Abunai then bid his time and then he and his brother Lubuzung revolted against the Qing in 1675 during the Revolt of the Three Feudatories, with 3,000 Chahar Mongol followers joining in on the revolt. The revolt was put down within two months, the Qing then crushed the rebels in a battle on 20 April 1675, killing Abunai and all his followers. Their title was abolished, all Chahar Mongol royal males were executed even if they were born to Manchu Qing princesses, and all Chahar Mongol royal females were sold into slavery except the Manchu Qing princesses. The Chahar Mongols were then put under the direct control of the Qing Emperor, unlike the other Inner Mongol leagues which maintained their autonomy. Despite officially prohibiting Han Chinese settlement on the Manchu and Mongol lands, by the 18th century the Qing decided to settle Han refugees from northern China who were suffering from famine, floods, and drought into Manchuria and Inner Mongolia. As a result, the Han Chinese farmed 500,000 hectares in Manchuria and tens of thousands of hectares in Inner Mongolia by the 1780s. Ordinary Mongols were not allowed to travel outside their own leagues. Mongols were forbidden by the Qing from crossing the borders of their banners, even into other Mongol Banners and from crossing into neidi (the Han Chinese 18 provinces) and were given serious punishments if they did in order to keep the Mongols divided against each other to benefit the Qing. Mongol pilgrims wanting to leave their banner's borders for religious reasons such as pilgrimage had to apply for passports to give them permission. During the eighteenth century, growing numbers of
Han Chinese The Han Chinese (), or the Han people (), is an East Asian East Asia is the east East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north North is one of the four ...
settlers had illegally begun to move into the Inner Mongolian steppe. By 1791, there had been so many Han Chinese settlers in the Qian Gorlos Mongol Autonomous County, Front Gorlos Banner that the jasak had petitioned the Qing government to legalise the status of the peasants who had already settled there. During the nineteenth century, the Manchus were becoming increasingly sinicised and faced with the Russian threat, they began to encourage Han Chinese farmers to settle in both Mongolia and Manchuria. This policy was followed by subsequent governments. The railroads that were being built in these regions were especially useful to the Han Chinese settlers. Land was either sold by Mongol Princes, or leased to Han Chinese farmers, or simply taken away from the nomads and given to Han Chinese farmers. A group of Han Chinese during the Qing dynasty called "Mongol followers" immigrated to Inner Mongolia who worked as servants for Mongols and Mongol princes and married Mongol women. Their descendants continued to marry Mongol women and changed their ethnicity to Mongol as they assimilated into the Mongol people, an example of this were the ancestors of Li Shouxin. They distinguished themselves apart from "true Mongols" 真蒙古.


Republic of China and the Second World War periods

Outer Mongolia gained independence from the Qing dynasty in 1911, when the Jebtsundamba Khutugtu of the Khalkha was declared the Bogd Khan of Mongolia. Although almost all banners of Inner Mongolia recognised the Bogd Khan as the supreme ruler of Mongols, the internal strife within the region prevented a full reunification. The Mongol rebellions in Inner Mongolia were counterbalanced by princes who hoped to see a restored Qing dynasty in Manchuria and Mongolia, as they considered the theocratic rule of the Bogd Khan would be against their modernising objectives for Mongolia. Eventually, the newly formed
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It shares Maritime boundary, maritime borders with the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the sout ...
promised a new nation of five races (Han Chinese, Han, Manchu,
Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an ethnic group to the , and the of Russia. The Mongols are the principal member of the large family of . The in Western Mongolia as well as the ...
, Tibetan people, Tibetan and Uyghur people, Uyghur). and suppressed the Mongol rebellions in the area. The Republic of China reorganised Inner Mongolia into provinces: * Rehe (province), Rehe province was created to include the Juuuda and Josutu leagues, plus the Chengde area in what is now northern
Hebei Hebei (; alternately Hopeh) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, f ...
. * Chahar (province), Chahar province was created to include Xilingol league as well as much of the former territory of the Eight Banners. *
Suiyuan Suiyuan () was a historical province of China. Suiyuan's capital was Guisui (now Hohhot). The abbreviation was 綏 (pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese, Standard ...
province was created to include Ulanqab league, Yekejuu league, and the Hetao region (former Guihua Tümed territory). * Hulunbuir stayed within Heilongjiang in Manchuria, which had become a province. * Most of Jirim league came under the new province of Liaoning, Fengtian in southern Manchuria. * Taoxi Mongolia, i.e., Alashan and Ejine leagues, was incorporated into neighbouring
Gansu Gansu (, ; alternately romanized as Kansu) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnatio ...

Gansu
province. Later on
Ningxia Ningxia (, ; Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Ninghsia), officially the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), is a landlocked Autonomous regions of China, autonomous region in the Northwest China, northwest of the China, Pe ...

Ningxia
province was split out of northern Gansu, and Taoxi Mongolia became part of Ningxia. Some Republic of China maps still show this structure. The history of Inner Mongolia during the Second World War is complicated, with Japanese invasion and different kinds of resistance movements. In 1931, Manchuria came under the control of the Japanese puppet state Manchukuo, taking some Mongol areas in the Manchurian provinces (i.e., Hulunbuir and Jirim leagues) along. Rehe was also incorporated into Manchukuo in 1933, taking Juu Uda and Josutu leagues along with it. These areas were occupied by Manchukuo until the end of World War II in 1945. In 1937, the Empire of Japan openly and fully invaded
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It shares Maritime boundary, maritime borders with the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the sout ...
. On 8 December 1937, Mongolian Prince Demchugdongrub (also known as "De Wang") declared independence for the remaining parts of Inner Mongolia (i.e., the Suiyuan and Chahar provinces) as Mengjiang, and signed agreements with Manchukuo and Japan. Its capital was established at Zhangbei Town, Zhangbei (now in
Hebei Hebei (; alternately Hopeh) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, f ...
province), with the Japanese puppet government's control extending as far west as the
Hohhot Hohhot (Mongolian language, Mongolian: ', Хөх хот ''Khökh khot'' Help:IPA/Mongolian, ; ), abbreviated Hushi (), formerly known as Kweisui (), is the Capital (political), capital of Inner Mongolia in the North China, north of the Chi ...
region. The Japanese advance was defeated by Hui Muslim General Ma Hongbin at the Battle of West Suiyuan and Battle of Wuyuan. Since 1945, Inner Mongolia has remained part of China. The Mongol Ulanhu fought against the Japanese. Ethnic Mongolian guerrilla units were created by the Kuomintang Nationalists to fight against the Japanese during the war in the late 30s and early 40s. These Mongol militias were created by the Ejine and Alashaa based commissioner's offices created by the Kuomintang. Prince Demchugdongrob's Mongols were targeted by Kuomintang Mongols to defect to the Republic of China. The Nationalists recruited 1,700 ethnic minority fighters in Inner Mongolia and created war zones in the Tumet Banner, Ulanchab League, and Ordos Yekejuu League. The Inner Mongolian People's Republic was founded shortly after the Second World War. It existed from 9 September 1945 until 6 November 1945.


People's Republic of China

The Communist movement gradually gained momentum as part of the Third Communist International in Inner Mongolia during the Japanese period. By the end of WWII, the Inner Mongolian faction of the ComIntern had a functional militia and actively opposed the attempts at independence by De Wang's Chinggisid princes on the grounds of fighting feudalism. Following the end of World War II, the Communist Party of China, Chinese Communists gained control of Manchuria as well as the Inner Mongolian Communists with decisive Soviet support and established the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in 1947. The Comintern army was absorbed into the People's Liberation Army. Initially, the autonomous region included just the Hulunbuir region. Over the next decade, as the communists established the People's Republic of China and consolidated control over mainland China, Inner Mongolia was expanded westwards to include five of the six original leagues (except Josutu League, which remains in
Liaoning Liaoning (), is a coastal province in Northeast China Northeast China, is a geographical region of China. It usually corresponds specifically to the three province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country ...
province), the northern part of the Chahar region, by then a league as well (southern Chahar remains in
Hebei Hebei (; alternately Hopeh) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, f ...
province), the Hetao region, and the Alashan and Ejine banners. Eventually, nearly all areas with sizeable Mongol populations were incorporated into the region, giving present-day Inner Mongolia its elongated shape. The leader of Inner Mongolia during that time, as both regional CPC secretary and head of regional government, was Ulanhu. During the Cultural Revolution, the administration of Ulanhu was purged, and a wave of repressions was initiated against the Mongol population of the autonomous region. In 1969 much of Inner Mongolia was distributed among surrounding provinces, with Hulunbuir divided between Heilongjiang and
Jilin Jilin (; alternately romanized as Kirin or Chilin) is one of the three provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrat ...

Jilin
, Jirim going to
Jilin Jilin (; alternately romanized as Kirin or Chilin) is one of the three provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrat ...

Jilin
, Juu Uda to
Liaoning Liaoning (), is a coastal province in Northeast China Northeast China, is a geographical region of China. It usually corresponds specifically to the three province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country ...
, and the Alashan and Ejine region divided among
Gansu Gansu (, ; alternately romanized as Kansu) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnatio ...

Gansu
and
Ningxia Ningxia (, ; Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Ninghsia), officially the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), is a landlocked Autonomous regions of China, autonomous region in the Northwest China, northwest of the China, Pe ...

Ningxia
. This was reversed in 1979. Inner Mongolia has seen considerable development since Deng Xiaoping instituted Chinese economic reform in 1978. For about ten years since 2000, Inner Mongolia's GDP growth has been the highest in the country, (along with Guangdong) largely owing to the success of natural resource industries in the region. GDP growth has continually been over 10%, even 15% and connections with the Wolf Economy to the north has helped development. However, growth has come at a cost with huge amounts of pollution and degradation to the grasslands. Attempts to attract Han Chinese, ethnic Chinese to migrate from other regions, as well as urbanise those rural nomads and peasants has led to huge amounts of corruption and waste in public spending, such as Ordos City. Acute uneven wealth distribution has further exacerbated ethnic tensions, many indigenous Mongolians feeling they are increasingly marginalised in their own homeland, leading to 2011 Inner Mongolia unrest, riots in 2011 and 2013. On 31 August 2020, 2020 Inner Mongolia protests, large protests broke out in ethnic Mongol communities due to unannounced plans by the Chinese government to phase out Mongolian-medium teaching.


Geography

Officially Inner Mongolia is classified as one of the provincial-level divisions of North China, but its great stretch means that parts of it belong to Northeast China and Northwest China as well. It borders eight provincial-level divisions in all three of the aforementioned regions (Heilongjiang,
Jilin Jilin (; alternately romanized as Kirin or Chilin) is one of the three provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrat ...

Jilin
,
Liaoning Liaoning (), is a coastal province in Northeast China Northeast China, is a geographical region of China. It usually corresponds specifically to the three province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country ...
,
Hebei Hebei (; alternately Hopeh) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, f ...
, Shanxi, Shaanxi,
Ningxia Ningxia (, ; Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Ninghsia), officially the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), is a landlocked Autonomous regions of China, autonomous region in the Northwest China, northwest of the China, Pe ...

Ningxia
, and
Gansu Gansu (, ; alternately romanized as Kansu) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnatio ...

Gansu
), tying with Shaanxi for the greatest number of bordering provincial-level divisions. Most of its international border is with Mongolia, which, in Chinese, is sometimes called "
Outer Mongolia Outer Mongolia (Mongolian script: or , Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet, Mongolian Cyrillic: or , romanization: ''Gadaad Mongol'' or ''Alr Mongol''; Manchu language, Manchu: ''Tülergi Monggo''; )Huhbator Borjigin. 2004. The history an ...
", while a small portion is with Russia's
Zabaykalsky Krai Zabaykalsky Krai ( rus, Забайкальский край, r=Zabaikal'skii krai, p=zəbɐjˈkalʲskʲɪj kraj, lit. "(The) Transbaikal krai") is a federal subjects of Russia, federal subject of Russia (a krai) that was created on March 1, 2 ...
. Inner Mongolia largely consists of the northern side of the North China Craton, a tilted and sedimented Precambrian block. In the extreme southwest is the edge of the Tibetan Plateau where the autonomous region's highest peak, Main Peak, Helan Mountains, Main Peak in the Helan Mountains reaches , and is still being pushed up today in short bursts.Wei Zhang, Mingyue He, Yonghua Li, Zhijiu Cui, Zhilin Wang and Yang Yu
"Quaternary glacier development and the relationship between the climate change and tectonic uplift in the Helan Mountains"
; in ''Chinese Science Bulletin''; December 2012, Volume 57, Issue 34, pp. 4491–4504.
Most of Inner Mongolia is a plateau averaging around in altitude and covered by extensive loess and sand deposits. The northern part consists of the Mesozoic era Khingan Mountains, and is owing to the cooler climate more forested, chiefly with Ulmus laciniata, Manchurian elm, Ash (Fraxinus), ash, birch, Quercus mongolica, Mongolian oak and a number of Pinus, pine and Picea, spruce species. Where discontinuous permafrost is present north of Hailar District, forests are almost exclusively coniferous. In the south, the natural vegetation is grassland in the east and very sparse in the arid west, and grazing is the dominant economic activity. Owing to the ancient, weathered rocks lying under its deep sedimentary cover, Inner Mongolia is a major mining district, possessing large reserves of coal, iron ore and rare-earth minerals, which have made it a major industrial region today.


Climate

Due to its elongated shape, Inner Mongolia has a four-season monsoon climate with regional variations. The winters in Inner Mongolia are very long, cold, and dry with frequent blizzards, though snowfall is so light that Inner Mongolia has no modern glaciers even on the highest Helan peaks. The spring is short, mild and arid, with large, dangerous sandstorms, whilst the summer is very warm to hot and relatively humid except in the west where it remains dry. Autumn is brief and sees a steady cooling, with temperatures below reached in October in the north and November in the south. Officially, most of Inner Mongolia is classified as either a cold arid or Steppe climate, steppe regime (Köppen climate classification, Köppen ''BWk, BSk'', respectively). The small portion besides these are classified as humid continental (Köppen ''Dwa/Dwb'') in the northeast, or Subarctic climate, subarctic (Köppen ''Dwc'') in the far north near Hulunbuir.


Administrative divisions

Inner Mongolia is divided into twelve Administrative divisions of China#Prefectural level, prefecture-level divisions. Until the late 1990s, most of Inner Mongolia's prefectural regions were known as ''Leagues of China, Leagues'' (), a usage retained from Mongol divisions of the
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
. Similarly, county-level divisions are often known as ''Banners'' (). Since the 1990s, numerous Leagues have converted into Prefecture-level city, prefecture-level cities, although Banners remain. The restructuring led to the conversion of primate cities in most leagues to convert to districts administratively (i.e.: Hailar District, Hailar, Jining District, Jining and Dongsheng). Some newly founded prefecture-level cities have chosen to retain the original name of League (i.e.: Hulunbuir, Bayannur and Ulanqab), some have adopted the Chinese name of their primate city (
Chifeng Chifeng ( zh, s=赤峰市), also known as Ulankhad ( mn, (Улаанхад хот), ''Ulaɣanqada qota'', , "red cliff"), is a prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin Coun ...

Chifeng
,
Tongliao Tongliao (; mn, ''Tüŋliyou qota'', Mongolian Cyrillic.Байшинт хот) is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). Th ...

Tongliao
), and one League (Yekejuu) simply renamed itself Ordos. Despite these recent administrative changes, there is no indication that the Alxa, Hinggan, and Xilingol Leagues will convert to prefecture-level cities in the near future. These prefecture-level divisions are in turn subdivided into 102 Administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China#County level, county-level divisions, including 22 District of China, districts, 11 county-level cities, 17 County (People's Republic of China), counties, 49
banners A banner can be a flag A flag is a piece of textile, fabric (most often rectangular or quadrilateral) with a distinctive design and colours. It is used as a symbol, a signalling device, or for decoration. The term ''flag'' is also used to re ...
, and 3 autonomous banners. Those are in turn divided into 1425 Administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China#Township level, township-level divisions, including 532 town of China, towns, 407 Townships of the People's Republic of China, townships, 277 sumu (Inner Mongolia), sumu, eighteen ethnic townships, one ethnic sumu, and 190 Subdistricts of China, subdistricts. At the end of 2017, the total population of Inner-Mongolia is 25.29 millio


Urban areas


Economy

Farming of crops such as wheat takes precedence along the river valleys. In the more arid grasslands, herding of goats, sheep and so on is a traditional method of subsistence. Forestry and hunting are somewhat important in the Greater Khingan ranges in the east. Reindeer herding is carried out by Evenks in the Evenk Autonomous Banner. More recently, growing grapes and winemaking have become an economic factor in the Wuhai area. Inner Mongolia has an abundance of resources especially coal, Cashmere wool, cashmere, natural gas, rare-earth elements, and has more deposits of naturally occurring niobium, zirconium and beryllium than any other province-level region in China. However, in the past, the exploitation and utilisation of resources were rather inefficient, which resulted in poor returns from rich resources. Inner Mongolia is also an important coal production base, with more than a quarter of the world's coal reserves located in the province. It plans to double annual coal output by 2010 (from the 2005 volume of 260 million tons) to 500 million tons of coal a year. Industry in Inner Mongolia has grown up mainly around coal, power generation, forestry-related industries, and related industries. Inner Mongolia now encourages six competitive industries: energy, chemicals, metallurgy, equipment manufacturing, processing of farm (including dairy) produce, and high technology. Well-known Inner Mongolian enterprises include companies such as ERDOS, Yili Group, Yili, and Mengniu. The nominal GDP of Inner Mongolia in 2015 was 1.8 trillion yuan (US$272.1 billion), with an average annual increase of 10% from the period 2010–2015. Its per capita GDP reached US$11,500 in 2015, ranking No.4th among all the 31 provinces of China, only after Shanghai, Beijing and Tianjin. As with much of China, economic growth has led to a boom in construction, including new commercial development and large apartment complexes. In addition to its large reserves of natural resources, Inner Mongolia also has the largest usable wind power capacity in China thanks to strong winds which develop in the province's grasslands. Some private companies have set up Wind power in China, wind parks in parts of Inner Mongolia such as Bailingmiao, Hutengliang and Zhouzi. East of Jilantai, Inner Mongolia, there is a ballistic missile training area used by the People's Liberation Army Rocket Force (PLARF) to train missile crews for mobile missile launchers, their support vehicles, and silo-based ballistic missiles.


Economic and Technological Development Zones

*
Baotou Baotou (; mn, Buɣutu qota) is the largest city by urban population An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which pe ...

Baotou
National Rare-earth, Rare-Earth Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone * Erenhot Border Economic Cooperation Area * Hohhot Export Processing Zone Hohhot Export Processing Zone was established 21 June 2002 by the State Council, which is located in the west of the Hohhot, with a planning area of . Industries encouraged in the export processing zone include Electronics Assembly & Manufacturing, Telecommunications Equipment, Garment and Textiles Production, Trading and Distribution, Biotechnology/Pharmaceuticals, Food/Beverage Processing, Instruments & Industrial Equipment Production, Medical Equipment and Supplies, Shipping/Warehousing/Logistics, Heavy Industry. *
Hohhot Hohhot (Mongolian language, Mongolian: ', Хөх хот ''Khökh khot'' Help:IPA/Mongolian, ; ), abbreviated Hushi (), formerly known as Kweisui (), is the Capital (political), capital of Inner Mongolia in the North China, north of the Chi ...
Economic and Technological Development Zone *
Hohhot Hohhot (Mongolian language, Mongolian: ', Хөх хот ''Khökh khot'' Help:IPA/Mongolian, ; ), abbreviated Hushi (), formerly known as Kweisui (), is the Capital (political), capital of Inner Mongolia in the North China, north of the Chi ...
Export Processing Zone * Manzhouli Border Economic Cooperation Area


Government and politics

Under the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, articles 112–122, autonomous regions have limited autonomy in both the political and economic arena. Autonomous regions have more discretion in administering economic policy in the region in accordance with national guidelines. Structurally, the Chairman—who legally must be an ethnic minority and is usually ethnic Mongolian—is always kept in check by the Communist Party of China, Communist Party Regional Committee Secretary, who is usually from a different part of China (to reduce corruption) and Han Chinese. , the current party secretary is Shi Taifeng. The Inner Mongolian government and its subsidiaries follow roughly the same structure as that of a Chinese province. With regards to economic policy, as a part of increased Chinese federalism, federalism characteristics in China, Inner Mongolia has become more independent in implementing its own economic roadmap. The position of Chairman of Inner Mongolia alternates between Khorchin Mongols in the east and the Tumed Mongols in the west. Since the end of the Cultural Revolution, this convention has not been broken. The family of Ulanhu has retained influence in regional politics ever since the founding the People's Republic. His son Buhe (politician), Buhe and granddaughter Bu Xiaolin both served as Chairman of the region.


Demographics

When the autonomous region was established in 1947, Han Chinese comprised 83.6% of the population, while the Mongols comprised 14.8% of the population. By 2010, the percentage of Han Chinese had dropped to 79.5%. While the Hetao region along the Yellow River has always alternated between farmers from the south and nomads from the north, the most recent wave of Han Chinese migration began in the early 18th century with encouragement from the
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
, and continued into the 20th century. Han Chinese live mostly in the Hetao region as well as various population centres in central and eastern Inner Mongolia. Over 70% of Mongols are concentrated in less than 18% of Inner Mongolia's territory (Hinggan League, and the prefectures of
Tongliao Tongliao (; mn, ''Tüŋliyou qota'', Mongolian Cyrillic.Байшинт хот) is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). Th ...

Tongliao
and
Chifeng Chifeng ( zh, s=赤峰市), also known as Ulankhad ( mn, (Улаанхад хот), ''Ulaɣanqada qota'', , "red cliff"), is a prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin Coun ...

Chifeng
). Mongols are the second largest ethnic group, comprising 17.11% of the population as of the 2010 census. They include many diverse Mongolian-speaking groups; groups such as the Buryats and the Oirats are also officially considered to be Mongols in China. In addition to the Manchus, other Tungusic ethnic groups, the Oroqen people, Oroqen, and the Evenks also populate parts of northeastern Inner Mongolia. Many of the traditionally nomadic Mongols have settled in permanent homes as their pastoral economy was collectivised during the Mao era, and some have taken jobs in cities as migrant labourers; however, some Mongols continue in their nomadic tradition. In practice, highly educated Mongols tend to migrate to big urban centers after which they become essentially indistinct with ethnic Han Chinese populations. Inter-marriage between Mongol and non-Mongol populations is very common, particularly in areas where Mongols are in regular contact with other groups. There was little cultural stigma within Mongol families for marrying outside the ethnic group, and in urban centers in particular, Mongol men and women married non-Mongols at relatively similar rates. The rates of intermarriage stands in very sharp contrast to ethnic Tibetans and Uyghurs in their respective autonomous regions. By the 1980s, for instance, in Tongliao, the former Jirim League, nearly 40% of marriages with at least one Mongol spouse was a mixed Mongol-Han Chinese marriage. However, anecdotal reports have also demonstrated an increase in Mongol-female, Han Chinese-male pairings in which the woman is of a rural background, ostensibly shutting rural Mongol males from the marriage market as the sex ratio in China becomes more skewed with a much higher proportion of men. There is also a significant number of Hui people, Hui and Koreans in China, Koreans. ''Population numbers exclude members of the People's Liberation Army in active service based in Inner Mongolia.''


Human rights

In October 2020, the Chinese government asked Natural History Museum of Nantes, Natural History Museum in Nantes, France not to use the words "Genghis Khan" and "Mongolia" in the exhibition project dedicated to the history of Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire. Nantes History Museum engaged the exhibition project in partnership with the Inner Mongolia Museum in Hohhot, China. The museum stopped the exhibition project and the director of the museum, Bertrand Guillet, said: “Tendentious elements of rewriting aimed at completely eliminating Mongolian history and culture in favor of a new national narrative”.


Language and culture

Alongside Chinese, Mongolian is the official provincial language of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, where there are at least 4.1 million ethnic Mongols. Across the whole of China, the language is spoken by roughly half of the country's 5.8 million ethnic Mongols (2005 estimate) However, the exact number of Mongolian speakers in China is unknown, as there is no data available on the language proficiency of that country's citizens. The use of Mongolian in China, specifically in Inner Mongolia, has witnessed periods of decline and revival over the last few hundred years. The language experienced a decline during the late Qing period, a revival between 1947 and 1965, a second decline between 1966 and 1976, a second revival between 1977 and 1992, and a third decline between 1995 and 2012. However, in spite of the decline of the Mongolian language in some of Inner Mongolia's urban areas and educational spheres, the ethnic identity of the urbanised Chinese-speaking Mongols is most likely going to survive due to the presence of urban ethnic communities. The multilingual situation in Inner Mongolia does not appear to obstruct efforts by ethnic Mongols to preserve their language. Although an unknown number of Mongols in China, such as the Tumets, may have completely or partially lost the ability to speak their language, they are still registered as ethnic Mongols and continue to identify themselves as ethnic Mongols. The children of inter-ethnic Mongol-Chinese marriages also claim to be and are registered as ethnic Mongols. By law, all street signs, commercial outlets, and government documents must be bilingual, written in both Mongolian and Chinese. There are three Mongolian TV channels in the Inner Mongolia Satellite TV network. In public transportation, all announcements are to be bilingual. Mongols in Inner Mongolia speak Mongolian language, Mongolian dialects such as Chakhar Mongolian, Chakhar, Xilingol, Baarin Mongolian, Baarin, Khorchin Mongolian, Khorchin and Kharchin Mongolian and, depending on definition and analysis, further dialects or closely related independent Central Mongolic languages such as Ordos Mongolian, Ordos, Khamnigan Mongol, Khamnigan, Barghu Buryat language, Buryat and the arguably Oirat language, Oirat dialect Alasha dialect, Alasha. The standard pronunciation of Mongolian in China is based on the Chakhar dialect of the Plain Blue Banner, Inner Mongolia, Plain Blue Banner, located in central Inner Mongolia, while the grammar is based on all Southern Mongolian, Southern Mongolian dialects. This is different from the Mongolian state, where the standard pronunciation is based on the closely related Khalkha Mongolian, Khalkha dialect. There are a number of independent languages spoken in Hulunbuir such as the somewhat more distant Mongolic language Daur language, Dagur and the Tungusic languages, Tungusic language Evenki language, Evenki. Officially, even the Evenki dialect Oroqen language, Oroqin is considered a language. The
Han Chinese The Han Chinese (), or the Han people (), is an East Asian East Asia is the east East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north North is one of the four ...
of Inner Mongolia speak a variety of dialects, depending on the region. Those in the eastern parts tend to speak Northeastern Mandarin, which belongs to the Mandarin Chinese, Mandarin group of dialects; those in the central parts, such as the Yellow River valley, speak varieties of Jin Chinese, Jin, another subdivision of Chinese, due to its proximity to other Jin-speaking areas in China such as the Shanxi province. Cities such as Hohhot and Baotou both have their unique brand of Jin Chinese such as the Zhangjiakou–Hohhot dialect which are sometimes incomprehensible with dialects spoken in northeastern regions such as Hailar District, Hailar. The vast grasslands have long symbolised Inner Mongolia. Mongolian art often depicts the grassland in an uplifting fashion and emphasises Mongolian nomadic traditions. The
Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an ethnic group to the , and the of Russia. The Mongols are the principal member of the large family of . The in Western Mongolia as well as the ...
s of Inner Mongolia still practice their traditional arts. Inner Mongolian cuisine has Mongol roots and consists of dairy-related products and ''hand-held lamb'' (). In recent years, franchises based on hot pot have appeared in Inner Mongolia, the best known of which is Little Sheep Group, Little Sheep. Notable Inner Mongolian commercial brand names include Mengniu and Yili Group, Yili, both of which began as dairy product and ice cream producers. Among the Han Chinese of Inner Mongolia, Shanxi opera is a popular traditional form of entertainment. See also: Shanxi. A popular career in Inner Mongolia is circus acrobatics. The internationally known Inner Mongolia Acrobatic Troupe travels and performs with the renowned Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus.


Religion

According to a survey held in 2004 by the Minzu University of China, about 80% of the population of the region practice the worship of Heaven (that is named ''Tian'' in the Chinese tradition and ''Tengri, Tenger'' in the Mongolian tradition) and of ''ovoo, ovoo/aobao''.Fenggang Yang, Graeme Lang. ''Social Scientific Studies of Religion in China''. BRILL, 2012. . pp. 184–185, reporting the results of surveys held in 2004 by the Minzu University of China. Quote from page 185: «[...] ''the registered adherents of the five official religions comprise only 3.7% of those [populations] in Inner Mongolia. When we compare this final statistic with Minzu University research team's finding that 80% of the inhabitants of Inner Mongolia worship ''Tian'' (loosely translated "Heaven") and ''aobao'' (traditional stone structures that serve as altars for sacrifice), it is evident that the official calculations of registered religious believers are markedly low, and the policy decisions based on these numbers lack the necessary grounding in reality.'' [...] ''Foreign religions can be transformed into indigenous ethnic religions, and the traditional folk religions of China's ethnic minorities can integrate and neutralize non-native religions. Thus, China's ethnic religions should not be regarded as social burdens or challenges, but rather as valuable cultural assets.''» Official statistics report that 10.9% of the population (3 million people) are members of Tibetan Buddhist groups.Jiayu Wu, Yong Fang (2016).
Study on the Protection of the Lama Temple Heritage in Inner Mongolia as a Cultural Landscape
''. ''Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering'', v. 15 n. 1, January 2016. Note that the article, in an evident mistranslation from Chinese, reports 30 million Tibetan Buddhists in Inner Mongolia instead of 3 million.
According to the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey of 2007 and the Chinese General Social Survey of 2009, Christianity is the religious identity of 3.2% of the population of the region; and Chinese ancestral religion the professed belonging of 2.36%,Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) 2007, China General Social Survey (CGSS) 2009. Results reported by
Xiuhua Wang (2015, p. 15)
while a demographic analysis of the year 2010 reported that Muslims comprise the 0.91%.Min Junqing. ''The Present Situation and Characteristics of Contemporary Islam in China''. JISMOR, 8
2010 Islam by province, page 29
. Data from: Yang Zongde, ''Study on Current Muslim Population in China'', Jinan Muslim, 2, 2010.
The cult (religious practice), cult of
Genghis Khan Genghis Khan (August 18, 1227), born Temüjin, was the founder and first () of the , which became the in history after his death. He came to power by uniting many of the s of , and, after being proclaimed the universal , or ''Genghis Khan'', he ...

Genghis Khan
, present in the form of various Genghis Khan temples, is a tradition of Mongolian shamanism, in which he is considered a cultural hero and divine ancestor, an embodiment of the ''Tengri, Tenger'' (Heaven, God of Heaven). His worship in special temples, greatly developed in Inner Mongolia since the 1980s, is also shared by the
Han Chinese The Han Chinese (), or the Han people (), is an East Asian East Asia is the east East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north North is one of the four ...
, claiming his spirit as the founding principle of the
Yuan dynasty The Yuan dynasty (), officially the Great Yuan (; xng, , , literally "Great Yuan State"), was a successor state Successor is someone who, or something which succeeds or comes after (see success and succession) Film and TV * ''The Succe ...
. Tibetan Buddhism (Buddhism in Mongolia, Mongolian Buddhism, locally also known as "Yellow Buddhism") is the dominant form of Buddhism in Inner Mongolia, also practised by many
Han Chinese The Han Chinese (), or the Han people (), is an East Asian East Asia is the east East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north North is one of the four ...
. Another form of Buddhism, practised by the Chinese, are the schools of Chinese Buddhism.


Tourism

In the capital city
Hohhot Hohhot (Mongolian language, Mongolian: ', Хөх хот ''Khökh khot'' Help:IPA/Mongolian, ; ), abbreviated Hushi (), formerly known as Kweisui (), is the Capital (political), capital of Inner Mongolia in the North China, north of the Chi ...
: * Dazhao Temple (Hohhot), Da Zhao Temple is a Tibetan Buddhism, Buddhist temple built in 1580. Dazhao Temple is known for three sites: a statue of Gautama Buddha, Buddha made from silver, elaborate carvings of dragons, and murals. * Five-pagoda Temple is located in the capital of Inner Mongolia Hohhot. It is also called Jingangzuo Dagoba, used to be one building of the Cideng Temple (Temple of Merciful Light) built in 1727. * Residence of Gurun Princess Kejing is a mansion typical of
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
architectural style that was built in 1705 by the Kangxi Emperor for his daughter. * Wanbu-Huayanjing Pagoda () in Hohhot. It was built during the reign of Emperor Shengzong (983–1031) of the Khitan Liao dynasty (907–1125) and is still well preserved. * Xiaozhao Temple, also known as Chongfu temple, is a Tibetan Buddhism, Buddhist temple built in 1697 and favoured by the Kangxi Emperor of the
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
. * Xilitu Zhao, Xilitu Zhao / Siregtu juu Temple is the largest Buddhist temple in the Höhhot area, and once the center of power of Tibetan Buddhism in the region. * Zhaojun Tomb is the tomb of Wang Zhaojun, a Han dynasty palace lady-in-waiting who became the consort of the
Xiongnu The Xiongnu (, ) were a tribal confederation A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common action. Usually created by a treaty A treaty is a formal ...

Xiongnu
ruler Huhanye Shanyu in 33BC. Elsewhere in Inner Mongolia: * The Mausoleum of Genghis Khan, the cenotaph of
Genghis Khan Genghis Khan (August 18, 1227), born Temüjin, was the founder and first () of the , which became the in history after his death. He came to power by uniting many of the s of , and, after being proclaimed the universal , or ''Genghis Khan'', he ...

Genghis Khan
, is located in Ordos City. * Bashang Grasslands, on the border close to Beijing, is a popular retreat for urban residents wanting to get a taste of grasslands life. * The Arshihaty Stone Forest in Hexigten Global Geopark has magnificent granite rock formations formed from natural erosion. * Xiangshawan, or "singing sands gorge", is located in the Gobi Desert and contains numerous tourist attractions including sand sledding and camel rides. * Remains of Zhongjing (Central Capital) built in 1003 by Emperor Shengzong of the Khitan Liao dynasty (907–1125) in Ningcheng County. * Remains of Shangjing (Upper Capital) built in 918 by Yelu Abaoji the 1st emperor of the Khitan Liao dynasty (907–1125). Also called Huangdu it was one of the five capitals of the Liao dynasty. * Zuling Mausoleum of Abaoji Khan. It was built in 926 for Abaoji the 1st Emperor of the Liao dynasty. Located north-west of Shifangzi village. * Tablets of Juyan. Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD) inscriptions on wood and bamboo. In 1930 Folke Bergman of the Sino-Swedish expedition first discovered 10,000 tablets at Ejin Banner, Ejin Khoshuu in the Gobi Desert. * Ruins of Shangdu (Xanadu) the Summer Capital of the Mongol Yuan dynasty built in 1256 by Kublai Khan. * White pagoda of the Mongol Yuan dynasty (1279–1368) in Kailu County, Tongliao. It is still well preserved. * Ruins of Chagan Khoto () capital of the last Mongol Great Khan Ligdan Khan, Ligden (1588–1634). Located in Ar Horqin Banner.


Chinese space program

One of China's space vehicle launch facilities, Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center, is located in the Alxa League's Ejin Banner, in the west of Inner Mongolia. It was founded in 1958, making it the PRC's first launch facility. As of 2021, Jiuquan has documented more launches than any other launch facilities in China, and is still the only launch site for manned space missions (Shenzhou program). While geologically located inside Inner Mongolia, the launch center is named after Jiuquan, which is the nearest urban center in the nearby province of Gansu. As military facilities, the core areas at Jiuquan Center are highly restricted and can only be visited by tourist buses operated by the center, while the visitor center is open to the public and can be accessed from the south gate. Inner Mongolia is also home to the two (and only two) space vehicles landing sites in China, the Siziwang Banner Landing Site in Ulanqab and the Dongfeng Landing Site in Alxa.


Education


Colleges and universities


Education policy and protest

It was reported by The New York Times on 31 August 2020 that in the summer 2020, the Chinese government announced an education policy, which called for Chinese to gradually replace Mongolian as the language of instruction in three subjects, including language and literature, politics, and history, in elementary and middle schools around the Inner Mongolia region, and then thousands of ethnic Mongolians in northern China gathered to protest the policy.


Image gallery

File:C-shaped jade dragon.jpg, Jade dragon of the Hongshan culture (4700 BC – 2900 BC) found in Ongniud,
Chifeng Chifeng ( zh, s=赤峰市), also known as Ulankhad ( mn, (Улаанхад хот), ''Ulaɣanqada qota'', , "red cliff"), is a prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin Coun ...

Chifeng
File:乌兰布统3.jpg, Ulaanbutan grassland File:Inner Mongolia grassland (2005).jpg, Inner Mongolian grassland File:Statue at the Wang Zhaojun Tomb.jpg, Honorary tomb of Wang Zhaojun (born c. 50BC) in Hohhot File:Fresco Songjingtu, Liao Dynasty Tomb at Baoshan.jpg, Fresco from the Liao dynasty (907–1125) tomb at Baoshan, Ar Horqin File:Cooking, mural from Tomb in Aohan, Liao Dynasty.jpg, Khitan people cooking. Fresco from the Liao dynasty (907–1125) tomb at Aohan File:Khara-khoto.jpg, Remains of the city Khara-Khoto built in 1032. Located in Ejin Khoshuu, Alxa Aimag File:美岱召古城全景沙盘.jpg, Maidari Juu temple fortress () built by Altan Khan in 1575 near
Baotou Baotou (; mn, Buɣutu qota) is the largest city by urban population An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which pe ...

Baotou
File:美岱召new stone arch.png, Newly built arch in front of the Maidari Juu temple fortress (1575) File:Da Zhao Temple in Hohhot3.JPG, Da Zhao temple (also called Ikh Zuu) built by Altan Khan in 1579 File:InnerMongoliaBuddhistTemple.jpg, Badekar Monastery (1749) near Baotou, Inner Mongolia. Called Badgar Zuu in Mongolian File:Five Pagoda Temple, Huhhot, Inner Mongolia.JPG, Five Pagoda temple (1727) in Hohhot File:Badain Jaran Temple Reflection.JPG, Badain Jaran temple (1868) in western Inner Mongolia File:Genghis khan mausoleum.jpg, Genghis Khan Mausoleum (1954) File:GhinggisKhanMausoleumGate.jpg, Genghis Khan Mausoleum (1954) File:AlshaaUul.jpg, Alshaa mountain scenery File:AlshaaBaruunHiid.jpg, Alxa Western Monastery (Alshaa Baruun Hiid) built in 1756


See also

* Leagues of China, Leagues of Inner Mongolia * List of administrative divisions of Inner Mongolia * Major national historical and cultural sites (Inner Mongolia), Major national historical and cultural sites in Inner Mongolia * Winter storms of 2009–10 in East Asia


Notes


References


Further reading

* Wang, Liping. "From Masterly Brokers to Compliant Protégées: The Frontier Governance System and the Rise of Ethnic Confrontation in China–Inner Mongolia, 1900–1930." ''American Journal of Sociology'' 120.6 (2015): 1641–1689. * Williams, Dee Mack. ''Beyond great walls: environment, identity, and development on the Chinese grasslands of Inner Mongolia'' (Stanford University Press, 2002)
Online
* Borjigin, Monkbat.
A case study of Language education in the Inner Mongolia

Archive
Japanese title: ). ''Journal of Chiba University Eurasian Society'' () 16, 261–266, 2014-09-25. Chiba University Eurasian Society ()
See profile at
Chiba University Repository
See profile at
CiNii. – In English with a Japanese abstract. *


External links

*
Inner Mongolia Government website
*


Welcome to Inner Mongolia-Mongolia Tours with Samar Magic Tours
* {{Authority control Inner Mongolia, Autonomous regions of China Mongols in China 1947 establishments in China States and territories established in 1947 Inner Asia Historical regions