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The Imperial Court in Kyoto was the nominal ruling government of Japan from 794 AD until the Meiji period (1868–1912), after which the court was moved from Kyoto (formerly Heian-kyō) to Tokyo (formerly Edo) and integrated into the Meiji government. The shogunate system came after the Imperial Court, with Minamoto no Yoritomo being the first to establish the post of the ''shōgun'' as hereditary, in 1192. Since Minamoto no Yoritomo launched the shogunate, true power was in the hand of the ''shōguns'', who were mistaken several times for the Emperor of Japan, Emperors of Japan by western countries.


See also

*Five regent houses *Heian Palace *Kyoto Gosho


Further reading

* Ackroyd, Joyce. (1982). [ Arai Hakuseki, 1712] ''Tokushi Yoron''; "Lessons from History: the Tokushi yoron" translated by Joynce Ackroyd. Brisbane: University of Queensland Press. * Asai T. (1985). ''Nyokan Tūkai''. Tokyo: Kōdansha. * Brown, Delmer and Ichiro Ishida, eds. (1979). [ Jien, c. 1220], ''Gukanshō; "The Future and the Past: a translation and study of the 'Gukanshō', an interpretive history of Japan written in 1219" translated from the Japanese and edited by Delmer M. Brown & Ichirō Ishida''. Berkeley: University of California Press. * Yukio Ozaki, Ozaki, Yukio. (2001). ''The Autobiography of Ozaki Yukio: The Struggle for Constitutional Government in Japan''. [Translated by Fujiko Hara]. Princeton: Princeton University Press. (cloth) * Ozaki, Yukio. (1955). ''Ozak Gakudō Zenshū''. Tokyo: Kōronsha. * George Bailey Sansom, Sansom, George (1958). ''A History of Japan to 1334''. Stanford: Stanford University Press. * Sansom, George. (1952). ''Japan: A Short Cultural History''. Stanford: Stanford University Press. (cloth) (paper) * Timon Screech, Screech, Timon. (2006). ''Secret Memoirs of the Shoguns: Isaac Titsingh and Japan, 1779–1822''. London: RoutledgeCurzon. * Isaac Titsingh, Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). [Siyun-sai Rin-siyo/Hayashi Gahō, 1652], ''Nipon o daï itsi ran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon, tr. par M. Isaac Titsingh avec l'aide de plusieurs interprètes attachés au comptoir hollandais de Nangasaki; ouvrage re., complété et cor. sur l'original japonais-chinois, accompagné de notes et précédé d'un Aperçu d'histoire mythologique du Japon, par M. J. Julius Klaproth, Klaproth''. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland]
...Click link to digitized, full-text copy of this book (in French)
* Ury, Marian. (1999). "Chinese Learning and Intellectual Life", ''The Cambridge history of Japan: Heian Japan''. Vol. II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (cloth) * Varley, H. Paul, ed. (1980). [ Kitabatake Chikafusa, 1359], ''Jinnō Shōtōki ("A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns: Jinnō Shōtōki of Kitabatake Chikafusa" translated by H. Paul Varley)''. New York: Columbia University Press. {{coord missing, Kyoto Prefecture Japanese monarchy Royal and noble courts Former capitals of Japan History of Kyoto ja:京都御所