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, population_total = 8,053,663 ( 2nd) , population_as_of = 2019 , population_demonym = Hanoian , population_density_km2 = auto , population_urban = 3,962,310 , population_density_urban_km2 = 14708.8 , population_metro = 19,795,895 , population_density_metro_km2 = 662.1 , demographics_type1 =
Ethnic groups An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups. Those attributes can include common sets of traditions, ances ...
, demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 =
Vietnamese Vietnamese may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Vietnam, a country in Southeast Asia ** A citizen of Vietnam. See Demographics of Vietnam. * Vietnamese people, or Kinh people, a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to Vietnam ** Oversea ...

Vietnamese
, demographics1_info1 = 98.66% , demographics1_title2 = Mường , demographics1_info2 = 0.77% , demographics1_title3 = Tày , demographics1_info3 = 0.24% , demographics1_title4 = Thái , demographics1_info4 = 0.09% , demographics1_title5 = Nùng , demographics1_info5 = 0.08% , demographics1_title6 = Others , demographics1_info6 = 0.16% , blank_name = GRP (Nominal) , blank_info = 2019 , blank1_name = – Total , blank1_info = US$42.04 billion , blank2_name = – Per capita , blank2_info = US$5,196 , blank3_name = – Growth , blank3_info = 7.62% , timezone =
ICT ICT may refer to: Science and technology * Information and communications technology * Image Constraint Token, in video processing * Immunochromatographic test, a rapid immunoassay used to detect diseases such as anthrax * In-circuit test, in el ...
, utc_offset = +07:00 , postal_code_type =
Postal code A postal code (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a postcode, post code, PIN or ZIP Code) is a series of letters or numerical digit, digits or both, sometimes including spaces or punctuation, includ ...
, postal_code = 10000–14000 , area_code_type =
Area codes A telephone numbering plan is a type of numbering scheme used in telecommunication to assign telephone numbers to subscriber telephones or other telephony endpoints. Telephone numbers are the addresses of participants in a telephone network, reach ...
, area_code = 24 , iso_code = VN-HN , blank_name_sec2 =
Climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' or 'sphere') is a la ...
, blank_info_sec2 = Cwa , blank1_name_sec2 =
International airport An international airport is an airport An airport is an with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport. Airports often have facilities to park and maintain aircraft, and a . An airport consists of a , which comprises an ...

International airport
s , blank1_info_sec2 =
Nội Bài International Airport Nội Bài International Airport ( vi, Sân bay quốc tế Nội Bài) in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam, is the largest airport in Vietnam in terms of total capacity. It is also the largest airport in the country for cargo transport and the seco ...
, registration_plate_type =
License plate A vehicle registration plate, also known as a number plate (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in Histor ...
, registration_plate = 29 – 33, 40 , established_title = Founded , established_date = 257 BC , founder =
An Dương Vương An Dương Vương () was the king and the only ruler of the kingdom of Âu Lạc, a classical antiquity state centered in the Red River Delta. As the leader of the Âu Việt tribes, he defeated the last Hùng king of the state of Văn Lang and u ...
, blank2_name_sec2 = Largest
district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by the local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or County, counties, several Municipality, municipal ...
by area , blank2_info_sec2 =
Ba Vì District Ba Vì is a district of Hanoi, Vietnam. Ba Vì District was established on July 26, 1968. History Ba Vì was consolidated basis of the old districts Bất Bạt, Tùng Thiện and Quảng Oai, Hà Tây province. From 1975 to 1978, Ba Vì district ...
(423 km2) , blank3_name_sec2 = Largest district by population , blank3_info_sec2 =
Hoàng Mai District Huang (; ) is a Chinese surname that originally means and refers to jade people were wearing and decorating in ancient times. While ''Huáng'' is the pinyin romanization of the word, it may also be romanized as Hwang (Korean surname), Hwang, Wong ...
(2019 census 506,347) , website = , module = Hanoi ( or ; vi, Hà Nội ) is the capital city of
Vietnam Vietnam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,, group="n" is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the ...

Vietnam
. It covers an area of . The second largest city in Vietnam, it consists of 12 urban districts, 1 district-leveled town and 17 rural districts. Located within the
Red River Delta The Red River Delta or Hong River Delta ( vi, Châu thổ sông Hồng) is the flat low-lying plain formed by the Red River and its distributaries merging with the Thái Bình River in northern Vietnam , image_map = , m ...
, Hanoi is the cultural and political centre of
Vietnam Vietnam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,, group="n" is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the ...

Vietnam
. Hanoi traced its history back to the third century BCE, when a portion of the modern-day city served as the capital of the historic Vietnamese nation of
Âu Lạc Âu Lạc (Hán tự: 甌貉/ 甌駱/ 甌雒; Chinese pinyin: ''ōu luò''; Wade–Giles: ''Wu1-lo4'') was an ancient kingdom that covered parts of modern-day Guangxi and northern Vietnam to Hoành Sơn Range. Founded in 257 BCE, it was a merger ...
. Following the collapse of Âu Lạc, the city was part of
Han China The Han dynasty () was the second imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu The Han dynasty () was the second imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), ...
. In 1010, Vietnamese emperor
Lý Thái Tổ Lý Thái Tổ ( vi-hantu, , 8 March 974 – 31 March 1028), Vietnamese name, personal name Lý Công Uẩn, temple name Thái Tổ, was a Vietnamese people, Vietnamese monarch, the founder of the Lý dynasty of Vietnam and the 6th ruler of Đ ...

Lý Thái Tổ
established the capital of the imperial Vietnamese nation
Đại Việt Đại Việt (, ; literally Great Viet), often known as Annam, was a Vietnamese people, Vietnamese kingdom and sovereign state on Eastern Mainland Southeast Asia from the 10th century AD to the early 19th century. Its early name, Đại C ...
in modern-day central Hanoi, naming the city Thăng Long (literally "Ascending Dragon"). Thăng Long remained Đại Việt's political centre until 1802, when the
Nguyễn dynasty Nguyễn is the most common Vietnamese name, Vietnamese surname / family name. Outside of Vietnam, the surname is commonly rendered without diacritics as Nguyen. Nguyên is a different surname. By some estimates forty per cent of Vietnamese peopl ...
, the last imperial Vietnamese dynasty, moved the capital to
Huế Huế () is the capital of Thừa Thiên Huế Province in central Vietnam that was the capital of Đàng Trong from 1738 to 1775 and of the Nguyen Dynasty from 1802 to 1945. The city served as the administrative capital for the Nguyen dynasty, ...
. The city was renamed Hanoi in 1831, and served as the capital of
French Indochina French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China; french: Indochine française; vi, Đông Dương thuộc Pháp, , lit. 'East Ocean under French Control; km, សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន), officially known as the Indochi ...
from 1902 to 1945. On 6 January 1946, the National Assembly of the
Democratic Republic of Vietnam North Vietnam, officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) ( vi, Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa) was a state in Southeast Asia from 1945 to 1954 and a country from 1954 to 1976. During the August Revolution following World War I ...

Democratic Republic of Vietnam
designated Hanoi as the capital of the newly-independent country, which would last during the
First Indochina War The First Indochina War (generally known as the Indochina War in France, and as the Anti-French Resistance War in Vietnam , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Hanoi , coordinates ...
(1946–1954) and the
Vietnam War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Vietnam War , partof = the Indochina Wars The Indochina Wars ( vi, Chiến tranh Đông Dương) were a series of wars fought in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled ...
(1955–1975). Hanoi has been the capital of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam since 1976. Hanoi hosts various venerable educational institutions and cultural venues of significance, including the Vietnam National University, the
Mỹ Đình National Stadium) , image = My dinh stadium.jpg , caption = The exterior of Mỹ Đình National Stadium , location = Nam Từ Liêm, Hanoi, Vietnam , coordinates = , broke_ground = , built = ...
, and the
Vietnam National Museum of Fine Arts The Vietnam National Museum of Fine Arts ( vi, Viện Bảo tàng Mỹ thuật Việt Nam; vi-hantu, 院寶藏美術越南) is located in Hanoi , population_total = 8,053,663 ( 2nd) , population_as_of = 2019 , p ...
. Amongst its achievements, it has a
UNESCO World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...
— The Central Sector of the
Imperial Citadel of Thăng Long Image:Hanoi Citadel.jpg, upright=1.2, Hanoi citadel The Imperial Citadel of Thăng Long ( vi, Hoàng thành Thăng Long; Hán-Nôm: ) is a complex of historic imperial buildings located in the centre of Hanoi, Vietnam. It was first constructed in 1 ...
, first constructed in 1011AD. Hanoi was the only Asia-Pacific locality to be granted the "City for Peace" title by the UNESCO on 16 July 1999, recognizing its contributions to the struggle for peace, its efforts to promote equality in the community, protect the environment, promote culture and education and care for younger generations. Hanoi joined
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
's Network of Creative Cities as a Design City on 31 October 2019, on the occasion of World Cities' Day. The city has also hosted numerous international events, including APEC Vietnam 2006, 132nd Assembly of the
Inter-Parliamentary Union The Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU; french: Union Interparlementaire, UIP) is an international organization of national parliaments. Its primary purpose is to promote democratic governance, accountability Accountability, in terms of ethics Ethic ...
(IPU-132),
2019 North Korea–United States Hanoi Summit The 2019 North Korea–United States Hanoi Summit, commonly known as the Hanoi Summit, was a two-day Summit (meeting), summit meeting between North Korean Supreme Leader of North Korea, Supreme Leader Kim Jong-un and United States, U.S. Presi ...
, as well as the 2003 Southeast Asian Games, 2009 Asian Indoor Games, and the upcoming 2021 Southeast Asian Games.


Names

Hanoi had various names throughout history. * It was known first as Long Biên (龍邊, "dragon edge"), then Tống Bình (宋平, "
Song A song is a musical composition Musical composition can refer to an piece or work of , either or , the of a musical piece or to the process of creating or writing a new piece of music. People who create new compositions are called s ...
peace") and Long Đỗ (龍肚, "dragon belly"). ''Long Biên'' later gave its name to the famed Long Biên Bridge, built during
French colonial French Colonial describes several styles of architecture File:Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted).jpg, upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel ...
times, and more recently to a new district to the east of the Red River. Several older names of Hanoi feature ''long'' (龍, "dragon"), linked to the curved formation of the Red River around the city, which was symbolized as a dragon. * In 866, it was turned into a citadel and named Đại La (大羅, "big net"). This gave it the nickname La Thành (羅城, "net citadel"). Both ''Đại La'' and ''La Thành'' are names of major streets in modern Hanoi. * When
Lý Thái Tổ Lý Thái Tổ ( vi-hantu, , 8 March 974 – 31 March 1028), Vietnamese name, personal name Lý Công Uẩn, temple name Thái Tổ, was a Vietnamese people, Vietnamese monarch, the founder of the Lý dynasty of Vietnam and the 6th ruler of Đ ...

Lý Thái Tổ
established the capital in the area in 1010, it was named Thăng Long (昇龍, "rising dragon"). ''Thăng Long'' later became the name of a major
bridge A bridge is a Nonbuilding structure, structure built to Span (engineering), span a physical obstacle, such as a body of water, valley, or road, without closing the way underneath. It is constructed for the purpose of providing passage over the ...
on the highway linking the city center to Nội Bài Airport, and the Thăng Long Boulevard expressway in the southwest of the city center. In modern time, the city is usually referred to as ''Thăng Long – Hà Nội'', when its long history is discussed. * During the
Hồ dynasty The Hồ dynasty (, 家胡 / ''Hồ triều,'' 胡 朝) was a short-lived Vietnamese dynasty consisting of the reigns of two monarchs, Hồ Quý Ly (胡季犛) in 1400–01 and his second son, Hồ Hán Thương (胡漢蒼), who reigned the ...
, it was called Đông Đô (東都, , "eastern metropolis"). * During the Minh dynasty, it was called Đông Quan (東關, , "eastern gate"). * During the
Lê dynastyLe is a romanization of several rare East Asian surnames and a common Vietnamese surname. It is a fairly common surname in the United States, ranked 975th during the 1990 US Census, 1990 census and 368th during the year 2000 US Census, 2000 one. In ...
, Hanoi was known as Đông Kinh (東京, , "eastern capital"). This gave the name to
Tonkin Tonkin, also spelled ''Tongkin'', ''Tonquin'' or ''Tongking'', is an exonym and endonym, exonym referring to the northern region of Vietnam. During the 17th and 18th centuries, this term referred to the domain ''Đàng Ngoài'' under Trịnh lor ...

Tonkin
and
Gulf of Tonkin The Gulf of Tonkin ( vi, Vịnh Bắc Bộ, ; formerly known as or during the ROC period) is a gulf A gulf is a large inlet from the ocean into the landmass, typically with a narrower opening than a bay (geography), bay, but that is n ...

Gulf of Tonkin
. A square adjacent to the
Hoàn Kiếm lake Hoan Kiem Lake ( vi, Hồ Hoàn Kiếm, vi-hantu, , meaning ''"Lake of the Returned Sword"'' or ''"Lake of the Restored Sword"''), also known as Gươm Lake (''Hồ Gươm (Sword Lake)'') or Tả Vọng Lake ('' Hồ Tả Vọng''), is a fresh ...

Hoàn Kiếm lake
was named ''Đông Kinh Nghĩa Thục'' after the reformist Tonkin Free School under French colonization. * After the end of the Tây Sơn had expanded further south, the city was named Bắc Thành (北城, "northern citadel"). *
Minh Mạng Minh Mạng (, vi-hantu, wikt:明, 明wikt:命, 命, lit. "the bright Mandate of Heaven, favour of Heaven"; 25 May 1791 – 20 January 1841; born Nguyễn Phúc Đảm, also known as Nguyễn Phúc Kiểu) was the second List of monarchs of ...
renamed the city Hà Nội (河內, "inside the
rivers A river is a natural flowing watercourse A watercourse is the channel Channel, channels, channeling, etc., may refer to: Geography * Channel (geography), in physical geography, a landform consisting of the outline (banks) of the path o ...

rivers
") in 1831. This has remained its official name until modern times. * Several unofficial names of Hanoi include: Kẻ Chợ (marketplace), Tràng An (long peace), Phượng Thành/Phụng Thành (phoenix city), Long Thành (short for ''Kinh thành Thăng Long'', "citadel of Thăng Long"), Kinh kỳ (capital city), Hà Thành (short for ''Thành phố Hà Nội'', "city of Hanoi"), Hoàng Diệu, and Thủ Đô (capital).


History


Pre-Thăng Long period

Many vestiges of human habitation from the late
Palaeolithic The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic or Palæolithic (), also called the Old Stone Age (from Greek wikt:παλαιός, palaios - old, wikt:λίθος, lithos - stone), is a period in prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone too ...
and early
Mesolithic The Mesolithic (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...

Mesolithic
ages can be found in Hanoi. In 1971–1972, archaeologists in Ba Vì and Đông Anh discovered pebbles with traces of carving and processing by human hands that are relics of Sơn Vi Culture, dating from 10,000 to 20,000 years ago. In 1998–1999, the Museum of Vietnamese History (now National Museum of Vietnamese History) carried out the archaeological studies in the north of Dong Mo Lake (Son Tay, Hanoi), finding various relics and objects belonging to Sơn Vi Culture – in the Paleolithic Age, 20,000 years ago. During the mid-Holocene transgression, the sea level rose and immersed low-lying areas; geological data clearly show the coastline was inundated and was located near present-day Hanoi, as is apparent from the absence of Neolithic sites across most of the Bac Bo region. Consequently, from about ten thousand years to approximately 4,000 years ago, Hanoi in general was completely absent. It is believed that the region has been continuously inhabited for the last 4,000 years.


Kingdom of Âu Lạc and Nanyue

In around third century BCE,
An Dương Vương An Dương Vương () was the king and the only ruler of the kingdom of Âu Lạc, a classical antiquity state centered in the Red River Delta. As the leader of the Âu Việt tribes, he defeated the last Hùng king of the state of Văn Lang and u ...
established the capital of
Âu Lạc Âu Lạc (Hán tự: 甌貉/ 甌駱/ 甌雒; Chinese pinyin: ''ōu luò''; Wade–Giles: ''Wu1-lo4'') was an ancient kingdom that covered parts of modern-day Guangxi and northern Vietnam to Hoành Sơn Range. Founded in 257 BCE, it was a merger ...
in north of present-day Hanoi, where a fortified citadel is constructed, known to history as Cổ Loa, the first political center of the Vietnamese civilization pre-Sinitic era, with an outer embankment covering 600
hectares The hectare (; SI symbol: ha) is a Non-SI units mentioned in the SI, non-SI metric system, metric unit of area equal to a square with 100-metre sides (1 hm2), or 10,000 m2, and is primarily used in the measurement of land. There are 100 h ...
. In 179 BC, the Âu Lạc Kingdom was annexed by
Nanyue Nanyue () or Namz Yied ( za, Namzyied), was an ancient kingdom ruled by Chinese monarchs of the Triệu dynastyTriệu is a Vietnamese surname, it is the equivalent of the Mandarin Chinese surname Zhou (surname), Zhao (趙). Trieu is the anglic ...

Nanyue
, which ushered in more than a millennium of Chinese domination. Zhao Tuo subsequently incorporated the regions into his
Nanyue Nanyue () or Namz Yied ( za, Namzyied), was an ancient kingdom ruled by Chinese monarchs of the Triệu dynastyTriệu is a Vietnamese surname, it is the equivalent of the Mandarin Chinese surname Zhou (surname), Zhao (趙). Trieu is the anglic ...

Nanyue
domain, but left the indigenous chiefs in control of the population. For the first time, the region formed part of a polity headed by a Chinese ruler.


Hanoi under Chinese rule

In 111 BC, the Han dynasty conquered Nanyue and ruled it for the next several hundred years.
Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...

Han dynasty
organized Nanyue into seven commanderies of the south (Lingnan) and now included three in Vietnam alone: Giao Chỉ and Cửu Chân, and a newly established Nhật Nam. In March of 40 AD, Trưng Trắc and Trưng Nhị, daughters of a wealthy aristocratic family of
Lac Lac is the resinous secretion of a number of species of , of which the most commonly cultivated is '. Cultivation begins when a farmer gets a stick that contains eggs ready to hatch and ties it to the tree to be infested. Thousands of lac insec ...
ethnicity in Mê Linh district (Hanoi), led the locals to rise up in rebellion against the Han. It began at the
Red River Delta The Red River Delta or Hong River Delta ( vi, Châu thổ sông Hồng) is the flat low-lying plain formed by the Red River and its distributaries merging with the Thái Bình River in northern Vietnam , image_map = , m ...
, but quickly spread both south and north from Jiaozhi, stirring up all three Lạc Việt regions and most of Lingnan, gaining the support of about sixty-five towns and settlements. Trưng sisters then established their court upriver in Mê Linh. In 42 AD, the Han emperor commissioned general Ma Yuan to suppress the uprising with 32,000 men, including 20,000 regulars and 12,000 regional auxiliaries. The rebellion was defeated in the next year as Ma Yuan captured and decapitated Trưng Trắc and Trưng Nhị, then sent their head to the Han court in
Luoyang Luoyang is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin Chinese, Jin: uə xɔ Standard Beijing Mandarin, Mandarin: ''Huáng hé'' ) is the second-longest river in China, afte ...

Luoyang
. By the middle of the 5th century, in the center of ancient Hanoi, a fortified settlement was founded by the
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...
Liu Song The Liu Song dynasty (420–479 CE; ), also known as Former Song (前宋) or Southern Song (南朝宋), was the first of the four Southern Dynasties The Northern and Southern dynasties () was a period in the history of China that laste ...
dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is the university press 200px, The Pitt Building in Cambridge, which us ...
as the
seat SEAT S.A. (, ; ''Sociedad Española de Automóviles de Turismo'') is a Spanish car manufacturer, which sells its vehicles under the SEAT and Cupra brands. It was founded on 9 May 1950, by the Instituto Nacional de Industria Instituto Nacional d ...
of a new district called Tống Bình (Songping) within Giao Chỉ
commandery In the Middle Ages, a commandery (rarely commandry) was the smallest administrative division of the European landed estate, landed properties of a Military order (religious society), military order. It was also the name of the house where the knight ...
. The name refers to its pacification by the dynasty. It was elevated to its own commandery at some point between AD 454 and 464. The commandery included the districts of Yihuai (義懷) and Suining (綏寧) in the south of the Red River (now Từ Liêm and Hoài Đức districts) with a metropolis (the domination centre) in the present inner Hanoi.


Protectorate of Annam

By the year 679, the
Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organizat ...
changed the region's name into Annan (Pacified South), with Songping as its capital. To defeat the people's uprisings, in the later half of the 8th century, Zhang Boyi (張伯儀), a Tang dynasty viceroy, built Luocheng (羅城, La Thanh or La citadel, from Thu Le to Quan Ngua in present-day Ba Dinh precinct). In the earlier half of the 9th century, it was further built up and called Jincheng (金城, Kim Thanh or Kim Citadel). In 863,
Nanzhao Nanzhao, also spelled Nanchao or Nan Chao (literally 'Southern Zhao'), was a dynastic kingdom that flourished in what is now southern China and northern Southeast Asia during the 8th and 9th centuries. It was centered on present-day Yunnan in ...

Nanzhao
army and local people laid siege of Jincheng and defeated the Chinese armies of 150,000.''Tư trị thông giám'', quyển 250. In 866, Chinese jiedushi
Gao Pian Gao Pian (; 821? – 24 September 887Academia Sinica Academia Sinica (AS, la, 1=Academia Sinica, 3=Chinese Academy; ), headquartered in Nangang, Taipei, is the national academy of Taiwan (Republic of China). It supports research activities i ...
recaptured the city and drove out the Nanzhao and rebels. He renamed the city to Daluocheng (大羅城,
Đại LaĐại La (), means ''the Citadel of the Great Dike'', or La Thành (羅城, means ''the Citadel of the Dike'') was an ancient fortified city in present-day Hanoi during the third Chinese domination of the 7th and 8th centuries, and again in the 11th ...
thành). He built the wall, 6,344 meters around the city, which some part were more than 8 meters high. Đại La at the time with approximate 25,000 residents included small foreign communities and residents of Persians, Arabs, Indian, Cham, Javanese and
Nestorian Christians Nestorianism is a polysemic Polysemy ( or ; from grc-gre, πολύ-, , "many" and , , "sign") is the capacity for a word or phrase to have multiple meanings, usually related by contiguity of meaning within a semantic field. Polysemy is thus ...
, became an important trading center of the
Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organizat ...
due to the ransacking of
Canton Canton may refer to: Administrative division terminology * Canton (administrative division), territorial/administrative division in some countries, notably Switzerland * Township (Canada), known as ''canton'' in Canadian French Arts and entert ...

Canton
by
Huang Chao Huang Chao (835 – July 13, 884) was a Chinese smuggler, soldier, and rebel, and is most well known for being the leader of a major rebellion that severely weakened the Tang dynasty. Huang was a Salt in Chinese history, salt smuggler before j ...

Huang Chao
rebellion. By early 10th century AD, modern-day Hanoi was known to the Muslim traders as Luqin.


Hanoi under Independent Vietnam


Thăng Long, Đông Đô, Đông Quan, Đông Kinh

In 1010,
Lý Thái Tổ Lý Thái Tổ ( vi-hantu, , 8 March 974 – 31 March 1028), Vietnamese name, personal name Lý Công Uẩn, temple name Thái Tổ, was a Vietnamese people, Vietnamese monarch, the founder of the Lý dynasty of Vietnam and the 6th ruler of Đ ...

Lý Thái Tổ
, the first ruler of the
Lý dynasty The Lý dynasty ( vi, Nhà Lý, , chữ Nôm: 茹李, chữ Hán: 李朝, Hán Việt: ''Lý triều''), also known as the House of Lý, was a Vietnamese people, Vietnamese royal family that ruled the kingdom of Đại Việt from 1009 when Lý ...
, moved the capital of
Đại Việt Đại Việt (, ; literally Great Viet), often known as Annam, was a Vietnamese people, Vietnamese kingdom and sovereign state on Eastern Mainland Southeast Asia from the 10th century AD to the early 19th century. Its early name, Đại C ...
to the site of the Đại La Citadel. Claiming to have seen a dragon ascending the Red River, he renamed the site Thăng Long (昇龍, "Soaring Dragon") – a name still used poetically to this day. Thăng Long remained the capital of Đại Việt until 1397, when it was moved to
Thanh Hóa Thanh Hóa () is the capital of Thanh Hóa Province. The city is situated in the east of the province on the Ma River (Sông Mã), about 150 kilometers (93 miles) south of Hanoi and 1560 kilometers (969 miles) north of Ho Chi Minh City. Thanh Ho ...
, then known as Tây Đô (西都), the "Western Capital". Thăng Long then became Đông Đô (東都), the "Eastern Capital." File:Bản đồ kinh thành Thăng Long, theo Hồng Đức bản đồ sách 洪德版圖冊 (1490).jpg, Map of Đông Kinh (Hanoi) in 1490, painted by Emperor
Lê Thánh Tông Lê Thánh Tông (25 August 1442 – 3 March 1497), personal name Lê Hạo, temple name Thánh Tông, courtesy name Tư Thành, was the emperor of Đại Việt from 1460 to 1497, the fifth monarch of the Later Lê dynasty, House of Lê and ...

Lê Thánh Tông
File:ThangLong-KeCho.jpg, A view of Hanoi from the Red River in 1685, manuscript from ''
Royal Society The Royal Society, formally The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, is a learned society and the United Kingdom's national academy of sciences. Founded on 28 November 1660, it was granted a royal charter by Charles II of ...
'' 's archive.
In 1408, the Chinese
Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an eth ...

Ming dynasty
attacked and occupied Vietnam, changing Đông Đô's name to Dongguan (, ''Eastern Gateway''), or ''Đông Quan'' in Sino-Vietnamese. In 1428, the Vietnamese overthrew the Chinese under the leadership of
Lê Lợi Lê Lợi (, Chữ Hán: 黎利; c. 10 September 1384 – 5 September 1433), temple name Thái Tổ, title Bình Định vương (平定王; "Prince of Pacification") was a Vietnamese people, Vietnamese rebel leader who founded the Later Lê dynas ...

Lê Lợi
, who later founded the
Lê dynastyLe is a romanization of several rare East Asian surnames and a common Vietnamese surname. It is a fairly common surname in the United States, ranked 975th during the 1990 US Census, 1990 census and 368th during the year 2000 US Census, 2000 one. In ...
and renamed Đông Quan Đông Kinh (東京, "Eastern Capital") or
Tonkin Tonkin, also spelled ''Tongkin'', ''Tonquin'' or ''Tongking'', is an exonym and endonym, exonym referring to the northern region of Vietnam. During the 17th and 18th centuries, this term referred to the domain ''Đàng Ngoài'' under Trịnh lor ...

Tonkin
. During 17th century, the population of Đông Kinh was estimated by Western diplomats as about 100,000. Right after the end of the
Tây Sơn dynasty The Tây Sơn dynasty (, vi, Nhà Tây Sơn 家西山, Hán Việt: 西山朝 ''Tây Sơn triều'') was a List of Vietnamese dynasties, ruling dynasty of Vietnam, founded in the wake of a rebellion against both the Nguyễn lords and the Trị ...
, it was named Bắc Thành (北城, "Northern Citadel").


During Nguyễn dynasty and the French colonial period

When the
Nguyễn dynasty Nguyễn is the most common Vietnamese name, Vietnamese surname / family name. Outside of Vietnam, the surname is commonly rendered without diacritics as Nguyen. Nguyên is a different surname. By some estimates forty per cent of Vietnamese peopl ...
was established in 1802,
Gia Long Gia Long (; 8 February 1762 – 3 February 1820), born Nguyễn Phúc Ánh or Nguyễn Ánh, was the first Emperor of the Nguyễn dynasty of Vietnam. Unifying what is now modern Vietnam in 1802, he founded the Nguyễn dynasty, the last of the ...
moved the capital to
Huế Huế () is the capital of Thừa Thiên Huế Province in central Vietnam that was the capital of Đàng Trong from 1738 to 1775 and of the Nguyen Dynasty from 1802 to 1945. The city served as the administrative capital for the Nguyen dynasty, ...
. Thăng Long was no longer the capital, its
Hán tự During ancient times, the ancestors of the Vietnamese people, Vietnamese were considered to have been Proto-Austroasiatic (also called ''Proto-Mon–Khmer'') speaking people, possibly traced to the ancient Dong Son culture. Modern linguists descri ...
was changed from 昇龍 ("Rising dragon") to 昇隆 ("Ascent and prosperity"), aiming to reduce the sentiment of Lê dynasty. Emperors of Vietnam usually used
dragon A dragon is a large, snake, serpentine, legendary creature that appears in the folklore of many cultures worldwide. Beliefs about dragons vary considerably through regions, but European dragon, dragons in western cultures since the High Midd ...
(龍 ''long'') as a symbol of their imperial strength and power. In 1831, the Nguyễn emperor
Minh Mạng Minh Mạng (, vi-hantu, wikt:明, 明wikt:命, 命, lit. "the bright Mandate of Heaven, favour of Heaven"; 25 May 1791 – 20 January 1841; born Nguyễn Phúc Đảm, also known as Nguyễn Phúc Kiểu) was the second List of monarchs of ...
renamed it Hà Nội (河內, "Between Rivers" or "River Interior"). Hanoi was occupied by the French in 1873 and passed to them ten years later. As Hanoï, it was located in the protectorate of Tonkin became the capital of
French Indochina French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China; french: Indochine française; vi, Đông Dương thuộc Pháp, , lit. 'East Ocean under French Control; km, សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន), officially known as the Indochi ...
after 1887. File:CitadelleHanoi1.jpg, French troop attacks Hanoi Fortress in 20/11/1873 File:Evacuation of French troops from Hanoi.jpg, French troops leaving the Hanoi fortress in February 1874 File:ExpositionHanoi1902 GrandPalais (1).jpg, The
Grand Palais The Grand Palais des Champs-Élysées, commonly known as the Grand Palais (English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Engl ...
was built for the
Hanoi ExhibitionThe Hanoi Exhibition (Exposition de Hanoi) was a world's fair held in Hanoi between November 16, 1902 and February 15 or 16, 1903. Context Hanoi had become the capital of French Indochina earlier in 1902 replacing Saigon. Earlier activities to ma ...
, as the city became the capital of
French Indochina French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China; french: Indochine française; vi, Đông Dương thuộc Pháp, , lit. 'East Ocean under French Control; km, សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន), officially known as the Indochi ...
File:TongDoc Hanoi 14-07-1884.jpg, People in Hanoi, 1884. File:Viet Nam - Tonkin Hanoi Election d´un Chef de Rue.jpg, Postcard depicting election day in Hanoi during
French Indochina French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China; french: Indochine française; vi, Đông Dương thuộc Pháp, , lit. 'East Ocean under French Control; km, សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន), officially known as the Indochi ...
, around 1910 File:Hanoi rue Paul Bert.jpg, Street of Hanoi during late 19th-early 20th century (now Trang Tien street) File:Plan-hanoi-1936.jpg, The plan of Hanoi in 1936 File:Rue-paul-bert-hanoi.jpg, Rue
Paul Bert Paul Bert (17 October 1833 – 11 November 1886) was a French zoologist, physiologist and politician. He is sometimes given the sobriquet "Father of Aviation Medicine". Life Bert was born at Auxerre ( Yonne). He studied law, earning a doctor ...
(now Trang Tien street) File:Monument-republique-hanoi.jpg, L'ancien monument de la République (The monument of the republic) built in the front of File:Lac-hoan-kiem-archives.jpg, Bird-eye view of Hanoi in 1944, the Hoan kiem lake in the middle File:Quartier-dit-indigene-hanoi.jpg, 36 old roads of Hanoi


During WWII and Vietnam War

The city was occupied by the Imperial Japanese in 1940 and liberated in 1945, when it briefly became the seat of the
Việt Minh , leader=Ho Chi Minh, successor=Viet Cong, leader_title=Political leader, leader2_title=Military leader, leader2=Võ Nguyên GiápImage:Flag of North Vietnam (1945–1955).svg, The Việt Minh flag. Việt Minh (; abbreviated from ''Việt Nam đ ...
government after
Ho Chi Minh (; , ; : ; 19 May 1890 – 2 September 1969), born , also known as , , , Người cha dân tộc or simply ('Uncle', ), was a revolutionary and politician. He served as from 1945 to 1955 and from 1945 until his death in 1969. ...

Ho Chi Minh
proclaimed the independence of Vietnam. However, the French returned and reoccupied the city in 1946. After nine years of fighting between the French and Viet Minh forces, Hanoi became the capital of an independent
North Vietnam North Vietnam, officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) ( vi, Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa) was a state in Southeast Asia from 1945 to 1954 and a country from 1954 to 1976. During the August Revolution following World War I ...
in 1954. The
French Army The French Army, officially the Ground Army (french: Armée de Terre , ) to distinguish it from the French Air and Space Force The French Air and Space Force (AAE) (french: Armée de l'Air et de l'Espace, ) is the air File:Atmosphere gas ...
withdrew that year and the
People's Army of Vietnam The People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN; vi, Quân đội Nhân dân Việt Nam), also known as the Vietnamese People's Army (VPA), is the military force of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The PAVN is a part of the Vietnam People's Armed Force ...
and
International Control Commission The International Control Commission (ICC), or in French la Commission Internationale de Contrôle (CIC), was an international force established in 1954. More formally called the International Commission for Supervision and Control, the organisatio ...
occupied the city under the terms of the 1954 Geneva Conference. During the
Vietnam War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Vietnam War , partof = the Indochina Wars The Indochina Wars ( vi, Chiến tranh Đông Dương) were a series of wars fought in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled ...
, Hanoi's transportation facilities were disrupted by the bombing of bridges and railways by the U.S. Seventh Air Force and
Republic of Vietnam Air Force The South Vietnam Air Force ( vi, Không lực Việt Nam Cộng hòa - KLVNCH), officially the Republic of Vietnam Air Force (RVNAF; french: Force aérienne vietnamienne, FAVN) (sometimes referred to as the Vietnam Air Force or VNAF) was the Air ...
. These were all, however, later repaired. Following the end of the war, Hanoi became the capital of a reunified Vietnam when North and
South Vietnam South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam (RVN; vi, Việt Nam Cộng Hòa; french: République du Viêt Nam), was a country that existed from 1955 to 1975, the period when the southern portion of Vietnam , image_map ...
were reunited on 2 July 1976.


Modern Hanoi

After the Đổi Mới economic policies were approved in 1986, the
Communist Party A communist party is a political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about politics, and part ...
and national and municipal governments hoped to attract international investments for
urban development Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the culture of towns and cities Urban may also refer to: General * Urban (name), a list of people ...
projects in Hanoi. The high-rise commercial buildings did not begin to appear until ten years later due to the international investment community being skeptical of the security of their investments in Vietnam. Rapid urban development and rising costs displaced many residential areas in central Hanoi. Following a short period of economic stagnation after the
1997 Asian financial crisis The Asian financial crisis was a period of financial crisis that gripped much of East Asia and Southeast Asia beginning in July 1997 and raised fears of a worldwide economic meltdown due to financial contagion. The crisis started in Thailand (kno ...
, Hanoi resumed its rapid economic growth. On 29 May 2008, it was decided that
Hà Tây Province Hà Tây () is a former Provinces of Vietnam, province of Vietnam, in the Red River Delta, now part of Hanoi. On May 29, 2008 the decision was made to subsume the province into the city of Hanoi. The merger took place on August 1, 2008. The name ...
,
Vĩnh Phúc Province Vĩnh Phúc () is a Provinces of Vietnam, province in the Red River Delta of northern Vietnam. Administrative divisions Vĩnh Phúc is subdivided into 8 district-level sub-divisions: * 7 districts: ** Sông Lô District, Sông Lô ** Bình Xuyê ...
's
Mê Linh District Mê Linh is a rural Districts of Vietnam, district (''huyện'') of Hanoi, formerly of Vĩnh Phúc Province, in the Red River Delta region of northern Vietnam. Mê Linh District is bordered by Đông Anh District to the east, Sóc Sơn District to ...
and 4 communes of Lương Sơn District,
Hòa Bình Province Hòa Bình or Hoà Bình () is a mountainous Provinces of Vietnam, province of Vietnam, located in the nation's Northwest (Vietnam), Northwest region. It borders Phú Thọ Province and Sơn La Province to the northwest, Hanoi to the northeast, H ...
be merged into the metropolitan area of Hanoi from 1 August 2008. Hanoi's total area then increased to 334,470 hectares in 29 subdivisions with the new population being 6,232,940., effectively tripling its size. The Hanoi Capital Region (), a metropolitan area covering Hanoi and 6 surrounding provinces under its administration, will have an area of with 15 million people by 2020. Hanoi has experienced a rapid construction boom recently. Skyscrapers, popping up in new urban areas, have dramatically changed the cityscape and have formed a modern skyline outside the old city. In 2015, Hanoi is ranked 39th by
Emporis Emporis GmbH is a real estate Real estate is property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) an ite ...
in the list of world cities with most skyscrapers over 100 m; its two tallest buildings are Hanoi Landmark 72 Tower (336 m, second tallest in Vietnam after Ho Chi Minh City's
Landmark 81 Landmark 81 is a super-tall skyscraper in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The investor and primary developer for the project is Vinhomes, a Vietnamese corporation that is also the country's largest real-estate company. Landmark 81 is List of tallest buil ...

Landmark 81
and third tallest in south-east Asia after Malaysia's
Petronas Towers The Petronas Towers, also known as the Petronas Twin Towers (Malay language, Malay: ''Menara Petronas'', or ''Menara Berkembar Petronas),'' are List of twin buildings and structures, twin skyscrapers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. According to the C ...

Petronas Towers
) and Hanoi Lotte Center (272 m, also, third tallest in Vietnam). Public outcry in opposition to the redevelopment of culturally significant areas in Hanoi persuaded the national government to implement a low-rise policy surrounding
Hoàn Kiếm Lake Hoan Kiem Lake ( vi, Hồ Hoàn Kiếm, vi-hantu, , meaning ''"Lake of the Returned Sword"'' or ''"Lake of the Restored Sword"''), also known as Gươm Lake (''Hồ Gươm (Sword Lake)'') or Tả Vọng Lake ('' Hồ Tả Vọng''), is a fresh ...

Hoàn Kiếm Lake
. The
Ba Đình District Ba Đình is one of the four original Districts of Vietnam, urban districts (''quận'') of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam. The district currently has 14 wards, covering a total area of 9.21 square kilometers. As of 2019, there were 221,893 peop ...
is also protected from commercial redevelopment.


Geography


Location, topography

Hanoi is located in the northern region of Vietnam, situated in Vietnam's Red River delta, nearly from the coast. Hanoi contains three basic kinds of terrain, which are the delta area, the midland area and the mountainous zone. In general, the terrain becomes gradually lower from north to south and from west to east, with the average height ranging from 5 to 20 meters above sea level. Hills and mountainous zones are located in the northern and western parts of the city. The highest peak is at Ba Vi with 1281 m, located west of the city proper.


Climate

Hanoi features a monsoon-influenced
humid subtropical climate A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and cool to mild winters. These climates normally lie on the southeast side of all continents, generally between latitude In geography Geograp ...
(
KöppenKöppen is a German surname. Notable people with the surname include: * Bernd Köppen (born 1951), German pianist and composer * Edlef Köppen (1893–1939), German author and radio editor * Friedrich Köppen (1775–1858), German philosopher * Jan ...
''Cwa'') with plentiful precipitation. The city experiences the typical climate of northern Vietnam, with four distinct seasons. Summer, from May to August, is characterized by hot and humid weather with abundant rainfall, and few dry days. Hot, dry conditions caused by westerly winds during summer are rare. From September to November comprise the fall season, characterized by a decrease in temperature and precipitation. Winters, from December to January, are characterized as being mild with large amounts of drizzle and little sunshine. The city is usually cloudy and foggy in winter, averaging only 1.5 hours of sunshine per day in February and March. The region has a positive
water balance The law of water balance states that the inflows to any water system or area is equal to its outflows plus change in storage during a time interval. In hydrology, a water balance equation can be used to describe the flow of water in and out of a ...

water balance
(i.e. the precipitation exceeds the
potential evapotranspiration Evapotranspiration (ET) is the sum of water evaporation File:10. Ладење при испарување.ogv, 280px, Demonstration of evaporative cooling. When the sensor is dipped in ethanol and then taken out to evaporate, the instrument sh ...
). Hanoi averages of rainfall per year, the majority falling from May to October. There are an average of 114 days with rain. The average annual temperature is , with a mean relative humidity of more than 80%. The coldest month has a mean temperature of and the hottest month has a mean temperature of . The highest recorded temperature was in May 1926, while the lowest recorded temperature was in January 1955.


Administrative divisions

Hà Nội is divided into 12 urban districts, 1 district-leveled town and 17 rural districts. When
Hà TâyHà is a Vietnamese surname. The name is transliterated as He (surname), He in Chinese language, Chinese and Ha (Korean name), Ha in Korean language, Korean. Ha is the anglicized variation of the surname Hà. It is also the anglicized variation of ...
was merged into Hanoi in 2008, Hà Đông was transformed into an urban district while
Sơn Tây ''Toxicodendron succedaneum'', the wax tree, Japanese Hazenoki tree (Sumac or wax tree), sơn in Vietnam or charão in Portuguese, is a flowering plant species in the genus ''Toxicodendron'' found in Asia, although it has been planted elsewhere, m ...
degraded to a district-leveled town. They are further subdivided into 22 commune-level towns (or townlets), 399 communes, and 145 wards.


List of local government divisions

HT – formerly an administrative subdivision unit of the defunct Hà Tây Province


Demographics

During the French colonial period, as the capital of
French Indochina French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China; french: Indochine française; vi, Đông Dương thuộc Pháp, , lit. 'East Ocean under French Control; km, សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន), officially known as the Indochi ...
, Hanoi attracted a considerable number of French, Chinese and Vietnamese from the surrounding areas. In the 1940s the population of the city was 132,145. After the
First Indochina War The First Indochina War (generally known as the Indochina War in France, and as the Anti-French Resistance War in Vietnam , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Hanoi , coordinates ...
, many French and Chinese people left the city to either move south or repatriate. Hanoi's population only started to increase rapidly in the second half 20th century. In 1954, the city had 53 thousand inhabitants, covering an area of 152 km². By 1961, the area of the city had expanded to 584 km², and the population was 91,000 people. In 1978,
National Assembly (Vietnam) The National Assembly of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam ( vi, Quốc hội nước Cộng hoà xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam) is national legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociolo ...
decided to expand Hanoi for the second time to 2,136 km², with a population of 2.5 million people. By 1991, the area of Hanoi continued to change, decreasing to 924  km², but the population was still over 2 million people. During the 1990s, Hanoi's population increased steadily, reaching 2,672,122 people in 1999. After the most recent expansion in August 2008, Hanoi has a population of 6.233 million and is among the 17 capitals with the largest area in the world. According to the 2009 census, Hanoi's population is 6,451,909 people. As of 1 April 2019, Hanoi had a population of 8,053,663, including 3,991,919 males and 4,061,744 females. The population living in urban areas is 3,962,310 people, accounting for 49.2% and in rural areas is 4,091,353 people, accounting for 50.8%. Hanoi is the second most populous city in the country, after
Ho Chi Minh City , population_density_km2 = 4292 , population_density_metro_km2 = 697.2 , population_demonym = Saigonese , demographics_type1 = Ethnic groups An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on ...

Ho Chi Minh City
(8,993,082 people). The average annual population growth rate from 2009 to 2019 of Hanoi is 2.22%/year, higher than the national growth rate (1.14%/year) and is the second highest in the Red River Delta, only after
Bắc Ninh Province Bắc Ninh () is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Roman Empir ...
(2.90% / year). Nowadays, the city is both a major metropolitan area of Northern Vietnam, and also the country's cultural and political centre, putting a lot of pressure on the infrastructure, some of which is antiquated and dates back to the early 20th century. It has over eight million residents within the
city proper A city proper is the geographical area contained within city limits City limits or city boundaries refer to the defined boundary or border of a city. The area within the city limit can be called the city proper. Town limit/boundary and village ...
and an estimated population of 20 million within the
metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the cult ...
. The number of Hanoians who have settled down for more than three generations is likely to be very small when compared to the overall population of the city. Even in the Old Quarter, where commerce started hundreds of years ago and consisted mostly of family businesses, many of the street-front stores nowadays are owned by merchants and retailers from other provinces. The original owner family may have either rented out the store and moved into the adjoining house or moved out of the neighbourhood altogether. The pace of change has especially escalated after the abandonment of central-planning economic policies and relaxing of the district-based household registrar system. Hanoi's
telephone numbers A telephone number is a sequence of digits assigned to a fixed-line telephone subscriber station connected to a telephone line Image:Phone pole3.jpg, Utility pole with electric lines (top) and telephone cables. A telephone line or telepho ...
have been increased to 8 digits to cope with demand (October 2008). Subscribers' telephone numbers have been changed in a haphazard way; however, mobile phones and
SIM cards A SIM card, also known as subscriber identity module or subscriber identification module (SIM), is an integrated circuit An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a s ...
are readily available in Vietnam, with pre-paid mobile phone credit available in all areas of Hanoi.


Vital statistics


Fertility rate


Birth, death and fertility rates

* preliminary Source: General Statistics Office of Vietnam.


Religion

Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and ...
,
Taoism Taoism (), or Daoism (), is a philosophical and spiritual tradition of China, Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the ''Tao'' (, Taoism#Spelling and pronunciation, or ''Dao''). In Taoism, the ''Tao'' is the source, pattern a ...
, and
Confucianism , Shanxi Shanxi (; ; Chinese postal romanization, formerly romanised as Shansi) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China and is part of the North China region. The capital and largest city of th ...
are the main religions of Hanoi for many years. Most people consider themselves Buddhist, though not all of them regularly follow religion.


Ethnic groups

There are more than 50 ethnic groups in Hanoi, of which the Viet (Kinh) is the largest; according to official Vietnamese figures (2019 census), accounting for 98.66% of the population, followed by Mường at 0.77% and Tày at 0.24%.


Economy

According to a recent ranking by
PricewaterhouseCoopers PricewaterhouseCoopers is a multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a ...

PricewaterhouseCoopers
, Hanoi and Saigon will be amongst the fastest-growing cities in the world in terms of GDP growth from 2008 to 2025. In the year 2013, Hanoi contributed 12.6% to GDP, exported 7.5% of total exports, contributed 17% to the national budget and attracted 22% investment capital of Vietnam. The city's nominal GDP at current prices reached 451,213 billion VND (21.48 billion USD) in 2013, which made per capita GDP stand at 63.3 million VND (3,000 USD). Industrial production in the city has experienced a rapid boom since the 1990s, with average annual growth of 19.1 percent from 1991 to 1995, 15.9 percent from 1996 to 2000, and 20.9 percent during 2001–2003. In addition to eight existing industrial parks, Hanoi is building five new large-scale industrial parks and 16 small- and medium-sized industrial clusters. The non-state economic sector is expanding fast, with more than 48,000 businesses operating under the Enterprise Law (as of 3/2007). Trade is another strong sector of the city. In 2003, Hanoi had 2,000 businesses engaged in foreign trade, having established ties with 161 countries and territories. The city's export value grew by an average 11.6 percent each year from 1996 to 2000 and 9.1 percent during 2001–2003. The economic structure also underwent important shifts, with tourism, finance, and banking now playing an increasingly important role. Hanoi's traditional business districts are Hoàn Kiếm, Hai Bà Trưng and Đống Đa; and newly developing Cầu Giấy,
Nam Từ Liêm Nam or The Nam are shortened terms for Vietnam, which is also spelled Viet Nam. Nam, The Nam or NAM may also refer to: Arts and media * Nam, a fictional character in List of Dragon Ball episodes, anime series ''Dragon Ball'' * NAM (video game), ' ...
, Bắc Từ Liêm, Thanh Xuân and Hà Đông in the west. Similar to
Ho Chi Minh City , population_density_km2 = 4292 , population_density_metro_km2 = 697.2 , population_demonym = Saigonese , demographics_type1 = Ethnic groups An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on ...

Ho Chi Minh City
, Hanoi enjoys a rapidly developing real estate market. The most notable new urban areas are central Trung Hòa Nhân Chính, Mỹ Đình, the luxurious zones of The Manor, Ciputra, Royal City in the Nguyễn Trãi Street (Thanh Xuân District) and Times City in the Hai Bà Trưng District. With an estimated nominal GDP of US$42.04 billion as of 2019, it is the second most productive economic area of Vietnam (after
Ho Chi Minh City , population_density_km2 = 4292 , population_density_metro_km2 = 697.2 , population_demonym = Saigonese , demographics_type1 = Ethnic groups An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on ...

Ho Chi Minh City
)
Agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in sedentary behaviors su ...
, previously a pillar in Hanoi's economy, has striven to reform itself, introducing new high-yield plant varieties and livestock, and applying modern farming techniques. After the economic reforms that initiated economic growth, Hanoi's appearance has also changed significantly, especially in recent years. Infrastructure is constantly being upgraded, with new roads and an improved public transportation system. Hanoi has allowed many fast-food chains into the city, such as
McDonald's McDonald's is an American fast food Fast food is a type of mass-produced food designed for commercial resale and with a strong priority placed on "speed of service" versus other relevant factors involved in food science, culinary scien ...

McDonald's
,
Lotteria is a Japanese company that operates a chain of fast food restaurants in East Asia, having opened its first restaurant in Tokyo in September 1972. Taking its name from its parent company, Lotte Corporation, it currently has franchises in Jap ...

Lotteria
,
Pizza Hut Pizza Hut is an American multinational restaurant chain and international Franchising, franchise founded in 1958 in Wichita, Kansas by Dan and Frank Carney. They serve their signature pan pizza and other dishes including pasta, breadsticks and des ...

Pizza Hut
,
KFC KFC (also known as Kentucky Fried Chicken) is an American fast food Fast food is a type of Mass production, mass-produced food designed for commercial resale and with a strong priority placed on "speed of service" versus other relevant ...
, and others. Locals in Hanoi perceive the ability to purchase "
fast-food Fast food is a type of mass-produced Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of substantial amounts of standardized Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing an ...

fast-food
" as an indication of luxury and permanent fixtures. Similarly, city officials are motivated by food safety concerns and their aspirations for a "modern" city to replace the 67 traditional food markets with 1,000 supermarkets by 2025. This is likely to increase consumption of less nutritious foods, as traditional markets are key for consumption of fresh rather than processed foods. Over three-quarters of the jobs in Hanoi are state-owned. 9% of jobs are provided by collectively owned organizations. 13.3% of jobs are in the private sector. The structure of employment has been changing rapidly as state-owned institutions downsize and private enterprises grow. Hanoi has in-migration controls which allow the city to accept only people who add skills Hanoi's economy. A 2006 census found that 5,600 rural produce vendors exist in Hanoi, with 90% of them coming from surrounding rural areas. These numbers indicate the much greater earning potential in urban rather than in rural spaces. The uneducated, rural, and mostly female street vendors are depicted as participants of "
microbusiness A micro-enterprise (or microenterprise) is generally defined as a small business employing nine people or fewer, and having a balance sheet or turnover less than a certain amount (e.g. euro, €2 million or Philippine peso, PhP 3 million). The term ...
" and local grassroots economic development by business reports. In July 2008, Hanoi's city government devised a policy to partially ban street vendors and side-walk based commerce on 62 streets due to concerns about public health and "modernizing" the city's image to attract foreigners. Many foreigners believe that the vendors add a traditional and nostalgic aura to the city, although street vending was much less common prior to the 1986 Đổi Mới policies. The vendors have not able to form effective resistance tactics to the ban and remain embedded in the dominant capitalist framework of modern Hanoi. Hanoi is part of the
Maritime Silk Road The Maritime Silk Road or Maritime Silk Route refers to the maritime section of the historic Silk Road The Silk Road was and is a network of trade routes connecting the Eastern world, East and Western culture, West, and was central to the eco ...
that runs from the Chinese coast through the
Strait of Malacca id, Selat Malaka th, ta, hi, zh, , native_name_lang = , other_name = , image = Strait of malacca.jpg , alt = , caption = The Strait of Malacca connects the Pacific Ocean to ...
towards the to
Mombasa Mombasa ( , also ) is a coastal city in southeastern Kenya ) , national_anthem = " Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu"() , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital ...

Mombasa
, from there through the
Red Sea The Red Sea ( ar, البحر الأحمر, translit=al-Baḥr al-ʾAḥmar; or ; Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a Northe ...

Red Sea
via the
Suez Canal The Suez Canal ( ar, قَنَاةُ ٱلسُّوَيْسِ, ') is an artificial sea-level Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an mean, average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's bodies of water from which hei ...
to the
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...
, there to the Upper
Adriatic The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkans. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest a ...

Adriatic
region to the
northern Italian Northern Italy ( it, Italia settentrionale, it, Nord Italia, label=none, it, Alta Italia, label=none or just it, Nord, label=none) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of Italy. Non-administrative, it consists of eight adm ...
hub of
Trieste Trieste ( , ; sl, Trst ; german: Triest ) is a city and in northeastern . It is the capital city, and largest city, of the of , one of two autonomous regions which are not subdivided into . Trieste is located at the head of the , on a narrow ...

Trieste
with its rail connections to
Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on a common History, historical, Society, social and cultural identity. The Thirty Years' War between Catholic Church, Catholicism and Protestantism was a signifi ...

Central Europe
and the
North Sea The North Sea is a sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
.


Development


Infrastructural development

A development master plan for Hanoi was designed by Ernest Hebrard in 1924, but was only partially implemented. The previous close relationship between the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
and Vietnam led to the creation of the first comprehensive plan for Hanoi with the assistance of Soviet planners between 1981 and 1984. It was never realized because it appeared to be incompatible with Hanoi's existing layout. In recent years, two master plans have been created to guide Hanoi's development. The first was the Hanoi Master Plan 1990–2010, approved in April 1992. It was created out of collaboration between planners from Hanoi and the National Institute of Urban and Rural Planning in the Ministry of Construction. The plan's three main objectives were to create housing and a new commercial center in an area known as Nghĩa Đô, expand residential and industrial areas in the Gia Lâm District, and develop the three southern corridors linking Hanoi to Hà Đông and the Thanh Trì District. The end result of the land-use pattern was meant to resemble a five cornered star by 2010. In 1998, a revised version of the Hanoi Master plan was approved to be completed in 2020. It addressed the significant increase of population projections within Hanoi. Population densities and high rise buildings in the inner city were planned to be limited to protect the old parts of inner Hanoi. A rail transport system is planned to be built to expand public transport and link the Hanoi to surrounding areas. Projects such as airport upgrading, a golf course, and cultural villages have been approved for development by the government. Hanoi is still faced with the problems associated with increasing urbanization. Although it is a major transport hub with a large network of national routes, expressways, railways, and is home to
Noi Bai International Airport Nội Bài International Airport ( vi, Sân bay quốc tế Nội Bài) in Hanoi , population_total = 8,053,663 ( 2nd) , population_as_of = 2019 , population_demonym = Hanoian , population_density_km2 = auto , po ...

Noi Bai International Airport
, the busiest airport in Vietnam, the disparity of wealth between the rich and the poor is a problem in both the capital and throughout the country. Hanoi's public infrastructure was assessed as in poor condition with high amounts of pollution and congestion in 2001. The city also has frequent , air and water pollution, difficult road conditions, traffic congestion, and a rudimentary public transit system.
Traffic congestion Traffic congestion is a condition in transport that is characterised by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased vehicular queueing Queue areas are places in which people queue ( first-come, first-served) for goods or services. Suc ...

Traffic congestion
and
air pollution Air pollution is the presence of substances in the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' or 'sphere') is a layer or a set of layers of gas ...

air pollution
are worsening as the number of motor cycles increases. Squatter settlements are expanding on the outer rim of the city as homelessness rises (2001). In the late 1980s, the
United Nations Development Programme The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)french: Programme des Nations unies pour le développement, PNUD is a United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace ...
(UNDP) and the Vietnamese government had designed a project to develop rural infrastructure. The project focused on improving roads, water supply and sanitation, and educational, health and social facilities because economic development in the
commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs to or with something, whether ...

commune
s and rural areas surrounding Hanoi is dependent on the infrastructural links between the rural and urban areas, especially for the sale of rural products. The project aimed to use locally available resources and knowledge such as compressed earth construction techniques for building. It was jointly funded by the
UNDP The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)french: Programme des Nations unies pour le développement, PNUD is a United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace ...
, the Vietnamese government, and resources raised by the local communities and governments. In four communes, the local communities contributed 37% of the total budget. Local labor, community support, and joint funding were decided as necessary for the long-term sustainability of the project.


Civil society development

Part of the goals of the Đổi Mới economic reforms was to decentralize governance for purpose of economic improvement. This led to the establishment of the first issue-oriented civic organizations in Hanoi. In the 1990s, Hanoi experienced significant poverty alleviation as a result of both the market reforms and civil society movements. Most of the civic organizations in Hanoi were established after 1995, at a rate much slower than in
Ho Chi Minh City , population_density_km2 = 4292 , population_density_metro_km2 = 697.2 , population_demonym = Saigonese , demographics_type1 = Ethnic groups An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on ...

Ho Chi Minh City
. Organizations in Hanoi are more "tradition-bound," focused on policy, education, research, professional interests, and appealing to governmental organizations to solve social problems. This marked difference from civic organizations, which practice more direct intervention to tackle social issues, may be attributed to the different societal identities of North and South Vietnam. Hanoi-based civic organizations use more systematic development and less of a direct intervention approach to deal with issues of rural development, poverty alleviation, and environmental protection. They rely more heavily on full-time staff than volunteers. In Hanoi, 16.7% of civic organizations accept anyone as a registered member and 73.9% claim to have their own budgets, as opposed to 90.9% in
Ho Chi Minh City , population_density_km2 = 4292 , population_density_metro_km2 = 697.2 , population_demonym = Saigonese , demographics_type1 = Ethnic groups An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on ...

Ho Chi Minh City
. A majority of the civic organizations in Hanoi find it difficult to work with governmental organizations. Many of the strained relations between non-governmental and governmental organizations results from
statism In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics. It is a social science dealing with systems of governance and power, and the analysis of politics, political activities, political thoughts, political behavior, and as ...
, a bias against non-state organizations on the part of government entities.


Landmarks

As the capital of Vietnam for almost a thousand years, Hanoi is considered one of the main cultural centres of Vietnam, where most Vietnamese dynasties have left their imprint. Even though some relics have not survived through wars and time, the city still has many interesting cultural and historic monuments for visitors and residents alike. Even when the nation's capital moved to
Huế Huế () is the capital of Thừa Thiên Huế Province in central Vietnam that was the capital of Đàng Trong from 1738 to 1775 and of the Nguyen Dynasty from 1802 to 1945. The city served as the administrative capital for the Nguyen dynasty, ...
under the Nguyễn Dynasty in 1802, the city of Hanoi continued to flourish, especially after the French took control in 1888 and modeled the city's architecture to their tastes, lending an important aesthetic to the city's rich stylistic heritage. The city hosts more cultural sites than any other city in Vietnam, and boasts more than 1,000 years of history; that of the past few hundred years has been well preserved.


Old Quarter

The Old Quarter, near
Hoàn Kiếm Lake Hoan Kiem Lake ( vi, Hồ Hoàn Kiếm, vi-hantu, , meaning ''"Lake of the Returned Sword"'' or ''"Lake of the Restored Sword"''), also known as Gươm Lake (''Hồ Gươm (Sword Lake)'') or Tả Vọng Lake ('' Hồ Tả Vọng''), is a fresh ...

Hoàn Kiếm Lake
, maintains most of the original street layout and some of the architecture of old Hanoi. At the beginning of the 20th century Hanoi consisted of the "36 streets", the citadel, and some of the newer French buildings south of Hoàn Kiếm lake, most of which are now part of Hoàn Kiếm district. Each street had merchants and households specializing in a particular trade, such as silk, jewelry or even bamboo. The street names still reflect these specializations, although few of them remain exclusively in their original commerce. The area is famous for its specializations in trades such as traditional medicine and local handicrafts, including silk shops, bamboo carpenters, and tin smiths. Local cuisine specialties as well as several clubs and bars can be found here also. A night market (near Đồng Xuân Market) in the heart of the district opens for business every Friday, Saturday, and Sunday evening with a variety of clothing, souvenirs and food.


Imperial sites

Imperior sites are mostly in
Ba Đình District Ba Đình is one of the four original Districts of Vietnam, urban districts (''quận'') of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam. The district currently has 14 wards, covering a total area of 9.21 square kilometers. As of 2019, there were 221,893 peop ...
and a bit of
Đống Đa District Đống Đa (literally ''Banyan Heap''; ) is one of the four original Districts of Vietnam, urban districts (''quận'') of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam. It is bordered by Ba Đình District, Ba Đình to the north, Hoàn Kiếm to the northea ...
. They are juxtaposed with French colonial architecture (villas, administrative buildings and tree-lined boulevards). Some prominent edifices from feudal time include the (''Văn Miếu''), site of the oldest university in Vietnam which was started in 1010, the
One Pillar Pagoda The One Pillar Pagoda ( vi, Chùa Một Cột , formally belongs to an architecture complex called ' 祐寺which means Extend Bless pagoda. The pagoda is a historic Buddhism, Buddhist temple in the central Ba Đình District, Ba Đình dist ...

One Pillar Pagoda
(''Chùa Một Cột'') which was built based on the dream of king
Lý Thái Tông Lý Thái Tông (chữ Hán: wikt:李, 李wikt:太, 太wikt:宗, 宗; 29 July 1000 – 3 November 1054), personal name Lý Phật Mã, posthumously temple name Thái Tông, was the second monarch of the Lý dynasty, ruled Đại Việt from 1028 ...
(1028–1054) in 1049, and the Flag Tower of Hanoi (''Cột cờ Hà Nội''). In 2004, a massive part of the 900-year-old was discovered in central Hanoi, near the site of Ba Đình Square.


Lakes

A city between rivers built on lowlands, Hanoi has many scenic lakes and is sometimes called the "city of lakes." Among its lakes, the most famous are
Hoàn Kiếm Lake Hoan Kiem Lake ( vi, Hồ Hoàn Kiếm, vi-hantu, , meaning ''"Lake of the Returned Sword"'' or ''"Lake of the Restored Sword"''), also known as Gươm Lake (''Hồ Gươm (Sword Lake)'') or Tả Vọng Lake ('' Hồ Tả Vọng''), is a fresh ...

Hoàn Kiếm Lake
,
West Lake West Lake () is a freshwater lake in Hangzhou, China. It is divided into five sections by three causeways. There are numerous temple A temple (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic ...

West Lake
,
Trúc Bạch Lake Trúc Bạch Lake (Vietnamese language, Vietnamese: ) is one of the many lakes in the city of Hanoi, the Capital (political), capital of Vietnam. It is known outside Vietnam as the site where future United States politician John McCain landed during ...
and Bảy Mẫu Lake (inside Thống Nhất Park). Hoàn Kiếm Lake, also known as Sword Lake, is the historical and cultural center of Hanoi, and is linked to the legend of the
magic sword In mythology Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narrative A narrative, story or tale is any account of a series of related events or experiences, whether nonfictional ( memoir, biography, news report, documentary, Travel literature, ...
. West Lake (Hồ Tây) is a popular place for people to spend time. It is the largest lake in Hanoi, with many temples in the area. The lakeside road in the Nghi Tam – Quang Ba area is perfect for bicycling, jogging and viewing the cityscape or enjoying the lotus ponds in the summer. The best way to see the majestic beauty of a West Lake sunset is to view it from one of the many bars around the lake, especially from The Summit at Pan Pacific Hanoi (formally known as Summit Lounge at Sofitel Plaza Hanoi).


Colonial Hanoi

Hanoi was the capital and the administrative center for
French Indochina French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China; french: Indochine française; vi, Đông Dương thuộc Pháp, , lit. 'East Ocean under French Control; km, សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន), officially known as the Indochi ...
for most of the colonial period (from 1902 to 1945). The French colonial architectural style became dominant, and many examples remain today: tree-lined boulevards (such as Phan Dinh Phung street, Hoang Dieu street and Tran Phu street) and many villas, mansions, and government buildings. Many of the colonial structures are an eclectic mixture of French and traditional Vietnamese architectural styles, such as the National Museum of Vietnamese History, the
Vietnam National Museum of Fine Arts The Vietnam National Museum of Fine Arts ( vi, Viện Bảo tàng Mỹ thuật Việt Nam; vi-hantu, 院寶藏美術越南) is located in Hanoi , population_total = 8,053,663 ( 2nd) , population_as_of = 2019 , p ...
and the old . Gouveneur-Général
Paul Doumer Joseph Athanase Doumer, commonly known as Paul Doumer (; 22 March 18577 May 1932), was the President of France The president of France, officially the President of the French Republic (french: Président de la République française), is the h ...

Paul Doumer
(1898–1902) played a crucial role in colonial Hanoi's urban planning. Under his tenure there was a major construction boom.
French Colonial French Colonial describes several styles of architecture File:Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted).jpg, upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel ...
buildings in Hanoi are mostly in
Ba Đình District Ba Đình is one of the four original Districts of Vietnam, urban districts (''quận'') of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam. The district currently has 14 wards, covering a total area of 9.21 square kilometers. As of 2019, there were 221,893 peop ...
and the south of
Hoàn Kiếm District Hoàn Kiếm ( vi-hantu, ; Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary, Sino-Vietnamese for ''Returned Sword'') is one of the four original Districts of Vietnam, urban districts (''quận'') of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam. It is named after the scenic Hoàn ...
, the two ''French Quarters'' of the city. Notable landmarks include: In Ba Đình district: *
Presidential PalaceA presidential palace is the official residence of the President (government title), president in some countries. However, some countries do not call the official residence of their head of state a palace or use the building only as a workplace separ ...

Presidential Palace
* Cửa Bắc Church * Ministry of Foreign Affairs building * Several ministries, government agencies and foreign embassies In Hoàn Kiếm district: * Grand Opera House * St. Joseph's Cathedral * Long Biên Bridge *
Grand Palais The Grand Palais des Champs-Élysées, commonly known as the Grand Palais (English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Engl ...
*
French School of the Far East The French School of the Far East (french: École française d'Extrême-Orient, ), abbreviated EFEO, is an associated college of PSL University dedicated to the study of Asian societies. It was founded in 1900 with headquarters in Hanoi in wha ...
* Hotel Metropole * Tonkin Palace (State Guest House) * * Supreme Court building * Indochina Medical College * Museum of Revolution *
Central Station Central stations or central railway stations emerged in the second half of the nineteenth century as railway stations that had initially been built on the edge of city centres were enveloped by urban expansion and became an integral part of the ...

Central Station
* State Bank of Vietnam * Several foreign embassies


Museums

Hanoi is home to a number of museums: * National Museum of Vietnamese History *
Vietnam National Museum of Fine Arts The Vietnam National Museum of Fine Arts ( vi, Viện Bảo tàng Mỹ thuật Việt Nam; vi-hantu, 院寶藏美術越南) is located in Hanoi , population_total = 8,053,663 ( 2nd) , population_as_of = 2019 , p ...
*
Vietnam Museum of Ethnology The Vietnam Museum of Ethnology ( vi, Bảo tàng Dân tộc học Việt Nam) is a museum in Hanoi, Vietnam, which focuses on the 54 officially recognised ethnic groups in Vietnam. It is located on a property in the Cầu Giấy District, ab ...
* Vietnam Museum of Revolution * * * Hanoi Contemporary Arts Centre * Vietnam Military History Museum *
Hanoi Museum The Museum of Hanoi ( vi, Bảo tàng Hà Nội) is located in Nam Từ Liêm district of Hanoi, Vietnam. The museum displays artifacts from Hanoi's 1000-year history and the history, culture, heritage, and architecture of Vietnam. It showcases o ...

Hanoi Museum


Suburbs

Hanoi's western suburbs, previously
Hà Tây Province Hà Tây () is a former Provinces of Vietnam, province of Vietnam, in the Red River Delta, now part of Hanoi. On May 29, 2008 the decision was made to subsume the province into the city of Hanoi. The merger took place on August 1, 2008. The name ...
, offers a number of important religious sites: * The Thầy Pagoda in Quốc Oai District was established in the 11th century and dedicated to
Vietnamese Thiền Thiền Buddhism ( vi, Thiền Tông, , ) is the Vietnamese version of Zen Buddhism Zen ( zh, t=禪, p=Chán; ja, text= 禅, translit=zen; ko, text=선, translit=Seon; vi, text=Thiền) is a school of Mahayana Buddhism that originate ...
master Master or masters may refer to: Ranks or titles *, a term used in the Theosophical religious tradition to refer to spiritually enlightened beings who in past incarnations were ordinary humans *, National Master, International Master, FIDE Master ...
Từ Đạo Hạnh. It is one of the oldest Buddhist temples in Vietnam. * The
Perfume Pagoda The Perfume Pagoda ( vi, Chùa Hương, loinks=no, Hán Nôm:香寺) is a vast complex of Buddhist temple A Buddhist temple or Buddhist monastery A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplac ...

Perfume Pagoda
is a vast complex of Buddhist temples and shrines built into the limestone Huong Tich mountains. It has a long pilgrimage route along the Yen river.


Tourism

According to
Mastercard#REDIRECT Mastercard Mastercard Incorporated (stylized as MasterCard from 1979 to 2016 and mastercard since 2016) is an American multinational financial services Financial services are the Service (economics), economic services provided by the ...

Mastercard
’s 2019 report, Hanoi is Vietnam's most visited city (15th in Asia Pacific), with 4.8 million overnight international visitors in 2018. Hanoi is sometimes dubbed the "
Paris of the EastThe description Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents as of 2018, in an area of more than . Si ...
" for its French influences. With its tree-fringed boulevards, more than two dozen lakes and thousands of French colonial-era buildings, Hanoi is a popular tourist destination. The tourist destinations in Hanoi are generally grouped into two main areas: the Old Quarter and the French Quarter(s). The "Old Quarter" is in the northern half of
Hoàn Kiếm District Hoàn Kiếm ( vi-hantu, ; Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary, Sino-Vietnamese for ''Returned Sword'') is one of the four original Districts of Vietnam, urban districts (''quận'') of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam. It is named after the scenic Hoàn ...
with small street blocks and alleys, and a traditional Vietnamese atmosphere. Many streets in the Old Quarter have names signifying the goods ("hàng") the local merchants were or are specialized in. For example, "Hàng Bạc" (''silver stores'') still have many stores specializing in trading silver and jewelries. Two areas are generally called the "French Quarters": the governmental area in
Ba Đình District Ba Đình is one of the four original Districts of Vietnam, urban districts (''quận'') of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam. The district currently has 14 wards, covering a total area of 9.21 square kilometers. As of 2019, there were 221,893 peop ...
and the south of Hoàn Kiếm District. Both areas have distinctive
French Colonial French Colonial describes several styles of architecture File:Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted).jpg, upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel ...
style villas and broad tree-lined avenues. The political center of Vietnam, Ba Đình has a high concentration of Vietnamese government headquarters, including the
Presidential PalaceA presidential palace is the official residence of the President (government title), president in some countries. However, some countries do not call the official residence of their head of state a palace or use the building only as a workplace separ ...

Presidential Palace
, the , and several ministries and embassies, most of which used administrative buildings of colonial
French Indochina French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China; french: Indochine française; vi, Đông Dương thuộc Pháp, , lit. 'East Ocean under French Control; km, សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន), officially known as the Indochi ...
. The
One Pillar Pagoda The One Pillar Pagoda ( vi, Chùa Một Cột , formally belongs to an architecture complex called ' 祐寺which means Extend Bless pagoda. The pagoda is a historic Buddhism, Buddhist temple in the central Ba Đình District, Ba Đình dist ...

One Pillar Pagoda
, the Lycée du Protectorat and the
Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum The President Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum ( vi, Lăng Chủ tịch Hồ Chí Minh) is a mausoleum which serves as the resting place of Vietnamese Revolutionary leader & President Ho Chi Minh (; , ; : ; 19 May 1890 – 2 September 1969), born , al ...

Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum
are also in Ba Dinh. South of Hoàn Kiếm's "French Quarter" has several French-Colonial landmarks, including the
Hanoi Opera House The Hanoi Opera House (french: Opéra de Hanoï), or the Grand Opera House ( vi, Nhà hát lớn Hà Nội, french: Grand Opéra) is an opera house An opera house is a used for performances of . It usually includes a , an , audience seating, a ...
, the
Sofitel Legend Metropole Hanoi Sofitel Legend Metropole Hanoi is a five-star historic luxury hotel, opened in 1901 as Grand Métropole Hotel in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam. It is today one of the most important buildings of Vietnam in French Colonial, French colonial style. Th ...
hotel, the National Museum of Vietnamese History (formerly the
École française d'Extrême-Orient The French School of the Far East (french: École française d'Extrême-Orient, ), abbreviated EFEO, is an associated college of PSL University dedicated to the study of Asian societies. It was founded in 1900 with headquarters in Hanoi in wha ...

École française d'Extrême-Orient
), and the St. Joseph's Cathedral. Most of the French-Colonial buildings in Hoan Kiem are now used as foreign embassies. Since 2014, Hanoi has consistently been voted in the world's top ten destinations by TripAdvisor. It ranked 8th in 2014, 4th in 2015 and 8th in 2016. Hanoi is the most affordable international destination in TripAdvisor's annual TripIndex report. In 2017, Hanoi will welcome more than 5 million international tourists.


Entertainment

A variety of options for entertainment in Hanoi can be found throughout the city. Modern and traditional theaters, cinemas, karaoke bars, dance clubs, bowling alleys, and an abundance of opportunities for shopping provide leisure activity for both locals and tourists. Hanoi has been named one of the top 10 cities for shopping in Asia by Water Puppet Tours. The number of art galleries exhibiting Vietnamese art has dramatically increased in recent years, now including galleries such as "Nhat Huy" of Huynh Thong Nhat. Nhà Triển Lãm at 29 Hang Bai street hosts regular photo, sculpture, and paint exhibitions in conjuncture with local artists and travelling international expositions. A popular traditional form of entertainment is
water puppetry Water puppetry ( vi, Múa rối nước, lit. "Making puppets A puppet is an object, often resembling a human, animal or mythical figure, that is animated or manipulated by a person called a puppeteer. The puppeteer uses movements of their h ...
, which is shown, for example, at the ''Thăng Long Water Puppet Theatre.''


Shopping

To adapt to Hanoi's rapid economic growth and high population density, many modern shopping centers and megamalls have been opened in Hanoi. Major malls are: * , High-end Mall on Trang Tien street (right next to Hoàn Kiếm Lake),
Hoàn Kiếm District Hoàn Kiếm ( vi-hantu, ; Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary, Sino-Vietnamese for ''Returned Sword'') is one of the four original Districts of Vietnam, urban districts (''quận'') of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam. It is named after the scenic Hoàn ...
* , a modern mall with hi-end CGV cineplex, Ba Trieu Street (just 2 km from Hoan Kiem lake),
Hai Bà Trưng District Hai Bà Trưng District (Trưng Sisters District) is one of the four original Districts of Vietnam, urban districts (''quận'') of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam. The district currently has 18 wards, covering a total area of 10.26 square kilome ...
* The Garden Shopping Center, Me TriMỹ Đình,
Nam Từ Liêm District Nam Từ Liêm (''South Từ Liêm'') is an Districts of Vietnam, urban district (''quận'') of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam. It was formed on 27 December 2013, when the rural Từ Liêm District was split into two urban districts: Bắc T ...
* Indochina Plaza, Xuan Thuy street,
Cầu Giấy District Cầu Giấy (lit. Paper Bridge) is an Districts of Vietnam, urban district of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam. The district currently has 8 wards, covering a total area of 12.32 square kilometers. It is bordered by Ba Đình District, Đống ...
* Vincom Royal City Megamall, the largest underground mall in Asia with 230,000 square metres of shops, restaurants, cineplex, waterpark (formerly), cinema, ice skating rink; Nguyen Trai street (approx 6 km from Hoan Kiem Lake),
Thanh Xuân District Thanh Xuân is an Districts of Vietnam, urban district (''quận'') of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam. The district currently has 11 wards, covering a total area of 9.09 square kilometers. As of 2019, there were 293,524 people residing in the d ...
* Vincom Times City Megamall, another megamall of 230,000 square metres including shops, restaurants, cineplex, huge musical fountain on central square and a giant aquarium; Minh Khai street (approx 5 km from Hoan Kiem Lake), Hai Ba Trung district * Lotte Department Store, opened September 2014, Lieu Giai Street, Ba Đình District * Aeon Mall Long Bien opened last October 2015, Long Bien District * Aeon Mall Ha Dong opened in the end of 2019, Ha Dong district


Cuisine

Hanoi has rich culinary traditions. Many of Vietnam's most famous dishes, such as
phở ''Phở'' or ''pho'' (, , ; ) is a Vietnamese cuisine, Vietnamese soup consisting of broth, rice noodles (), herbs, and meat (usually beef) (), sometimes chicken (). Pho is a popular food in Vietnam where it is served in households, street stal ...
, , chả cá Lã Vọng,
bánh cuốn ''Bánh cuốn'' (, ''rolled sheets'') is a Vietnamese dish originating from Northern Vietnam. In Vietnamese cuisine ''Bánh cuốn'' is made from a thin, wide sheet of steamed Fermentation (biochemistry), fermented rice Batter (cooking), batte ...

bánh cuốn
and
cốm 'Cốm'', or green rice, is a dish in Vietnamese cuisine. It is not dyed green, as can be done with Pandanus amaryllifolius, pandan, but is immature rice kernels roasted over very low heat then pounded in a mortar and pestle until flattened.Fermente ...
are believed to have originated in Hanoi. Perhaps most widely known is Phở—a simple rice noodle soup often eaten as breakfast at home or at street-side cafes, but also served in restaurants as a meal. Two varieties dominate the Hanoi scene: Phở Bò, containing beef and Phở Gà, containing chicken. Bún chả, a dish consisting of charcoal roasted pork served in a sweet/salty soup with rice noodle vermicelli and lettuce, is by far the most popular food item among locals. President
Barack Obama Barack Hussein Obama II ( ; born August 4, 1961) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 44th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government ...

Barack Obama
famously tried this dish at a Le Van Huu eatery with
Anthony Bourdain Anthony Michael Bourdain (; June 25, 1956 – June 8, 2018) was an American celebrity chef, chef, book author, journalist, and Travel documentary, travel documentarian who starred in programs focusing on the exploration of international culture, cu ...

Anthony Bourdain
in 2016, prompting the opening of a Bún chả restaurant bearing his name in the Old Quarter. Vietnam's national dish
phở ''Phở'' or ''pho'' (, , ; ) is a Vietnamese cuisine, Vietnamese soup consisting of broth, rice noodles (), herbs, and meat (usually beef) (), sometimes chicken (). Pho is a popular food in Vietnam where it is served in households, street stal ...
has been named as one of the Top 5 street foods in the world by globalpost. Hanoi has a number of restaurants whose menus specifically offer dishes containing snake and various species of insects. Insect-inspired menus can be found at a number of restaurants in Khuong Thuong village, Hanoi. The signature dishes at these restaurant are those containing processed
Ant Ants are eusocial Eusociality (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population i ...

Ant
-eggs, often in the culinary styles of
Thai people Thai people, Central Thai ( th, ชาวไทย) or Siamese ( th, ชาวสยาม; historically and sometimes domestically), in a narrow sense, are a Tai ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify w ...
or Vietnam's Muong and Tay ethnic people. Dog eating used to be popular in Hanoi in 1990s and early 2000s but is now dying out quickly due to strong objections.


Education

Hanoi, as the capital of French Indochina, was home to the first Western-style universities in Indochina, including: ''Indochina Medical College'' (1902) – now Hanoi Medical University, ''Indochina University'' (1904) – now Hanoi National University (the largest), and ''École Supérieure des Beaux-Arts de l'Indochine'' (1925) – now Hanoi University of Fine Art. After the Communist Party of Vietnam took control of Hanoi in 1954, many new universities were built, among them,
Hanoi University of Science and Technology ) Hanoi University of Technology (HUT) (-2010) , colors = Red Red is the color at the long wavelength end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet. It has a dominant wavelength Image:dominant wavelength.png, fr ...

Hanoi University of Science and Technology
, still the largest technical university in Vietnam. Recently ULIS ( University of Languages and International Studies) was rated as one of the top universities in south-east Asia for languages and language studies at the undergraduate level. Other universities that are not part of Vietnam National University or Hanoi University include Hanoi School for Public Health, Hanoi School of Agriculture,
Electric Power University Electric Power University (EPU) in Vietnamese language, Vietnamese ''Trường Đại học Điện Lực'' is a public university in Hanoi, Vietnam. History The forerunner of the Electricity University was the Hanoi School of Practical Technology, ...
and University of Transport and Communications. Hanoi is the largest center of education in Vietnam. It is estimated that 62% of the scientists in the whole country are living and working in Hanoi. Admissions to undergraduate study are through entrance examinations, which are conducted annually and open to everyone (who has successfully completed his/her secondary education) in the country. The majority of universities in Hanoi are public, although in recent years a number of private universities have begun operation. Thăng Long University, founded in 1988, by Vietnamese mathematics professors in Hanoi and France was the first private university in Vietnam. Because many of Vietnam's major universities are located in Hanoi, students from other provinces (especially in the northern part of the country) wishing to enter university often travel to Hanoi for the annual entrance examination. Such events usually take place in June and July, during which a large number of students and their families converge on the city for several weeks around the intense examination period. In recent years, these entrance exams have been centrally coordinated by the Ministry of Education, but entrance requirements are decided independently by each university. Although there are state owned
kindergarten Kindergarten (, ) is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school. Such institutions were originally made in the late 18th ...

kindergarten
s, there are also many private ventures that serve both local and international needs. Pre-tertiary (elementary and secondary) schools in Hanoi are generally state run, but there are also some independent schools. Education is equivalent to the K–12 system in the U.S., with elementary school between grades 1 and 5, middle school (or junior high) between grades 6 and 9, and
high school A secondary school describes an institution that provides secondary education Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is a ...
from grades 10 to 12. There are several specialised school (or high school for the gifted) in Hanoi where excellent students in Hanoi attend. Some schools include: • Hanoi - Amsterdam High SchoolChu Van An High SchoolForeign Language Specialized SchoolNguyen Hue High SchoolHigh School for Gifted Students, Hanoi National University of EducationHigh School for Gifted Students, Hanoi University of Science Education levels are much higher within the city of Hanoi in comparison to the suburban areas outside the city. About 33.8% of the labor force in the city has completed secondary school in contrast to 19.4% in the suburbs. 21% of the labor force in the city has completed tertiary education in contrast to 4.1% in the suburbs. International schools include: * British International School Hanoi *
British Vietnamese International School Hanoi The British Vietnamese International School Hanoi (BVIS Hanoi) is a bilingual international school An international school is a school A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments ...
* Hanoi International School * Japanese School of Hanoi * Korean International School in Hanoi * Lycée français Alexandre Yersin * * Vietnam-Australia School, Hanoi Former schools: *
Lycée Albert Sarraut Lycée Albert Sarraut was a French language, French lyceum in Hanoi, Vietnam, during the French colonialism, colonial period, active from 1919 to 1965. It was one of 69 high schools founded by the French in their colonies worldwide, named for Albert ...


Reform

Country-wide educational change is difficult in Vietnam, due to the restrictive control of the government on social and economic development strategies. According to Hanoi government publications, the national system of education was reformed in 1950, 1956 and 1970. It was not until 1975 when the two separate education systems of the former North and South Vietnam territories became unified under a single national system. In Hanoi in December 1996, the
Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam The Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam ( Vietnamese: ''Ban Chấp hành Trung ương Đảng Cộng sản Việt Nam'') established 1930, is the highest authority within the Communist Party of Vietnam elected by the Party Nationa ...
stated that: "To carry out industrialization and modernization successfully, it is necessary to develop education and training strongly nd tomaximize human resources, the key factor of fast and sustained development."


Transport

Hanoi is served by
Noi Bai International Airport Nội Bài International Airport ( vi, Sân bay quốc tế Nội Bài) in Hanoi , population_total = 8,053,663 ( 2nd) , population_as_of = 2019 , population_demonym = Hanoian , population_density_km2 = auto , po ...

Noi Bai International Airport
, located in the Soc Son District, approximately north of Hanoi. The new international terminal (T2), designed and built by Japanese contractors, opened in January 2015 and is a big facelift for Noibai International Airport. In addition, a new highway and the new Nhat Tan cable-stay bridge connecting the airport and the city center opened at the same time, offering much more convenience than the old road (via Thanglong bridge). Taxis are plentiful and usually have meters, although it is also common to agree on the trip price before taking a taxi from the airport to the city centre. Hanoi is also the origin or departure point for many
Vietnam Railways Image:CowtownExpressInterior1.jpg, On board a local day train on the North-South line Vietnam Railways (Đường sắt Việt Nam) is the state-owned operator of the railway system in Vietnam. The principal route is the single track (ra ...
train routes in the country. The Reunification Express (tàu Thống Nhất) runs from Hanoi to
Ho Chi Minh City , population_density_km2 = 4292 , population_density_metro_km2 = 697.2 , population_demonym = Saigonese , demographics_type1 = Ethnic groups An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on ...

Ho Chi Minh City
from Hanoi station (formerly Hang Co station), with stops at cities and provinces along the line. Trains also depart Hanoi frequently for Hai Phong and other northern cities. The Reunification Express line was established during French colonial rule and was completed over a period of nearly forty years, from 1899 to 1936. The Reunification Express between Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City covers a distance of and takes approximately 33 hours. As of 2005, there were 278 stations on the Vietnamese railway network, of which 191 were located along the North-South line. The main means of transport within Hanoi city are motorbikes, buses, taxis, and a rising number of cars. In recent decades, motorbikes have overtaken bicycles as the main form of transportation. Cars however are probably the most notable change in the past five years as many Vietnamese people purchase the vehicles for the first time. The increased number of cars are the main cause of gridlock as roads and infrastructure in the older parts of Hanoi were not designed to accommodate them. On 4 July 2017, the Hanoi government voted to ban motorbikes entirely by 2030, to reduce pollution, congestion, and encourage the expansion and use of public transport. There are two metro lines in Hanoi, one of which is under construction, as part of the master plan for the future
Hanoi Metro The Hanoi Metro ( vi, Đường sắt đô thị Hà Nội, lit=Hanoi urban railway) is a rapid transit Rapid transit or mass rapid transit (MRT), also known as heavy rail, metro, subway, tube, U-Bahn, metropolitana or underground, is a type ...
system. Line 2A opened on 6 November 2021, while line 3 is expected to begin operation in 2022. Persons on their own or traveling in a pair who wish to make a fast trip around Hanoi to avoid traffic jams or to travel at an irregular time or by way of an irregular route often use "xe ôm" (literally, "hug bike"). Motorbikes can also be rented from agents within the Old Quarter of Hanoi, although this falls inside a rather grey legal area.


Sports

There are several gymnasiums and stadiums throughout the city of Hanoi. The most approved ones are
Mỹ Đình National Stadium) , image = My dinh stadium.jpg , caption = The exterior of Mỹ Đình National Stadium , location = Nam Từ Liêm, Hanoi, Vietnam , coordinates = , broke_ground = , built = ...
(Lê Đức Thọ Boulevard), Quan Ngua Sporting Palace (Văn Cao Avenue), Hanoi Aquatics Sports Complex and
Hanoi Indoor Games Gymnasium Hanoi Indoor Games Gymnasium or Mỹ Đình Indoor Athletics Arena ( vi, Cung Điền kinh Hà Nội or Cung Thi đấu Điền kinh trong nhà Mỹ Đình) is an indoor arena in Hanoi, Vietnam. It has a capacity of 3,094 using permanent seating and ...
. The others include
Hàng Đẫy Stadium Hang Day Stadium, also known as Hanoi Stadium, is a multi-purpose stadium in Hanoi, Vietnam. It is currently used mostly for football (soccer), football matches. The stadium holds 22,500 spectators. In the period from 2000 to 2003, the stadium wa ...
. The third Asian Indoor Games were held in Hanoi in 2009. The others are Hai Bà Trưng Gymnasium, Trịnh Hoài Đức Gymnasium, Vạn Bảo Sports Complex. On 6 November 2018, it was announced that in 2020, Hanoi would become the host of the first FIA
Formula 1 Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of international racing for single-seater An open-wheel car (formula car, or often single-seater car in British English) is a car with the wheels outside the car's main body ...

Formula 1
Vietnamese Grand Prix on a street circuit on the outskirts of the city. The race was initially postponed and later cancelled due to the
COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic A pandemic (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a c ...
and the inaugural edition of the event postponed to . The Grand Prix was removed from the 2021 calendar because of the arrest of Hanoi People's Committee Chairman Nguyễn Đức Chung on corruption charges unrelated to the Grand Prix. Hanoi has two basketball teams that compete in the
Vietnam Basketball Association The Vietnam Basketball Association ( vi, Giải Bóng Rổ Chuyên Nghiệp Việt Nam), often abbreviated as VBA, is a Vietnamese national professional basketball sports league, league founded in 2016. History The formation of the VBA was announc ...
(VBA), the Hanoi Buffaloes and Thang Long Warriors.
Hàng Đẫy Stadium Hang Day Stadium, also known as Hanoi Stadium, is a multi-purpose stadium in Hanoi, Vietnam. It is currently used mostly for football (soccer), football matches. The stadium holds 22,500 spectators. In the period from 2000 to 2003, the stadium wa ...
is home for two football clubs,
Hà Nội FC Hanoi FC () is a Vietnamese professional Association football, football club based in Hanoi, Vietnam that competes in the V.League 1. The club currently plays in the V.League 1. Hanoi FC was founded in 2006 as T&T Hanoi Football Club, shortened ...
and
Viettel FC Viettel Football Club (), simply known as Viettel FC or Hanoi Viettel, is a Vietnamese professional football Football is a family of team sport A team is a roup (disambiguation), group of individuals (human or non-human) working togethe ...
, both participating in V.League 1


Health care and other facilities

Some medical facilities in Hanoi: *Bạch Mai Hospital *Viet Duc Hospital *Saint Paul Hospital, Saint Paul General Hospital *108 Hospital, 108 Military Central Hospital *Hôpital Français de Hanoi *International SOS *Hanoi Medical University Hospital * Thanh Nhan Hospital * Vinmec International Hospital * Thu Cuc General Hospital * K Hospital * Medlatech Hospital


City for Peace

On 16 July 1999, the
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an ...
(UNESCO) presented the title "City for Peace" to Hanoi because the city met the following criteria: Exemplary action against exclusion and in support of the dialogue between communities; Exemplary urban action; Exemplary environmental action; Exemplary action to promote culture; Exemplary action in the field of education and especially civic education. Hanoi is the only city in Asia-Pacific that was granted this title.


International relations

Hanoi is a member of the
Asian Network of Major Cities 21 Asian Network of Major Cities 21 was a body representing the interests of several of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisph ...
and the
C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group The C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group is a group of 97 cities around the world that represents one twelfth of the world's population and one quarter of the global economy. Created and led by cities, C40 is focused on tackling climate change and ...
.


Twin towns – sister cities

Hanoi is twinned with: *
Phnom Penh Phnom Penh (; km, ភ្នំពេញ, ; lit. "Penh's Hill") is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals ...

Phnom Penh
, Cambodia *
Jakarta Jakarta (; ), officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta ( id, Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta), is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letter ...

Jakarta
, Indonesia *
Fukuoka Prefecture is a prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Th ...
, Japan *
Nur-Sultan Nur-Sultan (; ; kz, Нұр-Сұлтан, Nūr-Sūltan; russian: Нур-Султан), formerly known as Akmolinsk (russian: Акмолинск, Akmolinsk), Tselinograd (russian: Целиногра́д), and Astana (, cyrl, Астана), is t ...
, Kazakhstan *
Seoul Seoul (, like ''soul''; ko, 서울 ; ), officially the Seoul Special City, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppe ...

Seoul
, South Korea *
Warsaw Warsaw, * la, Varsovia (Polish language, Polish: ''Warszawa'' ), officially the Capital City of Warsaw, is the capital and List of cities and towns in Poland, largest city of Poland. The metropolis stands on the Vistula, River Vistula in e ...

Warsaw
, Poland * Moscow, Russia *
Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria (mythology), Roman goddess of Victory * Victoria, Seychelles ...
, Seychelles *
Bangkok Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of Thailand Thailand ( th, ประเทศไทย), historically known as Siam, () officially the Kingdom of Thailand, is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern ...

Bangkok
, Thailand * Beijing, China *
Ankara Ankara, historically known as Ancyra and Angora, is the list of national capitals, capital of Turkey. Located in the Central Anatolia Region, central part of Anatolia, the city has a population of 4.5 million in its urban centre and over ...

Ankara
, Turkey *
Minsk Minsk ( be, Мінск , russian: link=no, Минск) is the capital and the largest city of Belarus , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Minsk , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , official_languages = , languages2_ ...

Minsk
, Belarus *
Palermo Palermo ( , ; scn, Palermu , locally also or ; la, Panormus, from grc, Πάνορμος, Pánormos; older ar, بَلَرْم‎, Balarm) is a city in southern Italy, the capital (political), capital of both the autonomous area, autonomous r ...

Palermo
, Italy *
Pretoria Pretoria is one of South Africa’s three Capital city, capital cities, serving as the seat of the executive branch of government, and as the host to all foreign embassies to South Africa. Cape Town is the legislature, legislative capital wher ...

Pretoria
, South Africa *


Gallery

File:Vietnam, Hanoi, Life on the streets of Hanoi 2.jpg, Life on the streets of the Old Quarter File: Thiên Trù Pagoda.jpg, Thiên Trù Pagoda in the
Perfume Pagoda The Perfume Pagoda ( vi, Chùa Hương, loinks=no, Hán Nôm:香寺) is a vast complex of Buddhist temple A Buddhist temple or Buddhist monastery A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplac ...

Perfume Pagoda
complex File:Pen Tower in Hanoi.jpg, ''Tháp Bút'' (Pen Tower) with a phrase "''Tả thanh thiên''" (meaning "Write on the sky") next to Hoàn Kiếm Lake (2007) File:Cau The Huc (Pont du soleil levant).jpg, Thê Húc Bridge on
Hoàn Kiếm Lake Hoan Kiem Lake ( vi, Hồ Hoàn Kiếm, vi-hantu, , meaning ''"Lake of the Returned Sword"'' or ''"Lake of the Restored Sword"''), also known as Gươm Lake (''Hồ Gươm (Sword Lake)'') or Tả Vọng Lake ('' Hồ Tả Vọng''), is a fresh ...

Hoàn Kiếm Lake
File: Presidential Palace of Vietnam.jpg,
Presidential Palace, Hanoi The Presidential Palace of Vietnam (Vietnamese language, Vietnamese: Phủ Chủ tịch) located in the city of Hanoi, was built between 1900 and 1906 to house the French Governor-General of French Indochina, Indochina. History ...

Presidential Palace, Hanoi
(formerly Place of The Governor-General of French Indochina) File:LUNE Hanoi Opera House 01.jpg,
Hanoi Opera House The Hanoi Opera House (french: Opéra de Hanoï), or the Grand Opera House ( vi, Nhà hát lớn Hà Nội, french: Grand Opéra) is an opera house An opera house is a used for performances of . It usually includes a , an , audience seating, a ...
modeled on the
Palais Garnier The Palais Garnier (, Garnier Palace) or Opéra Garnier (, Garnier Opera), is a 1,979-seatBeauvert 1996, p. 102. at the in the , France. It was built for the from 1861 to 1875 at the behest of Emperor . Initially referred to as ''le nouvel O ...

Palais Garnier
in Paris File:Long Bien bridge.jpg, File:Bâtiments_172.jpg, Museum of Vietnamese History in Hanoi, formerly the first ''
École française d'Extrême-Orient The French School of the Far East (french: École française d'Extrême-Orient, ), abbreviated EFEO, is an associated college of PSL University dedicated to the study of Asian societies. It was founded in 1900 with headquarters in Hanoi in wha ...

École française d'Extrême-Orient
'' File:Bacbophu.jpg, Tonkin Palace serves as State Guest House File:bao tang my thuat.jpg,
Vietnam National Museum of Fine Arts The Vietnam National Museum of Fine Arts ( vi, Viện Bảo tàng Mỹ thuật Việt Nam; vi-hantu, 院寶藏美術越南) is located in Hanoi , population_total = 8,053,663 ( 2nd) , population_as_of = 2019 , p ...
File:Nha-quoc-hoi.jpg,
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
building File:Vietnam_national_convention_center.jpg,
Vietnam National Convention Center The Vietnam National Convention Center is a major convention center located on Thăng Long Boulevard in Nam Từ Liêm district of Hanoi, Vietnam. The convention center was designed by Meinhard von Gerkan and Nikolaus Goetze of Gerkan, Marg and Par ...

Vietnam National Convention Center
File:Lotte_Center_Hanoi_2.jpg,
Lotte Center Hanoi Lotte Center Hanoi is a skyscraper in Ba Dinh District, Ba Đình, Hanoi, Vietnam. Completed on 2 September 2014, the tower has 65 floors. The center features a modern architectural style designed by Callison, an American company. This tower is the ...

Lotte Center Hanoi
in western Ba Đình File:LANDMARK72_night.jpg, AON Landmark 72 in
Nam Từ Liêm Nam or The Nam are shortened terms for Vietnam, which is also spelled Viet Nam. Nam, The Nam or NAM may also refer to: Arts and media * Nam, a fictional character in List of Dragon Ball episodes, anime series ''Dragon Ball'' * NAM (video game), ' ...
File: Vinata,_The_Manor,_Hà_Nội_002.JPG, Inspiration of French Colonial architecture in Hanoi's modern buildings


See also

* Gioi Market * Đồng Xuân Market *
North–South Railway (Vietnam)North–South railway may refer to: * North–South railway, Germany * North–South Railway (Vietnam)North–South railway may refer to: * North–South railway, Germany * North–South Railway (Vietnam) * SAR North–South Railway line, in Sa ...
* List of historical capitals of Vietnam *
Ho Chi Minh City , population_density_km2 = 4292 , population_density_metro_km2 = 697.2 , population_demonym = Saigonese , demographics_type1 = Ethnic groups An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on ...

Ho Chi Minh City
*


Notes


References


Bibliography

* * * * * * * * * * * * * . * . * * * Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David: ''Vietnam Past and Present: The North'' (History and culture of Hanoi and Tonkin). Chiang Mai. Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ASIN: B006DCCM9Q. * * *


External links


Official Site of Hanoi Government
* * {{Authority control Capitals in Asia Populated places in Hanoi Hong River Delta 1010 establishments in Asia 5th-century establishments in Vietnam Populated places established in the 11th century Port cities in Vietnam Cities in Vietnam