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Hubei (; ; alternately Hupeh) is a landlocked
province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...
of the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

People's Republic of China
, and is part of the
Central China Central China () is a geographical and a loosely defined cultural region that includes the provinces of China, provinces of Henan, Hubei and Hunan. Jiangxi is sometimes also regarded to be part of this region. Central China is now officially p ...
region. The name of the province means "north of the lake", referring to its position north of
Dongting Lake Dongting Lake () is a large, shallow lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a Depression (geology), basin, surrounded by land, and set apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake. Lakes lie o ...
. The provincial capital,
Wuhan Wuhan (, ; ; ) is the capital of Hubei Province Hubei (; Postal romanization, alternately Hupeh) is a landlocked provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, and is part of the Central China region. The name of t ...

Wuhan
, serves as a major transportation hub and the political, cultural, and economic hub of central China. Hubei's name is officially abbreviated to "" (), an ancient name associated with the eastern part of the province since the State of E of the
Western Zhou dynasty The Western Zhou ( zh, c=, p=Xīzhōu; c. 1045 BC – 771 BC) was the first half of the Zhou dynasty The Zhou dynasty ( ; Old Chinese Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, and th ...
of –771 BCE; a popular name for Hubei is "" () (suggested by that of the powerful
State of Chu Chu (, Hanyu Pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Latin script, Roman ( ...
, which existed in the area during the
Eastern Zhou dynasty The Eastern Zhou (; zh, c=, p=Dōngzhōu; 770–256 BC) was the second half of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China. It was divided into two periods: the Spring and Autumn period, Spring and Autumn and the Warring States period, Warring States. H ...
of 770 – 256 BCE). Hubei borders the provinces of
Henan Henan (; ; alternatively Honan) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of China, in the Central China, central part of the country. Henan is often referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou (), which literally means "central plain" or "midlan ...

Henan
to the north,
Anhui Anhui (; as Anhwei) is a landlocked of the , part of the region. Its provincial capital and largest city is . The province is located across the basins of the and the , bordering to the east, to the southeast, to the south, to the southw ...

Anhui
to the east,
Jiangxi Jiangxi (; ; alternately romanized as Kiangsi or Chianghsi, Gan Chinese Gan, Gann or Kan is a group of Sinitic languages spoken first language, natively by many people in the Jiangxi province of China, as well as significant populations in ...

Jiangxi
to the southeast,
Hunan Hunan (, ; ) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdi ...

Hunan
to the south,
Chongqing Chongqing ( ; ; Sichuanese dialects, Sichuanese pronunciation: , Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ), Postal Romanization, alternately romanized as Chungking, is a Direct-administered municipalities of China, municipality in southwest China. ...

Chongqing
to the west, and
Shaanxi Shaanxi (; , ; Shensi) is a landlocked of the . Officially part of , it borders the province-level divisions of (NE, E), (E), (SE), (S), (SW), (W), (NW) and (N). Shaanxi covers an area of over with about 37 million people, the 16 ...

Shaanxi
to the northwest. The high-profile
Three Gorges Dam The Three Gorges Dam is a that spans the by the town of , in , , province, central , downstream of the . The Three Gorges Dam has been the in terms of (22,500 ) since 2012. The dam generates an average 95±20 TWh of electricity per ...

Three Gorges Dam
is located at
Yichang Yichang (), Postal Map Romanization, alternatively romanized as Ichang, is a prefecture-level city located in western Hubei province, China. It is the third largest city in the province after the capital, Wuhan and the prefecture-level city Xiang ...

Yichang
, in the west of the province.


History

The Hubei region was home to sophisticated Neolithic cultures. By the
Spring and Autumn period#REDIRECT Spring and Autumn period The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC), during the ...
(770–476 BC), the territory of today's Hubei was part of the powerful
State of Chu Chu (, Hanyu Pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Latin script, Roman ( ...
. Chu was nominally a tributary state of the
Zhou dynasty The Zhou dynasty ( ; Old Chinese Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China ( ...
, and it was itself an extension of the Chinese civilization that had emerged some centuries before in the north; but it was also a culturally unique blend of northern and southern culture, and was a powerful state that held onto much of the middle and lower
Yangtze River along the Yangtze River. in Hubei Hubei (; Postal romanization, alternately Hupeh) is a landlocked provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, and is part of the Central China region. The name of the provinc ...
, with power extending northwards into the
North China Plain 200px, The North China Plain is shown in dark. The Yellow River is shown as "Río Amarillo". The North China Plain () is a large-scale downfaulted rift basin formed in the late Paleogene The Paleogene ( ; also spelled Palaeogene or Palæogene; ...
. During the
Warring States period The Warring States period () was an era in ancient Chinese history characterized by warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation. It followed the Spring and Autumn period The Spring and Autumn period was a period i ...
(475–221 BC) Chu became the major adversary of the upstart
State of Qin Qin () was an during the . Traditionally dated to 897 BC, it took its origin in a reconquest of western lands previously lost to the ; its position at the western edge of permitted expansion and development that was unavailable to its rivals in ...
to the northwest (in what is now
Guanzhong Guanzhong (, formerly romanised as Kwanchung) region, also known as the Guanzhong Basin, Wei River Basin, or uncommonly as the Shaanzhong region, is a historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographic areas which at some ...
,
Shaanxi Shaanxi (; , ; Shensi) is a landlocked of the . Officially part of , it borders the province-level divisions of (NE, E), (E), (SE), (S), (SW), (W), (NW) and (N). Shaanxi covers an area of over with about 37 million people, the 16 ...

Shaanxi
province), which began to assert itself by outward expansionism. As wars between Qin and Chu ensued, Chu lost more and more land: first its dominance over the
Sichuan Basin The Sichuan Basin (), formerly transliterated as the Szechwan Basin, sometimes called the Red Basin, is a Sedimentary basin, lowland region in southwestern China. It is surrounded by mountains on all sides and is drained by the upper Yangtze River ...
, then (in 278 BC) its heartland, which correspond to modern Hubei. In 223 BC Qin chased down the remnants of the Chu regime, which had fled eastwards, as a part of Qin's wars of uniting China. Qin founded the
Qin dynasty The Qin dynasty, or Ch'in dynasty in Wade–Giles Wade–Giles () is a Romanization of Chinese, romanization system for Standard Chinese, Mandarin Chinese. It developed from a system produced by Thomas Francis Wade, during the mid-19th ...

Qin dynasty
in 221 BC, the first unified dynasties in
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
. Then Qin was succeeded by the
Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...

Han dynasty
in 206 BC, which established the province (''
zhouZhou may refer to: Chinese history * King Zhou of Shang () (1105 BC–1046 BC), the last king of the Shang dynasty * Predynastic Zhou (), 11th-century BC precursor to the Zhou dynasty * Zhou dynasty () (1046 BC–256 BC), a dynasty of China ** Weste ...
'') of
Jingzhou Jingzhou () is a prefecture-level city in southern Hubei province, China, located on the banks of the Yangtze River. Its total residential population was 5,231,180 based on the Seventh National Population Census of the People's Republic of China ...
in today Hubei and
Hunan Hunan (, ; ) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdi ...

Hunan
. The Qin and Han played an active role in the agricultural colonization of Hubei, maintaining a system of river dikes to protect farmland from summer floods. Towards the end of the East Han dynasty in the beginning of the 3rd century, Jingzhou was ruled by regional warlord
Liu Biao Liu Biao () () (142–208), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural sphere T ...

Liu Biao
. After his death, Liu Biao's realm was surrendered by his successors to
Cao Cao Cao Cao (; ; ; – 15 March 220), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural sphere ...
, a powerful warlord who had conquered nearly all of north China; but in the
Battle of Red Cliffs The Battle of Red Cliffs, also known as the Battle of Chibi, was a decisive naval battle in the winter of 208–209 C.E. at the end of the Han dynasty The end of the Han dynasty refers to the period of Chinese history The earliest kno ...
, warlords
Liu Bei Liu Bei (, ; ; 161 – Summer 223), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural sphere ...

Liu Bei
and
Sun Quan Sun Quan (, Chinese: 孫權) (182 – 252), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the Sinosphere, including Chi ...

Sun Quan
drove Cao Cao out of Jingzhou. Liu Bei then took control of Jingzhou and appointed Guan Yu as administrator of Xiangyang (in modern
Xiangyang, Hubei Xiangyang is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Hubei province, China and the second largest city in Hubei by population. It was known as Xiangfan from 1950 to 2010. The Han River runs through Xiangyang's centre and divides the city nor ...
) to guard Jing province; he went on to conquer Yizhou (the Sichuan Basin), but lost Jingzhou to Sun Quan; for the next few decades Jingzhou was controlled by the Wu Kingdom, ruled by Sun Quan and his successors. The incursion of northern nomadic peoples into the region at the beginning of the 4th century ( Five Barbarians' uprise and
Disaster of Yongjia The Disaster of Yongjia () refers to events in Chinese history The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC), during the king Wu Ding's reign, who was me ...
( 永嘉之乱)) began nearly three centuries of division into a nomad-ruled (but increasingly Sinicized) north and a
Han Chinese The Han Chinese (), or the Han people (), is an East Asian East Asia is the east East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north North is one of the four ...
-ruled south. Hubei, to the South, remained under southern rule for this entire period, until the unification of China by the
Sui dynasty The Sui dynasty (, ) was a short-lived Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance. The Sui unified the Northern and Southern dynasties and reinstalled the rule of ethnic Han Chinese, Han in the entirety of ...

Sui dynasty
in 589. In 617 the
Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organiza ...
replaced Sui, and later on the Tang dynasty placed what is now Hubei under several circuits' jurisdiction:
Jiangnanxi Circuit 300px, Tang China and History of the political divisions of China#Provinces under the Tang Dynasty, Tang provinces Jiangnanxidao (Chinese character, Chinese: 江南西道, ''Circuit of Western Jiangnan''; Gan Chinese, Gan: Kongnomsitau) was a south ...
in the south; Shannandong Circuit (山南东道) in the west, and Huainan Circuit in the east. After the Tang dynasty disintegrated in the early 10th century, Hubei came under the control of several regional regimes:
Jingnan Jingnan (), also known as Nanping (南平; alternatively written as Southern Ping) and Northern Chu () in historiography, was one of the Ten Kingdoms in south-central China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a countr ...
in the center,
Yang Wu Wu (), also referred to as Huainan (), Hongnong (), Southern Wu (), or Yang Wu (楊吳), was one of the Ten Kingdoms in eastern China which was in existence from 907 to 937. Its capital was Jiangdu Municipality () (modern Yangzhou Yangzhou, P ...
and its successor
Southern Tang Southern Tang () was a state in Southern China that existed during Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, which proclaimed itself to be the successor of the former Tang Dynasty. The capital was located at Jinling, Nanjing in present-day Jiangsu ...
to the east, the
Five Dynasties The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–979) was an era of political upheaval and division in 10th-century Imperial China. Five states quickly succeeded one another in the Central Plain, and more than a dozen concurrent states were e ...
to the north and Shu to Shizhou (施州, in modern Enshi,
Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture () is located in the mountainous southwestern corner of Hubei Hubei (; Postal romanization, alternately Hupeh) is a landlocked provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, a ...
) . The
Song dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976), personal name Zhao Kua ...
reunified the region in 982 and placed most of Hubei into Jinghubei Circuit, a longer version of Hubei's current name.
Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an East Asian East Asia is the eastern region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") ...

Mongol
s conquered the region in 1279, and under their rule the province of
Huguang Huguang was a Provinces of China, province of History of China, China during the Yuan dynasty, Yuan and Ming dynasty, Ming list of Chinese dynasties, dynasties. It was founded by the Yuan dynasty in 1274. During the Yuan dynasty it included the are ...
was established, covering Hubei, Hunan, and parts of
Guangdong Guangdong (, ), alternately romanized as Canton Province or Kwangtung, is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, admin ...

Guangdong
and
Guangxi Guangxi (; alternately romanized as Kwanghsi; ; za, Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (GZAR), is an autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, uni ...

Guangxi
. During the Mongol rule, in 1331, Hubei was devastated by an outbreak of the
Black Death The Black Death (also known as the Pestilence, the Great Mortality or the Plague) was a bubonic plague Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by the plague bacterium Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bact ...

Black Death
, striking
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
,
Belgium Belgium ( nl, België ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien ), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe. The region's countries and territories vary depending on cont ...

Belgium
, and
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...

Italy
by June 1348, which according to Chinese sources spread during the following three centuries to decimate populations throughout Eurasia. The
Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the Dynasties in Chinese history, ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol Empire, Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynas ...

Ming dynasty
drove out the Mongols in 1368. Their version of Huguang province was smaller, and corresponded almost entirely to the modern provinces of Hubei and Hunan combined. While Hubei was geographically removed from the centers of the Ming power. During the last years of the Ming, today's Hubei was ravaged several times by the rebel armies of
Zhang Xianzhong Zhang Xianzhong (张献忠 or Chang Hsien-chung, 18 September 1606 to 2 January 1647), nicknamed ''Yellow Tiger'', was a leader of a peasant revolt from Yan'an Yan'an (; ) is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.j ...
and
Li Zicheng Li Zicheng (22 September 1606 – 1645), born Li Hongji, also known by the nickname, Dashing King, was a Chinese peasant rebel leader who overthrew the Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty ...
. The
Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeast Asia (mostly in N ...

Manchu
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
which had much of the region in 1644, soon split Huguang into the modern provinces of Hubei and Hunan. The Qing dynasty, however, continued to maintain a
Viceroy of Huguang The Viceroy of Huguang, fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of Hubei and Hunan Provinces and the Surrounding Areas; Overseeing Military Affairs, Food Production; Director of Civil Affairs, was one of eight regional Viceroy A ...
, one of the most well-known being
Zhang Zhidong Zhang Zhidong () (4 September 18375 October 1909) was a Chinese official who lived during the late Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last Dynasties in Chinese history, dynasty in the History of Chin ...

Zhang Zhidong
, whose modernizing reforms made Hubei (especially
Wuhan Wuhan (, ; ; ) is the capital of Hubei Province Hubei (; Postal romanization, alternately Hupeh) is a landlocked provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, and is part of the Central China region. The name of t ...

Wuhan
) into a prosperous center of commerce and industry. The
Huangshi Huangshi (), alternatively romanized as Hwangshih, is a prefecture-level city A prefectural-level municipality (), prefectural-level city or prefectural city is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China China ( ...

Huangshi
/
Daye Daye () is a in eastern province, China. It is under the administration of the . As it is usually the case with county-level cities, Daye includes both an urban core and a fair amount of rural land in all directions, with smaller townships ('' ...
area, south-east of Wuhan, became an important center of mining and metallurgy. In 1911 the
Wuchang Uprising The Wuchang Uprising was an armed rebellion against the ruling Qing dynasty that took place in Wuchang (now Wuchang District of Wuhan), Hubei, China on 10 October 1911, beginning the Xinhai Revolution that successfully overthrew China's last im ...
took place in modern-day Wuhan, overthrowing the Qing dynasty and establishing the
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It shares Maritime boundary, maritime borders with the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the sout ...
. In 1927 Wuhan became the seat of a government established by left-wing elements of the
Kuomintang The Kuomintang (KMT), also referred to as the Guomindang (GMD) or the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Taiwan, Republic of China, initially Republic of China (1912–1949), on the Mainland China, Chinese mainland and ...
, led by
Wang Jingwei Wang Jingwei (Wang Ching-wei; 4 May 1883 – 10 November 1944), born as Wang Zhaoming (Wang Chao-ming), but widely known by his pen name "Jingwei", was a Chinese politician. He was initially a member of the left wing of the Kuomintang (KMT), ...

Wang Jingwei
; this government was later merged into
Chiang Kai-shek Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also known as Chiang Chung-cheng and romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured syst ...

Chiang Kai-shek
's government in
Nanjing Nanjing (; , Mandarin pronunciation: ), Postal Map Romanization, alternately romanized as Nanking, is the capital of Jiangsu Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, a sub-provincial city, a megacity and the List ...

Nanjing
. During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
the eastern parts of Hubei were conquered and occupied by
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
while the western parts remained under Chinese control. During the
Cultural Revolution The Cultural Revolution, formally known as the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement Movement may refer to: Common uses * Movement (clockwork), the internal mechanism of a timepiece * Motion (physics), co ...
in the 1960s, Wuhan saw fighting between rival
Red Guard Red Guards () was a mass student-led paramilitary social movement Mobilization, mobilized and guided by Chairman of the Communist Party of China, Chairman Mao Zedong in 1966 through 1967, during the first phase of the Chinese Cultural Revolution ...
factions. In July 1967, civil strife struck the city in the Wuhan Incident ("July 20th Incident"), an armed conflict between two hostile groups who were fighting for control over the city at the height of the
Cultural Revolution The Cultural Revolution, formally known as the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement Movement may refer to: Common uses * Movement (clockwork), the internal mechanism of a timepiece * Motion (physics), co ...
. As the fears of a nuclear war increased during the time of
Sino-Soviet border conflict The Sino-Soviet border conflict was a seven-month undeclared military conflict between the Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 ...
s in the late 1960s, the
Xianning Xianning () is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a useful distinction, because the sign is located ''already'' wi ...

Xianning
prefecture of Hubei was chosen as the site of Project 131, an underground military command headquarters. The province—and Wuhan in particular—suffered severely from the 1954 Yangtze River Floods. Large-scale dam construction followed, with the
Gezhouba Dam The Gezhouba Dam or Gezhouba Water Control Project ( pinyin: chángjiāng gězhōubà shuǐlì shūniǔ gōngchéng) on the Yangtze River is located in the western suburbs of Yichang City in central China China, officially the People's Rep ...

Gezhouba Dam
on the
Yangtze River along the Yangtze River. in Hubei Hubei (; Postal romanization, alternately Hupeh) is a landlocked provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, and is part of the Central China region. The name of the provinc ...
near
Yichang Yichang (), Postal Map Romanization, alternatively romanized as Ichang, is a prefecture-level city located in western Hubei province, China. It is the third largest city in the province after the capital, Wuhan and the prefecture-level city Xiang ...

Yichang
started in 1970 and completed in 1988; the construction of the
Three Gorges Dam The Three Gorges Dam is a that spans the by the town of , in , , province, central , downstream of the . The Three Gorges Dam has been the in terms of (22,500 ) since 2012. The dam generates an average 95±20 TWh of electricity per ...

Three Gorges Dam
, further upstream, began in 1993. In the following years, authorities resettled millions of people from western Hubei to make way for the construction of the dam. A number of smaller dams have been constructed on the Yangtze's tributaries as well. The
Xianning Nuclear Power Plant The Xianning Nuclear Power Plant (), also named Dafan Nuclear Power Plant (大畈核电站), is planned in Dafan Town, Tongshan County, Xianning Xianning () is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign show ...
is planned in Dafanzhen, Tongshan County, Xianning to host at least four 1,250-megawatt (MW) AP1000 pressurized water reactors. Work on the site began in 2010; the first reactor was planned to start construction in 2011 and go online in 2015. However, construction of the first phase has yet to start as of 2018. On 1 December 2019, the first case of
COVID-19 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease A contagious disease is a disease A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure A structure is an arrangement and organization o ...
in the
COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic A pandemic (from , , "all" and , , "local people" the 'crowd') is an of an that has spread across a large region, for instance multiple or worldwide, affecting a substantial numbe ...

COVID-19 pandemic
was identified in the city of
Wuhan Wuhan (, ; ; ) is the capital of Hubei Province Hubei (; Postal romanization, alternately Hupeh) is a landlocked provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, and is part of the Central China region. The name of t ...

Wuhan
. In January 2020, the
SARS-CoV-2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2) is the coronavirus Coronaviruses are a group of related that cause diseases in s and s. In humans and birds, they cause s that can range from mild to lethal. Mild illnes ...
virus was officially identified, forcing local and federal governments to implement massive
quarantine A quarantine is a restriction on the movement of people, animals and goods which is intended to prevent the spread of disease A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure A structure is an arr ...

quarantine
zones across Hubei province, especially the capital
Wuhan Wuhan (, ; ; ) is the capital of Hubei Province Hubei (; Postal romanization, alternately Hupeh) is a landlocked provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, and is part of the Central China region. The name of t ...

Wuhan
as the epicenter of outbreak. 15 cities were partially or fully locked down, affecting 57 million people directly. Following severe outbreaks in numerous other countries, including in different areas of the world, the outbreak was subsequently declared to be a pandemic in March 2020. However, after more than eight weeks, the lockdown on most cities in the province was lifted.


Geography

The
Jianghan Plain Jianghan Plain (; pinyin: Jiānghàn Píngyuán), named for the confluence of the Yangtze The Yangtze or Yangzi ( or ) is the longest river in Asia, the third-longest in the world and the longest in the world to flow entirely within one c ...
takes up most of central and southern Hubei, while the west and the peripheries are more
mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in having a limited summit area, and is larger than a hill, typically rising at least ...

mountain
ous, with ranges such as the
Wudang Mountains The Wudang Mountains () consist of a small mountain range in the northwestern part of Hubei Hubei (; Postal romanization, alternately Hupeh) is a landlocked provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, and is part ...
, the
Jing Mountains The Jingshan or Jing Mountains () are a chain of mountains in the western part of Nanzhang County, Hubei Province, People’s Republic of China. Stretching for around 150 kilometers, their peaks range in height from 1200 to about 1800 meters above ...
, the
Daba Mountains The Daba Mountains, also known by their Chinese language, Chinese name as the Dabashan, are a mountain range in Central China between the watersheds of the Yellow River, Yellow and Yangtze Rivers. Part of the larger Qin Mountains, Qinling mounta ...
, and the
Wu Mountains Wu Gorge (), sometimes called Great Gorge (), is the second gorge of the Three Gorges system on the Yangtze River, People's Republic of China. Formed by the Wu River (Yangtze River), Wu River, it stretches from Wushan County, Chongqing, Wushan t ...
(in rough north-to-south order). The
Dabie Mountains The Dabie Mountains () are a major mountain range located in central China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous ...
lie to the northeast of the Jianghan Plain, on the border with
Henan Henan (; ; alternatively Honan) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of China, in the Central China, central part of the country. Henan is often referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou (), which literally means "central plain" or "midlan ...

Henan
and
Anhui Anhui (; as Anhwei) is a landlocked of the , part of the region. Its provincial capital and largest city is . The province is located across the basins of the and the , bordering to the east, to the southeast, to the south, to the southw ...

Anhui
; the Tongbai Mountains lie to the north on the border with
Henan Henan (; ; alternatively Honan) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of China, in the Central China, central part of the country. Henan is often referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou (), which literally means "central plain" or "midlan ...

Henan
; to the southeast, the
Mufu Mountains The Mufu Mountains () are a range of mountains located on the border of Jiangxi and Hubei provinces in China. Some maps label the range as 幕埠山, which would be transliterated as Mùbù Shān (Mubu Mountains), but this apparently is a typo. D ...
form the border with
Jiangxi Jiangxi (; ; alternately romanized as Kiangsi or Chianghsi, Gan Chinese Gan, Gann or Kan is a group of Sinitic languages spoken first language, natively by many people in the Jiangxi province of China, as well as significant populations in ...

Jiangxi
. The highest peak in Hubei is
Shennong Peak Shennong (), variously translated as "Divine Farmer" or "Divine Husbandman", was a mythological Chinese sovereign, Chinese ruler who has become a deity in Chinese folk religion, Chinese and Vietnamese folk religion. He is venerated as a culture ...
, found in the
Daba Mountains The Daba Mountains, also known by their Chinese language, Chinese name as the Dabashan, are a mountain range in Central China between the watersheds of the Yellow River, Yellow and Yangtze Rivers. Part of the larger Qin Mountains, Qinling mounta ...
of the
forestry Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, planting, using, conserving and repairing forest A forest is an area of land dominated by tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, ste ...
area of
Shennongjia Shennongjia Forestry District () is a County (People's Republic of China), county-level administrative unit (a "forestry district") in northwestern Hubei province, People's Republic of China, directly subordinated to the provincial government. It oc ...
; it has an altitude of 3105 m. The two major rivers of Hubei are the
Yangtze River along the Yangtze River. in Hubei Hubei (; Postal romanization, alternately Hupeh) is a landlocked provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, and is part of the Central China region. The name of the provinc ...
and its left tributary, the
Han RiverHan River may refer to: *Han River (Guangdong) (''Han-jiang'', 韩江), southeast China, flows into the South China Sea *Han River (Hubei) (''Han-shui'', 漢水 or ''Han-jiang'', 漢江), the longest tributary of the Yangtze, China *Han River (Korea ...
; they lend their names to the
Jianghan Plain Jianghan Plain (; pinyin: Jiānghàn Píngyuán), named for the confluence of the Yangtze The Yangtze or Yangzi ( or ) is the longest river in Asia, the third-longest in the world and the longest in the world to flow entirely within one c ...
– Jiang representing the Yangtze and han representing the Han River. The Yangtze River enters Hubei from the west via the
Three Gorges The Three Gorges () are three adjacent gorges along the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, in the hinterland of the People's Republic of China. With a subtropical monsoon climate, they are known for their scenery. The "Three Gorges Scenic A ...
; the eastern half of the
Three Gorges The Three Gorges () are three adjacent gorges along the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, in the hinterland of the People's Republic of China. With a subtropical monsoon climate, they are known for their scenery. The "Three Gorges Scenic A ...
(
Xiling Gorge Xiling Gorge () is a gorge A canyon (; archaic British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Sax ...
and part of
Wu Gorge Wu Gorge (), sometimes called Great Gorge (), is the second gorge of the Three Gorges The Three Gorges () are three adjacent gorges along the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, in the hinterland of the People's Republic of China. With a ...
) lie in western Hubei, while the western half is in neighbouring
Chongqing Chongqing ( ; ; Sichuanese dialects, Sichuanese pronunciation: , Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ), Postal Romanization, alternately romanized as Chungking, is a Direct-administered municipalities of China, municipality in southwest China. ...

Chongqing
. The Han River enters the province from the northwest. After crossing most of the province, the two great rivers meet at the center of Wuhan, the provincial capital. Among the notable tributaries of the Yangtze within the province are the
Shen Nong Stream Shennong Stream (, ''Shennong Xi'') is a left tributary A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem (or parent) river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a sea or ocean. Tributaries an ...
(a small northern tributary, severely affected by the Three Gorges Dam project); the
Qing The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last imperial dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n.''" Oxford University Press Oxford Univers ...
, a major waterway of southwestern Hubei; the Huangbo near
Yichang Yichang (), Postal Map Romanization, alternatively romanized as Ichang, is a prefecture-level city located in western Hubei province, China. It is the third largest city in the province after the capital, Wuhan and the prefecture-level city Xiang ...

Yichang
; and the Fushui River in the southeast. Thousands of lakes dot the landscape of Hubei's Jianghan Plain, giving Hubei the name of "Province of Lakes"; the largest of these lakes are Liangzi Lake and Hong Lake. The numerous hydrodams have created a number of large reservoirs, the largest of which is the Danjiangkou Reservoir on the Han River, on the border between Hubei and
Henan Henan (; ; alternatively Honan) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of China, in the Central China, central part of the country. Henan is often referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou (), which literally means "central plain" or "midlan ...

Henan
. Hubei has a humid subtropical climate (''Cfa'' or ''Cwa'' under the Köppen climate classification), with four distinct seasons. Winters are cool to cold, with average temperatures of in January, while summers are hot and humid, with average temperatures of in July; punishing temperatures of or above are widely associated with Wuhan, the provincial capital. The mountainous districts of western Hubei, in particular
Shennongjia Shennongjia Forestry District () is a County (People's Republic of China), county-level administrative unit (a "forestry district") in northwestern Hubei province, People's Republic of China, directly subordinated to the provincial government. It oc ...
, with their cooler summers, attract numerous visitors from Wuhan and other lowland cities. Besides the capital
Wuhan Wuhan (, ; ; ) is the capital of Hubei Province Hubei (; Postal romanization, alternately Hupeh) is a landlocked provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, and is part of the Central China region. The name of t ...

Wuhan
, other important cities are Jingmen; Shiyan, a center of automotive industry and the gateway to the
Wudang Mountains The Wudang Mountains () consist of a small mountain range in the northwestern part of Hubei Hubei (; Postal romanization, alternately Hupeh) is a landlocked provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, and is part ...
;
Yichang Yichang (), Postal Map Romanization, alternatively romanized as Ichang, is a prefecture-level city located in western Hubei province, China. It is the third largest city in the province after the capital, Wuhan and the prefecture-level city Xiang ...

Yichang
, the main base for the gigantic hydroelectric projects of southwestern Hubei; and Shashi District, Shashi.


Administrative divisions

Hubei is divided into seventeen Administrative divisions of China#Prefectural level, prefecture-level divisions (of which there are twelve Prefecture-level city, prefecture-level cities (including a Sub-provincial divisions in the People's Republic of China, sub-provincial city) and one autonomous prefecture), as well as three directly administered County-level city, county-level cities (all Sub-prefecture-level city, sub-prefecture-level cities) and one directly administered county-level forestry area. At the end of 2017, the total population is 59.02 million. The thirteen Prefectures of the People's Republic of China, Prefecture and four directly administered Administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China#County level, county-level divisions of Hubei are subdivided into 103 Administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China#County level, county-level divisions (39 District of China, districts, 24 county-level cities, 37 County (People's Republic of China), counties, 2 autonomous counties, 1 forestry district; the directly administered county-level divisions are included here). Those are in turn divided into 1234 Administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China#Township level, township-level divisions (737 town of China, towns, 215 Townships of the People's Republic of China, townships, nine ethnic townships, and 273 Subdistricts of China, subdistricts).


Urban areas


Government and politics

Secretaries of the Communist Party of China, CPC Hubei Committee: #Li Xiannian (): 1949−1954 #Wang Renzhong (): 1954−1966 #Zhang Tixue (): 1966−1967 #Zeng Siyu (): 1970−1973 #Zhao Xinchu (): 1973−1978 #Chen Pixian (): 1978−1982 #Guan Guangfu (): 1983−1994 #Jia Zhijie (): 1994−2001 #Jiang Zhuping (): 2001 #Yu Zhengsheng (): 2001−2007 #Luo Qingquan (): 2007−2011 #Li Hongzhong (): 2011−2016 #Jiang Chaoliang (): 2016−2020 #Ying Yong (): 2020−present Governors of Hubei: #Li Xiannian (): 1949−1954 #Liu Zihou (): 1954−1956 #Zhang Tixue (): 1956−1967 #Zeng Siyu (): 1968−1973 #Zhao Xinchu (): 1973−1978 #Chen Pixian (): 1978−1980 #Han Ningfu (): 1980−1982 #Huang Zhizhen (): 1982−1986 #Guo Zhenqian (): 1986−1990 #Guo Shuyan (): 1990−1993 #Jia Zhijie (): 1993−1995 #Jiang Zhuping (): 1995−2001 #Zhang Guoguang (): 2001−2002 #Luo Qingquan (): 2002−2007 #Li Hongzhong (): 2007−2010 #Wang Guosheng (politician), Wang Guosheng (): 2010−2016 #Wang Xiaodong (born 1960), Wang Xiaodong (): 2016−2021 #Wang Zhonglin (politician), Wang Zhonglin (): 2021−present


Economy

Hubei is often called the "Land of Fish and Rice" (). Important agricultural products in Hubei include cotton, rice, wheat, and tea, while industries include automobiles, metallurgy, machinery, power generation, textiles, foodstuffs and high-tech commodities. Mineral resources that can be found in Hubei in significant quantities include borax, hongshiite, wollastonite, garnet, marlstone, iron, phosphorus, copper, gypsum, rutile, rock salt, gold amalgam, manganese and vanadium. The province's recoverable reserves of coal stand at 548 million tons, which is modest compared to other Chinese provinces. Hubei is well known for its mines of fine turquoise and green faustite. Once completed, the
Three Gorges Dam The Three Gorges Dam is a that spans the by the town of , in , , province, central , downstream of the . The Three Gorges Dam has been the in terms of (22,500 ) since 2012. The dam generates an average 95±20 TWh of electricity per ...

Three Gorges Dam
in western Hubei will provide plentiful hydroelectricity, with an estimated annual power production of 84,700 Gwh. Existing hydroelectric stations include Gezhouba Dam, Gezhouba, Danjiangkou, Geheyan, Hanjiang Dam, Hanjiang, Duhe, Huanglongtan, Bailianhe, Lushui and Fushui. Hubei's economy ranks 7th in the country and its nominal GDP for 2018 was 3.9 trillion yuan (US$595 billion) and a per capita of 66,799 RMB (US$10,099) in 2018, tripled since 2010.


Economic and Technological Development Zones

* Hubei Jingzhou Chengnan Economic Development Zone was established in 1992 under the approval of Hubei Government. Three major industries include textile, petroleum and chemical processing, with a combined output accounts for 90% of its total output. The zone also enjoys a well-developed transportation network—only to the airport and to the railway station. *
Wuhan Wuhan (, ; ; ) is the capital of Hubei Province Hubei (; Postal romanization, alternately Hupeh) is a landlocked provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, and is part of the Central China region. The name of t ...

Wuhan
East Lake High-Tech Development Zone is a national level high-tech development zone. Optical-electronics, telecommunications, and equipment manufacturing are the core industries of Wuhan East Lake High-Tech Development Zone (ELHTZ) while software outsourcing and electronics are also encouraged. ELHTZ is China's largest production centre for optical-electronic products with key players like Changfei Fiber-optical Cables (the largest fiber-optical cable maker in China), Fenghuo Telecommunications and Wuhan Research Institute of Post and Telecommunications (the largest research institute in optical telecommunications in China). Wuhan ELHTZ represents the development centre for China's laser industry with key players such as HUST Technologies and Chutian Laser being based in the zone. *
Wuhan Wuhan (, ; ; ) is the capital of Hubei Province Hubei (; Postal romanization, alternately Hupeh) is a landlocked provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, and is part of the Central China region. The name of t ...

Wuhan
Economic and Technological Development Zone is a national level industrial zone incorporated in 1993. Its size is about 10-25 square km and it plans to expand to 25-50 square km. Industries encouraged in Wuhan Economic and Technological Development Zone include automobile production/assembly, biotechnology/pharmaceuticals, chemicals production and processing, food/beverage processing, heavy industry, and telecommunications equipment. *
Wuhan Wuhan (, ; ; ) is the capital of Hubei Province Hubei (; Postal romanization, alternately Hupeh) is a landlocked provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, and is part of the Central China region. The name of t ...

Wuhan
Export Processing Zone was established in 2000. It is located in Wuhan Economic & Technology Development Zone, planned to cover land of . The first area has been launched. *
Wuhan Wuhan (, ; ; ) is the capital of Hubei Province Hubei (; Postal romanization, alternately Hupeh) is a landlocked provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, and is part of the Central China region. The name of t ...

Wuhan
Optical Valley (Guanggu) Software Park is in Wuhan East Lake High-Tech Development Zone. Wuhan Optics Valley Software Park is jointly developed by East Lake High-Tech Development Zone and Dalian Software Park Co., Ltd. The planned area is with total floor area of 600,000 square meters. The zone is from the 316 National Highway and is from the Wuhan Tianhe Airport. * Xiangyang New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone


Demographics

Han Chinese The Han Chinese (), or the Han people (), is an East Asian East Asia is the east East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north North is one of the four ...
form the dominant ethnic group in Hubei. A considerable Hmong people, Miao and Tujia people, Tujia population live in the southwestern part of the province, especially in
Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture () is located in the mountainous southwestern corner of Hubei Hubei (; Postal romanization, alternately Hupeh) is a landlocked provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, a ...
. On October 18, 2009, Chinese officials began to relocate 330,000 residents from the Hubei and
Henan Henan (; ; alternatively Honan) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of China, in the Central China, central part of the country. Henan is often referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou (), which literally means "central plain" or "midlan ...

Henan
provinces that will be affected by the Danjiangkou Reservoir on the Han River (Hanshui), Han river. The reservoir is part of the larger South-North Water Transfer Project.


Religion

The predominant religions in Hubei are Chinese folk religions, Taoism, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 6.5% of the population believes and is involved in Chinese ancestral religion, cults of ancestors, while 0.58% of the population identifies as Christian, declining from 0.83% in 2004. The reports did not give figures for other types of religion; 92.92% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in Chinese folk religion, worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Chinese salvationist religions, folk religious sects.


Culture

People in Hubei speak Mandarin Chinese, Mandarin dialects; most of these dialects are classified as Southwestern Mandarin dialects, a group that also encompasses the Mandarin dialects of most of southwestern China. Perhaps the most celebrated element of Hubei cuisine is the Wuchang bream, a freshwater bream that is commonly steamed. Types of traditional Chinese opera popular in Hubei include :zh:汉剧 (湖北), Hanju () and Chuju (Chinese opera), Chuju (). The
Shennongjia Shennongjia Forestry District () is a County (People's Republic of China), county-level administrative unit (a "forestry district") in northwestern Hubei province, People's Republic of China, directly subordinated to the provincial government. It oc ...
area is the alleged home of the ''Yeren'', a wild undiscovered Hominidae, hominid that lives in the forested hills. The people of Hubei are given the uncomplimentary nickname "Nine-headed Birds" by other Chinese, from a Chinese mythology, mythological creature said to be very aggressive and hard to kill. ''"In the sky live nine-headed birds. On the earth live Hubei people."'' ()
Wuhan Wuhan (, ; ; ) is the capital of Hubei Province Hubei (; Postal romanization, alternately Hupeh) is a landlocked provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, and is part of the Central China region. The name of t ...

Wuhan
is one of the major culture centers in China. Hubei is thought to be the province that originated the card game of Dou Di Zhu.


Education

The Huazhong University of Science and Technology(HUST), Wuhan University and many other institutions in Wuhan make it a hub of higher education and research in China. Wuhan is the city that has the largest college student population in the world (1.3 million) studying in its 89 universities.


Universities

* Huazhong University of Science and Technology * Wuhan University * Central China Normal University (Huazhong Normal University) * Wuhan University of Technology * Huazhong Agricultural University * Hubei University of Technology * Zhongnan University of Economics and Law * China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), China University of Geosciences * Jianghan University * Hubei University * Hubei University of Economics * Hubei University of Education * China Three Gorges University (yichang) * Wuhan Institute of Technology * Wuhan University of Science and Technology * Yangtze University * South-Central University for Nationalities * Hubei Institute of Fine Arts * Wuhan Technology and Business University * Wuhan Technical College of Communications


Transportation

Prior to the construction of China's national railway network, the Yangtze River, Yangtze and Hanshui Rivers had been the main transportation arteries of Hubei for many centuries, and still continue to play an important transport role. Historically, Hubei's overland transport network was hampered by the lack of bridges across the
Yangtze River along the Yangtze River. in Hubei Hubei (; Postal romanization, alternately Hupeh) is a landlocked provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, and is part of the Central China region. The name of the provinc ...
, which divides the province into northern and southern regions. The first bridge across the Yangtze in Hubei, the Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge was completed in 1957, followed by the Zhicheng Bridge in 1971. As of October 2014, Hubei had Yangtze River bridges and tunnels, 23 bridges and tunnels across the Yangtze River, including nine bridges and three tunnels in Wuhan.


Rail

The Jingguang railway, railway from Beijing reached Wuhan in 1905, and was later extended to Guangzhou, becoming the first north-to-south railway mainline to cross China. A number of other lines crossed the province later on, including the Jiaozuo-Liuzhou Railway and Beijing-Kowloon Railway, respectively, in the western and eastern part of the province. The first decade of the 21st century has seen a large amount of new railway construction in Hubei. The Wuhan–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway, roughly parallel to the original Wuhan-Guangzhou line, opened in late 2009, it was subsequently extended to the north, to Beijing becoming the Beijing–Guangzhou high-speed railway. An east-west high-speed corridor connecting major cities along the Yangtze, the Shanghai–Wuhan–Chengdu passenger railway was gradually opened between 2008 and 2012, the Wuhan–Yichang railway section of it opening in 2012. The Wuhan–Xiaogan intercity railway was opened in December 2016 and it was extended when the Wuhan–Shiyan high-speed railway opened in November 2019.


Air

Hubei's main airport is Wuhan Tianhe International Airport. Yichang Sanxia Airport serves the Three Gorges region. There are also passenger airports Xiangyang Airport, in Xiangyang, Enshi Airport, Enshi, and Jingzhou (Shashi Airport, named after the city's Shashi District).


Tourism

The province's best-known natural attraction (shared with the adjacent
Chongqing Chongqing ( ; ; Sichuanese dialects, Sichuanese pronunciation: , Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ), Postal Romanization, alternately romanized as Chungking, is a Direct-administered municipalities of China, municipality in southwest China. ...

Chongqing
municipality) is the scenic area of the
Three Gorges The Three Gorges () are three adjacent gorges along the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, in the hinterland of the People's Republic of China. With a subtropical monsoon climate, they are known for their scenery. The "Three Gorges Scenic A ...
of the Yangtze. Located in the far west of the province, the gorges can be conveniently visited by one of the numerous tourist boats (or regular passenger boats) that travel up the Yangtze from
Yichang Yichang (), Postal Map Romanization, alternatively romanized as Ichang, is a prefecture-level city located in western Hubei province, China. It is the third largest city in the province after the capital, Wuhan and the prefecture-level city Xiang ...

Yichang
through the
Three Gorges The Three Gorges () are three adjacent gorges along the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, in the hinterland of the People's Republic of China. With a subtropical monsoon climate, they are known for their scenery. The "Three Gorges Scenic A ...
and into the neighboring
Chongqing Chongqing ( ; ; Sichuanese dialects, Sichuanese pronunciation: , Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ), Postal Romanization, alternately romanized as Chungking, is a Direct-administered municipalities of China, municipality in southwest China. ...

Chongqing
municipality. The Daba Mountains, mountains of western Hubei, in particular in
Shennongjia Shennongjia Forestry District () is a County (People's Republic of China), county-level administrative unit (a "forestry district") in northwestern Hubei province, People's Republic of China, directly subordinated to the provincial government. It oc ...
District, offer a welcome respite from Wuhan's and Yichang's summer heat, as well as skiing opportunities in winter. The tourist facilities in that area concentrate around Muyu, Hubei, Muyu in the southern part of
Shennongjia Shennongjia Forestry District () is a County (People's Republic of China), county-level administrative unit (a "forestry district") in northwestern Hubei province, People's Republic of China, directly subordinated to the provincial government. It oc ...
, the gateway to Shennongjia National Nature Reserve (). Closer to the provincial capital, Wuhan, is the Mount Jiugong (''Jiugongshan'') national park, in Tongshan County, Hubei, Tongshan County near the border with
Jiangxi Jiangxi (; ; alternately romanized as Kiangsi or Chianghsi, Gan Chinese Gan, Gann or Kan is a group of Sinitic languages spoken first language, natively by many people in the Jiangxi province of China, as well as significant populations in ...

Jiangxi
. A particular important site of both natural and cultural significance is Mount Wudang (''Wudangshan'') in the northwest of the province. Originally created early in the
Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the Dynasties in Chinese history, ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol Empire, Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynas ...

Ming dynasty
, its building complex has been listed by UNESCO since 1994 as a World Heritage Site. Other historic attractions in Hubei include: *The old Jingzhou City *The Xianling Mausoleum, built by the
Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the Dynasties in Chinese history, ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol Empire, Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynas ...

Ming dynasty
Jiajing Emperor for his parents at their fief near Zhongxiang *The Yellow Crane Tower in
Wuhan Wuhan (, ; ; ) is the capital of Hubei Province Hubei (; Postal romanization, alternately Hupeh) is a landlocked provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, and is part of the Central China region. The name of t ...

Wuhan
*The Hubei Provincial Museum in Wuhan, with extensive archaeological and cultural exhibits and performance presentations of ancient music and dance. This is one of the best places to learn about the ancient state of Chu, which flourished in the territory of present-day Hubei during the
Eastern Zhou dynasty The Eastern Zhou (; zh, c=, p=Dōngzhōu; 770–256 BC) was the second half of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China. It was divided into two periods: the Spring and Autumn period, Spring and Autumn and the Warring States period, Warring States. H ...
and developed its own unique culture, quite distinct from that of the Shang dynasty, Shang/Zhou dynasty, Zhou civilization of northern China. The province also has historical sites connected with China's more recent history, such as the
Wuchang Uprising The Wuchang Uprising was an armed rebellion against the ruling Qing dynasty that took place in Wuchang (now Wuchang District of Wuhan), Hubei, China on 10 October 1911, beginning the Xinhai Revolution that successfully overthrew China's last im ...
Memorial in Wuhan, Project 131 site (a Cultural-Revolution-era underground military command center) in
Xianning Xianning () is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a useful distinction, because the sign is located ''already'' wi ...

Xianning
, and the National Mining Park () in
Huangshi Huangshi (), alternatively romanized as Hwangshih, is a prefecture-level city A prefectural-level municipality (), prefectural-level city or prefectural city is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China China ( ...

Huangshi
."Mining for tourism in Hubei"
, By Li Jing (China Daily). Updated: 2008-09-22


Sports

Professional sports teams in Hubei include: * Wuhan Zall F.C. plays in Chinese Football Association Super League, the highest level football league in China.


Twinning

In 2005, Hubei province signed a twinning agreement with Telemark county of Norway, and a "Norway-Hubei Week" was held in 2007.


See also

* 1954 Yangtze River floods * List of prisons in Hubei * Major national historical and cultural sites (Hubei), Major national historical and cultural sites in Hubei *
COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic A pandemic (from , , "all" and , , "local people" the 'crowd') is an of an that has spread across a large region, for instance multiple or worldwide, affecting a substantial numbe ...

COVID-19 pandemic


Notes


References


Citations


Sources


Economic profile for Hubei
at Hong Kong Trade Development Council, HKTDC


External links


Hubei Government official website

Google Maps Hubei
{{Authority control Hubei, Central China, . Provinces of the People's Republic of China