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Hebei (; alternately Hopeh) is a coastal
province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...
of the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, most populous country, with a Population of China, population of more than 1.4 billio ...

People's Republic of China
, and is part of the
North China North China, or Huabei ( ) is a List of regions of China, geographical region of China, consisting of the provinces of Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shanxi and Inner Mongolia. Part of the larger region of Northern China (''Beifang''), it lies north ...

North China
region. The modern province was established in 1911 as Chihli Province (Zhili Province). Its capital and largest city is
Shijiazhuang Shijiazhuang (; ; Mandarin: ), formerly known as Shimen and romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by hum ...

Shijiazhuang
. Its one-
character Character(s) may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''Character'' (novel), a 1936 Dutch novel by Ferdinand Bordewijk * ''Characters'' (Theophrastus), a classical Greek set of character sketches attributed to Theophrastus M ...

character
abbreviation is "" (), named after
Ji Province Ji Province, also known by its Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, worl ...
, a
Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...

Han dynasty
province (''
zhouZhou may refer to: Chinese history * King Zhou of Shang () (1105 BC–1046 BC), the last king of the Shang dynasty * Predynastic Zhou (), 11th-century BC precursor to the Zhou dynasty * Zhou dynasty () (1046 BC–256 BC), a dynasty of China ** Weste ...
'') that included what is now southern Hebei. The name ''Hebei'' literally means "north of the river", referring to its location entirely to the north of the
Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin: uə xɔ Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is ...
. The province was one of the first regions in China where civilization developed. During the Spring and Autumn and
Warring States The Warring States period () was an era in characterized by warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation. It followed the and concluded with the that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimate ...
periods, it was ruled by the states of Yan and Zhao, and has long been in the northern borders of the
Zhongyuan culture Zhongyuan culture () refers to the culture of (Central Plains) of , centered in much of and parts of nearby provinces like , , and . It is widely held to be one of the main cradles of Han ethnic, later modern . Historically, the region has sp ...
. Since
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
and its surrounding regions were often chosen as the capital, Hebei has served an important role of containing and protecting the city since the Jin dynasty. During the
Yuan dynasty The Yuan dynasty (), officially the Great Yuan (; xng, , , literally "Great Yuan State"), was a successor state Successor is someone who, or something which succeeds or comes after (see success and succession) Film and TV * ''The Succe ...
, it was called Zhongshu Province; during the Ming Dynasty, it was
North Zhili North Zhili, formerly romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and mod ...
; and during the
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
, it was
Zhili Province Zhili, Wade–Giles, alternately romanization of Chinese, romanized as Chihli, was a northern administrative region of China from the 14th-century Ming dynasty until 1911, when the region was dissolved, converted to a Provinces of China, province ...
. The province was renamed "Hebei" in 1928. Abundant in important natural
produce Produce is a generalized term for many farm-produced crops, including fruits and vegetables (grains, oats, etc. are also sometimes considered ''produce''). More specifically, the term ''produce'' often implies that the products are wikt:fresh, fr ...

produce
, such as
grain A grain is a small, hard, dry seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album ...

grain
,
cotton Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus '' Gossypium'' in the mallow family Malvaceae. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. Under natural condition ...

cotton
and
fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the ...

fruit
, Hebei was also one of the first provinces to be
industrialized Industrialisation Industrialisation (or industrialization) is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society An agrarian society, or agricultural society, is any community whose economy is based ...
. As a major
manufacturing Manufacturing is the creation or production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products (g ...
center, its
steel production Steelmaking is the process of producing steel Steel is an alloy An alloy is an admixture of metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, ...
has long been ranked first in China, but the industry has also brought about serious air pollution. Hebei was included in the Jing-Jin-Ji coordinated development strategy, with
Xiong'an Xiong'an New Area () is a state-level new area in the Baoding area of Hebei, China. Established in April 2017, the area is located about 100 km southwest of Beijing and 50 km east of downtown Baoding. Its main function is to serve as a d ...
New Area becoming the first national-level new district to be established by the
Central Committee of the Communist Party of China The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CCCPC) is a political body that comprises the top leaders of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). It is currently composed of 205 full members and 171 alternate members (see 19th Central Commit ...
and the
State Council of the People's Republic of China The State Council, Constitution of the People's Republic of China, constitutionally synonymous with the Central People's Government since 1954 (particularly in relation to local governments), is the Cabinet (government), chief administrative ...
.
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
and
Tianjin Tianjin (; ; Mandarin: ), alternately romanized as Tientsin, is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as g ...

Tianjin
Municipalities, which border each other, were carved out of Hebei. The province borders
Liaoning Liaoning (), is a coastal province in Northeast China Northeast China, is a geographical region of China. It usually corresponds specifically to the three province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country ...
to the northeast,
Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is a landlocked of the . Its border includes most of the length of China's with the country of . Inner Mongolia also accounts for a small section of China's with (). Its capit ...

Inner Mongolia
to the north,
Shanxi Shanxi (; ; Chinese postal romanization, formerly romanised as Shansi) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China and is part of the North China region. The capital and largest city of the province is ...

Shanxi
to the west,
Henan Henan (; ; alternatively Honan) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of China, in the Central China, central part of the country. Henan is often referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou (), which literally means "central plain" or "midlan ...

Henan
to the south, and
Shandong Shandong (; alternately romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subn ...

Shandong
to the southeast.
Bohai Bay Bohai Bay () is one of the three major bays of the Bohai Sea The Bohai Sea or Bo Sea, also known as Bohai Gulf, Bo Gulf or Pohai Bay (), is a marginal sea approximately in area on the east coast of mainland China Mainland China, also ...
of the
Bohai Sea The Bohai Sea or Bo Sea, also known as Bohai Gulf, Bo Gulf or Pohai Bay (), is a marginal sea approximately in area on the east coast of mainland China Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, China mainland, or the Mainland A ...

Bohai Sea
is to the east. A small part of Hebei, Sanhe Exclave, consisting of Sanhe,
Dachang Hui Autonomous County Dachang Hui Autonomous County (; Xiao'erjing: ) is a Hui people, Hui autonomous county of Hebei province. It is under the administration of Langfang prefecture-level city, and was established in 1955. The Hui Muslim county of Dachang was Chinese Mu ...
, and
Xianghe County Xianghe County () is a county of central Hebei province. It is under the administration of Langfang prefecture-level city. Xianghe has 7 Town (China), towns and 2 Township (People's Republic of China), townships. It is southeast of Beijing. Sanhe, ...
, an
exclave An enclave is a territory (or a part of one) that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state. Enclaves may also exist within territorial waters. ''Enclave'' is sometimes used improperly to denote a territory that is only partly ...

exclave
disjointed from the rest of the province, is wedged between the municipalities of Beijing and Tianjin. Five
UNESCO World Heritage Sites A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...
are located in the province, including
Chengde Mountain Resort Chengde Mountain Resort in Chengde (; Manchu: 35px ''Halhūn be jailara gurung''), is a large complex of imperial palaces and gardens situated in the Shuangqiao District of Chengde Chengde, formerly known as Jehol and Rehe, is a prefecture ...
, the
Great Wall The Great Wall of China () is a series of fortifications A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typica ...
, the
Grand CanalGrand Canal can refer to multiple waterways: * Grand Canal (China) in eastern China * Grand Canal (Ireland), between the River Shannon and Dublin in Ireland * Grand Canal (Venice) in Venice, Italy * Grand Canal d'Alsace in eastern France *Grand Cana ...
, and the
Eastern Eastern may refer to: Transportation *China Eastern Airlines, a current Chinese airline based in Shanghai *Eastern Air, former name of Zambia Skyways *Eastern Air Lines, a defunct American airline that operated from 1926 to 1991 *Eastern Air Lin ...

Eastern
and
Western Qing tombs The Western Qing tombs (; ) are located some southwest of Beijing Beijing ( ), Chinese postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the Capital city, capital of the People's Republic of China. It is the world's List of ...
, as well as five National Famous Historical and Cultural Cities:
Handan Handan is a prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning), but still from the Huangshi main urban area. A prefectural-level municipalit ...
,
Baoding Baoding (), formerly known as Baozhou and Qingyuan, is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a useful distinction, ...
,
Chengde Chengde, formerly known as Jehol and Rehe, is a prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning), but still from the Huangshi main urban area ...

Chengde
,
Zhengding Zhengding (), originally Zhending (), is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern ...
and
Shanhaiguan Shanhai Pass or Shanhaiguan () is one of the major passes in the Great Wall of China The Great Wall of China () is a series of fortifications that were built across the historical northern borders of ancient Chinese states and Imperi ...
. With a population of over 74 million people, Hebei is China's sixth most populous province. The Han majority comprise 96% of the population, followed by a minority of
Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeast Asia (mostly in N ...
,
Hui The Hui people ( zh, c=, p=Huízú, w=Hui2-tsu2, Xiao'erjing Xiao'erjing or Xiao'erjin or Xiaor jin or in its shortened form, Xiaojing, literally meaning "children's script" or "minor script" (cf. "original script" referring to the origina ...
and
Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an ethnic group to the , and the of Russia. The Mongols are the principal member of the large family of . The in Western Mongolia as well as the ...

Mongol
peoples.


Etymology

Hebei Province is named so because it is located in the
North China Plain 200px, The North China Plain is shown in dark. The Yellow River is shown as "Río Amarillo". The North China Plain () is a large-scale downfaulted rift basin formed in the late Paleogene The Paleogene ( ; also spelled Palaeogene or Palæogene; ...
, entirely north of the
Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin: uə xɔ Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is ...
. Since the province is recorded in
Yu Gong The ''Yu Gong'' () or ''Tribute of Yu'' is a chapter of the ''Book of Xia'' (夏書/夏书) section of the '' Book of Documents'', one of the Five Classics The Four Books and Five Classics () are the authoritative books of Confucianism in Ch ...
as
Ji Province Ji Province, also known by its Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, worl ...
, or Jizhou, it is abbreviated as Ji (). A nickname of the province is "Yanzhao" (), which is the collective name of the Yan and Zhao states that once controlled the region during the
Spring and Autumn period#REDIRECT Spring and Autumn period The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC), during the ...
and the
Warring States period The Warring States period () was an era in ancient Chinese history characterized by warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation. It followed the Spring and Autumn period The Spring and Autumn period was a period i ...
. In 1421, when the
Yongle Emperor The Yongle Emperor (pronounced , ; 2 May 1360 – 12 August 1424) — personal name Zhu Di (WG: Chu Ti) — was the third List of emperors of the Ming dynasty, Emperor of the Ming dynasty, reigning from 1402 to 1424. Zhu Di was the fourth son ...

Yongle Emperor
moved the capital from
Nanjing Nanjing (; , Mandarin pronunciation: ), Postal Map Romanization, alternately romanized as Nanking, is the capital of Jiangsu Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, a sub-provincial city, a megacity and the List ...

Nanjing
to
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
, the province starts to be called as "
North Zhili North Zhili, formerly romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and mod ...
" () or just "
Zhili Zhili, alternately romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and model ...
" (), which means "Directly Ruled (by the Imperial Court)". When the aforementioned province was abolished in 1928 to reflect Nanjing being made the capital of the
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It shares Maritime boundary, maritime borders with the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the sout ...
, the province was given its present name, Hebei.


History


Early history

Plains in Hebei were the home of
Peking man Peking Man (''Homo erectus pekinensis'', formerly known by the junior synonym ''Sinanthropus pekinensis'') is a group of fossil specimens of ''Homo erectus ''Homo erectus'' (meaning " upright man") is an extinct species In biology, a ...
, a group of
Homo erectus ''Homo erectus'' (meaning "upright Body relative directions (also known as egocentric coordinates) are geometrical orientations relative to a body such as a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread spec ...

Homo erectus
that lived in the area around 200,000 to 700,000 years ago.
Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is t ...
findings at the
prehistoric Beifudi site Beifudi () is an archaeological site and Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age, with a wide-ranging set of developments that appear to have arisen independently in several parts of the world. It is first seen ab ...
date back to 7000 and 8000 BC. Many early legends in
Chinese mythology Chinese mythology () is mythology Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group. This includes oral ...
took place in the province:
Fuxi Fuxi or Fu Hsi (伏羲 ~ 伏犧 ~ 伏戲) is a culture hero A culture hero is a mythological hero File:Wilhelm Tell Denkmal Altdorf um 1900.jpeg, upWilliam Tell, a popular folk hero of Switzerland. A hero (heroine in its feminine form) i ...

Fuxi
, one of the
Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors The Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors were two groups of Chinese mythology, mythological rulers or deities in ancient northern China. The Three Sovereigns lived before The Five Emperors, who have been assigned dates in a period from circa 3162 B ...
, is said to have lived in present-day
Xingtai Xingtai (), formerly known as Xingzhou and Shunde, is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a useful distinction, ...
. The mythical
Battle of Zhuolu A battle is an occurrence of combat in warfare between opposing military units of any number or size. A war usually consists of multiple battles. In general, a battle is a military engagement that is well defined in duration, area, and force c ...
, won by the
Yellow Emperor The Yellow Emperor, also known as the Yellow Thearch, or by his Chinese name Huangdi (), is a deity A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena that are not subject to the laws of nature.https://w ...

Yellow Emperor
,
Yan Emperor The Yan Emperor () or the Flame Emperor was a legendary ancient Chinese ruler in pre-dynastic times. Modern scholarship has identified the Sheep's Head Mountains (''Yángtóu Shān'') just north of Baoji () is a prefecture-level city Image:Y ...
and their
Yanhuang Yanhuang or Yan Huang (Chinese language Chinese ( or also , especially for the written language) is a group of language varieties that form the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan languages, spoken by the ethnic Han Chinese majority and m ...
tribes against the
Chiyou Chiyou (; Old Chinese Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese. The earliest examples of Chinese are divinatory inscriptions on oracl ...

Chiyou
-led Jiuli tribes in present-day
Zhangjiakou Zhangjiakou (; ; ) also known as Kalgan and by several other names Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' ( ...
, initialized the
Huaxia ''Huaxia'' is a historical concept representing the Chinese nation ''Zhonghua minzu'' (; "Chinese nation") is a key political term in modern Chinese nationalism related to the concepts of nation-building, ethnic group, ethnicity, and rac ...
civilization.


Pre dynasty reign

During the
Spring and Autumn period#REDIRECT Spring and Autumn period The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC), during the ...
(722 BC – 476 BC), Hebei was under the rule of the states of
Yan Yan may refer to: Chinese states * Yan (state) Yan (; Old Chinese Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, official ...
in the north and Jin in the south. Also during this period, a nomadic people known as invaded the plains of northern China and established
Zhongshan Zhongshan (; ) is a prefecture-level city in the south of the Pearl River Delta in Guangdong Provinces of China, province, China. As of the 2020 census, the whole city with 4,418,060 inhabitants is now part of the Guangzhou–Shenzhen conurbati ...
in central Hebei. During the
Warring States period The Warring States period () was an era in ancient Chinese history characterized by warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation. It followed the Spring and Autumn period The Spring and Autumn period was a period i ...
(403 BC–221 BC), Jin was partitioned, and much of its territory within Hebei went to Zhao.


Qin and Han dynasties

The
Qin dynasty The Qin dynasty, or Ch'in dynasty in Wade–Giles Wade–Giles () is a romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of ever ...

Qin dynasty
unified China in 221 BC. The
Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...

Han dynasty
(206 BC – AD 220) ruled the area under two provinces (''
zhouZhou may refer to: Chinese history * King Zhou of Shang () (1105 BC–1046 BC), the last king of the Shang dynasty * Predynastic Zhou (), 11th-century BC precursor to the Zhou dynasty * Zhou dynasty () (1046 BC–256 BC), a dynasty of China ** Weste ...
''),
You Prefecture You Prefecture or You Province, also known by its Chinese language, Chinese name Youzhou, was a prefecture (''Zhou (country subdivision), zhou'') in North China, northern China during its imperial era. "You Province" was cited in some ancient s ...
in the north and
Ji Province Ji Province, also known by its Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, worl ...
in the south. At the end of the Han dynasty, most of Hebei came under the control of
warlord A warlord is a person who exercises military, economic, and political control over a region in a country without a strong national government; largely because of coercive control over the armed forces. Warlords have existed throughout much of hi ...
s
Gongsun Zan Gongsun Zan () (died March 199), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural sphere, inclu ...
in the north and
Yuan Shao Yuan Shao (, ; died 28 June 202), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural sphere ...

Yuan Shao
further south; Yuan Shao emerged victorious of the two, but he was soon defeated by rival
Cao Cao Cao Cao (; ; ; – 15 March 220), courtesy name Mengde (), was a Chinese warlord, statesman and poet. He was the penultimate Grand chancellor (China), grand chancellor of the Eastern Han dynasty who rose to great power in the End of the Han ...
(based further south, in modern-day
Henan Henan (; ; alternatively Honan) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of China, in the Central China, central part of the country. Henan is often referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou (), which literally means "central plain" or "midlan ...

Henan
) in the
Battle of Guandu The Battle of Guandu was fought between the warlords Cao Cao and Yuan Shao in 200 CE in the late Eastern Han dynasty. Cao Cao's decisive victory against Yuan Shao's numerically superior forces marked the turning point in their war. The victory ...
in 200. Hebei then came under the rule of the Kingdom of Wei (one of the
Three Kingdoms The Three Kingdoms () from 220 to 280 AD was the tripartite division of China among the states of Cao Wei, Wei, Shu Han, Shu, and Eastern Wu, Wu. The Three Kingdoms period started with the End of the Han dynasty, end of the Han dynasty#East ...

Three Kingdoms
), established by the descendants of Cao Cao.


Jin, Northern, Southern dynasties and Three Kingdoms

After the invasions of northern nomadic peoples at the end of the
Western Jin dynasty Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska Western is a village in Saline County, Nebraska, Saline County, Nebraska, United States. The population was 235 at the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census. History Western was laid out in 1 ...
, the chaos of the
Sixteen Kingdoms The Sixteen Kingdoms (), less commonly the Sixteen States, was a chaotic period in Chinese history The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty ...
and the
Northern and Southern dynasties The Northern and Southern dynasties () was a period in the history of China The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC), during the king Wu Ding ...
ensued. Hebei, firmly in North China and right at the northern frontier, changed hands many times, being controlled at various points in history by the
Later Zhao The Later Zhao (; 319–351) was a dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is the university press ...
,
Former Yan The Former Yan (; 337–370) was a Dynasties in Chinese history, dynastic state ruled by the Xianbei during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. Initially, Murong Huang and his son Murong Jun claimed the Jin dynasty (266–420), Jin dynasty-crea ...
,
Former Qin The Former Qin, also called Fu Qin (苻秦) (351–394) was a dynastic state of the Sixteen Kingdoms The Sixteen Kingdoms (), less commonly the Sixteen States, was a chaotic period in Chinese history The earliest known written r ...
, and
Later Yan The Later Yan (; 384 – 407 or 409) was a dynastic state ruled by the Xianbei The Xianbei (; ) were a Proto-Mongolic Proto-Mongolic is the hypothetical ancestor language of the modern Mongolic languages. It is very close to the Middle Mon ...
. The
Northern Wei The Northern Wei (), also known as the Tuoba Wei (拓跋魏), Later Wei (後魏), was a dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Pres ...
reunified northern China in 440, but split in half in 534, with Hebei coming under the eastern half (first the
Eastern Wei The Eastern Wei (;"Wei"
''Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary''. ) followed the disintegration of the Northern Wei Dynast ...
; then the
Northern Qi The Northern Qi (), also called Later Qi and Gao Qi, was one of the Northern dynasties The Northern and Southern dynasties () was a period in the history of China that lasted from 420 to 589, following the tumultuous era of the Sixteen K ...
), which had its capital at Ye (), near modern
Linzhang Linzhang County () is a county of far southern Hebei Hebei (; alternately Hopeh) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country sub ...
, Hebei. The
Sui dynasty The Sui dynasty (, ) was a short-lived Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance. The Sui unified the Northern and Southern dynasties and reinstalled the rule of ethnic Han Chinese, Han in the entirety of ...

Sui dynasty
again unified China in 589.


Tang and Five dynasties

During the
Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organiza ...
(618–907), the area was formally designated "Hebei" (north of the Yellow River) for the first time. During the earlier part of the
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (), from 907 to 979 was an era of political upheaval and division in 10th-century history of China, Imperial China. Five states quickly succeeded one another in the Central Plain (China), Central Plain ...
, Hebei was fragmented among several regimes, though it was eventually unified by
Li Cunxu Emperor Zhuangzong of Later Tang (), personal name Li Cunxu (), nickname Yazi (), stage name A stage name is a pseudonym A pseudonym () (originally: ψευδώνυμος in Greek) or alias () is a fictitious name that a person or group as ...
, who established the
Later Tang Tang, known in historiography as the Later Tang, was a short-lived imperial dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford Unive ...

Later Tang
(923–936). The next dynasty, the Later Jin under Shi Jingtang, posthumously known as Emperor Gaozu of Later Jin, ceded much of modern-day northern Hebei to the Khitan
Liao dynasty The Liao dynasty (; Khitan language, Khitan: ''Mos Jælud''; ), also known as the Khitan Empire (Khitan: ''Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur''), officially the Great Liao (), was an Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China that ex ...
in the north; this territory, called the
Sixteen Prefectures The Sixteen Prefectures () comprise a historical region in northern China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous co ...

Sixteen Prefectures
of Yanyun, became a major weakness in the Chinese defense against the Khitans for the next century, since it lay within the
Great Wall The Great Wall of China () is a series of fortifications A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typica ...
.


Song, Liao, Jin, and Yuan dynasties

During the
Northern Song dynasty #REDIRECT Northern Song Dynasty#REDIRECT Northern Song Dynasty The Northern Song (北宋; 4 February 960 – 20 March 1127) is an era during the Song dynasty, Song Dynasty. It came to an end when its capital city, the city of Kaifeng, was conquere ...
(960–1127), the sixteen ceded prefectures continued to be an area of hot contention between Song China and the Liao dynasty. The Southern Song dynasty that came after abandoned all of
North China North China, or Huabei ( ) is a List of regions of China, geographical region of China, consisting of the provinces of Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shanxi and Inner Mongolia. Part of the larger region of Northern China (''Beifang''), it lies north ...

North China
, including Hebei, to the Jin dynasty (1115-1234), Jurchen Jin dynasty after the Jingkang Incident in 1127 of the Jin campaigns against the Song dynasty, Jin–Song wars. The Mongol
Yuan dynasty The Yuan dynasty (), officially the Great Yuan (; xng, , , literally "Great Yuan State"), was a successor state Successor is someone who, or something which succeeds or comes after (see success and succession) Film and TV * ''The Succe ...
divided China into provinces but did not establish Hebei as a province. Rather, the area was directly administrated by the Secretariat () at capital Khanbaliq, Dadu.


Ming and Qing dynasties

The Ming dynasty ruled Hebei as "Beizhili" (), meaning "Northern Directly Ruled", because the area contained and was directly ruled by the imperial capital,
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
; the "Northern" designation was used because there was a southern counterpart covering present-day Jiangsu and Anhui. When the Manchu
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
came to power in 1644, they abolished the southern counterpart, and Hebei became known as "Zhili Province, Zhili", or simply "Directly Ruled". During the Qing dynasty, the northern borders of Zhili extended deep into what is now
Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is a landlocked of the . Its border includes most of the length of China's with the country of . Inner Mongolia also accounts for a small section of China's with (). Its capit ...

Inner Mongolia
, and overlapped in jurisdiction with the Leagues of China, leagues of Inner Mongolia.


Republic of China

The Qing dynasty Xinhai Revolution, collapsed in 1912 and was replaced by the
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It shares Maritime boundary, maritime borders with the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the sout ...
. Within a few years, China descended into civil war, with regional warlords vying for power. Since Zhili was so close to Peking (
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
), the capital, it was the site of frequent wars, including the Zhiwan War, the First Zhifeng War and the Second Zhifeng War. With the success of the Northern Expedition (1926–1927), Northern Expedition, a successful campaign by the Kuomintang to end the rule of the warlords, the capital was moved from Peking (Beijing) to Nanking (
Nanjing Nanjing (; , Mandarin pronunciation: ), Postal Map Romanization, alternately romanized as Nanking, is the capital of Jiangsu Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, a sub-provincial city, a megacity and the List ...

Nanjing
). As a result, the name of Zhili was changed to Hebei to reflect the fact that it had a standard provincial administration, and that the capital had been relocated elsewhere. During the Second World War, Hebei was under the control of the Wang Jingwei regime, Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China, a puppet state of Imperial Japan.


People's Republic of China

The founding of the People's Republic of China saw several changes: the region around
Chengde Chengde, formerly known as Jehol and Rehe, is a prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning), but still from the Huangshi main urban area ...

Chengde
, previously part of Rehe (province), Rehe Province (historically part of Manchuria), and the region around
Zhangjiakou Zhangjiakou (; ; ) also known as Kalgan and by several other names Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' ( ...
, previously part of Chahar (province), Chahar Province (historically part of
Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is a landlocked of the . Its border includes most of the length of China's with the country of . Inner Mongolia also accounts for a small section of China's with (). Its capit ...

Inner Mongolia
), were merged into Hebei, extending its borders northwards beyond the Great Wall. Meanwhile, the city of Puyang was carved away, causing Hebei to lose access to the
Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin: uə xɔ Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is ...
. The city first became part of the short-lived Pingyuan Province, before eventually annexed into
Henan Henan (; ; alternatively Honan) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of China, in the Central China, central part of the country. Henan is often referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou (), which literally means "central plain" or "midlan ...

Henan
. The capital was also moved from
Baoding Baoding (), formerly known as Baozhou and Qingyuan, is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a useful distinction, ...
to the upstart city of
Shijiazhuang Shijiazhuang (; ; Mandarin: ), formerly known as Shimen and romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by hum ...

Shijiazhuang
, and, for a short period, to
Tianjin Tianjin (; ; Mandarin: ), alternately romanized as Tientsin, is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as g ...

Tianjin
. On July 28, 1976, Tangshan was struck by a powerful earthquake, the Tangshan earthquake, the deadliest of the 20th century with over 240,000 killed. A series of smaller earthquakes struck the city in the following decade. Today, Hebei, along with
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
and
Tianjin Tianjin (; ; Mandarin: ), alternately romanized as Tientsin, is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as g ...

Tianjin
municipalities which it enclaves, make up the Jing-Jin-Ji megalopolis region. With a population of 130 million, it is about six times the size as the New York metropolitan area and is one of the largest megalopolis cluster in China. Beijing had also unloaded some of its non-capital functions to the province with the establishment of the
Xiong'an Xiong'an New Area () is a state-level new area in the Baoding area of Hebei, China. Established in April 2017, the area is located about 100 km southwest of Beijing and 50 km east of downtown Baoding. Its main function is to serve as a d ...
New Area, which will further facilitate the integration of the three regions.


Geography

The geography of Hebei is quite diverse. It is the only province in China to contain plateaus, mountains, hills, shorelines, plains, and lakes. Most of central and southern Hebei lies within the
North China Plain 200px, The North China Plain is shown in dark. The Yellow River is shown as "Río Amarillo". The North China Plain () is a large-scale downfaulted rift basin formed in the late Paleogene The Paleogene ( ; also spelled Palaeogene or Palæogene; ...
. The western part of Hebei rises into the Taihang Mountains (Taihang Shan), while the Yan Mountains (Yan Shan) run through northern Hebei, beyond which lie the grasslands of
Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is a landlocked of the . Its border includes most of the length of China's with the country of . Inner Mongolia also accounts for a small section of China's with (). Its capit ...

Inner Mongolia
. The Great Wall of China cuts through northern Hebei from east to west as well, briefly entering the border of Beijing Municipality, and terminates at the seacoast of
Shanhaiguan Shanhai Pass or Shanhaiguan () is one of the major passes in the Great Wall of China The Great Wall of China () is a series of fortifications that were built across the historical northern borders of ancient Chinese states and Imperi ...
in northeastern Hebei. The highest peak is Mount Xiaowutai () in Yu County, Hebei, Yu County in the northwest of the province, with an altitude of . Hebei borders the
Bohai Sea The Bohai Sea or Bo Sea, also known as Bohai Gulf, Bo Gulf or Pohai Bay (), is a marginal sea approximately in area on the east coast of mainland China Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, China mainland, or the Mainland A ...

Bohai Sea
on the east. The Hai River drainage basin, watershed covers most of the province's central and southern parts, and the Luan River watershed covers the northeast. Not counting the numerous reservoirs to be found in Hebei's hills and mountains, the largest lake in Hebei is Baiyangdian, located mostly in Anxin County,
Baoding Baoding (), formerly known as Baozhou and Qingyuan, is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a useful distinction, ...
. Major cities in Hebei include: *
Shijiazhuang Shijiazhuang (; ; Mandarin: ), formerly known as Shimen and romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by hum ...

Shijiazhuang
*
Baoding Baoding (), formerly known as Baozhou and Qingyuan, is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a useful distinction, ...
* Tangshan * Qinhuangdao *
Handan Handan is a prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning), but still from the Huangshi main urban area. A prefectural-level municipalit ...
*
Zhangjiakou Zhangjiakou (; ; ) also known as Kalgan and by several other names Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' ( ...


Climate

Hebei has a monsoon-influenced humid humid continental climate, continental climate, with cold, dry winters, and hot, humid summers. Temperatures average in January and in July; the annual Precipitation (meteorology), precipitation ranges from , concentrated heavily in summer.


Administrative divisions

Hebei is made up of eleven Administrative divisions of China#Prefectural level, prefecture-level divisions: all Prefecture-level city, prefecture-level cities: These eleven prefecture-level divisions are subdivided into 168 county-level divisions (47 district of China, districts, 21 county-level cities, 94 County (People's Republic of China), counties and 6 autonomous counties). Those are, in turn, divided into 2207 township-level divisions (1 district public office, 937 town of China, towns, 979 Townships of the People's Republic of China, townships, 55 ethnic townships, and 235 Subdistricts of China, subdistricts). At the end of 2017, the total population of Hebei is 75.2 millio


Urban areas


Politics

The politics of Hebei is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China. The Governor of Hebei is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Hebei. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Hebei Communist Party of China Provincial Committee Secretary (CPC Party Chief).


Economy

In 2014, Hebei's Gross domestic product, GDP was 2.942 trillion yuan (US$479 billion), ranked 6th in the PRC, with its GDP per capita reaching 40,124 Renminbi. As of 2011, the primary sector of industry, primary, secondary sector of industry, secondary, and tertiary sector of industry, tertiary sectors of industry contributed 203.46 billion, 877.74 billion, and 537.66 billion RMB respectively. The registered urban unemployment rate was 3.96%. Hebei's industries include textiles, coal, steel, iron, engineering, chemical production, petroleum, power, ceramics and food. 40% of Hebei's labor force works in the agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry sectors, with the majority of production from these industries going to
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
and
Tianjin Tianjin (; ; Mandarin: ), alternately romanized as Tientsin, is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as g ...

Tianjin
. Hebei's main agricultural products are cereal crops including wheat, maize, millet, and sorghum. Cash crops like
cotton Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus '' Gossypium'' in the mallow family Malvaceae. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. Under natural condition ...

cotton
, peanut, soybeans and sesame are also produced. Hebei's also abundant in natural resources. The Kailuan mine in Tangshan, with a history of over 100 years, is one of China's first modern coal mines, and remains a major mine with an annual production of over 20 million metric tonnes. Much of the :zh:华北油田, North China Oilfied is found in Hebei, and there are also major iron mines at
Handan Handan is a prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning), but still from the Huangshi main urban area. A prefectural-level municipalit ...
and Qian'an, Hebei, Qian'an. Iron, as well as steel, manufacturing are the largest industries in Hebei, and are likely to remain so as these industries consolidate and Hebei continues to grow as a manufacturing and transportation center for the region.


Economic and technological development zones

*
Baoding Baoding (), formerly known as Baozhou and Qingyuan, is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a useful distinction, ...
Hi-Tech Industry Development Zone * Langfang Export Processing Zone * Qinhuangdao Economic & Technological Development Zone * Qinhuangdao Export Processing Zone *
Shijiazhuang Shijiazhuang (; ; Mandarin: ), formerly known as Shimen and romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by hum ...

Shijiazhuang
Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone *
Xiong'an Xiong'an New Area () is a state-level new area in the Baoding area of Hebei, China. Established in April 2017, the area is located about 100 km southwest of Beijing and 50 km east of downtown Baoding. Its main function is to serve as a d ...
New Area


Demographics

The population is mostly Han Chinese. 55 ethnic minorities are present in Hebei, representing 4.27% of the total population. The largest are Manchu (2.1 million people), Hui people (600000 people) and Mongol (180000 people). It excludes members of the People's Liberation Army in active service. In 2004, the birth rate was 11.98 births per 1,000 people, while the death rate was 6.19 deaths per 1,000 people. In 2000 the Human sex ratio, sex ratio at birth was 118.46 males to 100 females. In 2019, the birth rate was 10.83 births per 1,000 people, while the death rate was 6.12 deaths per 1,000 people. The male population is 37,679,003(50.50%), the female population is 36,931,232(49.50%). The sex ratio of the total population was 102.02, decreasing 0.82 from 2010.


Religion

The predominant religions in Hebei are Chinese folk religions, Taoism, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 5.52% of the population believe in and are involved in Chinese ancestral religion, ancestor veneration, while 3.05% of the population identify as Christian, mostly of the Catholic Church. Local worship of deities in the region began to organise into "associations of good-doing, benevolent churches" as a reaction to Catholicism in the
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
. The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 90.61% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in Chinese folk religion, worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism and Chinese salvationist religions, folk religious sects. Zailiism is a folk religious sect that originated in Hebei. There is a presence of Tibetan Buddhism, Tibetan Buddhist schools in the province. Hebei has the largest Catholic population in China, with 1 million members according to the local government. and 1.5 million Catholics according to the Catholic Church. The province is considered as the center of Catholicism in China. The town of Donglu in
Baoding Baoding (), formerly known as Baozhou and Qingyuan, is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a useful distinction, ...
, where an Our Lady of China, apparition of the Virgin Mary was reported to have occurred in 1900, is reportedly "one of the strongholds of the unofficial Catholic Church in China". A large number of Catholics in Hebei remain loyal to the Pope and reject the authority of the Catholic Patriotic Church. Four of Hebei's underground bishops have been imprisoned in recent years: Bishop Francis An Shuxin of Donglu since 1996; Bishop James Su Zhimin since October 1997; and Bishops Han Dingxiang of Yongnian who died in prison in 2007 and Julius Jia Zhiguo of Zhengding since late 1999.Hebei
Pray for China
In 2003 there were 350.000 Protestants and 580.000 Muslims according to government statistics. According to a survey, as of 2010 Muslims constitute 0.82% of the population of Hebei.Min Junqing. ''The Present Situation and Characteristics of Contemporary Islam in China''. JISMOR, 8
2010 Islam by province, page 29
Data from: Yang Zongde, ''Study on Current Muslim Population in China'', Jinan Muslim, 2, 2010.


Culture

Dialects of Mandarin Chinese, Mandarin are spoken over most of the province, and most Mandarin dialects in Hebei are in turn classified as part of the Ji Lu Mandarin subdivision. Regions along the western border with
Shanxi Shanxi (; ; Chinese postal romanization, formerly romanised as Shansi) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China and is part of the North China region. The capital and largest city of the province is ...

Shanxi
, however, have dialects that are distinct enough for linguists to consider them as part of Jin Chinese, Jin, another subdivision of Chinese, rather than Mandarin. In general, the dialects of Hebei are quite similar to and readily intelligible with the Beijing dialect, which forms the basis for Standard Chinese, the official language of the nation. However, there are also some distinct differences, such as differences in the pronunciation of certain words that derive from entering tone syllables (syllables ending on a plosive consonant, plosive) in Middle Chinese. Traditional forms of Chinese opera in Hebei include Pingju, Hebei Bangzi (also known as Hebei Clapper Opera), and Cangzhou Kuaibanshu, Kuaiban Dagu. Pingju is especially popular: it tends to be colloquial in language and hence easy to understand for audiences. Originating from northeastern Hebei, Pingju has been influenced by other forms of Chinese opera like Beijing opera. Traditionally Pingju makes use of just a ''Sheng (Chinese opera), xiaosheng'' (young male lead), a ''Dan (Chinese opera), xiaodan'' (young female lead), and a ''Chou (Chinese opera), xiaohualian'' (young comic character), though it has since diversified with the use of other roles as well. Quyang County, in central Hebei, is noted for Ding ware, a type of Chinese ceramics which includes various vessels such as bowls, plates, vases, and cups, as well as figurines. Ding ware is usually creamy white, though it is also made in other colors. Hebei cuisine is typically based on wheat, mutton, and beans. The donkey burger, originating from the cities of
Baoding Baoding (), formerly known as Baozhou and Qingyuan, is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a useful distinction, ...
and Hejian, Cangzhou in the central part of the province, is perhaps the most popular. A staple in the provincial cuisine, it has spread into the two municipalities as well. Other dishes include local variants of shaobing. The city of Baoding is also home to the Baoding balls, a kind of metal ball for exercise and meditation.


Notable individuals

As Han Yu described in ''Sending Off Dong Shaonan'' (), "The land of Yanzhao is said to be home of heroes with tragic fates since ancient times ()", many famous warriors, generals, and politicals, both real and fictional, had hailed from Hebei: *Qin Shi Huang (259 BC–210 BC)- Founder of the
Qin dynasty The Qin dynasty, or Ch'in dynasty in Wade–Giles Wade–Giles () is a romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of ever ...

Qin dynasty
and the Emperor of China, first emperor of a unified China. *Jing Ke (?–227 BC) - An assassin and retainer of Crown Prince Dan who attempted to murder Qin Shi Huang. *Zhang Fei (?–221) - Military general during the late Eastern Han dynasty and early Three Kingdoms period who became Blood brother, sworn brothers with Liu Bei and Guan Yu. *Zhao Yun or Zhao Zilong (?–229) - Military general who lived during the same period as Zhang Fei. *Lin Chong - Also known as "Panther Head"; fictional character in Water Margin, one of the Four Great Classical Novels in Chinese literature. *Wu Song - Nicknamed "Pilgrim"; also a famous character in Water Margin and famous for slaying a man-eating tiger. *cmn:柳哲生, Liu Zhesheng (柳哲生, 1914-1991) - Ace-fighter pilot of Development of Chinese Nationalist air force (1937–1945)#Chinese-American volunteer and/or former provincial/warlord air force pilots, Nationalist Air Force of China, veteran of the Second Sino-Japanese War, War of Resistance-WWII Well-known people of other expertise include: *Zu Chongzhi (429–500) - Astronomer, mathematician, politician, inventor, and writer who's known for calculating pi to an accuracy that won't be surpassed for 800 years. *Feng Dao (881–954) - Confucian minister *Yan Yuan (Qing dynasty), Yan Yuan (1635–1704) - Confucian philosopher *Zhao Lirong (1928 – 2000) - Singer, film actress, and Ping opera performer. *Xia Gengqi (1933 – ) - Curator in the Collections of the Palace Museum, Beijing Palace Museum. *Zheng Yuanjie (1955 – ) - Children's books author, and founder and sole writer of ''King of Fairy Tales'' (童话大王). *Guo Jingjing (1981 – ) - Multi-time Olympic Games, Olympic gold medalist and world champion who won the most Olympic medals of any female diving (sport), diver. *Zhao Liying, Zanilia Zhao (1987 – ) - Actress who starred in multiple Television show, television series. *Deng Lun (1992 – ) - Actor who gained popularity from the xianxia novel, xianxia drama, ''Ashes of Love (TV series), Ashes of Love''. *Liu Shichao or Hebei Pangzai - Internet personality known for his food and drink stunts.


Media

Hebei is served by the province-wide Hebei Television, abbreviated HEBTV. It also covers parts of Beijing, Tianjin, Shandong, Henan, Shanxi, and Inner Mongolia. Shijiazhuang Radio & Television is a regional TV network that covers the provincial capital. Hebei is also served by three main newspapers, Hebei Daily, Yanzhao Metropolis Daily, and Yanzhao Evening News, all published by the Hebei Daily Newspaper Group.


Transportation

Because Hebei surrounds Beijing and Tianjin, all the numerous important railway lines radiating out of these two cities pass through Hebei. The Beijing–Guangzhou Railway is one of the most important: it passes through many major cities such as
Baoding Baoding (), formerly known as Baozhou and Qingyuan, is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a useful distinction, ...
,
Shijiazhuang Shijiazhuang (; ; Mandarin: ), formerly known as Shimen and romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by hum ...

Shijiazhuang
,
Xingtai Xingtai (), formerly known as Xingzhou and Shunde, is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a useful distinction, ...
and
Handan Handan is a prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning), but still from the Huangshi main urban area. A prefectural-level municipalit ...
on its way south to
Henan Henan (; ; alternatively Honan) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of China, in the Central China, central part of the country. Henan is often referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou (), which literally means "central plain" or "midlan ...

Henan
. Other important railways include the Beijing–Kowloon Railway, Beijing–Shanghai Railway, Beijing-Harbin Railway, Beijing–Chengde Railway, Beijing–Tongliao Railway, Beijing-Baotou Railway and Fengtai–Shacheng Railway. High-speed rail lines crossing the province include the Beijing-Shanghai High-Speed Railway, Beijing-Guangzhou High-Speed Railway and Shijiazhuang–Taiyuan High-Speed Railway. Future high-speed rail lines from Beijing and Tianjin to Northeast China and Northwest China will traverse northern Hebei. During the Eleventh Five-Year Plan (People's Republic of China), Eleventh Five-Year Plan, Beijing and Hebei were collaborating on a new passenger railway. The RMB 82.6 billion network will add 844 kilometers to the system. Current railway systems for Hebei trains are also being upgraded and will soon be able to travel at speeds of between 160 and 200 kilometers per hour. As of the early 2013, railway schedule systems listed 160 passenger train stations within the province. The recent expressway boom in China has not left Hebei behind. There are expressways to every prefecture-level city of Hebei, totaling approximately 2,000 kilometers. The total length of highways within Hebei is around 40,000 kilometers. There are a number of ports along the
Bohai Sea The Bohai Sea or Bo Sea, also known as Bohai Gulf, Bo Gulf or Pohai Bay (), is a marginal sea approximately in area on the east coast of mainland China Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, China mainland, or the Mainland A ...

Bohai Sea
, including Qinhuangdao (the second busiest in China with a capacity of over 100 million tons), Huanghua, Hebei, Huanghua, and Jingtang. Shijiazhuang's Zhengding Airport is the province's center of air transportation, with domestic and international flights. Parts of Hebei are served by the Beijing Daxing International Airport in
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
. The Shijiazhuang Metro is the only operational metro system in Hebei. Xiong'an Rail Transit is a planned metro system in
Xiong'an Xiong'an New Area () is a state-level new area in the Baoding area of Hebei, China. Established in April 2017, the area is located about 100 km southwest of Beijing and 50 km east of downtown Baoding. Its main function is to serve as a d ...
.


Tourism

The Ming Great Wall crosses the northern part of Hebei and the eastern end is located on the coast at Shanhai Pass, Shanhaiguan (Shanhai Pass), near Qinhuangdao. Informally known as the "First Pass of The World" (), Shanhaiguan was the place where Ming general Wu Sangui opened the gates to Manchu forces in 1644, beginning nearly 300 years of Manchu rule; Shanhai Pass also marks the psychological entrance / exit of Manchuria, so that for centuries Manchuria was known as "outside the Pass" or "east of the Pass". Beidaihe, located near Shanhaiguan, is a popular beach resort well known as a former meeting place for top governmental officials. The
Chengde Mountain Resort Chengde Mountain Resort in Chengde (; Manchu: 35px ''Halhūn be jailara gurung''), is a large complex of imperial palaces and gardens situated in the Shuangqiao District of Chengde Chengde, formerly known as Jehol and Rehe, is a prefecture ...
and its outlying temples are a World Heritage Site. Also known as the Rehe Palace, this was the summer resort of the Manchu
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
emperors. The Chengde Resort was built between 1703 and 1792, and consists of a palace complex, a large park area composed of lakes, pavilions, causeways, bridges, etc., and a number of Tibetan Buddhist and Han Chinese temples in the surrounding area. There are Qing dynasty imperial tombs at Zunhua (Eastern Qing Tombs) and Yi County, Hebei, Yixian (West Qing Tombs). The Eastern Qing Tombs are the resting place of 161 Qing emperors, empresses, and other members of the Qing imperial family, while the West Qing Tombs have 76. These are also part of a World Heritage Site. The Zhao County, Zhaozhou, or Anji Bridge, built by Li Chun during the
Sui dynasty The Sui dynasty (, ) was a short-lived Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance. The Sui unified the Northern and Southern dynasties and reinstalled the rule of ethnic Han Chinese, Han in the entirety of ...

Sui dynasty
, is the oldest stone arch bridge in China, and one of the most significant examples of pre-modern Chinese civil engineering.
Baoding Baoding (), formerly known as Baozhou and Qingyuan, is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a useful distinction, ...
, the old provincial capital, contains the historical Zhili Governor's Residence and the former court. Xibaipo, a village about from
Shijiazhuang Shijiazhuang (; ; Mandarin: ), formerly known as Shimen and romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by hum ...

Shijiazhuang
, in Pingshan County, Hebei, Pingshan County was the location of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the headquarters of the People's Liberation Army during the decisive stages of the Chinese Civil War between May 26, 1948 and March 23, 1949, at which point they were moved to
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
. Today, the area houses a memorial site.


Sports

The 2018 Women's Bandy World Championship was held in Hebei. Sports teams based in Hebei include: National Basketball League (China)
Hebei Springs Benma Chinese Football Association * Hebei F.C. * Hebei Elite F.C. *Cangzhou Mighty Lions F.C.


Education

Under the national Ministry of Education: * North China Electric Power University () Under other national agencies: * Central Institute for Correctional Police () * Chinese People's Armed Police Force Academy () * North China Institute of Science and Technology () Under the provincial government: * Chengde Medical College () * Handan College () * Hebei Agricultural University () * Hebei Engineering University () * Hebei Institute of Architecture and Civil Engineering () * Hebei Medical University () * Hebei Normal University () * Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology () * Hebei North University () * Hebei Physical Educational Institute () * North China University of Science and Technology () * Hebei University () * Hebei University of Economics and Business () * Hebei University of Technology () * Hebei University of Science and Technology () * Hengshui University () * Langfang Teacher's College () * North China Coal Medical College () * Shijiazhuang College () * Shijiazhuang Railway Institute () * Shijiazhuang University of Economics () * Tangshan College () * Tangshan Teacher's College () * Xingtai University () * Yanshan University ()


Sister subdivisions

Hebei is twinned with the following country subdivisions: * Iowa (July 22, 1983) * Nagano Prefecture (November 11, 1983) * Tottori Prefecture (June 9, 1986) * Veneto (May 17, 1988) * East Flanders (October 4, 1991) * Leningrad Oblast (July 20, 1992) * Buenos Aires Province (May 19, 1992) * Missouri (January 25, 1994) * South Chungcheong Province (October 19, 1994) * Hauts-de-Seine (February 11, 1997) * Goiás (March 24, 1999) * Athens (September 26, 2002) * Pest County (May 27, 2015)


See also

* Dongyi Protectorate * Hebei people, Hebei People * List of prisons in Hebei * Major national historical and cultural sites (Hebei), Major national historical and cultural sites in Hebei


Notes


References


Citations


Sources


Economic profile for Hebei
at Hong Kong Trade Development Council, HKTDC
Ponds, Paddies and Frontier Defence: Environmental and Economic Changes in Northern Hebei in Northern Song China (960–1127)


External links


Hebei Government website
{{Authority control Hebei, Provinces of the People's Republic of China North China Plain