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Hebei (; alternately Hopeh) is a coastal
province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman ''provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Roman Empire's territorial possessions outside ...
of the
People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.4 billion. Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometers (3.7 million m ...
, and is part of the
North China North China, or Huabei (; literally "China's north") is a geographical region of China, consisting of the provinces of Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shanxi and Inner Mongolia. Part of the larger region of Northern China (''Beifang''), it lies north ...

North China
region. The modern province was established in 1911 as Chihli Province (Zhili Province). Its capital and largest city is
Shijiazhuang Shijiazhuang (, pinyin: Shíjiāzhuāng, ) formerly known as Shimen and romanized as Shihkiachwang, is the capital and largest city of North China's Hebei Province. Administratively a prefecture-level city, it is about southwest of Beijing, and ...
. Its one- character abbreviation is "" (), named after
Ji Province Ji Province, also known by its Chinese name Jizhou, was one of the Nine Provinces of ancient China. It is referenced in Chinese historical texts such as the ''Tribute of Yu'', ''Erya'' and ''Rites of Zhou''.Rites of Zhou,Offices of Summer (夏官 ...
, a
Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and a warring interregnum known a ...
province ('' zhou'') that included what is now southern Hebei. The name ''Hebei'' literally means "north of the river", referring to its location entirely to the north of the
Yellow River#REDIRECT Yellow River#REDIRECT Yellow River {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...

Yellow River
. The province is one of the first regions in China to develop civilization. During the Spring and Autumn and
Warring States The Warring States period () was an era in ancient Chinese history characterized by warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation. It followed the Spring and Autumn period and concluded with the Qin wars of conquest th ...
periods, it was ruled by the states of Yan and Zhao, and has long been in the northern borders of the Zhongyuan culture. Since
Beijing Beijing ( ), alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the capital of the People's Republic of China. It is the world's most populous national capital city, with over 21 million residents within an administrative area of 16,410.5 km2 ( ...
and its surrounding regions is often chosen as the capital, Hebei serves an important role of containing and protecting the city since the
Jin dynasty Jin is a toneless pinyin romanization of various Chinese names and words. These have also been romanized as Kin and Chin (Wade–Giles). "Jin" also occurs in Japanese and Korean. It may refer to: States Jìn 晉 * Jin (Chinese state) (晉國), m ...
. During the
Yuan dynasty#REDIRECT Yuan dynasty {{R from move ...
, it was called Zhongshu Province, during the Ming Dynasty, it was
North Zhili North Zhili, formerly romanized as , was a province of Imperial China in Ming dynasty. It was composed of the modern provinces of Hebei, the direct-administered municipalities of Beijing and Tianjin, as well as a small parts of Henan, Shandong. ...
, and during the
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The mult ...
, it was
Zhili Province Zhili, alternately romanized as Chihli, was a northern administrative region of China from the 14th-century Ming dynasty until 1911, when the region was dissolved, converted to a province, and renamed Hebei in 1928. History The name ''Zhili'' me ...
. The province was renamed as "Hebei" in 1928. Abundant in important natural
produce Produce is a generalized term for many farm-produced crops, including fruits and vegetables (grains, oats, etc. are also sometimes considered ''produce''). More specifically, the term ''produce'' often implies that the products are fresh and gene ...
, such as
grain A grain is a small, hard, dry seed, with or without an attached hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consumption. A grain crop is a grain-producing plant. The two main types of commercial grain crops are cereals and legumes. After b ...
,
cotton Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus ''Gossypium'' in the mallow family Malvaceae. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. Under natural conditions, the ...

cotton
and
fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate seeds. Edible fruits, in particular, have propagated ...
, Hebei was also one of the first provinces to be industralized. As a major
manufacturing Manufacturing is the production of goods through the use of labor, machines, tools, and chemical or biological processing or formulation. It is the essence of secondary sector of the economy. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from h ...
center, its
steel production Steelmaking is the process of producing steel from iron ore and/or scrap. In steelmaking, impurities such as nitrogen, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur and excess carbon (the most important impurity) are removed from the sourced iron, and alloying elem ...
has long been ranked first in China, but the industry has also brought about serious air pollution. Hebei was included in the
Jing-Jin-Ji The Jingjinji Metropolitan Region or Jing-Jin-Ji (JJJ), also known as Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BJ-TJ-HB) and as the Capital Economic Zone, is the National Capital Region of the People's Republic of China. It is the biggest urbanized megalopolis r ...
coordinated development strategy, with
Xiong'an Xiong'an New Area () is a state-level new area in the Baoding area of Hebei, China. Established in April 2017, the area is located about 100 km southwest of Beijing and 50 km east of downtown Baoding. Its main function is to serve as a de ...
New Area becoming the first national-level new district to be established by the
Central Committee of the Communist Party of China The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CCCPC) is a political body that comprises the top leaders of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). It is currently composed of 205 full members and 171 alternate members (see list). Members are ...
and the
State Council of the People's Republic of China The State Council, constitutionally synonymous with the Central People's Government since 1954 (particularly in relation to local governments), is the chief administrative authority of the People's Republic of China. It is chaired by the p ...
.
Beijing Beijing ( ), alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the capital of the People's Republic of China. It is the world's most populous national capital city, with over 21 million residents within an administrative area of 16,410.5 km2 ( ...
and
Tianjin Tianjin (), alternately romanized as Tientsin, is a municipality and a coastal metropolis in Northern China on the shore of the Bohai Sea. It is one of the nine national central cities in Mainland China, with a total population estimated at 1 ...
Municipalities, which border each other, were carved out of Hebei. The province borders
Liaoning Liaoning (), is a coastal province in Northeast China that is the smallest, southernmost, and most populous province in the region. With its capital at Shenyang, it is located on the northern shore of the Yellow Sea, and is the northernmost c ...
to the northeast,
Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia or Nei Mongol (; ''Öbür Monggol'', /ɵwɵr mɔŋɢɔɮ/, Mongolian Cyrillic: Өвөр Монгол), officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is a landlocked and Mongolic autonomous region of the People's Republic of C ...

Inner Mongolia
to the north,
Shanxi Shanxi (; formerly romanised as Shansi) is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the North China region. The capital and largest city of the province is Taiyuan, while its next most populated prefecture-level ...
to the west,
Henan Henan (; alternatively Honan) is a landlocked province of China, in the central part of the country. Henan is often referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou (), which literally means "central plain" or "midland", although the name is also applie ...
to the south, and
Shandong Shandong (; alternately romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China and is part of the East China region. Shandong has played a major role in Chinese history since the beginning of Chinese civilization along ...
to the southeast.
Bohai Bay Bohai Bay () is one of the three major bays of the Bohai Sea, the northwestern and innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea. It is bounded by the coastlines of eastern Hebei province (Tangshan and Cangzhou), Tianjin municipality and northern Shandong pr ...
of the
Bohai Sea The Bohai Sea or Bo Sea, also known as Bohai Gulf, Bo Gulf or Pohai Bay (), is a marginal sea approximately in area on the east coast of mainland China. It is the northwestern and innermost extension of the Yellow Sea, to which it connects to ...
is to the east. A small part of Hebei, Sanhe Exclave, consisting of Sanhe,
Dachang Hui Autonomous County Dachang Hui Autonomous County (; Xiao'erjing: ) is a Hui autonomous county of Hebei province. It is under the administration of Langfang prefecture-level city, and was established in 1955. The Hui Muslim county of Dachang was subjected to slaughter ...
, and
Xianghe County Xianghe County () is a county of central Hebei province. It is under the administration of Langfang prefecture-level city. Xianghe has 7 towns and 2 townships. It is southeast of Beijing. Sanhe city, Dachang Hui Autonomous County and Xianghe Count ...
, an
exclave An enclave is a territory (or a part of one) that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state. Enclaves may also exist within territorial waters. ''Enclave'' is sometimes used improperly to denote a territory that is only partly s ...
disjointed from the rest of the province, is wedged between the municipalities of Beijing and Tianjin. Five
UNESCO World Heritage Sites A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...
are located in the province, including
Chengde Mountain Resort Chengde Mountain Resort in Chengde (; Manchu: 35px ''Halhūn be jailara gurung''), is a large complex of imperial palaces and gardens situated in the Shuangqiao District of Chengde in northeastern Hebei province, northern China, about 225 km northe ...
, the
Great Wall The Great Wall of China () is a series of fortifications that were built across the historical northern borders of ancient Chinese states and Imperial China as protection against various nomadic groups from the Eurasian Steppe. Several walls ...
, the Grand Canal, and the
Eastern
Eastern
and
Western Qing tombs The Western Qing tombs (; ) are located some southwest of Beijing in Yi County, Hebei Province. They constitute a necropolis that incorporates four royal mausoleums where seventy-eight royal members are buried. These include four emperors of the ...
, as well as five National Famous Historical and Cultural Cities:
Handan Handan is a prefecture-level city located in the southwest of Hebei province, China. The southernmost prefecture-level city of the province, it borders Xingtai on the north, and the provinces of Shanxi on the west, Henan on the south and Shandon ...
,
Baoding Baoding (), formerly known as Baozhou and Qingyuan, is a prefecture-level city in central Hebei province, approximately southwest of Beijing. At the 2010 census, Baoding City had 11,194,372 inhabitants out of which 2,176,857 lived in the built- ...
,
Chengde Chengde, formerly known as Jehol and Rehe, is a prefecture-level city in Hebei province, situated about 225 km northeast of Beijing. It is best known as the site of the Mountain Resort, a vast imperial garden and palace formerly used by the Qin ...
,
Zhengding Zhengding (), originally Zhending (), is a county in the southwestern Hebei Province, North China, located approximately south of Beijing. It is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Shijiazhuang, the capital of the province, an ...
and
Shanhaiguan Shanhai Pass or Shanhaiguan () is one of the major passes in the Great Wall of China, being the easternmost stronghold along the Ming Great Wall, and commands the narrowest choke point in the Liaoxi Corridor. It is located in Shanhaiguan Distri ...
. With a population of over 74 million people, Hebei is China's sixth most populous province. The Han majority comprise 96% of the population, followed by a minority of
Manchu#REDIRECT Manchu people#REDIRECT Manchu people {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
, Hui and
Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; ) are an East Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and to China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. They also live as minorities in other regions of China (e.g. Xinjiang), as well as ...
peoples.


Etymology

Hebei Province is named so because it is located in the
North China Plain 200px, The North China Plain is shown in dark. The Yellow River is shown as "Río Amarillo". The North China Plain () is a large-scale downfaulted rift basin formed in the late Paleogene and Neogene and then modified by the deposits of the Yellow Ri ...
, entirely north of the
Yellow River#REDIRECT Yellow River#REDIRECT Yellow River {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...

Yellow River. Since the province is recorded in
Yu Gong The ''Yu Gong'' () or ''Tribute of Yu'' is a chapter of the ''Book of Xia'' (夏書/夏书) section of the ''Book of Documents'', one of the Five Classics of ancient Chinese literature. The chapter describes the legendary Yu the Great and the pr ...
as
Ji Province Ji Province, also known by its Chinese name Jizhou, was one of the Nine Provinces of ancient China. It is referenced in Chinese historical texts such as the ''Tribute of Yu'', ''Erya'' and ''Rites of Zhou''.Rites of Zhou,Offices of Summer (夏官 ...
, or Jizhou, it is abbreviated as Ji (). A nickname of the province is "Yanzhao" (), which is the collective name of the Yan and Zhao states that once controlled the region during the
Spring and Autumn period The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history from approximately 771 to 476 BCE (or according to some authorities until 403 BCE) which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou period. The period's name derives fro ...
and the
Warring States period The Warring States period () was an era in ancient Chinese history characterized by warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation. It followed the Spring and Autumn period and concluded with the Qin wars of conquest th ...
. In 1421, when the
Yongle Emperor The Yongle Emperor (pronounced , ; 2 May 1360 – 12 August 1424) — personal name Zhu Di (WG: Chu Ti) — was the third Emperor of the Ming dynasty, reigning from 1402 to 1424. Zhu Di was the fourth son of the Hongwu Emperor, the founder of ...

Yongle Emperor
moved the capital from
Nanjing Nanjing ( ), formerly romanized as Nanking, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region. With 11 districts, Nanjing, which is located in southwestern Jiangsu, has an ...
to
Beijing Beijing ( ), alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the capital of the People's Republic of China. It is the world's most populous national capital city, with over 21 million residents within an administrative area of 16,410.5 km2 ( ...
, the province starts to be called as "
North Zhili North Zhili, formerly romanized as , was a province of Imperial China in Ming dynasty. It was composed of the modern provinces of Hebei, the direct-administered municipalities of Beijing and Tianjin, as well as a small parts of Henan, Shandong. ...
" () or just "
Zhili Zhili, alternately romanized as Chihli, was a northern administrative region of China from the 14th-century Ming dynasty until 1911, when the region was dissolved, converted to a province, and renamed Hebei in 1928. History The name ''Zhili'' me ...
" (), which means "Directly Ruled (by the Imperial Court)". When the aforementioned province was abolished in 1928 to reflect Nanjing being made the capital of the
Republic of China Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The main island of Ta ...
, the province was given its present name, Hebei.


History


Early history

Plains in Hebei were the home of
Peking man Peking Man (''Homo erectus pekinensis'', formerly known by the junior synonym ''Sinanthropus pekinensis'') is a group of fossil specimens of ''Homo erectus'', dated from roughly 750,000 years ago, discovered in 1929–37 during excavations at Z ...
, a group of
Homo erectus ''Homo erectus'' (meaning "upright man") is an extinct species of archaic human from the Pleistocene, with its earliest occurrence about 2 million years ago, and its specimens are among the first recognisable members of the genus ''Homo''. ...

Homo erectus
that lived in the area around 200,000 to 700,000 years ago.
Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age, with a wide-ranging set of developments that appear to have arisen independently in several parts of the world. It is first seen about 12,000 years ago when the first developments of ...
findings at the
prehistoric Beifudi site Beifudi () is an archaeological site and Neolithic village in Yi County, Hebei, China. The site, an area of 3 ha on the northern bank of the Yishui River, contains artifacts of a culture contemporaneous with the Cishan and Xinglongwa cultures of a ...
date back to 7000 and 8000 BC. Many early legends in
Chinese mythology Chinese mythology () is mythology that has been passed down in oral form or recorded in literature in the geographic area now known as "China". Chinese mythology includes many varied myths from regional and cultural traditions. Much of the mytho ...
took place in the province:
Fuxi Fuxi or Fu Hsi (伏羲), also known as Paoxi, is a culture hero in Chinese legend and mythology, credited along with his sister Nüwa with creating humanity and the invention of hunting, fishing, domestication, and cooking as well as the Cangjie sy ...
, one of the
Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors The Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors were two groups of mythological rulers or deities in ancient northern China. The Three Sovereigns lived before The Five Emperors, who have been assigned dates in a period from circa 2852 BCE to 2070 BCE. Tod ...
, is said to have lived in present-day
Xingtai Xingtai (), formerly known as Xingzhou and Shunde, is a prefecture-level city in southern Hebei province, People's Republic of China. It has a total area of and administers 2 districts, 2 county-level cities and 15 counties. At the 2010 census, ...
. The mythical
Battle of Zhuolu A battle is an occurrence of combat in warfare between opposing military units of any number or size. A war usually consists of multiple battles. In general, a battle is a military engagement that is well defined in duration, area, and force c ...
, won by the
Yellow Emperor The Yellow Emperor, also known as the Yellow Thearch, or by his Chinese name Huangdi (), is a deity (''shen'') in Chinese religion, one of the legendary Chinese sovereigns and culture heroes included among the mytho-historical Three Sovereigns ...
,
Yan Emperor The Yan Emperor () or the Flame Emperor was a legendary ancient Chinese ruler in pre-dynastic times. Modern scholarship has identified the Sheep's Head Mountains (''Yángtóu Shān'') just north of Baoji in Shaanxi Province as his homeland and t ...
and their
Yanhuang Yanhuang or Yan Huang (Chinese language: t , s , p ''Yán Huáng'') was the name of an ethnic group of ancient China who inhabited the Yellow River basin area. They claimed their descent from the two tribes led by the Flame Emperor (''Yandi'') and Y ...
tribes against the
Chiyou Chiyou () was a tribal leader of the Nine Li tribe () in ancient China. 002(2003) Intelligence press. . p 32. He is best known as a king who lost against the future Yellow Emperor during the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors era in Chinese mythol ...
-led Jiuli tribes in present-day
Zhangjiakou Zhangjiakou (; ; ) also known as Kalgan and several other names, is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Hebei province in Northern China, bordering Beijing to the southeast, Inner Mongolia to the north and west, and Shanxi to the southwest. ...
, initialized the
Huaxia ''Huaxia'' is a historical concept representing the Chinese nation and civilization, and came from the self-awareness of a common cultural ancestry by the various confederacy (pre-Qin) era Han Chinese people. Etymology According to the ''Zuo zh ...
civilization.


Pre dynasty reign

During the
Spring and Autumn period The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history from approximately 771 to 476 BCE (or according to some authorities until 403 BCE) which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou period. The period's name derives fro ...
(722 BC – 476 BC), Hebei was under the rule of the states of Yan in the north and Jin in the south. Also during this period, a nomadic people known as invaded the plains of northern China and established
Zhongshan Zhongshan (; ) is a prefecture-level city in the south of the Pearl River Delta in Guangdong province, China, with a population of over 3 million (2012). The city-core subdistricts used to be called Shiqi or Shekki (). Zhongshan is one of a ver ...
in central Hebei. During the
Warring States period The Warring States period () was an era in ancient Chinese history characterized by warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation. It followed the Spring and Autumn period and concluded with the Qin wars of conquest th ...
(403 BC–221 BC), Jin was partitioned, and much of its territory within Hebei went to Zhao.


Qin and Han dynasties

The
Qin dynasty#REDIRECT Qin dynasty {{R from move ...

Qin dynasty
unified China in 221 BC. The
Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and a warring interregnum known a ...
(206 BC – AD 220) ruled the area under two provinces ('' zhou''),
You Prefecture You Prefecture or Province, also known by its Chinese name Youzhou, was a prefecture (''zhou'') in northern China during its imperial era. "You Province" was cited in some ancient sources as one of the nine or twelve original provinces of China ...
in the north and
Ji Province Ji Province, also known by its Chinese name Jizhou, was one of the Nine Provinces of ancient China. It is referenced in Chinese historical texts such as the ''Tribute of Yu'', ''Erya'' and ''Rites of Zhou''.Rites of Zhou,Offices of Summer (夏官 ...
in the south. At the end of the Han dynasty, most of Hebei came under the control of
warlord A warlord is a strong leader able to exercise military, economic, and political control over a subnational territory within a sovereign state because of their ability to mobilize loyal armed forces. These armed forces, usually considered militias ...
s
Gongsun Zan Gongsun Zan () (died March 199), courtesy name Bogui, was a military general and warlord who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. Life Little is known of Gongsun Zan's early life. He and Liu Bei studied under the tutelage of Lu ...
in the north and
Yuan Shao Yuan Shao (, ; died 28 June 202), courtesy name Benchu (), was a warlord who lived in the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. He occupied the northern territories of China during the civil wars that occurred towards the end of the Han dynasty. H ...
further south; Yuan Shao emerged victorious of the two, but he was soon defeated by rival
Cao Cao Cao Cao (; ; ; – 15 March 220), courtesy name Mengde (), was a Chinese warlord, statesman and poet. He was the penultimate grand chancellor of the Eastern Han dynasty who rose to great power in the final years of the dynasty. As one of the ...
(based further south, in modern-day
Henan Henan (; alternatively Honan) is a landlocked province of China, in the central part of the country. Henan is often referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou (), which literally means "central plain" or "midland", although the name is also applie ...
) in the
Battle of Guandu The Battle of Guandu was fought between the warlords Cao Cao and Yuan Shao in 200 CE in the late Eastern Han dynasty. Cao Cao's decisive victory against Yuan Shao's numerically superior forces marked the turning point in their war. The victory ...
in 200. Hebei then came under the rule of the Kingdom of Wei (one of the
Three Kingdoms The Three Kingdoms () from 220 to 280 AD was the tripartite division of China among the states of Wei, Shu, and Wu. The Three Kingdoms period started with the end of the Han dynasty and was followed by the Jin dynasty. The short-lived Yan kin ...
), established by the descendants of Cao Cao.


Jin, Northern, Southern dynasties and Three Kingdoms

After the invasions of northern nomadic peoples at the end of the
Western Jin dynasty Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western world, countries that ide ...
, the chaos of the
Sixteen Kingdoms The Sixteen Kingdoms (), less commonly the Sixteen States, was a chaotic period in Chinese history from AD 304 to 439 when the political order of northern China fractured into a series of short-lived dynastic states, most of which were founded b ...
and the
Northern and Southern dynasties The Northern and Southern dynasties () was a period in the history of China that lasted from 420 to 589, following the tumultuous era of the Sixteen Kingdoms and the Wu Hu states. It is sometimes considered as the latter part of a longer pe ...
ensued. Hebei, firmly in North China and right at the northern frontier, changed hands many times, being controlled at various points in history by the
Later Zhao The Later Zhao (; 319–351) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Jin dynasty (266–420) in China. It was founded by the Shi family of the Jie ethnicity. The Jie were most likely a Yeniseian people and spoke next to Chinese one of the Ye ...
,
Former Yan The Former Yan (; 337–370) was a state ruled by the Xianbei during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. Initially, Murong Huang and his son Murong Jun claimed the Jin Dynasty (265-420)-created title "Prince of Yan," but subsequently, in 352, af ...
,
Former Qin The Former Qin, also called Fuqin(苻秦) (351-394) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms in eastern Asia, mainly China. Founded by the ethnic Di officer Fu Jian (317–355) of Shi Le's dynasty, it completed the unification of North China in 376. ...
, and
Later Yan The Later Yan (; 384-407 or 409) was a Murong–Xianbei state, located in modern-day northeast China, during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. All rulers of the Later Yan declared themselves "emperors". Rulers of the Later Yan See also *Bat ...
. The
Northern Wei Maitreya, 443 AD. statue. Dated 489 AD. Tokyo National Museum. The Northern Wei (), also known as the Tuoba Wei (拓跋魏), Later Wei (後魏), was a Dynasties in Chinese history, dynasty founded by the Tuoba (Tabgach) clan of the Xianbei, ...
reunified northern China in 440, but split in half in 534, with Hebei coming under the eastern half (first the
Eastern Wei The Eastern Wei (;"Wei"
''Northern Qi The Northern Qi (), also called Later Qi and Gao Qi, was one of the Northern dynasties of imperial China history and ruled northeastern China from 550 to 577. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Wenxuan, and it was ended following attacks from North ...
), which had its capital at Ye (), near modern
Linzhang Linzhang County () is a county of far southern Hebei province, China, named after the Zhang River within its borders. It is under the administration of Handan City, and, , it had a population of 590,000 residing in an area of . Administrative divis ...
, Hebei. The
Sui dynasty The Sui dynasty (, ) was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance. The Sui unified the Northern and Southern dynasties and reinstalled the rule of ethnic Han in the entirety of China proper, along with sinicization of for ...

Sui dynasty
again unified China in 589.


Tang and Five dynasties

During the
Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum between 690 and 705. It was preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. His ...
(618–907), the area was formally designated "Hebei" (north of the Yellow River) for the first time. During the earlier part of the
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–979) was an era of political upheaval and division in 10th-century Imperial China. Five states quickly succeeded one another in the Central Plain, and more than a dozen concurrent states were est ...
, Hebei was fragmented among several regimes, though it was eventually unified by
Li Cunxu Emperor Zhuangzong of Later Tang (), personal name Li Cunxu (), nickname Yazi (), was the Prince of Jin (908–923) and later became Emperor of Later Tang (923–926), of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period of Chinese history.Cihai: Page 1 ...
, who established the
Later Tang Tang, known in history as Later Tang, was a short-lived imperial dynasty that lasted from 923 to 937 during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in the history of China. The first three of Later Tang's four emperors were ethnically Shatuo ...

Later Tang
(923–936). The next dynasty, the Later Jin under Shi Jingtang, posthumously known as Emperor
Gaozu of Later Jin Shi Jingtang () (30 March 892 – 28 July 942''Zizhi Tongjian'', vol. 283.), also known by his temple name Gaozu (), was the founding emperor of imperial China's short-lived Later Jin during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, reigning fr ...
, ceded much of modern-day northern Hebei to the Khitan
Liao dynasty The Liao dynasty (; Khitan: ''Mos Jælud''; ), also known as the Liao Empire, officially the Great Liao (), the Khitan Empire or the Khitan (Qidan) State (Khitan: ''Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur''), was an empire and imperial dynasty in East A ...
in the north; this territory, called the
Sixteen Prefectures The Sixteen Prefectures () comprise a historical region in northern China along the Great Wall in present-day Beijing, Tianjin, and northern Hebei and Shanxi. Name It is more specifically called the Sixteen Prefectures of Yan and Yun or the Sixte ...
of Yanyun, became a major weakness in the Chinese defense against the Khitans for the next century, since it lay within the
Great Wall The Great Wall of China () is a series of fortifications that were built across the historical northern borders of ancient Chinese states and Imperial China as protection against various nomadic groups from the Eurasian Steppe. Several walls ...
.


Song, Liao, Jin, and Yuan dynasties

During the Northern Song dynasty (960–1127), the sixteen ceded prefectures continued to be an area of hot contention between Song China and the Liao dynasty. The Southern Song dynasty that came after abandoned all of
North China North China, or Huabei (; literally "China's north") is a geographical region of China, consisting of the provinces of Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shanxi and Inner Mongolia. Part of the larger region of Northern China (''Beifang''), it lies north ...

North China
, including Hebei, to the Jin dynasty (1115-1234), Jurchen Jin dynasty after the Jingkang Incident in 1127 of the Jin campaigns against the Song dynasty, Jin–Song wars. The Mongol
Yuan dynasty#REDIRECT Yuan dynasty {{R from move ...
divided China into provinces but did not establish Hebei as a province. Rather, the area was directly administrated by the Secretariat () at capital Khanbaliq, Dadu.


Ming and Qing dynasties

The Ming dynasty ruled Hebei as "Beizhili" (), meaning "Northern Directly Ruled", because the area contained and was directly ruled by the imperial capital,
Beijing Beijing ( ), alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the capital of the People's Republic of China. It is the world's most populous national capital city, with over 21 million residents within an administrative area of 16,410.5 km2 ( ...
; the "Northern" designation was used because there was a southern counterpart covering present-day Jiangsu and Anhui. When the Manchu
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The mult ...
came to power in 1644, they abolished the southern counterpart, and Hebei became known as "Zhili Province, Zhili", or simply "Directly Ruled". During the Qing dynasty, the northern borders of Zhili extended deep into what is now
Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia or Nei Mongol (; ''Öbür Monggol'', /ɵwɵr mɔŋɢɔɮ/, Mongolian Cyrillic: Өвөр Монгол), officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is a landlocked and Mongolic autonomous region of the People's Republic of C ...

Inner Mongolia
, and overlapped in jurisdiction with the Leagues of China, leagues of Inner Mongolia.


Republic of China

The Qing dynasty Xinhai Revolution, collapsed in 1912 and was replaced by the
Republic of China Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The main island of Ta ...
. Within a few years, China descended into civil war, with regional warlords vying for power. Since Zhili was so close to Peking (
Beijing Beijing ( ), alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the capital of the People's Republic of China. It is the world's most populous national capital city, with over 21 million residents within an administrative area of 16,410.5 km2 ( ...
), the capital, it was the site of frequent wars, including the Zhiwan War, the First Zhifeng War and the Second Zhifeng War. With the success of the Northern Expedition (1926–1927), Northern Expedition, a successful campaign by the Kuomintang to end the rule of the warlords, the capital was moved from Peking (Beijing) to Nanking (
Nanjing Nanjing ( ), formerly romanized as Nanking, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region. With 11 districts, Nanjing, which is located in southwestern Jiangsu, has an ...
). As a result, the name of Zhili was changed to Hebei to reflect the fact that it had a standard provincial administration, and that the capital had been relocated elsewhere. During the Second World War, Hebei was under the control of the Wang Jingwei regime, Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China, a puppet state of Imperial Japan.


People's Republic of China

The founding of the People's Republic of China saw several changes: the region around
Chengde Chengde, formerly known as Jehol and Rehe, is a prefecture-level city in Hebei province, situated about 225 km northeast of Beijing. It is best known as the site of the Mountain Resort, a vast imperial garden and palace formerly used by the Qin ...
, previously part of Rehe (province), Rehe Province (historically part of Manchuria), and the region around
Zhangjiakou Zhangjiakou (; ; ) also known as Kalgan and several other names, is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Hebei province in Northern China, bordering Beijing to the southeast, Inner Mongolia to the north and west, and Shanxi to the southwest. ...
, previously part of Chahar (province), Chahar Province (historically part of
Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia or Nei Mongol (; ''Öbür Monggol'', /ɵwɵr mɔŋɢɔɮ/, Mongolian Cyrillic: Өвөр Монгол), officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is a landlocked and Mongolic autonomous region of the People's Republic of C ...

Inner Mongolia
), were merged into Hebei, extending its borders northwards beyond the Great Wall. Meanwhile, the city of Puyang was carved away, causing Hebei to lose access to the
Yellow River#REDIRECT Yellow River#REDIRECT Yellow River {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...

Yellow River. The city first became part of the short-lived Pingyuan Province, before eventually annexed into
Henan Henan (; alternatively Honan) is a landlocked province of China, in the central part of the country. Henan is often referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou (), which literally means "central plain" or "midland", although the name is also applie ...
. The capital was also moved from
Baoding Baoding (), formerly known as Baozhou and Qingyuan, is a prefecture-level city in central Hebei province, approximately southwest of Beijing. At the 2010 census, Baoding City had 11,194,372 inhabitants out of which 2,176,857 lived in the built- ...
to the upstart city of
Shijiazhuang Shijiazhuang (, pinyin: Shíjiāzhuāng, ) formerly known as Shimen and romanized as Shihkiachwang, is the capital and largest city of North China's Hebei Province. Administratively a prefecture-level city, it is about southwest of Beijing, and ...
, and, for a short period, to
Tianjin Tianjin (), alternately romanized as Tientsin, is a municipality and a coastal metropolis in Northern China on the shore of the Bohai Sea. It is one of the nine national central cities in Mainland China, with a total population estimated at 1 ...
. On July 28, 1976, Tangshan was struck by a powerful earthquake, the Tangshan earthquake, the deadliest of the 20th century with over 240,000 killed. A series of smaller earthquakes struck the city in the following decade. Today, Hebei, along with
Beijing Beijing ( ), alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the capital of the People's Republic of China. It is the world's most populous national capital city, with over 21 million residents within an administrative area of 16,410.5 km2 ( ...
and
Tianjin Tianjin (), alternately romanized as Tientsin, is a municipality and a coastal metropolis in Northern China on the shore of the Bohai Sea. It is one of the nine national central cities in Mainland China, with a total population estimated at 1 ...
municipalities which it enclaves, make up the
Jing-Jin-Ji The Jingjinji Metropolitan Region or Jing-Jin-Ji (JJJ), also known as Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BJ-TJ-HB) and as the Capital Economic Zone, is the National Capital Region of the People's Republic of China. It is the biggest urbanized megalopolis r ...
megalopolis region. With a population of 130 million, it is about six times the size as the New York metropolitan area and is one of the largest megalopolis cluster in China. Beijing had also unloaded some of its non-capital functions to the province with the establishment of the
Xiong'an Xiong'an New Area () is a state-level new area in the Baoding area of Hebei, China. Established in April 2017, the area is located about 100 km southwest of Beijing and 50 km east of downtown Baoding. Its main function is to serve as a de ...
New Area, which will further facilitate the integration of the three regions.


Geography

The geography of Hebei is quite diverse. It is the only province in China to contain plateaus, mountains, hills, shorelines, plains, and lakes. Most of central and southern Hebei lies within the
North China Plain 200px, The North China Plain is shown in dark. The Yellow River is shown as "Río Amarillo". The North China Plain () is a large-scale downfaulted rift basin formed in the late Paleogene and Neogene and then modified by the deposits of the Yellow Ri ...
. The western part of Hebei rises into the Taihang Mountains (Taihang Shan), while the Yan Mountains (Yan Shan) run through northern Hebei, beyond which lie the grasslands of
Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia or Nei Mongol (; ''Öbür Monggol'', /ɵwɵr mɔŋɢɔɮ/, Mongolian Cyrillic: Өвөр Монгол), officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is a landlocked and Mongolic autonomous region of the People's Republic of C ...

Inner Mongolia
. The Great Wall of China cuts through northern Hebei from east to west as well, briefly entering the border of Beijing Municipality, and terminates at the seacoast of
Shanhaiguan Shanhai Pass or Shanhaiguan () is one of the major passes in the Great Wall of China, being the easternmost stronghold along the Ming Great Wall, and commands the narrowest choke point in the Liaoxi Corridor. It is located in Shanhaiguan Distri ...
in northeastern Hebei. The highest peak is Mount Xiaowutai () in Yu County, Hebei, Yu County in the northwest of the province, with an altitude of . Hebei borders the
Bohai Sea The Bohai Sea or Bo Sea, also known as Bohai Gulf, Bo Gulf or Pohai Bay (), is a marginal sea approximately in area on the east coast of mainland China. It is the northwestern and innermost extension of the Yellow Sea, to which it connects to ...
on the east. The Hai River drainage basin, watershed covers most of the province's central and southern parts, and the Luan River watershed covers the northeast. Not counting the numerous reservoirs to be found in Hebei's hills and mountains, the largest lake in Hebei is Baiyangdian, located mostly in Anxin County,
Baoding Baoding (), formerly known as Baozhou and Qingyuan, is a prefecture-level city in central Hebei province, approximately southwest of Beijing. At the 2010 census, Baoding City had 11,194,372 inhabitants out of which 2,176,857 lived in the built- ...
. Major cities in Hebei include: *
Shijiazhuang Shijiazhuang (, pinyin: Shíjiāzhuāng, ) formerly known as Shimen and romanized as Shihkiachwang, is the capital and largest city of North China's Hebei Province. Administratively a prefecture-level city, it is about southwest of Beijing, and ...
*
Baoding Baoding (), formerly known as Baozhou and Qingyuan, is a prefecture-level city in central Hebei province, approximately southwest of Beijing. At the 2010 census, Baoding City had 11,194,372 inhabitants out of which 2,176,857 lived in the built- ...
* Tangshan * Qinhuangdao *
Handan Handan is a prefecture-level city located in the southwest of Hebei province, China. The southernmost prefecture-level city of the province, it borders Xingtai on the north, and the provinces of Shanxi on the west, Henan on the south and Shandon ...
*
Zhangjiakou Zhangjiakou (; ; ) also known as Kalgan and several other names, is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Hebei province in Northern China, bordering Beijing to the southeast, Inner Mongolia to the north and west, and Shanxi to the southwest. ...


Climate

Hebei has a continental climate, continental monsoon climate, with cold, dry winters, and hot, humid summers. Temperatures average in January and in July; the annual Precipitation (meteorology), precipitation ranges from , concentrated heavily in summer.


Administrative divisions

Hebei is made up of eleven Administrative divisions of China#Prefectural level, prefecture-level divisions: all Prefecture-level city, prefecture-level cities: These eleven prefecture-level divisions are subdivided into 168 county-level divisions (47 district of China, districts, 21 county-level cities, 94 County (People's Republic of China), counties and 6 autonomous counties). Those are, in turn, divided into 2207 township-level divisions (1 district public office, 937 town of China, towns, 979 Townships of the People's Republic of China, townships, 55 ethnic townships, and 235 Subdistricts of China, subdistricts). At the end of 2017, the total population of Hebei is 75.2 millio


Urban areas


Politics

The politics of Hebei is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China. The Governor of Hebei is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Hebei. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Hebei Communist Party of China Provincial Committee Secretary (CPC Party Chief).


Economy

In 2014, Hebei's Gross domestic product, GDP was 2.942 trillion yuan (US$479 billion), ranked 6th in the PRC, with its GDP per capita reaching 40,124 Renminbi. As of 2011, the primary sector of industry, primary, secondary sector of industry, secondary, and tertiary sector of industry, tertiary sectors of industry contributed 203.46 billion, 877.74 billion, and 537.66 billion RMB respectively. The registered urban unemployment rate was 3.96%. Hebei's industries include textiles, coal, steel, iron, engineering, chemical production, petroleum, power, ceramics and food. 40% of Hebei's labor force works in the agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry sectors, with the majority of production from these industries going to
Beijing Beijing ( ), alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the capital of the People's Republic of China. It is the world's most populous national capital city, with over 21 million residents within an administrative area of 16,410.5 km2 ( ...
and
Tianjin Tianjin (), alternately romanized as Tientsin, is a municipality and a coastal metropolis in Northern China on the shore of the Bohai Sea. It is one of the nine national central cities in Mainland China, with a total population estimated at 1 ...
. Hebei's main agricultural products are cereal crops including wheat, maize, millet, and sorghum. Cash crops like
cotton Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus ''Gossypium'' in the mallow family Malvaceae. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. Under natural conditions, the ...

cotton
, peanut, soybeans and sesame are also produced. Hebei's also abundant in natural resources. The Kailuan mine in Tangshan, with a history of over 100 years, is one of China's first modern coal mines, and remains a major mine with an annual production of over 20 million metric tonnes. Much of the :zh:华北油田, North China Oilfied is found in Hebei, and there are also major iron mines at
Handan Handan is a prefecture-level city located in the southwest of Hebei province, China. The southernmost prefecture-level city of the province, it borders Xingtai on the north, and the provinces of Shanxi on the west, Henan on the south and Shandon ...
and Qian'an, Hebei, Qian'an. Iron, as well as steel, manufacturing are the largest industries in Hebei, and are likely to remain so as these industries consolidate and Hebei continues to grow as a manufacturing and transportation center for the region.


Economic and technological development zones

*
Baoding Baoding (), formerly known as Baozhou and Qingyuan, is a prefecture-level city in central Hebei province, approximately southwest of Beijing. At the 2010 census, Baoding City had 11,194,372 inhabitants out of which 2,176,857 lived in the built- ...
Hi-Tech Industry Development Zone * Langfang Export Processing Zone * Qinhuangdao Economic & Technological Development Zone * Qinhuangdao Export Processing Zone *
Shijiazhuang Shijiazhuang (, pinyin: Shíjiāzhuāng, ) formerly known as Shimen and romanized as Shihkiachwang, is the capital and largest city of North China's Hebei Province. Administratively a prefecture-level city, it is about southwest of Beijing, and ...
Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone *
Xiong'an Xiong'an New Area () is a state-level new area in the Baoding area of Hebei, China. Established in April 2017, the area is located about 100 km southwest of Beijing and 50 km east of downtown Baoding. Its main function is to serve as a de ...
New Area


Demographics

The population is mostly Han Chinese. 55 ethnic minorities are present in Hebei, representing 4.27% of the total population. The largest are Manchu (2.1 million people), Hui people (600000 people) and Mongol (180000 people). It excludes members of the People's Liberation Army in active service.
Source: Department of Population, Social, Science and Technology Statistics of the National Bureau of Statistics of China and Department of Economic Development of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission of China, eds. ''Tabulation on Nationalities of 2000 Population Census of China''. 2 vols. Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House (), 2003. () In 2004, the birth rate was 11.98 births per 1,000 people, while the death rate was 6.19 deaths per 1,000 people. In 2000 the Human sex ratio, sex ratio at birth was 118.46 males to 100 females.


Religion

The predominant religions in Hebei are Chinese folk religions, Taoism, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 5.52% of the population believe in and are involved in Chinese ancestral religion, ancestor veneration, while 3.05% of the population identify as Christian, mostly of the Catholic Church. Local worship of deities in the region began to organise into "associations of good-doing, benevolent churches" as a reaction to Catholicism in the
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The mult ...
. The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 90.61% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in Chinese folk religion, worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism and Chinese salvationist religions, folk religious sects. Zailiism is a folk religious sect that originated in Hebei. There is a presence of Tibetan Buddhism, Tibetan Buddhist schools in the province. Hebei has the largest Catholic population in China, with 1 million members according to the local government. and 1.5 million Catholics according to the Catholic Church. The province is considered as the center of Catholicism in China. The town of Donglu in
Baoding Baoding (), formerly known as Baozhou and Qingyuan, is a prefecture-level city in central Hebei province, approximately southwest of Beijing. At the 2010 census, Baoding City had 11,194,372 inhabitants out of which 2,176,857 lived in the built- ...
, where an Our Lady of China, apparition of the Virgin Mary was reported to have occurred in 1900, is reportedly "one of the strongholds of the unofficial Catholic Church in China". A large number of Catholics in Hebei remain loyal to the Pope and reject the authority of the Catholic Patriotic Church. Four of Hebei's underground bishops have been imprisoned in recent years: Bishop Francis An Shuxin of Donglu since 1996; Bishop James Su Zhimin since October 1997; and Bishops Han Dingxiang of Yongnian who died in prison in 2007 and Julius Jia Zhiguo of Zhengding since late 1999.Hebei
Pray for China
In 2003 there were 350.000 Protestants and 580.000 Muslims according to government statistics. According to a survey, as of 2010 Muslims constitute 0.82% of the population of Hebei.Min Junqing. ''The Present Situation and Characteristics of Contemporary Islam in China''. JISMOR, 8
2010 Islam by province, page 29
Data from: Yang Zongde, ''Study on Current Muslim Population in China'', Jinan Muslim, 2, 2010.


Culture

Dialects of Mandarin Chinese, Mandarin are spoken over most of the province, and most Mandarin dialects in Hebei are in turn classified as part of the Ji Lu Mandarin subdivision. Regions along the western border with
Shanxi Shanxi (; formerly romanised as Shansi) is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the North China region. The capital and largest city of the province is Taiyuan, while its next most populated prefecture-level ...
, however, have dialects that are distinct enough for linguists to consider them as part of Jin Chinese, Jin, another subdivision of Chinese, rather than Mandarin. In general, the dialects of Hebei are quite similar to and readily intelligible with the Beijing dialect, which forms the basis for Standard Chinese, the official language of the nation. However, there are also some distinct differences, such as differences in the pronunciation of certain words that derive from entering tone syllables (syllables ending on a plosive consonant, plosive) in Middle Chinese. Traditional forms of Chinese opera in Hebei include Pingju, Hebei Bangzi (also known as Hebei Clapper Opera), and Cangzhou Kuaibanshu, Kuaiban Dagu. Pingju is especially popular: it tends to be colloquial in language and hence easy to understand for audiences. Originating from northeastern Hebei, Pingju has been influenced by other forms of Chinese opera like Beijing opera. Traditionally Pingju makes use of just a ''Sheng (Chinese opera), xiaosheng'' (young male lead), a ''Dan (Chinese opera), xiaodan'' (young female lead), and a ''Chou (Chinese opera), xiaohualian'' (young comic character), though it has since diversified with the use of other roles as well. Quyang County, in central Hebei, is noted for Ding ware, a type of Chinese ceramics which includes various vessels such as bowls, plates, vases, and cups, as well as figurines. Ding ware is usually creamy white, though it is also made in other colors. Hebei cuisine is typically based on wheat, mutton, and beans. The donkey burger, originating from the cities of
Baoding Baoding (), formerly known as Baozhou and Qingyuan, is a prefecture-level city in central Hebei province, approximately southwest of Beijing. At the 2010 census, Baoding City had 11,194,372 inhabitants out of which 2,176,857 lived in the built- ...
and Hejian, Cangzhou in the central part of the province, is perhaps the most popular. A staple in the provincial cuisine, it has spread into the two municipalities as well. Other dishes include local variants of shaobing. The city of Baoding is also home to the Baoding balls, a kind of metal ball for exercise and meditation.


Notable individuals

As Han Yu described in ''Sending Off Dong Shaonan'' (), "The land of Yanzhao is said to be home of heroes with tragic fates since ancient times ()", many famous warriors, generals, and politicals, both real and fictional, had hailed from Hebei: *Qin Shi Huang (259 BC–210 BC)- Founder of the
Qin dynasty#REDIRECT Qin dynasty {{R from move ...

Qin dynasty
and the Emperor of China, first emperor of a unified China. *Jing Ke (?–227 BC) - An assassin and retainer of Crown Prince Dan who attempted to murder Qin Shi Huang. *Zhang Fei (?–221) - Military general during the late Eastern Han dynasty and early Three Kingdoms period who became Blood brother, sworn brothers with Liu Bei and Guan Yu. *Zhao Yun or Zhao Zilong (?–229) - Military general who lived during the same period as Zhang Fei. *Lin Chong - Also known as "Panther Head"; fictional character in Water Margin, one of the Four Great Classical Novels in Chinese literature. *Wu Song - Nicknamed "Pilgrim"; also a famous character in Water Margin and famous for slaying a man-eating tiger. *cmn:柳哲生, Liu Zhesheng (柳哲生, 1914-1991) - Ace-fighter pilot of Development of Chinese Nationalist air force (1937%E2%80%931945)#Chinese-American volunteer and/or former provincial/warlord air force pilots, Nationalist Air Force of China, veteran of the Second Sino-Japanese War, War of Resistance-WWII Well-known people of other expertise include: *Zu Chongzhi (429–500) - Astronomer, mathematician, politician, inventor, and writer who's known for calculating pi to an accuracy that won't be surpassed for 800 years. *Feng Dao (881–954) - Confucian minister *Yan Yuan (Qing dynasty), Yan Yuan (1635–1704) - Confucian philosopher *Zhao Lirong (1928 – 2000) - Singer, film actress, and Ping opera performer. *Xia Gengqi (1933 – ) - Curator in the Collections of the Palace Museum, Beijing Palace Museum. *Zheng Yuanjie (1955 – ) - Children's books author, and founder and sole writer of ''King of Fairy Tales'' (童话大王). *Guo Jingjing (1981 – ) - Multi-time Olympic Games, Olympic gold medalist and world champion who won the most Olympic medals of any female diving (sport), diver. *Zhao Liying, Zanilia Zhao (1987 – ) - Actress who starred in multiple Television show, television series. *Deng Lun (1992 – ) - Actor who gained popularity from the xianxia novel, xianxia drama, ''Ashes of Love (TV series), Ashes of Love''. *Liu Shichao or Hebei Pangzai - Internet personality known for his food and drink stunts.


Media

Hebei is served by the province-wide Hebei Television, abbreviated HEBTV. It also covers parts of Beijing, Tianjin, Shandong, Henan, Shanxi, and Inner Mongolia. Shijiazhuang Radio & Television is a regional TV network that covers the provincial capital. Hebei is also served by three main newspapers, Hebei Daily, Yanzhao Metropolis Daily, and Yanzhao Evening News, all published by the Hebei Daily Newspaper Group.


Transportation

Because Hebei surrounds Beijing and Tianjin, all the numerous important railway lines radiating out of these two cities pass through Hebei. The Beijing–Guangzhou Railway is one of the most important: it passes through many major cities such as
Baoding Baoding (), formerly known as Baozhou and Qingyuan, is a prefecture-level city in central Hebei province, approximately southwest of Beijing. At the 2010 census, Baoding City had 11,194,372 inhabitants out of which 2,176,857 lived in the built- ...
,
Shijiazhuang Shijiazhuang (, pinyin: Shíjiāzhuāng, ) formerly known as Shimen and romanized as Shihkiachwang, is the capital and largest city of North China's Hebei Province. Administratively a prefecture-level city, it is about southwest of Beijing, and ...
,
Xingtai Xingtai (), formerly known as Xingzhou and Shunde, is a prefecture-level city in southern Hebei province, People's Republic of China. It has a total area of and administers 2 districts, 2 county-level cities and 15 counties. At the 2010 census, ...
and
Handan Handan is a prefecture-level city located in the southwest of Hebei province, China. The southernmost prefecture-level city of the province, it borders Xingtai on the north, and the provinces of Shanxi on the west, Henan on the south and Shandon ...
on its way south to
Henan Henan (; alternatively Honan) is a landlocked province of China, in the central part of the country. Henan is often referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou (), which literally means "central plain" or "midland", although the name is also applie ...
. Other important railways include the Beijing–Kowloon Railway, Beijing–Shanghai Railway, Beijing-Harbin Railway, Beijing–Chengde Railway, Beijing–Tongliao Railway, Beijing-Baotou Railway and Fengtai–Shacheng Railway. High-speed rail lines crossing the province include the Beijing-Shanghai High-Speed Railway, Beijing-Guangzhou High-Speed Railway and Shijiazhuang–Taiyuan High-Speed Railway. Future high-speed rail lines from Beijing and Tianjin to Northeast China and Northwest China will traverse northern Hebei. During the Eleventh Five-Year Plan (People's Republic of China), Eleventh Five-Year Plan, Beijing and Hebei were collaborating on a new passenger railway. The RMB 82.6 billion network will add 844 kilometers to the system. Current railway systems for Hebei trains are also being upgraded and will soon be able to travel at speeds of between 160 and 200 kilometers per hour. As of the early 2013, railway schedule systems listed 160 passenger train stations within the province. The recent expressway boom in China has not left Hebei behind. There are expressways to every prefecture-level city of Hebei, totaling approximately 2,000 kilometers. The total length of highways within Hebei is around 40,000 kilometers. There are a number of ports along the
Bohai Sea The Bohai Sea or Bo Sea, also known as Bohai Gulf, Bo Gulf or Pohai Bay (), is a marginal sea approximately in area on the east coast of mainland China. It is the northwestern and innermost extension of the Yellow Sea, to which it connects to ...
, including Qinhuangdao (the second busiest in China with a capacity of over 100 million tons), Huanghua, Hebei, Huanghua, and Jingtang. Shijiazhuang's Zhengding Airport is the province's center of air transportation, with domestic and international flights. Parts of Hebei are served by the Beijing Daxing International Airport in
Beijing Beijing ( ), alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the capital of the People's Republic of China. It is the world's most populous national capital city, with over 21 million residents within an administrative area of 16,410.5 km2 ( ...
. The Shijiazhuang Metro is the only operational metro system in Hebei. Xiong'an Rail Transit is a planned metro system in
Xiong'an Xiong'an New Area () is a state-level new area in the Baoding area of Hebei, China. Established in April 2017, the area is located about 100 km southwest of Beijing and 50 km east of downtown Baoding. Its main function is to serve as a de ...
.


Tourism

The Ming Great Wall crosses the northern part of Hebei and the eastern end is located on the coast at Shanhai Pass, Shanhaiguan (Shanhai Pass), near Qinhuangdao. Informally known as the "First Pass of The World" (), Shanhaiguan was the place where Ming general Wu Sangui opened the gates to Manchu forces in 1644, beginning nearly 300 years of Manchu rule; Shanhai Pass also marks the psychological entrance / exit of Manchuria, so that for centuries Manchuria was known as "outside the Pass" or "east of the Pass". Beidaihe, located near Shanhaiguan, is a popular beach resort well known as a former meeting place for top governmental officials. The
Chengde Mountain Resort Chengde Mountain Resort in Chengde (; Manchu: 35px ''Halhūn be jailara gurung''), is a large complex of imperial palaces and gardens situated in the Shuangqiao District of Chengde in northeastern Hebei province, northern China, about 225 km northe ...
and its outlying temples are a World Heritage Site. Also known as the Rehe Palace, this was the summer resort of the Manchu
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The mult ...
emperors. The Chengde Resort was built between 1703 and 1792, and consists of a palace complex, a large park area composed of lakes, pavilions, causeways, bridges, etc., and a number of Tibetan Buddhist and Han Chinese temples in the surrounding area. There are Qing dynasty imperial tombs at Zunhua (Eastern Qing Tombs) and Yi County, Hebei, Yixian (West Qing Tombs). The Eastern Qing Tombs are the resting place of 161 Qing emperors, empresses, and other members of the Qing imperial family, while the West Qing Tombs have 76. These are also part of a World Heritage Site. The Zhao County, Zhaozhou, or Anji Bridge, built by Li Chun during the
Sui dynasty The Sui dynasty (, ) was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance. The Sui unified the Northern and Southern dynasties and reinstalled the rule of ethnic Han in the entirety of China proper, along with sinicization of for ...

Sui dynasty
, is the oldest stone arch bridge in China, and one of the most significant examples of pre-modern Chinese civil engineering.
Baoding Baoding (), formerly known as Baozhou and Qingyuan, is a prefecture-level city in central Hebei province, approximately southwest of Beijing. At the 2010 census, Baoding City had 11,194,372 inhabitants out of which 2,176,857 lived in the built- ...
, the old provincial capital, contains the historical Zhili Governor's Residence and the former court. Xibaipo, a village about from
Shijiazhuang Shijiazhuang (, pinyin: Shíjiāzhuāng, ) formerly known as Shimen and romanized as Shihkiachwang, is the capital and largest city of North China's Hebei Province. Administratively a prefecture-level city, it is about southwest of Beijing, and ...
, in Pingshan County, Hebei, Pingshan County was the location of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the headquarters of the People's Liberation Army during the decisive stages of the Chinese Civil War between May 26, 1948 and March 23, 1949, at which point they were moved to
Beijing Beijing ( ), alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the capital of the People's Republic of China. It is the world's most populous national capital city, with over 21 million residents within an administrative area of 16,410.5 km2 ( ...
. Today, the area houses a memorial site.


Sports

The 2018 Women's Bandy World Championship was held in Hebei. Sports teams based in Hebei include: National Basketball League (China)
Hebei Springs Benma Chinese Football Association * Hebei China Fortune F.C. * Hebei Elite F.C. * Shijiazhuang Ever Bright F.C.


Education

Under the national Ministry of Education: * North China Electric Power University () Under other national agencies: * Central Institute for Correctional Police () * Chinese People's Armed Police Force Academy () * North China Institute of Science and Technology () Under the provincial government: * Chengde Medical College () * Handan College () * Hebei Agricultural University () * Hebei Engineering University () * Hebei Institute of Architecture and Civil Engineering () * Hebei Medical University () * Hebei Normal University () * Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology () * Hebei North University () * Hebei Physical Educational Institute () * North China University of Science and Technology () * Hebei University () * Hebei University of Economics and Business () * Hebei University of Technology () * Hebei University of Science and Technology () * Hengshui University () * Langfang Teacher's College () * North China Coal Medical College () * Shijiazhuang College () * Shijiazhuang Railway Institute () * Shijiazhuang University of Economics () * Tangshan College () * Tangshan Teacher's College () * Xingtai University () * Yanshan University ()


Sister subdivisions

Hebei is twinned with the following country subdivisions: * Iowa (July 22, 1983) * Nagano Prefecture (November 11, 1983) * Tottori Prefecture (June 9, 1986) * Veneto (May 17, 1988) * East Flanders (October 4, 1991) * Leningrad Oblast (July 20, 1992) * Buenos Aires Province (May 19, 1992) * Missouri (January 25, 1994) * South Chungcheong Province (October 19, 1994) * Hauts-de-Seine (February 11, 1997) * Goiás (March 24, 1999) * Athens (September 26, 2002) * Pest County (May 27, 2015)


See also

* Dongyi Protectorate * Hebei people, Hebei People * List of prisons in Hebei * Major national historical and cultural sites (Hebei), Major national historical and cultural sites in Hebei


Notes


References


Citations


Sources


Economic profile for Hebei
at Hong Kong Trade Development Council, HKTDC
Ponds, Paddies and Frontier Defence: Environmental and Economic Changes in Northern Hebei in Northern Song China (960–1127)


External links


Hebei Government website
{{Authority control Hebei, Provinces of the People's Republic of China North China Plain