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Hungarian () is a
Uralic language The Uralic languages (; sometimes called Uralian languages ) form a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writin ...
spoken in
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a in . Spanning of the , it is bordered by to the north, to the northeast, to the east and southeast, to the south, and to the southwest and to the west. Hungary has a population of 10 million, mostl ...

Hungary
and parts of several neighbouring countries. It is the
official language An official language is a language given a special status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction. Typically the term "official language" does not refer to the language used by a people or country, but by its government (e.g. judiciar ...

official language
of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary, it is also spoken by communities of
Hungarians Hungarians, also known as Magyars ( ; hu, magyarok ), are a nation and native to (Hungarian: Magyarország) and who share a common , , and . The Hungarian language belongs to the . There are an estimated 14.2–14.5 million ethnic Hungari ...
in present-day
Slovakia Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to th ...

Slovakia
, western
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also shares borders with to the north; , , and to the west; and to the south; and has a coastli ...

Ukraine
( Subcarpathia), central and western
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...

Romania
(
Transylvania Transylvania is a historical region in central Romania. To the east and south its natural border is the Carpathian Mountains, and to the west the Apuseni Mountains. Broader definitions of Transylvania also encompass the western and north-western R ...

Transylvania
), northern
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may refe ...

Serbia
(
Vojvodina Vojvodina ( ) is an autonomous province that occupies the northernmost part of Serbia. It lies within the Pannonian Basin, bordered to the south by the national capital Belgrade and the Sava and Danube Rivers. The administrative center, Novi Sad ...

Vojvodina
), northern
Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = "Lijepa naša domovino ''Lijepa naša domovino'' (; ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that ...

Croatia
, northeastern
Slovenia Slovenia ( ; sl, Slovenija ), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: , abbr.: ''RS''), is a country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, lin ...

Slovenia
( Mur region), and eastern
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastli ...

Austria
. It is also spoken by
Hungarian diaspora Hungarian diaspora (''Magyar diaszpóra'') is a term that encompasses the total ethnic Hungarian population located outside current-day Hungary. There are two main groups of the diaspora. The first group includes those who are autochthonous to th ...
communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...
and
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, Pacific and northward into the Arctic Oce ...

Canada
) and
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...

Israel
. With 13 million speakers, it is the Uralic family's largest member by number of speakers.


Classification

Hungarian is a member of the
Uralic language family The Uralic languages (; sometimes called Uralian languages ) form a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writin ...
. Linguistic connections between Hungarian and other Uralic languages were noticed in the 1670s, and the family itself (then called Finno-Ugric) was established in 1717. Hungarian has traditionally been assigned to the
Ugric The Ugric or Ugrian languages ( or ) are a proposed branch of the Uralic language family. The name Ugric is derived from Ugrians, an archaic exonym for the Magyars (Hungarians) and Yugra, a region in north-west Russia. Ugric includes three ...
branch within the Finno-Ugric group, along with the
Mansi Mansi may refer to: People * Mansi people The Mansi ( Mansi: Мāньси / Мāньси мāхум, ''Māńsi / Māńsi māhum'', ) are a Ugrian indigenous people living in Khanty–Mansia, an autonomous okrug within Tyumen Oblast Tyumen ...
and
Khanty The Khanty (in older literature: Ostyaks) are a Ugrian The Ugric or Ugrian languages ( or ) are a proposed branch of the Uralic language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spo ...
languages of western
Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region, constituting all of North Asia, from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east. It has been a part of R ...

Siberia
(
Khanty–Mansia Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug–Yugra or Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug–Yugra (Russian language, Russian and Mansi language, Mansi: Ханты-Мансийский автономный округ — Югра, ''Khanty-Mansiysky avtonomny okr ...
region), but it is no longer clear that it is a valid group. When the Samoyed languages were determined to be part of the family, it was thought at first that Finnic and Ugric (Finno-Ugric) were closer to each other than to the Samoyed branch of the family, but that is now frequently questioned. The name of Hungary could be a result of regular sound changes of ''Ungrian/Ugrian'', and the fact that the Eastern Slavs referred to Hungarians as ''Ǫgry/Ǫgrove'' (sg. ''Ǫgrinŭ'') seemed to confirm that. Current literature favors the hypothesis that it comes from the name of the
Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish language, the most widely spoken Turkic language * T ...
tribe Onoğur (which means "ten arrows" or "ten tribes"). There are numerous regular sound correspondences between Hungarian and the other Ugric languages. For example, Hungarian corresponds to
Khanty The Khanty (in older literature: Ostyaks) are a Ugrian The Ugric or Ugrian languages ( or ) are a proposed branch of the Uralic language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spo ...
in certain positions, and Hungarian corresponds to Khanty , while Hungarian final corresponds to Khanty final . For example, Hungarian ''ház'' "house" vs. Khanty ''xot'' "house", and Hungarian ''száz'' "hundred" vs. Khanty ''sot'' "hundred". The distance between the Ugric and Finnic languages is greater, but the correspondences are also regular.


History


Prehistory


Scholarly consensus

The traditional view holds that the Hungarian language diverged from its
Ugric The Ugric or Ugrian languages ( or ) are a proposed branch of the Uralic language family. The name Ugric is derived from Ugrians, an archaic exonym for the Magyars (Hungarians) and Yugra, a region in north-west Russia. Ugric includes three ...
relatives in the first half of the 1st millennium BC, in western
Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region, constituting all of North Asia, from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east. It has been a part of R ...

Siberia
east of the southern
Urals The Ural Mountains (; rus, Ура́льские го́ры, r=Uralskiye gory, p=ʊˈralʲskʲɪjə ˈgorɨ; ba, Урал тауҙары, ''Ural tauźarı'') or simply the Urals, are a Mountain range, mountain range that runs approximately fr ...
. The
Hungarians Hungarians, also known as Magyars ( ; hu, magyarok ), are a nation and native to (Hungarian: Magyarország) and who share a common , , and . The Hungarian language belongs to the . There are an estimated 14.2–14.5 million ethnic Hungari ...
gradually changed their lifestyle from being settled hunters to being
nomadic pastoralists Nomadic pastoralism is a form of pastoralism Pastoralism is a form of animal husbandry Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, animal fiber, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products. It inclu ...
, probably as a result of early contacts with Iranian nomads (
Scythians The Scythians (from grc, Σκύθης , ) or Scyths, also known as Saka and Sakae ( ; egy, 𓋴𓎝𓎡𓈉 The ancient Egyptian Hill-country or "Foreign land" hieroglyph (𓈉) is a member of the sky, earth, and water hieroglyphs. A ...
and
Sarmatians The Sarmatians (; Ancient Greek, Greek: ; la, Sarmatae , ) were a large Iranian peoples, Iranian confederation that existed in classical antiquity, flourishing from about the fifth century BC to the fourth century AD. Originating in the centr ...
) or Turkic nomads. In Hungarian, Iranian loanwords date back to the time immediately following the breakup of
Ugric The Ugric or Ugrian languages ( or ) are a proposed branch of the Uralic language family. The name Ugric is derived from Ugrians, an archaic exonym for the Magyars (Hungarians) and Yugra, a region in north-west Russia. Ugric includes three ...
and probably span well over a millennium. Among these include ''tehén'' ‘cow’ (cf.
Avestan Avestan , also known historically as Zend, comprises two languages: Old Avestan (spoken in the 2nd millennium BCE) and Younger Avestan (spoken in the 1st millennium BCE). The languages are known only from their use as the language of Zoroastrian ...
''daénu''); ''tíz'' ‘ten’ (cf. Avestan ''dasa''); ''tej'' ‘milk’ (cf. Persian ''dáje'' ‘wet nurse’); and ''nád'' ‘reed’ (from late
Middle Iranian The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European languages, Indo-European language family that are spoken natively by the Iranian peoples. The Iranian languages are grouped in three stages: Old Ir ...
; cf.
Middle Persian Middle Persian or Pahlavi, also known by its endonym Pārsīk or Pārsīg (𐭯𐭠𐭫𐭮𐭩𐭪) in its later form, is a Western Middle Iranian language which became the literary language of the Sasanian Empire. For some time after the Sasan ...
''nāy'' and Modern Persian ''ney''). Archaeological evidence from present day southern
Bashkortostan The Republic of Bashkortostan,; ba, Башҡортостан Республикаһы also called Bashkiria, is a Republics of Russia, republic of Russia located between the Volga and the Ural Mountains in Eastern Europe. It covers and has a p ...

Bashkortostan
confirms the existence of Hungarian settlements between the
Volga River The Volga (; russian: Во́лга, a=Ru-Волга.ogg, p=ˈvoɫɡə) is the longest river in Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention ra ...
and the
Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (; rus, Ура́льские го́ры, r=Uralskiye gory, p=ʊˈralʲskʲɪjə ˈgorɨ; ba, Урал тауҙары, ''Ural tauźarı'') or simply the Urals, are a mountain range A mountain range is a series of mounta ...
. The Onoğurs (and
Bulgars The Bulgars (also Bulghars, Bulgari, Bolgars, Bolghars, Bolgari, Proto-Bulgarians) were Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages * ...

Bulgars
) later had a great influence on the language, especially between the 5th and 9th centuries. This layer of Turkic loans is large and varied (e.g. ''szó'' "word", from
Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish language, the most widely spoken Turkic language * T ...

Turkic
; and ''daru'' "crane", from the related
Permic languages The Permic or Permian languages are a branch of the Uralic language family. They are spoken in several regions to the west of the Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (; rus, Ура́льские го́ры, r=Uralskiye gory, p=ʊˈralʲskʲɪj ...

Permic languages
), and includes words borrowed from Oghur Turkic; e.g. ''borjú'' "calf" (cf. Chuvash ''păru'', ''părăv'' vs.
Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), offi ...

Turkish
''buzağı''); ''dél'' ‘noon; south’ (cf. Chuvash ''tĕl'' vs. Turkish dial. ''düš''). Many words related to agriculture,
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
administration and even family relationships show evidence of such backgrounds. Hungarian
syntax In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the ...

syntax
and
grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the ...
were not influenced in a similarly dramatic way over these three centuries. After the arrival of the Hungarians in the Carpathian Basin, the language came into contact with a variety of
speech communities Arnold Lakhovsky, ''The Conversation'' (circa 1935) A speech community is a group of people who share a set of linguistic norms and expectations regarding the use of language. It is a concept mostly associated with sociolinguistics Sociolingui ...
, among them ,
Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish language, the most widely spoken Turkic language * T ...
, and
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...
. Turkic loans from this period come mainly from the
Pechenegs The Pechenegs or Patzinaks were a from speaking the which belonged to the branch of the . Ethnonym The Pechenegs were mentioned as ''Bjnak'', ''Bjanak'' or ''Bajanak'' in medieval and texts, as ''Be-ča-nag'' in documents, and as '' ...
and
Cumanians The Cumans (or Kumans), also known as Polovtsians or Polovtsy (plural only, from the Russian exonym An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name'; also known as autonym) is a common, internal name A name is a term used for identification by ...
, who settled in Hungary during the 12th and 13th centuries: e.g. ''koboz'' "
cobza The ''cobza'' (also ''cobsa'', ''cobuz'', ''koboz'') is a multi-stringed instrument String instruments, stringed instruments, or chordophones are musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical s ...
" (cf. Turkish ''kopuz'' ‘lute’); '''' "mop dog" (< *''kumandur'' < ''Cuman''). Hungarian borrowed many words from neighbouring
Slavic languages The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European languages spoken primarily by the Slavs, Slavic peoples or their descendants. They are thought to descend from a proto-language called Proto-Slavic language, Proto- ...

Slavic languages
: e.g. ''tégla'' ‘brick’; ''mák'' ‘poppy seed’; ''karácsony'' ‘Christmas’). These languages in turn borrowed words from Hungarian: e.g.
Serbo-Croatian Serbo-Croatian () – also called Serbo-Croat (), Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), and Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS) – is a South Slavic language The South Slavic languages are one of three branche ...
''ašov'' from Hungarian ''ásó'' ‘spade’. About 1.6 percent of the
Romanian Romanian may refer to: *anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Euro ...
lexicon A lexicon is the vocabulary A vocabulary is a set of familiar words In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, pra ...

lexicon
is of Hungarian origin. In the 21st century, studies support an origin of the Uralic languages, including early Hungarian, in eastern or central
Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region, constituting all of North Asia, from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east. It has been a part of R ...

Siberia
, somewhere between the and
Yenisei river The Yenisey (russian: Енисе́й, ''Yeniséy''; mn, Енисей мөрөн, ''Yenisei mörön''; BuryatBuryat or Buriat may refer to: *Buryats, a Mongol people *Buryat language, a Mongolic language *Buryatia, also known as the "Buryat R ...

Yenisei river
or near the Sayan mountains in the
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
n–
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: '; literal translation, lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country in East Asia. It is bordered by Russia Mongolia–Russia ...

Mongolia
n border region. A 2019 study based on genetics, archaeology and linguistics, found that early Uralic speakers arrived in Europe from the east, specifically from eastern Siberia.


Alternative views

Hungarian historian and archaeologist Gyula László claims that
geological Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (geology), rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which th ...

geological
data from
pollen analysis pollen Pollen Tube Diagram Pollen is a powdery substance consisting of pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells). Pollen grains have a hard coat made of sporopollenin that prote ...
seems to contradict the placing of the ancient Hungarian homeland near the Urals. There have been attempts to show that Hungarian is related to other languages, such as
Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as one of the spoken languages of the Israelites and their longest-survivi ...
,
HunnicHunnic, in the English language, most often refers to: * relating to or of the Huns, a former nomadic tribe of the Eurasian steppe * the Hunnic language spoken by the Huns, or, * Hunnic grapes, a class of grapes grown in German-speaking countries, d ...
, ,
Egyptian Egyptian describes something of, from, or related to Egypt. Egyptian or Egyptians may refer to: Nations and ethnic groups * Egyptians, a national group in North Africa ** Egyptian culture, a complex and stable culture with thousands of years of r ...
,
Etruscan__NOTOC__ Etruscan may refer to: Ancient civilisation *The Etruscan language, an extinct language in ancient Italy *Something derived from or related to the Etruscan civilization **Etruscan architecture **Etruscan art **Etruscan cities **Etruscan ...
,
Basque Basque may refer to: * Basques The Basques ( or ; eu, euskaldunak ; es, vascos ; french: basques ) are a Southern European ethnic group, characterised by the Basque language, a Basque culture, common culture and shared genetic ancestry to th ...
,
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
,
Pelasgian The name Pelasgians ( grc, Πελασγοί, ''Pelasgoí'', singular: Πελασγός, ''Pelasgós'') was used by classical Greek writers to refer either to the ancestors of the Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''Éllin ...
,
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
,
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...
,
Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia after its predecessor langua ...

Sanskrit
,
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
,
Tibetan Tibetan may mean: * of, from, or related to Tibet * Tibetan people, an ethnic group * Tibetan language: ** Classical Tibetan, the classical language used also as a contemporary written standard ** Standard Tibetan, the most widely used spoken dialec ...
,
MagarMagar may refer to: *Magar people *Magar language *Khagendra Thapa Magar, the shortest man in the world (as of 2012) *Magar, the Catholicos of All Armenians from 1885 to 1891 See also

* Magyar (disambiguation) {{disambig, surname Language and ...
,
Quechua Quechua may refer to: *Quechua people, several indigenous ethnic groups in South America, especially in Peru *Quechuan languages, a Native South American language family spoken primarily in the Andes, derived from a common ancestral language **Sou ...
,
Armenian Armenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Armenia, a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia * Armenians, the national people of Armenia, or people of Armenian descent ** Armenian language, the Indo-European language spoken ...
,
Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or ...

Japanese
, and at least 40 other languages.


Historical controversy over origins

Today, the consensus among linguists is that Hungarian is a member of the
Uralic The Uralic languages (; sometimes called Uralian languages ) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia. The Uralic languages with the most native speakers are Hungarian lang ...

Uralic
family of languages. The classification of Hungarian as a Uralic/Finno-Ugric rather than a
Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish language, the most widely spoken Turkic language * T ...

Turkic
language continued to be a matter of impassioned political controversy throughout the 18th and into the 19th centuries. During the latter half of the 19th century, a competing hypothesis proposed a Turkic affinity of Hungarian, or, alternatively, that both the Uralic and the Turkic families formed part of a
superfamily SUPERFAMILY is a database and search platform of structural and functional annotation for all proteins and genomes. It classifies amino acid sequences into known structural domains, especially into SCOP superfamilies. Domains are functional, str ...
of Ural–Altaic languages. Following an academic debate known as ''Az ugor-török háború'' ("the Ugric-Turkic war"), the Finno-Ugric hypothesis was concluded the sounder of the two, mainly based on work by the German linguist Josef Budenz. Hungarians did, in fact, absorb some Turkic influences during several centuries of cohabitation. The influence on Hungarians was mainly from the Turkic Oghur speakers such as
Sabirs 300px, Near East in 500 AD, showing the Sabirs and neighboring peoples. The Sabirs (Savirs, Suars, Sawar, Sawirk among others; el, Σάβιροι) were nomadic people A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a com ...
,
Bulgars The Bulgars (also Bulghars, Bulgari, Bolgars, Bolghars, Bolgari, Proto-Bulgarians) were Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages * ...

Bulgars
of
Atil Atil ( tr, İtil; cf. ''A-de Shui''), literally meaning "Big River", was the capital of Khazaria from the middle of the 8th century until the end of the 10th century. The word is also a Turkic languages, Turkic name for the Volga River. History ...
,
Kabars The Kabars ( el, Κάβαροι), also known as Qavars (Qabars) or Khavars were Khazar The Khazars (, ; he, כוזרים, ''Kuzarim''; tr, Hazarlar; az, Xəzərlər; ba, Хазарҙар; tt, Хәзәрләр, ''Xäzärlär''; ''Xaza ...
and
Khazars The Khazars; he, כוזרים, Kuzarim; la, Gazari, or ; zh, 突厥曷薩 ; 突厥可薩部 ''Tūjué Kěsà bù'' () were a semi-nomad A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fi ...

Khazars
. The Oghur tribes are often connected with the Hungarians whose exoethnonym is usually derived from
Onogurs The Onoğurs or Oğurs (Ὀνόγουροι, Οὔρωγοι, Οὔγωροι; Onογurs, Ογurs; "ten tribes", "tribes"), were Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at le ...
(> (H)ungars), a Turkic tribal confederation. The similarity between customs of Hungarians and the
Chuvash people The Chuvash people ( , ; cv, чӑваш ; russian: чуваши ) are a Turkic ethnic group, a branch of Oghurs The Oghurs were a group of -speaking nomads who moved west across the from about 450 to 950 AD. They drove before them the ...
, the only surviving member of the Oghur tribes, is visible. For example, the Hungarians appear to have learned
animal husbandry Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Ex ...
techniques from the Oghur speaking
Chuvash people The Chuvash people ( , ; cv, чӑваш ; russian: чуваши ) are a Turkic ethnic group, a branch of Oghurs The Oghurs were a group of -speaking nomads who moved west across the from about 450 to 950 AD. They drove before them the ...
(or historically Suvar people), as a high proportion of words specific to agriculture and livestock are of Chuvash origin. A strong Chuvash influence was also apparent in Hungarian
burial Burial, also known as interment or inhumation, is a method of wherein a dead person or non-human animal is placed into the ground, sometimes with objects. This is usually accomplished by excavating a pit or trench, placing the deceased and ob ...

burial
customs.


Old Hungarian

The first written accounts of Hungarian date to the 10th century, such as mostly Hungarian personal names and place names in ''
De Administrando Imperio ''De Administrando Imperio'' ("On the Governance of the Empire") is the Latin title of a Greek-language work written by the 10th-century Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine VII. The Greek title of the work is ("To own son Romanos"). It is a dom ...
'', written in Greek by Eastern Roman Emperor
Constantine VII Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus Traditionally, born in the purple (sometimes "born to the purple") was a category of members of royal family, royal families born during the reign of their parent. This notion was later loosely expanded to include ...
. No significant texts written in Old Hungarian script have survived, as wood, the medium of writing in use at the time, was perishable. The
Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy A monarchy is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, an ...

Kingdom of Hungary
was founded in 1000 by . The country became a
Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western world, countries that ide ...
-styled Christian (
Roman Catholic Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...

Roman Catholic
) state, with
Latin script Latin script, also known as Roman script, is an alphabetic An alphabet is a standardized set of basic written symbols A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequ ...

Latin script
replacing Hungarian runes. The earliest remaining fragments of the language are found in the
establishing charter of the abbey of Tihany File:Tihanyi apátsági templom.jpg, 250px, Abbey church of Tihany The establishing charter of the abbey of Tihany is a document known for including the oldest written words in the Hungarian language. The document, dated to 1055, lists the lands th ...
from 1055, intermingled with Latin text. The first extant text fully written in Hungarian is the
Funeral Sermon and Prayer 200px, Original manuscript in the Pray Codex The Funeral Sermon and Prayer ( hu, Halotti beszéd és könyörgés) is the oldest known and surviving contiguous Hungarian text, written by one scribal hand in the Latin script Latin script, al ...
, which dates to the 1190s. Although the
orthography An orthography is a set of conventions for writing Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful divisions b ...
of these early texts differed considerably from that used today, contemporary Hungarians can still understand a great deal of the reconstructed spoken language, despite changes in grammar and vocabulary. A more extensive body of
Hungarian literature Hungarian literature is the body of written works primarily produced in Hungarian,
arose after 1300. The earliest known example of Hungarian religious poetry is the 14th-century '' Lamentations of Mary''. The first
Bible translation The Bible has been translation, translated into Bible translations by language, many languages from the biblical languages of Biblical Hebrew, Hebrew, Biblical Aramaic, Aramaic and Koine Greek, Greek. the full Bible has been translated into ...
was the
Hussite Bible The Hussite Bible ( hu, Huszita Biblia; sometimes also "The Bible of the Franciscans The Franciscans are a group of related Mendicant orders, mendicant Christianity, Christian Catholic religious order, religious orders, primarily within the Cath ...
in the 1430s. The standard language lost its
diphthong A diphthong ( ; , ), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel A vowel is a Syllable, syllabic speech sound pronounced without any stricture in the vocal tract. Vowels are one of the two principal classes of spe ...
s, and several
postposition Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (''in'', ''under'', ''towards'', ''before'') or mark various semantic ro ...
s transformed into
suffix In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languag ...
es, including ''reá'' "onto" (the phrase ''utu rea'' "onto the way" found in the 1055 text would later become ''útra''). There were also changes in the system of
vowel harmony In phonology Phonology is a branch of that studies how languages or dialects systematically organize their sounds (or constituent parts of signs, in sign languages). The term also refers to the sound or sign system of any particular lang ...
. At one time, Hungarian used six
verb A verb () is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (''bring'', ''read'', ''walk'', ''run'', ''learn''), an occurrence (''happen'', ''become''), or a state of being (''be'', ''exist'', ''stand''). In the usual description of E ...
tenses, while today only two or three are used.The future is formed with an
auxiliary verb An auxiliary verb (abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version of the word or phrase; ...
and so is sometimes not counted as a separate tense. (See also:
periphrasis In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include ...
.)


Modern Hungarian

In 1533,
Kraków Kraków (), also written in English as Krakow and traditionally known as Cracow, is the second-largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River The Vistula (; pl, Wisła, , german: Weichsel) is the longest ri ...

Kraków
printer Benedek Komjáti published (modern orthography: ), the first Hungarian-language book set in movable type. By the 17th century, the language already closely resembled its present-day form, although two of the past tenses remained in use. German, Italian and French loans also began to appear. Further Turkish words were borrowed during the period of Ottoman Hungary, Ottoman rule (1541 to 1699). In the 19th, century a group of writers, most notably Ferenc Kazinczy, spearheaded a process of ''nyelvújítás'' (language revitalization). Some words were shortened (''győzedelem'' > ''győzelem'', 'triumph' or 'victory'); a number of dialectal words spread nationally (''e.g.'', ''cselleng'' 'dawdle'); extinct words were reintroduced (''dísz'', 'décor'); a wide range of expressions were neologism, coined using the various derivative suffixes; and some other, less frequently used methods of expanding the language were utilized. This movement produced more than ten thousand words, most of which are used actively today. The 19th and 20th centuries saw further language standardization, standardization of the language, and differences between mutually comprehensible dialects gradually diminished. In 1920, Hungary signed the Treaty of Trianon, losing 71 percent of its territory and one-third of the ethnic Hungarian population along with it. Today, the language holds official language, official status nationally in Hungary and regionally in Hungarians in Romania, Romania, Hungarians in Slovakia, Slovakia, Hungarians in Vojvodina, Serbia, Hungarians in Austria, Austria and
Slovenia Slovenia ( ; sl, Slovenija ), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: , abbr.: ''RS''), is a country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, lin ...

Slovenia
.


Geographic distribution

:''Source: National censuses, Ethnologue'' Hungarian has about 13 million native speakers, of whom more than 9.8 million live in Hungary. According to the 2011 Hungarian census, 9,896,333 people (99.6% of the total population) speak Hungarian, of whom 9,827,875 people (98.9%) speak it as a first language, while 68,458 people (0.7%) speak it as a second language. About 2.2 million speakers live in other areas that were part of the
Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy A monarchy is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, an ...

Kingdom of Hungary
before the Treaty of Trianon (1920). Of these, the largest group lives in
Transylvania Transylvania is a historical region in central Romania. To the east and south its natural border is the Carpathian Mountains, and to the west the Apuseni Mountains. Broader definitions of Transylvania also encompass the western and north-western R ...

Transylvania
, the western half of present-day
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...

Romania
, where there are approximately 1.25 million Hungarians in Romania, Hungarians. There are large Hungarian communities also in Hungarians in Slovakia, Slovakia, Hungarians in Vojvodina, Serbia and Hungarians in Ukraine, Ukraine, and Hungarians can also be found in
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastli ...

Austria
,
Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = "Lijepa naša domovino ''Lijepa naša domovino'' (; ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that ...

Croatia
, and
Slovenia Slovenia ( ; sl, Slovenija ), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: , abbr.: ''RS''), is a country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, lin ...

Slovenia
, as well as about a million additional people scattered in other parts of the world. For example, there are more than one hundred thousand Hungarian speakers in the Hungarian American community and 1.5 million with Hungarian ancestry in the United States.


Official status

Hungarian is the
official language An official language is a language given a special status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction. Typically the term "official language" does not refer to the language used by a people or country, but by its government (e.g. judiciar ...

official language
of Hungary, and thus an official language of the European Union. Hungarian is also one of the official languages of Serbia, Serbian province of
Vojvodina Vojvodina ( ) is an autonomous province that occupies the northernmost part of Serbia. It lies within the Pannonian Basin, bordered to the south by the national capital Belgrade and the Sava and Danube Rivers. The administrative center, Novi Sad ...

Vojvodina
and an official language of three municipalities in
Slovenia Slovenia ( ; sl, Slovenija ), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: , abbr.: ''RS''), is a country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, lin ...

Slovenia
: Hodoš, Dobrovnik and Lendava, along with Slovene language, Slovene. Hungarian is officially recognized as a minority language, minority or regional language in
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastli ...

Austria
,
Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = "Lijepa naša domovino ''Lijepa naša domovino'' (; ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that ...

Croatia
,
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...

Romania
, Zakarpattia Oblast, Zakarpattia in
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also shares borders with to the north; , , and to the west; and to the south; and has a coastli ...

Ukraine
, and
Slovakia Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to th ...

Slovakia
. In
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...

Romania
it is a recognized minority language used at local level in communes, towns and municipalities with an ethnic Hungarian population of over 20%.


Dialects

The dialects of Hungarian identified by Ethnologue are: Alföld, West Danube, Danube-Tisza, King's Pass Hungarian, Northeast Hungarian, Northwest Hungarian, Székely and West Hungarian. These dialects are, for the most part, mutually intelligible. The Hungarian Csángó dialect, which is mentioned but not listed separately by Ethnologue, is spoken primarily in Bacău County in eastern Romania. The Csángó Hungarian group has been largely isolated from other Hungarian people, and therefore preserved features that closely resemble earlier forms of Hungarian.


Phonology

Hungarian has 14 vowel phonemes and 25 consonant phonemes. The vowel phonemes can be grouped as pairs of short and long vowels such as ''o'' and ''ó''. Most of the pairs have an almost similar pronunciation and vary significantly only in their duration. However, pairs ''a''/''á'' and ''e''/''é'' differ both in closedness and length. Consonant length is also distinctive in Hungarian. Most consonant phonemes can occur as Consonant length, geminates. The sound voiced palatal plosive , written , sounds similar to 'd' in British English 'duty'. It occurs in the name of the country, "Magyarország" (Hungary), pronounced . It is one of three Palatalization (phonetics), palatal consonants, the others being and . Historically a fourth palatalized consonant existed, still written . A single 'r' is pronounced as an alveolar tap (''akkora'' 'of that size'), but a double 'r' is pronounced as an alveolar trill (''akkorra'' 'by that time'), like in Spanish language, Spanish.


Prosody

Primary stress is always on the first syllable of a word, as in Finnish and the neighbouring Slovak language, Slovak and Czech language, Czech. There is a secondary stress on other syllables in compounds: ''viszontlátásra'' ("goodbye") is pronounced . Elongated vowels in non-initial syllables may seem to be stressed to an English-speaker, as length and stress correlate in English.


Grammar

Hungarian is an agglutinative language. It uses various affixes, mainly suffixes but also some prefixes and a circumfix, to change a word's meaning and its grammatical function.


Vowel harmony

Hungarian uses
vowel harmony In phonology Phonology is a branch of that studies how languages or dialects systematically organize their sounds (or constituent parts of signs, in sign languages). The term also refers to the sound or sign system of any particular lang ...
to attach suffixes to words. That means that most suffixes have two or three different forms, and the choice between them depends on the vowels of the head word. There are some minor and unpredictable exceptions to the rule.


Nouns

Nouns have 18 Grammatical case, cases, which are formed regularly with suffixes. The nominative case is unmarked (''az alma'' 'the apple') and, for example, the accusative is marked with the suffix ''–t'' (''az almát'' '[I eat] the apple'). Half of the cases express a combination of the source-location-target and surface-inside-proximity ternary distinctions (three times three cases); there is a separate case ending –''ból''/''–ből'' meaning a combination of source and insideness: 'from inside of'. Possession is expressed by a possessive suffix on the possessed object, rather than the possessor as in English (Peter's apple becomes ''Péter almája'', literally 'Peter apple-his'). Noun plurals are formed with''–k'' (''az almák'' ‘the apples’), but after a numeral, the singular is used (''két alma'' ‘two apples’, literally ‘two apple’; not ''*két almák''). Unlike English, Hungarian uses case suffixes and nearly always preposition and postposition, postpositions instead of prepositions. There are two types of article (grammar), articles in Hungarian, definite and indefinite, which roughly correspond to the equivalents in English.


Adjectives

Adjectives precede nouns (''a piros alma'' 'the red apple') and have three degrees: positive (''piros'' 'red'), comparative (''pirosabb'' 'redder') and superlative (''a legpirosabb'' 'the reddest'). If the noun takes the plural or a case, an attributive adjective is invariable: ''a piros almák'' 'the red apples'. However, a predicative adjective agrees with the noun: ''az almák pirosak'' 'the apples are red'. Adjectives by themselves can behave as nouns (and so can take case suffixes): ''Melyik almát kéred? – A pirosat.'' 'Which apple would you like? – The red one'.


Verbs


Word order

The neutral word order is subject–verb–object (SVO). However, Hungarian is a topic-prominent language, and so has a word order that depends not only on syntax but also on the topic–comment structure of the sentence (for example, what aspect is assumed to be known and what is emphasized). A Hungarian sentence generally has the following order: topic, comment (or focus), verb and the rest. The topic shows that the proposition is only for that particular thing or aspect, and it implies that the proposition is not true for some others. For example, in "''Az almát János látja".'' ('It is John who sees the apple'. Literally 'The apple John sees.'), the apple is in the topic, implying that other objects may be seen by not him but other people (the pear may be seen by Peter). The topic part may be empty. The focus shows the new information for the listeners that may not have been known or that their knowledge must be corrected. For example, "Én vagyok az apád". ('I am your father'. Literally, 'It is I who am your father'.), from the movie ''The Empire Strikes Back'', the pronoun I (''én'') is in the focus and implies that it is new information, and the listener thought that someone else is his father. Although Hungarian is sometimes described as having free word order, different word orders are generally not interchangeable, and the neutral order is not always correct to use. Also, the intonation is also different with different topic-comment structures. The topic usually has a rising intonation, the focus having a falling intonation. In the following examples, the topic is marked with italics, and the focus (comment) is marked with boldface. *János látja az almát. - 'John sees the apple'. Neutral sentence. *''János'' látja az almát. - 'John sees the apple'. (Peter may not see the apple.) *János látja az ''almát''. - 'It is John who sees the apple'. (The listener may have thought that it is Peter.) *Látja János az ''almát''. - 'John does see the apple'. (The listener may have thought that John does not see the apple.) *''János'' az almát látja. - 'What John sees is the apple'. (It is the apple, not the pear, that John specifically sees. However, Peter may see the pear.) *''Az almát'' látja János. - 'It is the apple that is seen by John'. (The pear may not be seen by John, but it may be smelled, for example.) *''Az almát'' János látja. - 'It is by John that the apple is seen'. (It is not seen by Peter, but the pear may be seen by Peter, for example.)


Politeness

Hungarian has a four-tiered system for expressing levels of politeness. From highest to lowest: *''Ön'' (''önözés''): Use of this form in speech shows respect towards the person addressed, but it is also the common way of speaking in official texts and business communications. Here "you", the second person, is grammatically addressed in the third person. *''Maga'' (''magázás'', ''magázódás''): Use of this form serves to show that the speakers wish to distance themselves from the person they address. A boss could also address a subordinate as ''maga''. Aside from the different pronoun it is grammatically the same as "''önözés''". *''Néni/bácsi'' (''tetszikezés''): This is a somewhat affectionate way of expressing politeness and is grammatically the same as "''önözés''" or "''magázódás''", but adds a certain verb in auxiliary role "''tetszik''" ("like") to support the main verb of the sentence. For example, children are supposed to address adults who are not parents, close friends or close relatives by using "''tetszik''" ("you like"): "''Hogy vagy?''" ("How are you?") here becomes "''Hogy tetszik lenni?''" ("How do you like to be?"). The elderly, especially women, are generally addressed this way, even by adults. *''Te'' (''tegezés'', ''tegeződés'' or ''pertu'', per tu from Latin): Used generally, i.e. with persons with whom none of the above forms of politeness is required, and, in religious contexts, to address God. The highest rank, the king, was traditionally addressed "per tu" by all, peasants and noblemen alike, though with Hungary not having had any crowned king since 1918, this practice survives only in folk tales and children's stories. Use of "''tegezés''" in the media and advertisements has become more frequent since the early 1990s. It is informal and is normally used in families, among friends, colleagues, among young people, and by adults speaking to children; it can be compared to addressing somebody by their first name in English. Perhaps prompted by the widespread use of English (a language without T–V distinction thou, in most contemporary dialects) on the Internet, "''tegezés''" is also becoming the standard way to address people over the Internet, regardless of politeness. The four-tiered system has somewhat been eroded due to the recent expansion of "''tegeződés''" and "''önözés''". Some anomalies emerged with the arrival of multinational companies who have addressed their customers in the ''te'' (least polite) form right from the beginning of their presence in Hungary. A typical example is the Swedish furniture shop IKEA, whose web site and other publications address the customers in ''te'' form. When a news site asked IKEA—using the ''te'' form—why they address their customers this way, IKEA's PR Manager explained in his answer—using the ''ön'' form—that their way of communication reflects IKEA's open-mindedness and the Swedish culture. However IKEA in France uses the polite (''vous'') form. Another example is the communication of Telenor (a mobile network operator) towards its customers. Telenor chose to communicate towards business customers in the polite ''ön'' form while all other customers are addressed in the less polite ''te'' form.


Vocabulary

During the first early phase of Hungarian language reforms (late 18th and early 19th centuries) more than ten thousand words were coined, several thousand of which are still actively used today (see also Ferenc Kazinczy, the leading figure of the Hungarian language reforms.) Kazinczy's chief goal was to replace existing words of German and Latin origins with newly created Hungarian words. As a result, Kazinczy and his later followers (the reformers) significantly reduced the formerly high ratio of words of Latin and German origins in the Hungarian language, which were related to social sciences, natural sciences, politics and economics, institutional names, fashion etc. Giving an accurate estimate for the total word count is difficult, since it is hard to define a "word" in agglutination, agglutinating languages, due to the existence of affixed words and compound words. To obtain a meaningful definition of compound words, it is necessary to exclude compounds whose meaning is the mere sum of its elements. The largest dictionaries giving translations from Hungarian to another language contain 120,000 words and phrases''A nyelv és a nyelvek'' ("Language and languages"), edited by István Kenesei. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 2004, , p. 77) (but this may include redundant phrases as well, because of translation issues). The new desk lexicon of the Hungarian language contains 75,000 words and the Comprehensive Dictionary of Hungarian Language (to be published in 18 volumes in the next twenty years) is planned to contain 110,000 words. The default Hungarian
lexicon A lexicon is the vocabulary A vocabulary is a set of familiar words In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, pra ...

lexicon
is usually estimated to comprise 60,000 to 100,000 words."Hungarian is not difficult"
(interview with Ádám Nádasdy)
(Independently of specific languages, speakers actively use at most 10,000 to 20,000 words,''A nyelv és a nyelvek'' ("Language and languages"), edited by István Kenesei. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 2004, , p. 86) with an average intellectual using 25,000 to 30,000 words.) However, all the Hungarian Lexeme, lexemes collected from technical texts, dialects etc. would total up to 1,000,000 words.''A nyelv és a nyelvek'' ("Language and languages"), edited by István Kenesei. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 2004, , pp. 76 and 86) Parts of the lexicon can be organized using word-bushes. (See an example on the right.) The words in these bushes share a common root, are related through inflection, derivation and compounding, and are usually broadly related in meaning. The basic vocabulary shares several hundred word roots with other Uralic languages like Finnish language, Finnish, Estonian language, Estonian,
Mansi Mansi may refer to: People * Mansi people The Mansi ( Mansi: Мāньси / Мāньси мāхум, ''Māńsi / Māńsi māhum'', ) are a Ugrian indigenous people living in Khanty–Mansia, an autonomous okrug within Tyumen Oblast Tyumen ...
and
Khanty The Khanty (in older literature: Ostyaks) are a Ugrian The Ugric or Ugrian languages ( or ) are a proposed branch of the Uralic language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spo ...
. Examples are the verb ''él'' "live" (Finnish ''elää''), the numbers ''kettő'' (2), ''három'' (3), ''négy'' (4) (cf.
Mansi Mansi may refer to: People * Mansi people The Mansi ( Mansi: Мāньси / Мāньси мāхум, ''Māńsi / Māńsi māhum'', ) are a Ugrian indigenous people living in Khanty–Mansia, an autonomous okrug within Tyumen Oblast Tyumen ...
китыг kitig, хурум khurum, нила ''nila'', Finnish language, Finnish ''kaksi, kolme, neljä'', Estonian language, Estonian ''kaks, kolm, neli'', ), as well as ''víz'' 'water', ''kéz'' 'hand', ''vér'' 'blood', ''fej'' 'head' (cf. Finnish and Estonian ''vesi, käsi, veri'', Finnish ''pää'', Estonian ''pea'' or ''pää''). Words for elementary kinship and nature are more Ugric, less Oghur languages, r-Turkic and less Slavic. Agricultural words are about 50% r-Turkic and 50% Slavic; pastoral terms are more r-Turkic, less Ugric and less Slavic. Finally, Christian and state terminology is more Slavic and less r-Turkic. The Slavic is most probably proto-Slovakian and/or -Slovenian. This is easily understood in the Uralic paradigm, proto-Magyars were first similar to Ob-Ugors who were mainly hunters, fishers and gatherers, but with some horses, too. Then they accultured to Bulgarian r-Turks, so the older layer of agriculture words (wine, beer, wheat, barley &c.) are purely r-Turkic, and many terms of statesmanship and religion were, too. Except for a few Latin and Greek loan-words, these differences are unnoticed even by native speakers; the words have been entirely adopted into the Hungarian lexicon. There are an increasing number of English loan-words, especially in technical fields. Another source''The Structure and Development of the Finnish Language'', The Uralic and Altaic Series: 1960–1993 V.1-150, By Denis Sinor, John R. Krueger, Lauri Hakulinen, Gustav Bayerle, Translated by John R. Krueger, Compiled by Gustav Bayerle, Contributor Denis Sinor, Published by Routledge, 1997 , , 383 pages. p. 307 differs in that loanwords in Hungarian are held to constitute about 45% of bases in the language. Although the lexical percentage of native words in Hungarian is 55%, their use accounts for 88.4% of all words used (the percentage of loanwords used being just 11.6%). Therefore, the history of Hungarian has come, especially since the 19th century, to favor neologisms from original bases, whilst still having developed as many terms from neighboring languages in the lexicon.


Word formation

Words can be compounds or derived. Most derivation is with suffixes, but there is a small set of derivational prefixes as well.


Compounds

Compounds have been present in the language since the Proto-Uralic era. Numerous ancient compounds transformed to base words during the centuries. Today, compounds play an important role in vocabulary. A good example is the word ''arc'': :: ''orr'' (nose) + ''száj'' (mouth) → ''orca'' (face) (colloquial until the end of the 19th century and still in use in some dialects) > ''arc'' (face) Compounds are made up of two base words: the first is the prefix, the latter is the suffix. A compound can be ''subordinative'': the prefix is in logical connection with the suffix. If the prefix is the subject of the suffix, the compound is generally classified as a subjective case, subjective one. There are objective case, objective, determiner (linguistics), determinative, and adjunct (grammar), adjunctive compounds as well. Some examples are given below: : Subjective: :: ''menny'' (heaven) + ''dörgés'' (rumbling) → ''mennydörgés'' (thundering) :: ''Nap'' (Sun) + ''sütötte'' (lit by) → ''napsütötte'' (sunlit) : Objective: :: ''fa'' (tree, wood) + ''vágó'' (cutter) → ''favágó'' (lumberjack, literally "woodcutter") : Determinative: :: ''új'' (new) + ''já'' (modification of ''-vá, -vé'' a suffix meaning "making it to something") + ''építés'' (construction) → ''újjáépítés'' (reconstruction, literally "making something to be new by construction") : Adjunctive: :: ''sárga'' (yellow) + ''réz'' (copper) → ''sárgaréz'' (brass) According to current orthographic rules, a subordinative compound word has to be written as a single word, without spaces; however, if the length of a compound of three or more words (not counting one-syllable verbal prefixes) is seven or more syllables long (not counting case suffixes), a hyphen must be inserted at the appropriate boundary to ease the determination of word boundaries for the reader. Other compound words are ''coordinatives'': there is no concrete relation between the prefix and the suffix. Subcategories include reduplication (to emphasise the meaning; ''olykor-olykor'' 'really occasionally'), twin words (where a base word and a distorted form of it makes up a compound: , where the suffix 'gaz' means 'weed' and the prefix is the distorted form; the compound itself means 'inconsiderable weed'), and such compounds which have meanings, but neither their prefixes, nor their suffixes make sense (for example, 'complex, obsolete procedures'). A compound also can be made up by multiple (i.e., more than two) base words: in this case, at least one word element, or even both the prefix and the suffix is a compound. Some examples: : ''elme'' [mind; standalone base] + (''gyógy'' [medical] + ''intézet'' [institute]) → ''elmegyógyintézet'' (Psychiatric hospital, asylum) : (''hadi'' [militarian] + ''fogoly'' [prisoner]) + (''munka'' [work] + ''tábor'' [camp]) → ''hadifogoly-munkatábor'' (work camp of prisoners of war)


Noteworthy lexical items


Points of the compass

Hungarian words for the points of the compass are directly derived from the position of the Sun during the day in the Northern Hemisphere. *North = észak (from "éj(szaka)", 'night'), as the Sun never shines from the North *South = dél ('noon'), as the Sun shines from the South at noon *East = kelet ('rising'), as the Sun rises in the East *West = nyugat ('setting'), as the Sun sets in the West


Two words for "red"

There are two basic words for "red" in Hungarian: "piros" and "vörös" (variant: "veres"; compare with Estonian "verev" or Finnish "punainen"). (They are basic in the sense that one is not a sub-type of the other, as the English "scarlet" is of "red".) The word "vörös" is related to "vér", meaning "blood" (Finnish and Estonian "veri"). When they refer to an actual difference in colour (as on a colour chart), "vörös" usually refers to the deeper (darker and/or more red and less orange) hue of red. In English similar differences exist between "scarlet" and "red". While many languages have multiple colour name, names for this colour, often Hungarian scholars assume this is unique in recognizing two shades of red as separate and distinct "folk colours".Berlin, B and Kay, P (1969). ''Basic Color Terms''. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press However, the two words are also used independently of the above in collocations. "Piros" is learned by children first, as it is generally used to describe inanimate, artificial things, or things seen as cheerful or neutral, while "vörös" typically refers to animate or natural things (biological, geological, physical and astronomical objects), as well as serious or emotionally charged subjects. When the rules outlined above are in contradiction, typical collocations usually prevail. In some cases where a typical collocation does not exist, the use of either of the two words may be equally adequate. Examples: *Expressions where "red" typically translates to "piros": a red road sign, red traffic lights, the red line of Budapest Metro, red (now called express) bus lines in Budapest, a holiday shown in red in the calendar, ruddy complexion, the red nose of a clown, some red flowers (those of a neutral nature, e.g. tulips), red peppers and paprika, red card suits (hearts and diamonds), red stripes on a flag (but the red flag (politics), red flag and its variants translate to "vörös"), etc. *Expressions where "red" typically translates to "vörös": a red railway signal (unlike traffic lights, see above), Red Sea, Red Square, Red Army, Red Baron, Erik the Red, red wine, red carpet (for receiving important guests), red hair or beard, red lion (the mythical animal), the Red Cross, the novel ''The Red and the Black'', redshift, red giant, red blood cells, red oak, some red flowers (those with passionate connotations, e.g. roses), red fox, names of ferric and other red minerals, red copper, rust, red phosphorus, the colour of blushing with anger or shame, the red nose of an alcoholic (in contrast with that of a clown, see above), the red posterior of a baboon, red meat, regular onion (not the red onion, which is "lila"), litmus paper (in acid), cities, countries, or other political entities associated with leftist movements (e.g. Red Vienna, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Red Russia), etc.


Kinship terms

The Hungarian words for brothers and sisters are differentiated based upon relative age. There is also a general word for "sibling": ''testvér'', from ''test'' "body" and ''vér'' "blood"; ''i.e.'', originating from the same body and blood. (There used to be a separate word for "elder sister", ''néne'', but it has become obsolete [except to mean "aunt" in some dialects] and has been replaced by the generic word for "sister".) In addition, there are separate prefixes for several ancestors and descendants: The words for "boy" and "girl" are applied with possessive suffixes. Nevertheless, the terms are differentiated with different declension or lexemes: ''Fia'' is only used in this, irregular possessive form; it has no nominative on its own (see inalienable possession). However, the word ''fiú'' can also take the regular suffix, in which case the resulting word ''(fiúja)'' will refer to a lover or partner (boyfriend), rather than a male offspring. The word ''fiú'' (boy) is also often noted as an extreme example of the ability of the language to add suffixes to a word, by forming ''fiaiéi'', adding vowel-form suffixes only, where the result is quite a frequently used word:


Extremely long words

*''megszentségteleníthetetlenségeskedéseitekért'' : Partition to root and suffixes with explanations: : Translation: "for your [plural] repeated pretending to be indesecrable" The above word is often considered to be the longest word in Hungarian, although there are longer words like: * ''legeslegmegszentségteleníttethetetlenebbjeitekként'' :''leges-leg-meg-''szent''-ség-telen-ít-tet-het-etlen-ebb-je-i-tek-ként'' :"like those of you that are the very least possible to get desecrated" Words of such length are not used in practice, and are difficult to understand even for natives. They were invented to show, in a somewhat facetious way, the ability of the language to form long words (see agglutinative language). They are not compound words—they are formed by adding a series of one and two-syllable suffixes (and a few prefixes) to a simple root ("szent", saint or holy). There is virtually no limit for the length of words, but when too many suffixes are added, the meaning of the word becomes less clear, and the word becomes hard to understand, and will work like a riddle even for native speakers.


Hungarian words in English

The English word best known as being of Hungarian origin is probably ''paprika'', from Serbo-Croatian ''papar'' "pepper" and the Hungarian diminutive ''-ka''. The most common however is ''Coach (carriage), coach'', from ''kocsi'', originally ''kocsi szekér'' "car from/in the style of Kocs". Others are: * shako, from ''csákó'', from ''csákósüveg'' "peaked cap" * sabre, from ''szablya'' * wikt:heyduck, heyduck, from ''hajdúk'', plural of ''hajdú'' "brigand" * tolpatch, from ''talpas'' "foot-soldier", apparently derived from ''talp'' "sole (foot), sole".


Writing system

The Hungarian language was originally written in right-to-left Old Hungarian script, Old Hungarian runes, superficially similar in appearance to the better-known futhark runes but unrelated. After Stephen I of Hungary established the
Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy A monarchy is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, an ...

Kingdom of Hungary
in the year 1000, the old system was gradually discarded in favour of the Latin alphabet and left-to-right order. Although now not used at all in everyday life, the old script is still known and practised by some enthusiasts. Modern Hungarian is written using an expanded Latin script, Latin alphabet, and has a phoneme, phonemic orthography, i.e. pronunciation can generally be predicted from the written language. In addition to the standard letters of the Latin alphabet, Hungarian uses several modified Latin characters to represent the additional vowel sounds of the language. These include letters with acute accents ''(á, é, í, ó, ú)'' to represent long vowels, and umlauts (''ö'' and ''ü'') and their long counterparts Double acute accent, ''ő'' and ''ű'' to represent front vowels. Sometimes (usually as a result of a technical glitch on a computer) or is used for , and for . This is often due to the limitations of the ISO/IEC 8859-1, Latin-1 / ISO-8859-1 code page. These letters are not part of the Hungarian language, and are considered misprints. Hungarian can be properly represented with the ISO/IEC 8859-2, Latin-2 / ISO-8859-2 code page, but this code page is not always available. (Hungarian is the only language using both and .) Unicode includes them, and so they can be used on the Internet. Additionally, the letter pairs Hungarian ny, , Hungarian ty, , and Hungarian gy, represent the palatal consonants , , and (roughly analogous to the "d+y" sounds in British "''du''ke" or American "woul''d y''ou")—produced using a similar mechanism as the letter "d" when pronounced with the tongue pointing to the palate. Hungarian uses for and Hungarian sz, for , which is the reverse of Polish language, Polish usage. The letter Hungarian zs, is and Hungarian cs, is . These digraphs are considered single letters in the alphabet. The letter Hungarian ly, is also a "single letter digraph", but is pronounced like (English ), and appears mostly in old words. The letters Hungarian dz, and Hungarian dzs, are exotic remnants and are hard to find even in longer texts. Some examples still in common use are ''madzag'' ("string"), ''edzeni'' ("to train (athletically)") and ''dzsungel'' ("jungle"). Sometimes additional information is required for partitioning words with digraphs: házszám ("street number") = ''ház'' ("house") + ''szám'' ("number"), not an unintelligible ''házs'' + ''zám''. Hungarian distinguishes between long and short vowels, with long vowels written with acutes. It also distinguishes between long and short consonants, with long consonants being doubled. For example, ''lenni'' ("to be"), ''hozzászólás'' ("comment"). The digraphs, when doubled, become trigraphs: + = , e.g. ''művésszel'' ("with an artist"). But when the digraph occurs at the end of a line, all of the letters are written out. For example, ("with a bus"): :... ''busz-'' :''szal''... When the first lexeme of a compound ends in a digraph and the second lexeme starts with the same digraph, both digraphs are written out: + = ("engagement/wedding ring", means "sign", "mark". The term means "to be engaged"; means "ring"). Usually a trigraph is a double digraph, but there are a few exceptions: ("eighteen") is a concatenation of ''tizen'' + ''nyolc''. There are doubling minimal pairs: ''tol'' ("push") vs. ''toll'' ("feather" or "pen"). While to English speakers they may seem unusual at first, once the new orthography and pronunciation are learned, written Hungarian is almost completely phonemic (except for etymological spellings and "ly, j" representing ).


Word order

The word order is basically from general to specific. This is a typical analytical approach and is used generally in Hungarian.


Name order

The Hungarian language uses the so-called eastern Personal name#Name order, name order, in which the surname (general, deriving from the family) comes first and the given name comes last. If a second given name is used, this follows the first given name.


Hungarian names in foreign languages

For clarity, in foreign languages Hungarian names are usually represented in the western name order. Sometimes, however, especially in the neighbouring countries of Hungary – where there is a Treaty of Trianon, significant Hungarian population – the Hungarian name order is retained, as it causes less confusion there. For an example of foreign use, the birth name of the Hungarian-born physicist called the "father of the hydrogen bomb" was ''Teller Ede'', but he immigrated to the United States in the 1930s and thus became known as ''Edward Teller''. Prior to the mid-20th century, given names were usually translated along with the name order; this is no longer as common. For example, the pianist uses ''András Schiff'' when abroad, not ''Andrew Schiff'' (in Hungarian ''Schiff András''). If a second given name is present, it becomes a middle name and is usually written out in full, rather than truncated to an initial.


Foreign names in Hungarian

In modern usage, foreign names retain their order when used in Hungarian. Therefore: *Amikor ''Kiss János'' Los Angelesben volt, látta ''John Travoltát.'' (means: When János Kiss was in Los Angeles he saw John Travolta.) :The Hungarian name ''Kiss János'' is in the Hungarian name order (''János'' is equivalent to ''John''), but the foreign name ''John Travolta'' remains in the western name order. Before the 20th century, not only was it common to reverse the order of foreign personalities, they were also "Hungarianised": ''Goethe János Farkas'' (originally Johann Wolfgang Goethe). This usage sounds odd today, when only a few well-known personalities are referred to using their Hungarianised names, including ''Verne Gyula'' (Jules Verne), ''Marx Károly'' (Karl Marx), ''Kolumbusz Kristóf'' (Christopher Columbus; note that the last of these is also translated in English from the original Italian or possibly Ligurian). Some native speakers disapprove of this usage; the names of certain historical religious personalities (including popes), however, are always Hungarianised by practically all speakers, such as ''Luther Márton'' (Martin Luther), ''Husz János'' (Jan Hus), ''Kálvin János'' (John Calvin); just like the names of monarchs, for example the king of Spain, Juan Carlos I is referred to as ''I. János Károly'' or the queen of the UK, Elizabeth II is referred to as ''II. Erzsébet''. Japanese names, which are usually written in western order in the rest of Europe, retain their original order in Hungarian, e. g. ''Kuroszava Akira'' instead of Akira Kurosawa.


Date and time

The Hungarian convention for date and time is to go from the generic to the specific: 1. year, 2. month, 3. day, 4. hour, 5. minute, (6. second) The year and day are always written in Arabic numerals, followed by a full stop. The month can be written by its full name or can be abbreviated, or even denoted by Roman numerals, Roman or Arabic numerals. Except for the first case (month written by its full name), the month is followed by a full stop. Usually, when the month is written in letters, there is no leading zero before the day. On the other hand, when the month is written in Arabic numerals, a leading zero is common, but not obligatory. Except at the beginning of a sentence, the name of the month always begins with a lower-case letter. Hours, minutes, and seconds are separated by a colon (H:m:s). Fractions of a second are separated by a full stop from the rest of the time. Hungary generally uses the 24-hour clock format, but in verbal (and written) communication 12-hour clock format can also be used. See below for usage examples. Date and time may be separated by a comma or simply written one after the other. *2020. február 9. 16:23:42 ''or'' 2020. február 9., 16:23:42 *2020. febr. 9. *2020. 02. 09. ''or'' 2020. 2. 9. (rarely) *2020. II. 9. Date separated by hyphen is also spreading, especially on datestamps. Here – just like the version separated by full stops – leading zeros are in use. *2020-02-09 When only hours and minutes are written in a sentence (so not only "displaying" time), these parts can be separated by a full stop (e.g. "Találkozzunk 10.35-kor." – "Let's meet at 10.35."), or it is also regular to write hours in normal size, and minutes put in superscript (and not necessarily) underlined (e.g. "A találkozó 1035-kor kezdődik." ''or'' "A találkozó 1035-kor kezdődik." – "The meeting begins at 10.35."). Also, in verbal and written communication it is common to use "délelőtt" (literally "before noon") and "délután" (lit. "after noon") abbreviated as "de." and "du." respectively. Délelőtt and délután is said or written before the time, e.g. "Délután 4 óra van." – "It's 4 p.m.". However e.g. "délelőtt 5 óra" (should mean "5 a.m.") or "délután 10 óra" (should mean "10 p.m.") are never used, because at these times the sun is not up, instead "hajnal" ("dawn"), "reggel" ("morning"), "este" ("evening") and "éjjel" ("night") is used, however there are no exact rules for the use of these, as everybody uses them according to their habits (e.g. somebody may have woken up at 5 a.m. so he/she says "Reggel 6-kor ettem." – "I had food at ''*morning'' 6.", and somebody woke up at 11 a.m. so he/she says "Hajnali 6-kor még aludtam." – "I was still sleeping at ''*dawn'' 6."). Roughly, these expressions mean these times: * * "Dél" and "éjfél" mean these exact times, so using time after them is incorrect. So there is no "Éjfél 0-kor még buliztunk" ("We were still partying at ''*midnight 0''.") or "Dél 12-kor süt a nap." ("The sun shines at ''*noon 12''."). Instead "Éjfélkor még buliztunk." and "Délben süt a nap." is correct. (More confusingly, one can say "Déli 12-kor süt a nap.", meaning "The sun shines at 12 of noon.", i.e. "The sun shines at 12, which is the 12 of daytime.") "Délen süt a nap" on the other hand means "The sun shines in the south", as Dél means both noon and south.


Addresses

Although address formatting is increasingly being influenced by standard European conventions, the traditional Hungarian style is: Budapest, Deák Ferenc tér 1. 1052 So the order is: 1) settlement (most general), 2) street/square/etc. (more specific), 3) house number (most specific) 4)(HU-)postcode. The house number may be followed by the storey and door numbers. The HU- part before the postcode is only for incoming postal traffic from foreign countries. Addresses on envelopes and postal parcels should be formatted and placed on the right side as follows: Name of the recipient
Settlement
Street address (up to door number if necessary)
(HU-)postcode


Vocabulary examples

''Note: The stress is always placed on the first syllable of each word. The remaining syllables all receive an equal, lesser stress. All syllables are pronounced clearly and evenly, even at the end of a sentence, unlike in English.''


Numbers

Source: Wiktionary


Time

Source: Wiktionary Source:''Wiktionary''


Conversation

*Hungarian (person, language): ''magyar'' *Hello!: **Formal, when addressing a stranger: "Good day!": ''Jó napot (kívánok)!'' **Informal, when addressing a close acquaintance: ''Szia!'' Szia is a version of the Latin origin loanword Servus. *Good-bye!: ''Viszontlátásra!'' (formal) (see above), ''Viszlát!'' (semi-informal), ''Szia!'' (informal: same stylistic remark as for "Hello!" ) *Excuse me: ''Elnézést!'' *Please: **''Kérem (szépen)'' (This literally means "I'm asking (it/you) ''nicely''", as in German ''Bitte schön''. See next for a more common form of the polite request.) **''Legyen szíves!'' (literally: "Be (so) kind!") *I would like ____, please: ''Szeretnék ____'' (this example illustrates the use of the conditional tense, as a common form of a polite request; it literally means "I would like".) *Sorry!: ''Bocsánat!'' *Thank you: ''Köszönöm'' *that/this: ''az'' , ''ez'' *How much?: ''Mennyi?'' *How much does it cost?: ''Mennyibe kerül?'' *Yes: ''Igen'' *No: ''Nem'' *I do not understand: ''Nem értem'' *I do not know: ''Nem tudom'' *Where's the toilet?: **''Hol (van) a vécé?'' (vécé/veːtseː is the Hungarian pronunciation of the English abbreviation of "Water Closet") **''Hol (van) a mosdó?''  – more polite (and word-for-word) version *generic toast: ''Egészségünkre!'' (literally: "To our health!") *juice: ''gyümölcslé'' *water: ''víz'' *wine: ''bor'' *beer: ''sör'' *tea: ''tea'' *milk: ''tej'' *Do you speak English?: Note that the fact of ''asking'' is only shown by the proper intonation: continually rising until the penultimate syllable, then falling for the last one. *I love you: ''Szeretlek'' *Help!: ''Segítség!'' *It is needed: ''kell'' *I need to go: ''Mennem kell''


Recorded examples

WIKITONGUES-_Orsolya_speaking_Hungarian.webm, A Hungarian speaker WIKITONGUES-_Norbert_speaking_Hungarian.webm, A Hungarian speaker recorded in Taiwan WIKITONGUES-_M%C3%A1ria_speaking_Swabian_and_Hungarian.webm, A bilingual speaker of Hungarian and Swabian, recorded in Perbál, Hungary WIKITONGUES- Gabriel speaking Hungarian.webm, A native Icelandic speaker speaking Hungarian


See also

*Hungarian grammar *Hungarian verbs *Hungarian noun phrase *Hungarian phonology *History of the Hungarian language *Regular sound correspondences between Hungarian and other Uralic languages *Hungarian dialects *Hungarian Cultural Institute *List of English words of Hungarian origin *BABEL Speech Corpus *''Magyar szótár'' (Dictionary of the Hungarian Language)


Bibliography


Courses

* ''MagyarOK – Text book and exercise book for beginners''. Szita, Szilvia; Pelcz, Katalin (2013). Pécs; Pécsi Tudományegyetem
MagyarOK website
. *''Colloquial Hungarian – The complete course for beginners''. Rounds, Carol H.; Sólyom, Erika (2002). London; New York: Routledge. . :This book gives an introduction to the Hungarian language in 15 chapters. The dialogues are available on CDs. *''Teach Yourself Hungarian – A complete course for beginners''. Pontifex, Zsuzsa (1993). London: Hodder & Stoughton. Chicago: NTC/Contemporary Publishing. . :This is a complete course in spoken and written Hungarian. The course consists of 21 chapters with dialogues, culture notes, grammar and exercises. The dialogues are available on cassette. *''Hungarolingua 1 – Magyar nyelvkönyv''. Hoffmann, István; et al. (1996)
Debreceni Nyári Egyetem
*''Hungarolingua 2 – Magyar nyelvkönyv''. Hlavacska, Edit; et al. (2001)
Debreceni Nyári Egyetem
*''Hungarolingua 3 – Magyar nyelvkönyv''. Hlavacska, Edit; et al. (1999).
Debreceni Nyári Egyetem
:These course books were developed by the University of Debrecen Summer School program for teaching Hungarian to foreigners. The books are written completely in Hungarian and therefore unsuitable for self study. There is an accompanying 'dictionary' with translations of the Hungarian vocabulary into English, German, and French for the words used in the first two books. *"NTC's Hungarian and English Dictionary" by Magay and Kiss. (You may be able to find a newer edition also. This one is 1996.)


Grammars

* ''Gyakorló magyar nyelvtan / A Practical Hungarian grammar'' (2009, 2010). Szita Szilvia, Görbe Tamás. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó. 978 963 05 8703 7. * ''A practical Hungarian grammar'' (3rd, rev. ed.). Keresztes, László (1999). Debrecen: Debreceni Nyári Egyetem. . *''s:Simplified Grammar of the Hungarian Language, Simplified Grammar of the Hungarian Language'' (1882). Ignatius Singer. London: Trübner & Co. *''Practical Hungarian grammar: [a compact guide to the basics of Hungarian grammar]''. Törkenczy, Miklós (2002). Budapest: Corvina. . *''Hungarian verbs and essentials of grammar: a practical guide to the mastery of Hungarian'' (2nd ed.). Törkenczy, Miklós (1999). Budapest: Corvina; Lincolnwood, [Ill.]: Passport Books. . *''Hungarian: an essential grammar'' (2nd ed.). Rounds, Carol (2009). London; New York: Routledge. . *''Hungarian: Descriptive grammar''. Kenesei, István, Robert M. Vago, and Anna Fenyvesi (1998). London; New York: Routledge. .
Hungarian Language Learning References
(including the short reviews of three of the above books) *''Noun Declension Tables – HUNGARIAN''. Budapest
PonsKlett
*''Verb Conjugation Tables – HUNGARIAN''. Budapest
PonsKlett


Others

* Abondolo, Daniel Mario: ''Hungarian Inflectional Morphology''. Akadémiai publishing. Budapest, 1988. * Balázs, Géza: ''The Story of Hungarian. A Guide to the Language.'' Translated by Thomas J. DeKornfeld. Corvina publishing. Budapest, 1997. * Stephanides, Éva H. (ed.): ''Contrasting English with Hungarian''. Akadémiai publishing. Budapest, 1986. *


Notes


References


External links


Free downloadable Hungarian teaching and learning material

Introduction to Hungarian

Hungarian Profile


*[https://web.archive.org/web/20060805202844/http://how-to-learn-any-language.com/e/languages/hungarian/index.html Hungarian Language Review] at How-to-learn-any-language.com
"The Hungarian Language: A Short Descriptive Grammar"
by Beáta Megyesi (PDF document)

* [http://www.rpi.edu/~sofkam/magyar.html Hungarian Language Learning References] on the Hungarian Language Page (short reviews of useful books)
One of the oldest Hungarian texts – A Halotti Beszéd (The Funeral Oration)

WikiLang
nbsp;– Hungarian Page (Hungarian grammar / lessons, in English)
Hungarian Swadesh list of basic vocabulary words
(from Wiktionary'
Swadesh-list appendix

Basic Hungarian language course (book + audio files)
USA Foreign Service Institute (FSI)
Old Hungarian Corpus


''Encyclopaedia Humana Hungarica''



* [http://mek.oszk.hu/01900/01955/html/index2.html The Linguistic Records of the Early Old Hungarian Period; The Linguistic System of the Age]
The Old Hungarian Period; The System of the Language of the Old Hungarian Period





Dictionaries


Hungarian ↔ English
created by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences – Institute for Computer Science and Control, Computer and Automation Research Institute]
MTA SZTAKI
(also includes dictionaries for the following languages to and from Hungarian : German, French, Italian, Dutch, and Polish)
bab.la
- Online Hungarian-English dictionary and language learning portal
English-Hungarian-Finnish
nbsp;– three-language freely editable online dictionary
Collection of Hungarian Technical DictionariesHungarian bilingual dictionaries

Hungarian-English dictionary

English-Hungarian dictionary

Hungarian Verb Conjugation
{{DEFAULTSORT:Hungarian Language Hungarian language, Agglutinative languages Languages of Austria Languages of Croatia Languages of Hungary Languages of Romania Languages of Slovakia Languages of Slovenia Languages of Serbia Languages of Vojvodina Vowel-harmony languages Subject–object–verb languages Languages of Ukraine