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Hangzhou (, ,
Standard Mandarin Standard Chinese (), in linguistics known as Standard Northern Mandarin, Standard Beijing Mandarin or simply Mandarin, is a dialect of Mandarin that emerged as the lingua franca A lingua franca (; ; for plurals see ), also known as a bri ...
pronunciation:
), also
romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign lan ...
as Hangchow, is the capital and most populous city of
Zhejiang Zhejiang (, ; , Chinese postal romanization, also romanized as Chekiang) is an East China, eastern, coastal Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. Its capital and largest city is Hangzhou. Zhejiang is bordered ...

Zhejiang
,
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, most populous country, with a Population of China, population of more than 1.4 billio ...

People's Republic of China
. It is located in the northwestern part of the province, sitting at the head of
Hangzhou Bay Hangzhou Bay, or the Bay of Hangzhou (), is a funnel-shaped inlet of the East China Sea The East China Sea is an arm of the Western Pacific Ocean, located directly offshore from East China (hence the name), covering an area of roughly . ...
, which separates
Shanghai Shanghai (, , Standard Mandarin Standard Chinese, in linguistics known as Standard Northern Mandarin, Standard Beijing Mandarin or simply Mandarin, is a Mandarin Chinese#Subgrouping, dialect of Mandarin that emerged as the lingua fra ...

Shanghai
and
Ningbo Ningbo (; , Putonghua, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ), Chinese postal romanization, formerly romanized as Ningpo, is a major sub-provincial city in northeast Zhejiang Provinces of China, province, China, People's Republic of China. It com ...
. Hangzhou grew to prominence as the southern terminus of the
Grand CanalGrand Canal can refer to multiple waterways: * Grand Canal (China) in eastern China * Grand Canal (Ireland), between the River Shannon and Dublin in Ireland * Grand Canal (Venice) in Venice, Italy * Grand Canal d'Alsace in eastern France *Grand Cana ...
and has been one of China's most renowned and prosperous cities for much of the last millennium. Its
West Lake West Lake () is a freshwater lake in Hangzhou, China. It is divided into five sections by three causeways. There are numerous temple A temple (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic ...

West Lake
, a
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a List of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialised agency of th ...

UNESCO
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...
immediately west of the city, is among its best-known attractions. A study conducted by
PwC PricewaterhouseCoopers is a multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a s ...

PwC
and China Development Research Foundation ranked Hangzhou first among "Chinese Cities of Opportunity". According to the
Globalization and World Cities Research Network The Globalization and World Cities Research Network, commonly abbreviated to GaWC, is a think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for ...
, Hangzhou is considered a Beta (global second-tier) city classification, together with
Chongqing Chongqing ( ; ; Sichuanese pronunciation: , Standard Mandarin Standard Chinese, in linguistics known as Standard Northern Mandarin, Standard Beijing Mandarin or simply Mandarin, is a Mandarin Chinese#Subgrouping, dialect of Mandarin t ...

Chongqing
,
Nanjing Nanjing (; , Mandarin pronunciation: ), alternately romanized as Nanking, is the capital of Jiangsu Jiangsu (; ; Postal romanization, formerly romanized Kiangsu) is an eastern-central coastal Provinces of the People's Republic of China, pr ...

Nanjing
and
Tianjin Tianjin (; ; Mandarin: ), alternately romanized as Tientsin, is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as g ...

Tianjin
in China. It is also one of the world's top 100 financial centers, according to the
Global Financial Centres Index The Global Financial Centres Index (GFCI) is a ranking of the competitiveness of financial centres based on over 29,000 financial centre assessments from an online questionnaire together with over 100 indices from organisations such as the World ...
. Hangzhou is classified as a
sub-provincial city A sub-provincial division () in China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a population of around 1 ...
and forms the core of the Hangzhou metropolitan area, the fourth-largest in China after Guangzhou-Shenzhen Pearl River agglomeration, Shanghai-Suzhou-Wuxi-Changzhou conurbation and Beijing. As of the
2020 Chinese census The Seventh National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (), also referred to as the 2020 Chinese Census, was the seventh National Population Census of the People's Republic of China, national census conducted by the National Bure ...
, it had a total population of 11,936,010 inhabitants. However, its built-up (or metro) area held 13.035 million people over an area of made of all Hangzhou urban districts (but Linan not yet quite conurbated) and the 3 urban districts of Shaoxing, Keqiao, Yuecheng and
Shangyu Shangyu District () is a district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or counties, several ...
largely conurbated and even linked to Hangzhou by subway since June 2021. Hangzhou has been repeatedly rated as the best commercial city in
mainland China The term "mainland China" refers to the area directly governed by the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies b ...

mainland China
by ''
Forbes ''Forbes'' () is an American business magazine owned by Integrated Whale Media Investments and the Forbes family The Forbes family is one of the Boston Brahmins—a wealthy extended American family long prominent in Boston, Massachusett ...

Forbes
''. Home to the headquarters of world Internet industry leaders such as the
Alibaba Group Alibaba Group Holding Limited, also known as Alibaba Group and Alibaba.com, is a Chinese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a ...
, Hangzhou is known for attracting professionals and entrepreneurs who work in information technology. Since 2014, its rapid population growth has led to a steady increase in local housing prices. According to the 2020 Hurun Global Rich List, Hangzhou ranks 11th in the world and 6th in China (after
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
,
Shanghai Shanghai (, , Standard Mandarin Standard Chinese, in linguistics known as Standard Northern Mandarin, Standard Beijing Mandarin or simply Mandarin, is a Mandarin Chinese#Subgrouping, dialect of Mandarin that emerged as the lingua fra ...

Shanghai
,
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a and of China on the eastern in . With over 7.5 million residents of various nationalities in a territory, Hong ...

Hong Kong
,
Shenzhen Shenzhen (; ; ), also known as Sham Chun, is a major sub-provincial A sub-provincial division () (or deputy-provincial divisions) in China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List ...

Shenzhen
and
Guangzhou Guangzhou (, ; ; or ; ), also known as Canton and alternatively romanized as Kwongchow or Kwangchow, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the ...

Guangzhou
) in the number of resident billionaires. Hangzhou is a major city for scientific research in China, ranking 23rd globally by the
Nature IndexThe Nature Index is a database, that tracks institutions and countries and their scientific output since its introduction in 2016. Each year, Nature Index ranks the leading institutions (which can be companies, universities, government agencies, rese ...
as of 2021. It hosts several notable universities, including
Zhejiang University of Technology The Zhejiang University of Technology () is a public research university in Hangzhou Hangzhou (, , Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ), also Chinese postal romanization, romanized as Hangchow, is the capital and most populous ...
,
Hangzhou Normal University Hangzhou Normal University (), or Hangzhou Teachers College, is a public university in Hangzhou, the capital of Zhejiang Province, China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of ...
,
Hangzhou Dianzi University Hangzhou Dianzi University (HDU) () is a government funded public university in Hangzhou Hangzhou (, , Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ), also Chinese postal romanization, romanized as Hangchow, is the capital and most pop ...
, Zhejiang A&F University,
Zhejiang Sci-Tech University Zhejiang Sci-Tech University (ZSTU; ) is a university in Zhejiang Zhejiang (, formerly romanized as Chekiang) is an eastern, coastal Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. Its capital and largest city is Ha ...
and China Jiliang University. Notably,
Zhejiang University Zhejiang University (ZJU; ), informally known as Zheda (), is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or o ...
is one of the world's top 100th comprehensive public research universities. In September 2015, Hangzhou was awarded the
2022 Asian Games ) , host city = Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China , Nations participating = , Athletes participating = , Events = , Opening ceremony = 10 September , Closing ceremony = 25 September , Officially opened by = , Website hangzhou2022.cn, Athlete's ...
. It will be the third Chinese city to host the
Asian Games The Asian Games, also known as Asiad, is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as ...
, after Beijing 1990 and Guangzhou 2010. Hangzhou also hosted the 11th G20 summit in 2016.


History


Early history

The celebrated
neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is t ...
culture of
Hemudu The Hemudu culture (5500 BC to 3300 BC) was a Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age, with a wide-ranging set of developments that appear to have arisen independently in several parts of the world. It is first ...
is known to have inhabited
Yuyao Yuyao () is a county-level city in the northeast of Zhejiang province, China. It is under the jurisdiction of the sub-provincial city of Ningbo. It is located west of central Ningbo, east of Hangzhou, bordering Hangzhou Bay in the north. Yuyao co ...
, south-east of Hangzhou, as far back as seven thousand years ago. It was during this time that rice was first cultivated in southeast China. Excavations have established that the
jade Jade is a mineral, much used in some cultures as jewellery and for ornaments, mostly known for its green varieties, though it appears naturally in other colors as well, notably yellow and white. Jade can refer to either of two different silicat ...
-carving
Liangzhu culture The Liangzhu culture (; 3300–2300 BC) was the last Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age, with a wide-ranging set of developments that appear to have arisen independently in several parts of the world. It is f ...
(named for its
type site In archaeology, a type site is the archaeological site, site used to define a particular archaeological culture or other Typology (archaeology), typological unit, which is often named after it. For example, discoveries at La Tène (archaeological ...
just northwest of Hangzhou) inhabited the area immediately around the present city around five thousand years ago. The first of Hangzhou's present neighborhoods to appear in written records was Yuhang, which probably preserves an old
Baiyue The Baiyue ( zh, t=百越), Hundred Yue, or simply Yue, was a blanket term historically used by ancient Chinese to describe various indigenous ethnic groups inhabiting sporadic regions in Southern China and Northern Vietnam during the 1st mil ...

Baiyue
name.


Medieval history

Hangzhou was made the seat of the
prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of t ...
of Hang in , entitling it to a
city wall A defensive wall is a fortification A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically officially authorize ...
which was constructed two years later. By a longstanding convention also seen in other cities like
Guangzhou Guangzhou (, ; ; or ; ), also known as Canton and alternatively romanized as Kwongchow or Kwangchow, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the ...

Guangzhou
and
Fuzhou Fuzhou (; , Fuzhounese: Hokchew, ''Hók-ciŭ''), Postal Map Romanization, alternately romanized as Foochow, is the capital and one of the largest prefecture-level city, cities in Fujian province, China. Along with the many counties of Ningde, ...

Fuzhou
, the city took on the name of the area it administered and became known as Hangzhou. Hangzhou was at the southern end of China's
Grand CanalGrand Canal can refer to multiple waterways: * Grand Canal (China) in eastern China * Grand Canal (Ireland), between the River Shannon and Dublin in Ireland * Grand Canal (Venice) in Venice, Italy * Grand Canal d'Alsace in eastern France *Grand Cana ...
which extends to Beijing. The canal evolved over centuries but reached its full length by 609.Ebrey, ''Cambridge Illustrated History of China'', 114: " ..the Grand Canal, dug between 605 and 609 by means of enormous levies of conscripted labour." In the
Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organizat ...
,
Bai Juyi Bai Juyi (also Bo Juyi or Po Chü-i; ; 772–846), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cult ...

Bai Juyi
was appointed governor of Hangzhou.Waley (1941), 131 Already an accomplished poet, his deeds at Hangzhou have led to his being praised as a great governor. He noticed that the farmland nearby depended on the water of
West Lake West Lake () is a freshwater lake in Hangzhou, China. It is divided into five sections by three causeways. There are numerous temple A temple (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic ...

West Lake
, but due to the negligence of previous governors, the old dyke had collapsed, and the lake so dried out that the local farmers were suffering from severe
drought A drought is an event of prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric (below-average precipitation In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences Atmospheric science is the study of the Earth's atm ...

drought
. He ordered the construction of a stronger and taller dyke, with a
dam A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of surface water An example of surface water is Lake Kinney. Surface water is water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tast ...

dam
to control the flow of water, thus providing water for irrigation and mitigating the drought problem. The livelihood of local people of Hangzhou improved over the following years. Bai Juyi used his leisure time to enjoy the West Lake, visiting it almost daily. He then had willows and other trees planted along the dyke, making it a beautiful landmark. It is listed as one of the Seven Ancient Capitals of China. It was first the capital of the Wuyue Kingdom from 907 to 978 during the
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (), from 907 to 979 was an era of political upheaval and division in 10th-century Imperial China The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from t ...
. Named Xifu () at the time, it was one of the three great bastions of culture in
southern China Northern China () and Southern China () are two approximate regions within China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most ...
during the tenth century, along with
Nanjing Nanjing (; , Mandarin pronunciation: ), alternately romanized as Nanking, is the capital of Jiangsu Jiangsu (; ; Postal romanization, formerly romanized Kiangsu) is an eastern-central coastal Provinces of the People's Republic of China, pr ...

Nanjing
and
Chengdu Chengdu (, ; simplified Chinese Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters Chinese characters, also called ''hanzi'' (), are logogram In a written language A written language is the representa ...

Chengdu
.. Leaders of Wuyue were noted patrons of the arts, particularly of
Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a - of designated and practices, , s, s, , , , , or , that relates humanity to , , and elements; however, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitu ...

Buddhist
temple architecture and artwork. The dyke built to protect the city by King gave the Qiantang its modern name. Hangzhou also became a cosmopolitan center, drawing scholars from throughout China and conducting diplomacy with neighboring Chinese states, and also with
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
,
Goryeo Goryeo (; ) was a Korean dynastic kingdom founded in 918, during a time of national division called the Later Three Kingdoms period, that unified and ruled the Korean Peninsula until 1392. Goryeo achieved what has been called a "true national ...
, and the Khitan
Liao dynasty The Liao dynasty (; Khitan language, Khitan: ''Mos Jælud''; ), also known as the Khitan Empire (Khitan: ''Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur''), officially the Great Liao (), was an Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China that ex ...
. In 1089, while another renowned poet
Su Shi Su Shi (; 8 January 1037 – 24 August 1101), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural ...

Su Shi
(Su Dongpo) was the city's governor, he used 200,000 workers to construct a long
causeway A causeway is a track, road or railway on the upper point of an embankment Embankment may refer to: Geology and geography * A levee, an artificial bank raised above the immediately surrounding land to redirect or prevent flooding by a river ...

causeway
across West Lake. The lake was once a lagoon tens of thousands of years ago. Silt then blocked the way to the sea and the lake was formed. A drill in the lake-bed in 1975 found the sediment of the sea, which confirmed its origin. Artificial preservation prevented the lake from evolving into a marshland. The Su Causeway built by
Su Shi Su Shi (; 8 January 1037 – 24 August 1101), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural ...

Su Shi
a Tang dynasty poet who was once the governor of Hangzhou, built out of mud dredged from the lake bottom. The lake is surrounded by hills on the northern and western sides. The sits on the Baoshi Hill to the north of the lake. Arab merchants lived in Hangzhou during the
Song dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976), personal name Zhao Kua ...
, due to the fact that the oceangoing trade passages took precedence over land trade during this time. There were also Arabic inscriptions from the 13th century and 14th century. During the later period of the
Yuan dynasty The Yuan dynasty (), officially the Great Yuan (; xng, , , literally "Great Yuan State"), was a successor state Successor is someone who, or something which succeeds or comes after (see success and succession) Film and TV * ''The Succe ...
, Muslims were persecuted through the banning of their traditions, and they participated in revolts against the Mongols. The Fenghuangshi mosque was constructed by an Egyptian trader who moved to Hangzhou. According to
Odoric of Pordenone Odoric of Pordenone, (1286–1331), also known as Odorico Mattiussi/Mattiuzzi, Odoricus of Friuli or Orderic of Pordenone, was an Italian late-medieval Franciscan The Franciscans are a group of related Mendicant orders, mendicant Christianity ...
, Hangzhou was the greatest city in the world. It was heavily populated and filled with large family estates. It had twelve thousand bridges. Bread, pork, rice, and wine were abundant despite the large population.
Ibn Battuta Ibn Battuta (; 24 February 13041368/1369); fully: ; Arabic: was a Berber Berber or Berbers may refer to: Culture * Berbers Berbers or ''Imazighen'' ( ber, translit=Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ, ⵎⵣⵗⵏ; singular: , ) are an et ...
is known to have visited the city of Hangzhou in 1345; he noted its charm and described how the city and was surrounded by gentle green hills. During his stay at Hangzhou, he was particularly impressed by the large number of well-crafted and well-painted Chinese wooden ships with colored sails and silk awnings in the canals. He attended a banquet held by Qurtai, the Yuan Mongol administrator of the city, who according to Ibn Battuta, was fond of the skills of local Chinese conjurers. Hangzhou was chosen as the new capital of the
Southern Song dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by following his usurpation of the throne of the , ending the . The Song often came into conflict with the contemporaneous , and dynas ...
in 1132, when most of
northern China Northern China () and Southern China () are two approximate regions within China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most ...

northern China
had been conquered by the Jurchens in the
Jin–Song wars The Jin–Song Wars were a series of conflicts between the Jurchen people, Jurchen-led Jin dynasty (1115–1234) and the Han Chinese, Han-led Song dynasty (960–1279). In 1115, Jurchen tribes rebelled against their overlords, the Khitan peo ...
. The surviving
imperial family A royal family is the immediate family of kings/queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the largest borough of New York City New York City (NYC), often simp ...
had retreated south from its original capital in
Kaifeng Kaifeng () is a prefecture-level city in east-central Henan province, China. It is one of the Historical capitals of China, Eight Ancient Capitals of China, having been the capital seven times in history, and is best known for being the Chinese ...

Kaifeng
after it was captured by the
Jurchens Jurchen (Manchu language, Manchu: ''Jušen'', ; zh, 女真, ''Nǚzhēn'', ) is a term used to collectively describe a number of East Asian people, East Asian Tungusic languages, Tungusic-speaking peoples, descended from the Donghu people. They ...
in the Jingkang Incident of 1127. Emperor Gaozong moved to Nanjing, then to modern
Shangqiu Shangqiu (), alternately romanized as Shangkiu, is a city in eastern Henan Henan (; ; alternatively Honan) is a landlocked province of China Provincial-level administrative divisions () or first-level administrative divisions (), are ...

Shangqiu
, then to
Yangzhou Yangzhou, postal romanization Postal romanization was a system of transliterating developed by postal authorities in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. For many cities, the corresponding postal romanization was the most common English- ...

Yangzhou
in 1128, and finally to Hangzhou in 1129. The Song government intended it to be a temporary capital, but over the decades Hangzhou grew into a major commercial and cultural center of the Song dynasty, rising from being a middling city of no special importance to being one of the world's largest and most prosperous. Once the prospect of retaking northern China had diminished, government buildings in Hangzhou were extended and renovated to better befit its status as a permanent imperial capital. The imperial palace in Hangzhou, modest in size, was expanded in 1133 with new roofed alleyways, and in 1148 with an extension of the palace walls. From 1138 until the
Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an ethnic group to the , and the of Russia. The Mongols are the principal member of the large family of . The in Western Mongolia as well as the ...
invasion of 1276, Hangzhou remained the capital of the Southern Song dynasty and was known as Lin'an (). It served as the seat of the imperial government, a center of trade and entertainment, and the nexus of the main branches of the
civil service The civil service is a collective term for a sector of government composed mainly of career civil servants hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leader ...
. During that time the city was a gravitational center of Chinese civilization: what used to be considered "central China" in the north was taken by the Jin, an ethnic minority dynasty ruled by
Jurchens Jurchen (Manchu language, Manchu: ''Jušen'', ; zh, 女真, ''Nǚzhēn'', ) is a term used to collectively describe a number of East Asian people, East Asian Tungusic languages, Tungusic-speaking peoples, descended from the Donghu people. They ...
. Numerous philosophers, politicians, and men of literature, including some of the most celebrated poets in Chinese history such as
Su Shi Su Shi (; 8 January 1037 – 24 August 1101), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural ...

Su Shi
,
Lu You Lu You (; 1125–1209) was a Chinese historian and List of Chinese language poets, poet of the Southern Song Dynasty (南宋). Career Early life and marriage Lu You was born on a boat floating in the Wei River early on a rainy morning, October ...
, and Xin Qiji came here to live and die. Hangzhou is also the birthplace and final resting place of the scientist
Shen Kuo Shen Kuo (; 1031–1095) or Shen Gua, courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural sphere ...
(1031–1095 AD), his tomb being located in the Yuhang district.Yuhang Cultural Network (October 2003)
Shen Kuo's Tomb
The Yuhang District of Hangzhou Cultural Broadcasting Press and Publications Bureau. Retrieved on 2007-05-06.
During the Southern Song dynasty, commercial expansion, an influx of refugees from the conquered north, and the growth of the official and military establishments, led to a corresponding population increase and the city developed well outside its 9th-century ramparts. According to the ''
Encyclopædia Britannica The (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia") is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia which is now published exclusively as an online encyclopedia, online encyclopaedia. It was formerly published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., ...
'', Hangzhou had a population of over 2 million at that time, while historian
Jacques Gernet Jacques Gernet (; ; 22 December 1921, Algiers, French Algeria – 3 March 2018, Vannes) was an eminent French people, French sinologist of the second half of the 20th century. His best-known work is ''The Chinese Civilization'', a 900-page summary ...
has estimated that the population of Hangzhou numbered well over one million by 1276. (Official Chinese census figures from the year 1270 listed some 186,330 families in residence and probably failed to count non-residents and soldiers.) It is believed that Hangzhou was the largest city in the world from 1180 to 1315 and from 1348 to 1358. Because of the large population and densely crowded (often multi-story) wooden buildings, Hangzhou was particularly vulnerable to fires. Major conflagrations destroyed large sections of the city in 1132, 1137, 1208, 1229, 1237, and 1275 while smaller fires occurred nearly every year. The 1237 fire alone was recorded to have destroyed 30,000 dwellings. To combat this threat, the government established an elaborate system for fighting fires, erected watchtowers, devised a system of lantern and flag signals to identify the source of the flames and direct the response, and charged more than 3,000 soldiers with the task of putting out fire. Hangzhou was besieged and captured by the advancing
Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an ethnic group to the , and the of Russia. The Mongols are the principal member of the large family of . The in Western Mongolia as well as the ...

Mongol
armies of
Kublai Khan Kublai (; also spelled Qubilai or Kübilai; mn, Хубилай, Khubilai ; ; 23 September  1215 – 18 February 1294), also known by his temple name as Emperor Shizu of Yuan, was the fifth khagan-Emperor of China, emperor of the Mongol Empir ...

Kublai Khan
in 1276, three years before the final collapse of the Southern Song.Gernet, 15. The capital of the new
Yuan dynasty The Yuan dynasty (), officially the Great Yuan (; xng, , , literally "Great Yuan State"), was a successor state Successor is someone who, or something which succeeds or comes after (see success and succession) Film and TV * ''The Succe ...
was established in the city of Dadu (
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
), but Hangzhou remained an important commercial and administrative center for their southern lands.


Foreign descriptions

Yuan China was very open to foreign visitors, and several returned west describing Hangzhouunder the names Khinzai, Quinsai, Campsay, &c.as one of the foremost cities in the world. The Venetian merchant
Marco Polo Marco Polo (, , ; September 15, 1254January 8, 1324) was a Venetian merchant, explorer, and writer who travelled through Asia along the Silk Road The Silk Road was and is a network of trade routes connecting the Eastern world, East and W ...

Marco Polo
supposedly visited Hangzhou in the late 13th century. In
his book His or HIS may refer to: Computing * Hightech Information System HIS ("Hightech Information System Limited"; established 1987), is a Hong Kong-based graphics card manufacturer that produces Advanced Micro Devices, AMD (formerly known as ATI) Ra ...
, he records that the city was "greater than any in the world" and that "the number and wealth of the merchants, and the amount of goods that passed through their hands, was so enormous that no man could form a just estimate thereof." The manuscripts of Polo's account greatly exaggerate the city's size, although it has been argued that the "hundred miles" of walls would be plausible if Chinese miles were intended instead of Italian ones and that the "12,000 stone bridges" might have been a copyist error born from the city's 12 gates. In the 14th century, the traveler
Ibn Battuta Ibn Battuta (; 24 February 13041368/1369); fully: ; Arabic: was a Berber Berber or Berbers may refer to: Culture * Berbers Berbers or ''Imazighen'' ( ber, translit=Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ, ⵎⵣⵗⵏ; singular: , ) are an et ...
arrived; his later account concurred that al-Khansā was "the biggest city I have ever seen on the face of the earth."


Modern history

The city remained an important port until the middle of the
Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an eth ...

Ming dynasty
era, when its harbor slowly
silt Silt is granular material A granular material is a conglomeration of discrete solid, macroscopic scale, macroscopic particles characterized by a loss of energy whenever the particles interact (the most common example would be friction when gra ...
ed up. Under the
Qing The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last imperial dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n.''" Oxford University Press Oxford Univers ...
, it was the site of an imperial army garrison. In 1856 and 1860, the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom occupied Hangzhou. The city was heavily damaged during its conquest, occupation, and eventual reconquest by the Qing army. Hangzhou was ruled by the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China government under the Kuomintang from 1927 to 1937. From 1937 to 1945, the city was occupied by Second Sino-Japanese War, Japan. The Kuomintang returned in 1945, and governed until 1949. On May 3, 1949, the People's Liberation Army entered Hangzhou and the city came under Communist control. After Deng Xiaoping's reformist policies began in the end of 1978, Hangzhou took advantage of being situated in the Yangtze Delta to bolster its development. It is now one of China's most prosperous major cities. During the Cultural Revolution, Hangzhou was stage to a series of labor unrest and factional fighting known as the Hangzhou incident (1975), Hangzhou incident. In September 2015, Hangzhou was awarded the
2022 Asian Games ) , host city = Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China , Nations participating = , Athletes participating = , Events = , Opening ceremony = 10 September , Closing ceremony = 25 September , Officially opened by = , Website hangzhou2022.cn, Athlete's ...
. It will be the third city in China to host the
Asian Games The Asian Games, also known as Asiad, is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as ...
after Beijing 1990 and Guangzhou 2010. It also hosted the 2016 G20 Hangzhou summit, eleventh G20 summit in 2016. In February 2020, the city was under curfew measures due to the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak, outbreak of coronavirus beginning in Wuhan that Timeline of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak, spread across China.


Geography

Hangzhou is located in northwestern Zhejiang province, at the southern end of the Grand Canal of China, which runs to
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
, in the south-central portion of the Yangtze River Delta. Its administrative area (sub-provincial city) extends west to the mountainous parts of Anhui province, and east to the coastal plain near
Hangzhou Bay Hangzhou Bay, or the Bay of Hangzhou (), is a funnel-shaped inlet of the East China Sea The East China Sea is an arm of the Western Pacific Ocean, located directly offshore from East China (hence the name), covering an area of roughly . ...
. The city center is built around the eastern and northern sides of the West Lake, just north of the Qiantang River.


Climate

Hangzhou's climate is humid subtropical (Köppen climate classification, Köppen ''Cfa'') with four distinctive seasons, characterised by long, very hot, humid summers and chilly, cloudy and drier winters (with occasional snow). The mean annual temperature is , with monthly daily averages ranging from in January to in July. The city receives an average annual rainfall of and is affected by the Meiyu, plum rains of the Asian monsoon in June. In late summer (August to September), Hangzhou suffers typhoon storms, but typhoons seldom strike it directly. Generally they make landfall along the southern coast of Zhejiang, and affect the area with strong winds and stormy rains. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from on 6 February 1969 up to on 9 August 2013; unofficial readings have reached , set on 29 December 1912 and 24 January 1916, up to , set on 10 August 1930. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 30% in March to 51% in August, the city receives 1,709.4 hours of sunshine annually.


Administrative divisions

Hangzhou is classified as a
sub-provincial city A sub-provincial division () in China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a population of around 1 ...
and forms the core of the Hangzhou metropolitan area, the fourth-largest in China. It is the capital and most populous city of Zhejiang, Zhejiang Province in East China. Hangzhou comprises 10 District (China), districts, 1 county-level city, and 2 Counties of the People's Republic of China, counties. The ten urban districts occupy and have a population of 8,241,000, in which there are six central urban districts and four suburban districts. The central urban districts occupy and have a population of 3,780,000 and the suburban districts occupy and have a population of 4,461,000. In the early 90s, the urban districts of Hangzhou only comprises Shangcheng, Xiacheng, Gongshu, Jianggan. On December 11, 1996, Binjiang District was established. On March 12, 2001, Xiaoshan and Yuhang, formerly two county-level city, county-level cities under the administration of Hangzhou prefecture-level city, were re-organized as two districts. On December 13, 2014, and in July 2017, Fuyang and Lin'an, formerly two county-level city, county-level cities under the administration of Hangzhou prefecture-level city, were re-organized as two districts. On April 9, 2021, Linping District and Qiantang District was established.


Demographics

Hangzhou is a city in China and had a population of 5,162,039 (including Xiaoshan and Yuhang) at the 2010 census, an increase of 4.8% per year since the 2000 census. The most recent estimates of the city's urban area population are between 6,658,000 and 6,820,000. During the 2010 Chinese census, the metropolitan area held 21.102 million people over an area of . Hangzhou Prefecture of China, prefecture had a Hukou system, registered population of 9,018,000 in 2015. The entire province had a population of 8,700,373, and the encompassing urban agglomeration (including Shaoxing) is estimated to have population of 8,450,000. The encompassing metropolitan area was estimated by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) to have, , a population of 13.4 million, Linked from the OEC
here
although other sources put the figure at over 21 million. The Hangzhou metropolitan area includes the major cities of Shaoxing, Jiaxing and Huzhou.


Politics


Structure


Economy

Hangzhou's economy has rapidly developed since its opening up in 1992. It is an industrial city with many diverse sectors such as light industry, agriculture, and textiles. It is considered an important manufacturing base and logistics hub for coastal China. In recent years, Hangzhou has seen substantial development in its financial sector, featuring for the first time in the
Global Financial Centres Index The Global Financial Centres Index (GFCI) is a ranking of the competitiveness of financial centres based on over 29,000 financial centre assessments from an online questionnaire together with over 100 indices from organisations such as the World ...
in 2018 at rank 89. Hangzhou ranks 11th in the world and 6th in China (after
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
,
Shanghai Shanghai (, , Standard Mandarin Standard Chinese, in linguistics known as Standard Northern Mandarin, Standard Beijing Mandarin or simply Mandarin, is a Mandarin Chinese#Subgrouping, dialect of Mandarin that emerged as the lingua fra ...

Shanghai
,
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a and of China on the eastern in . With over 7.5 million residents of various nationalities in a territory, Hong ...

Hong Kong
,
Shenzhen Shenzhen (; ; ), also known as Sham Chun, is a major sub-provincial A sub-provincial division () (or deputy-provincial divisions) in China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List ...

Shenzhen
and
Guangzhou Guangzhou (, ; ; or ; ), also known as Canton and alternatively romanized as Kwongchow or Kwangchow, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the ...

Guangzhou
) in terms of the number of billionaires according to the Hurun Global Rich List 2020. The 2001 GDP of Hangzhou was Renminbi, RMB 156.8 billion, which ranked second among all of the provincial capitals after Guangzhou. The city has more than tripled its GDP since then, increasing from RMB 156.8 billion in 2001 to RMB 1.3509 trillion in 2018 and GDP per capita increasing from US$3,020 to $21,184. The city has developed many new industries, including medicine, information technology, heavy equipment, automotive components, household electrical appliances, electronics, telecommunication, fine chemicals, chemical fibre and food processing. As the headquarters of Internet industry enterprises such as Alibaba Group, Alibaba, Hangzhou has also strongly attracted people who work in the Internet industry. A study conducted by
PwC PricewaterhouseCoopers is a multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a s ...

PwC
and China Development Research Foundation saw Hangzhou ranked first among "Chinese Cities of Opportunity". Hangzhou is also considered a Global city, World City with a "Beta+" classification according to Globalization and World Cities Research Network, GaWC.


Economic and Technological Development Zones

Hangzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone was established and approved as a national development zone by the State Council of China, State Council in 1993. It covers an area of . Encouraged industries include electronic information, biological medicine, machinery and household appliances manufacturing, and food processing. Hangzhou Export Processing Zone was established on April 27, 2000 upon approval of the State Council. It was one of the first zones and the only one in Zhejiang Province to be approved by the government. Its total planned area is . It is located close to Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport and Hangzhou Port. Hangzhou Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was set up with approval from the State Council as a state-level high-tech Industrial Development Zone in March 1991. The HHTZ is composed of three parts, with the main regions being the Zhijiang Sci-Tech Industrial Park and Xiasha Sci-Tech Industrial Park. HHTZ has become one of the most influential high-tech innovation and high-tech industry bases in Zhejiang Province. , HHTZ hosts more than 1,100 software developers and Business process outsourcing, BPO enterprises. Major companies such as Motorola, Nokia and Siemens have established R&D centers in the zone. In 2011, the GDP of the zone rose by 13.1 percent, amounting to RMB 41.63 billion. This accounted for 5.9 percent of Hangzhou's total GDP. The HHTZ positions itself as the "Silicon Valley" of China. The
Alibaba Group Alibaba Group Holding Limited, also known as Alibaba Group and Alibaba.com, is a Chinese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a ...
, the world's largest online business-to-business portal and China's largest website in terms of market value, is headquartered in the zone.


Tourism

Hangzhou is known for its historic relics and natural environment. Although Hangzhou has been through many recent urban developments, it still retains its historical and cultural heritage. Today, tourism in China, tourism remains an important factor for Hangzhou's economy.Hangzhou Today: Tourism
China Pages. Retrieved August 22, 2006.
One of Hangzhou's most popular sights is
West Lake West Lake () is a freshwater lake in Hangzhou, China. It is divided into five sections by three causeways. There are numerous temple A temple (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic ...

West Lake
, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The West Lake Cultural Landscape covers an area of and includes some of Hangzhou's most notable historic and scenic places. Adjacent to the lake is an area which includes historical pagodas, cultural sites, as well as the natural environment of the lake and hills, including Phoenix Mountain (Zhejiang), Phoenix Mountain. There are two causeways across the lake. ;Other places of interest: *
Grand CanalGrand Canal can refer to multiple waterways: * Grand Canal (China) in eastern China * Grand Canal (Ireland), between the River Shannon and Dublin in Ireland * Grand Canal (Venice) in Venice, Italy * Grand Canal d'Alsace in eastern France *Grand Cana ...
, also a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The part of the Canal in Hangzhou was built in 610 AD. The core historical sites are accessible by Hangzhou Metro Line 5 (Hangzhou Metro), Line 5's The Grand Canal station or East Gongchen Bridge station. * The world's largest tidal bore races up the Qiantang River through Hangzhou reaching up to in height. * The residence of Hu Xueyan () located on Yuanbao Street was built in 1872 by Hu Xueyan, a native of Anhui, a very successful businessman. It was restored and opened to the public in 2001. * Xixi National Wetland Park. Established with the aim of preserving the wetland ecological system, it covers an area of about . Fish ponds and reed beds have been restored and it is home to many types of birds. It holds a temple and several historic rural houses. * Hangzhou Botanical Garden * Hangzhou Zoo * Old China Street on He Fang Street (''He Fang Jie'' or ''Qing He Fang'', literally 'neighbourhood along the river'), which offers various souvenirs. * Jade Springs (Yu Quan) * Yuefei Temple A temple constructed during the Song Dynasty in 1221 to commemorate Yue Fei, which is located near the
West Lake West Lake () is a freshwater lake in Hangzhou, China. It is divided into five sections by three causeways. There are numerous temple A temple (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic ...

West Lake
. * West Lake Cultural Square is one of the tallest buildings in the city centre (about ) and houses the Zhejiang Natural History Museum and Zhejiang Museum of Science and Technology. *Qiandao Lake is a man-made lake with the largest number of islands in Chun'an County, under administration of the Hangzhou prefecture-level city. These islands are different in size and shape, and have distinctive scene. *Longjing tea fields, west of the lake. *Qiantang river is the largest river in Zhejiang Province, China. Every year during August 15 to August 18 of the lunar month in China, the Qiantang Tide occurs. It is called "the Biggest Tide in the World" In March 2013 the Hangzhou Tourism Commission started an online campaign via Facebook, the 'Modern Marco Polo' campaign. Over the next year nearly 26,000 participants applied from around the globe, in the hopes of becoming Hangzhou's first foreign tourism ambassador. In a press conference in Hangzhou on 20 May 2014, Liam Bates was announced as the successful winner and won a $55,000 contract, being the first foreigner ever to be appointed by China's government in such an official role.


Religion


Scenic places near West Lake

* Jingci Temple is located just south of West Lake. * Lingyin Temple (Soul's Retreat) is located about west of West Lake. This is believed to be the oldest Buddhist temple in the city, which has gone through numerous destruction and reconstruction cycles. * is located just north of West Lake on Precious Stone Hill () * Yue-Wang Temple (King Yue's Temple) or Yue Fei Miao is on the northwest shore of West Lake. It was originally constructed in 1221 in memory of General Yue Fei, who lost his life due to political persecution. * Leifeng Pagoda, located on Sunset Hill south of West Lake.


Other religious buildings

* Liuhe Pagoda or six harmonies pagoda is located on Yuelun Hill on the north bank of Qiantang River * Confucius Temple * Chenghuangmiao (City God Pavilion) located on Wushan (Wu Hill) * Dreaming of the Tiger Spring * The Immaculate Conception Cathedral of Hangzhou is one of the oldest Catholic churches in China, dating back 400 years to the
Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an eth ...

Ming dynasty
. * Fenghuang Mosque () is one of the oldest mosques in China, the current construction at the intersection of Xihu Avenue () and the Central Zhongshan Road () dates back 700 years to the
Yuan dynasty The Yuan dynasty (), officially the Great Yuan (; xng, , , literally "Great Yuan State"), was a successor state Successor is someone who, or something which succeeds or comes after (see success and succession) Film and TV * ''The Succe ...
. * Hupao Temple ()


Islam

In 1848, during the Qing dynasty, Hangzhou was described as the "stronghold" of Islam in China, the city containing several mosques with Arabic inscriptions. A Hui from
Ningbo Ningbo (; , Putonghua, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ), Chinese postal romanization, formerly romanized as Ningpo, is a major sub-provincial city in northeast Zhejiang Provinces of China, province, China, People's Republic of China. It com ...
also told an Englishman that Hangzhou was the "stronghold" of Islam in Zhejiang province, containing multiple mosques, compared to his small congregation of around 30 families in Ningbo for his mosque. Within the city of Hangzhou are two notable mosques: New Hangzhou Great Mosque and the Phoenix Mosque


Judaism

As late as the latter part of the 16th and early 17th centuries, the city was an important center of History of the Jews in China, Chinese Jewry, and may have been the original home of the better-known Kaifeng Jews, Kaifeng Jewish community. There was formerly a Jewish synagogue in Ningbo, as well as one in Hangzhou, but no traces of them are now discoverable, and the only Jews known to exist in China were in Kaifeng.


Christianity

Two of the Three Pillars of Chinese Catholicism were from Hangzhou. There was persecution of Christians in the early 21st century in the city.


Culture

The native residents of Hangzhou, like those of
Zhejiang Zhejiang (, ; , Chinese postal romanization, also romanized as Chekiang) is an East China, eastern, coastal Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. Its capital and largest city is Hangzhou. Zhejiang is bordered ...

Zhejiang
and southern Jiangsu, speak Hangzhou dialect, which is a Wu Chinese, Wu dialect. However, Wu Chinese varies throughout the area where it is spoken, hence, Hangzhou's dialect differs from regions in southern Zhejiang and southern Jiangsu. As the official language defined by China's central government, Standard Chinese, Mandarin is the dominant spoken language. There are several museums located in Hangzhou with regional and national importance. China National Silk Museum (), located near the West Lake, is one of the first state-level museums in China and the largest silk museum in the world. China National Tea Museum () is a national museum with special subjects as tea and its culture. Zhejiang Provincial Museum () features collection of integrated human studies, exhibition and research with its over 100,000 collected cultural relics. Many theaters in Hangzhou host opera shows. Yue opera, originated from Shengzhou, Zhejiang Province, is the second-largest opera form in China. Also, there are several big shows themed with the history and culture of Hangzhou lik
Impression West Lake
and the Romance of Song Dynasty. Hangzhou has historically been an important hub for artists and scholars. In modern times, Hangzhou was home to the China Academy of Art and prominent painters such as Lin Fengmian and Fang Ganmin. Tea is an important part of Hangzhou's economy and culture. Hangzhou is best known for originating Longjing tea, Longjing, a notable variety of green tea, the most notable type being Longjing Tea. Known as the best type of Long Jing tea, Xi Hu Long Jing is grown in Longjing village near
West Lake West Lake () is a freshwater lake in Hangzhou, China. It is divided into five sections by three causeways. There are numerous temple A temple (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic ...

West Lake
in Hangzhou, hence its name. The local government of Hangzhou heavily invests in promoting tourism and the arts, with emphasis placed upon silk production, umbrellas, and Chinese hand-held folding fan (implement), fans.


Cuisine

Hangzhou's local cuisine is often considered to be representative of Zhejiang cuisine, Zhejiang provincial cuisine, which is claimed as one of Chinese cuisine, China's eight fundamental cuisines. The locally accepted consensus among Hangzhou's natives defines dishes prepared in this style to be "fresh, tender, soft, and smooth, with a mellow fragrance." Generally, Hangzhou's cuisines tend to be sweeter rather than savoury. Owing to the fact that Hangzhou is located near the Yangtze river, where the climate is mild, the local people enjoy a light diet incorporating river fishes. The rich history of the city provides the local people with stories revolving around the origins of local dishes. Dishes such as Pian Er Chuan Noodles (), West Lake Vinegar Fish (), Dongpo Pork (), Longjing Shrimp (), Beggar's Chicken (), Steamed Rice and Pork Wrapped by Lotus Leaves(), Braised Bamboo Shoots (), Lotus Root Pudding () and Sister Song's Fish Soup () are some of the better-known examples of Hangzhou's regional cuisine. restaurants in Hangzhou include Xin Feng restaurant (), Zhi Wei Guan (), Grandma's Home (), Green Tea Restaurant (), etc. These restaurants create the advanced food and dishes of the traditional Hangzhou cuisine, and . Longjing tea is the most famous green tea and rank first among top ten famous teas in China. Those planted by the
West Lake West Lake () is a freshwater lake in Hangzhou, China. It is divided into five sections by three causeways. There are numerous temple A temple (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic ...

West Lake
is the best Longjing tea.


Transportation


Port

The Port of Hangzhou is a small river port with a cargo throughput that exceeds 100 million tons annually.


Air

Hangzhou is served by the Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport, which provides direct service to many international destinations such as Thailand,
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
, South Korea, Malaysia, Vietnam, Singapore, Netherlands, Qatar, Portugal and the United States. Regional routes reach
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a and of China on the eastern in . With over 7.5 million residents of various nationalities in a territory, Hong ...

Hong Kong
, Taiwan, and Macau. It has an extensive domestic route network within the PRC and is consistently ranked top 10 in passenger traffic among Chinese airports. Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport has two terminals, Terminal A and Terminal B. The smaller Terminal A serves all international and regional flights while the larger Terminal B solely handles domestic traffic. The airport is located just outside the city in the Xiaoshan District with direct bus service linking the airport with Downtown Hangzhou. The ambitious expansion project will see the addition of a second runway and a third terminal which will dramatically increase capacity of the fast-growing airport that serves as a secondary hub of Air China. A new elevated airport express highway is under construction on top of the existing highway between the airport and downtown Hangzhou. The second phase of Hangzhou Metro Line 1 has a planned extension to the airport.


Railway

Hangzhou sits on the intersecting point of some of the busiest rail corridors in China. The city's main station is Hangzhou East railway station, Hangzhou East station (colloquially "East Station" , official national rail translation: Hangzhoudong Station). It is one of the biggest rail traffic hubs in China, consisting of 15 platforms that house the High Speed services to Shanghai, Nanjing, Changsha, Ningbo, and beyond. The metro station beneath the rail complex building is a stop along the Hangzhou Metro Line 1 and Line 4. There are frequent departures for
Shanghai Shanghai (, , Standard Mandarin Standard Chinese, in linguistics known as Standard Northern Mandarin, Standard Beijing Mandarin or simply Mandarin, is a Mandarin Chinese#Subgrouping, dialect of Mandarin that emerged as the lingua fra ...

Shanghai
with approximately 20-minute headways from 6:00 to 21:00. Non-stop CRH high-speed service between Hangzhou and Shanghai takes 50 minutes and leaves every hour (excluding a few early morning/late night departures) from both directions. Other China Railway High-speed, CRH high-speed trains that stop at one or more stations along the route complete the trip in 59 to 75 minutes. Most other major cities in China can also be reached by direct train service from Hangzhou. The Hangzhou railway station (colloquially the "City Station" ) was closed for renovation in mid 2013 but has recently opened again. A second high-speed rail channel through Hangzhou is under construction along with another major station, Hangzhou West railway station, Hangzhou West. Direct trains link Hangzhou with more than 50 main cities, including 12 daily services to
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
and more than 100 daily services to
Shanghai Shanghai (, , Standard Mandarin Standard Chinese, in linguistics known as Standard Northern Mandarin, Standard Beijing Mandarin or simply Mandarin, is a Mandarin Chinese#Subgrouping, dialect of Mandarin that emerged as the lingua fra ...

Shanghai
; they reach as far as Ürümqi. The China Railway High-Speed service inaugurated on October 26, 2010. The service is operated by the CRH 380A(L), CRH 380B(L) and CRH380CL train sets which travel at a maximum speed of , shortening the duration of the trip to only 45 minutes.


Coach

Central (to the east of the city centre, taking the place of the former east station), north, south, and west long-distance coach stations offer frequent coach service to nearby cities/towns within Zhejiang province, as well as surrounding provinces.


Bus

Hangzhou has an efficient bus network, consisting of a modern fleet of diesel, hybrid and electric buses, as well as trolleybuses. Hangzhou was once known for its extensive bus rapid transit network expanding from downtown to many suburban areas through dedicated bus lanes on some of the busiest streets in the city. However, as of mid-2021, all but one BRT routes and feeding routes had closed or been transformed to regular routes. Only route B1 is still in operation.


Cycle hire

Bicycles and Motorized bicycle, electric scooters are very popular, and major streets have dedicated bike lanes throughout the city. Hangzhou has an extensive Bicycle sharing system, public bike rental system, the Hangzhou Public Bicycle system. A dock-and-station system similar to those in Paris and London is adopted and users can hire a bicycle with IC card or mobile phone application. Journeys within 60 minutes are free of charge.


Metro

Hangzhou Metro has a network of 323 km as of mid-2021, not including the Hangzhou–Haining intercity railway, Hangzhou-Haining Intercity Railway which has a length of 46 km. Major expansion plans continue. It is the 17th city in China to have a rapid rail transit system. In 2018, the State Council of the People's Republic of China, State Council approved the planning for 15 metro lines, including extensions to the three existing lines, scheduled to open in time for the
2022 Asian Games ) , host city = Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China , Nations participating = , Athletes participating = , Events = , Opening ceremony = 10 September , Closing ceremony = 25 September , Officially opened by = , Website hangzhou2022.cn, Athlete's ...
. By then the Hangzhou Metro system is projected have a network of . The construction of the Metro started in March 2006, and Line 1 opened on November 24, 2012. Line 1 connects city centre with suburbs. It run from Xianghu to Wenze Road with a branch to Lingping, which would later become part of Line 9. By June 2015, the southeast section of Line 2 (starts in Xiaoshan District, ends to the south of the city centre) and a short part of Line 4 (fewer than 10 stations, connecting Line 1 and Line 2) were completed. The system is expected to have 15 lines upon completion; most lines are still under construction. The extensions of Line 2 (city centre and northwest Hangzhou) and Line 4 (east of Binjiang District) opened in 2018. Line 5/6/7/8 opened their first parts in 2019 and 2020


Taxis

Taxicab, Taxis are also popular in the city, with the newest line of Hyundai Sonatas and Volkswagen Passats, and tight regulations. In early 2011, 30 electric taxis were deployed in Hangzhou; 15 were Zotye Langyues and the other 15 were Haima (car), Haima Freemas. In April, however, one Zoyte Langyue caught fire, and all of the electric taxis were taken off the roads later that day. The city still intends to have a fleet of 200 electric taxis by the end of 2011. In 2014, a large number of new electric taxis produced by Xihu-BYD (Xihu (westlake) is a local company which produced televisions in the past) were deployed.


Education


Universities

Hangzhou has a large student population with many higher education institutions based in the city. Public universities include
Zhejiang University Zhejiang University (ZJU; ), informally known as Zheda (), is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or o ...
,
Zhejiang University of Technology The Zhejiang University of Technology () is a public research university in Hangzhou Hangzhou (, , Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ), also Chinese postal romanization, romanized as Hangchow, is the capital and most populous ...
, and
Hangzhou Normal University Hangzhou Normal University (), or Hangzhou Teachers College, is a public university in Hangzhou, the capital of Zhejiang Province, China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of ...
etc. Xiasha, located near the east end of the city, and Xiaoheshan, located near the west end of the city, are college towns with a cluster of several universities and colleges. * China Academy of Art (founded in 1928) * China Jiliang University *
Hangzhou Dianzi University Hangzhou Dianzi University (HDU) () is a government funded public university in Hangzhou Hangzhou (, , Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ), also Chinese postal romanization, romanized as Hangchow, is the capital and most pop ...
*
Hangzhou Normal University Hangzhou Normal University (), or Hangzhou Teachers College, is a public university in Hangzhou, the capital of Zhejiang Province, China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of ...
(founded in 1908) * Zhejiang Chinese Medical University * Zhejiang Forestry University * Zhejiang Gongshang University (founded in 1911, Zhejiang Gongshang University, the earliest business school in China) * Zhejiang University of Science and Technology * Zhejiang International Studies University (also known as Zhejiang Education Institute, founded in 1955) *
Zhejiang Sci-Tech University Zhejiang Sci-Tech University (ZSTU; ) is a university in Zhejiang Zhejiang (, formerly romanized as Chekiang) is an eastern, coastal Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. Its capital and largest city is Ha ...
* Zhejiang Shuren University *
Zhejiang University Zhejiang University (ZJU; ), informally known as Zheda (), is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or o ...
(founded in 1897), one of the top universities in China. (Project 985, Project 211, C9 League) * Zhejiang University City College *
Zhejiang University of Technology The Zhejiang University of Technology () is a public research university in Hangzhou Hangzhou (, , Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ), also Chinese postal romanization, romanized as Hangchow, is the capital and most populous ...
(1953) * Zhejiang University of Media and Communications (ZUMC), Zhejiang University of Media and Communications (1984) ''Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.''


Primary and secondary schools

Provincial key Public high schools in Hangzhou include Hangzhou No. 4 High School, Hangzhou No. 14 High School, Hangzhou NO.2 High School, Hangzhou Foreign Language School, High School Attached to Zhejiang University, High School attached to Hangzhou Normal university, Hangzhou No. 1 High School and Hangzhou Xuejun High School. Private high schools in Hangzhou include Hangzhou Green Town Yuhua School, Hangzhou Chinese International School, Hangzhou International School and Hangzhou Japanese School () (nihonjin gakkō).


Twin towns – sister cities

Hangzhou is Twin towns and sister cities, twinned with:


Ancient proverbs about Hangzhou

An ancient proverb about Hangzhou and Suzhou is: :''"Paradise above, Suzhou and Hangzhou below."'' () This phrase has a similar meaning to the English phrases "Heaven on Earth". Marco Polo in his accounts described Suzhou as "the city of the earth" while Hangzhou is "the city of heaven". The city presented itself as "Paradise on Earth" during the 2016 G20 Hangzhou summit, G20 summit held in the city in 2016. Another saying about Hangzhou is: :''"Be born in Suzhou, live in Hangzhou, eat in
Guangzhou Guangzhou (, ; ; or ; ), also known as Canton and alternatively romanized as Kwongchow or Kwangchow, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the ...

Guangzhou
, die in Liuzhou."'' () The meaning here lies in the fact that Suzhou was renowned for its beautiful and highly civilized and educated citizens, Hangzhou for its scenery, Guangzhou for its food, and Liuzhou (of Guangxi) for its wooden coffins which supposedly halted the decay of the body (likely made from the Cinnamomum camphora, camphor tree).


Notable residents

* Jack Ma: Co-founder and executive chairman of the
Alibaba Group Alibaba Group Holding Limited, also known as Alibaba Group and Alibaba.com, is a Chinese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a ...
. * Zong Qinghou: Entrepreneur, founder, Chairman and CEO of the Hangzhou Wahaha Group. * Sun Yang: Olympic gold medalist and competitive swimmer. * Ye Shiwen: Olympic gold medalist and competitive swimmer. * Wu Yibing: World No.1 in the International Tennis Federation, ITF juniors ranking and professional tennis player. *Li Wenhan: Singer, actor, member of boy groups Uniq (band), UNIQ and Unine (band), UNINE *Hu Yitian: Actor *Wang Yiren: Singer, member of Everglow


See also

* Historical capitals of China * Jiangnan * List of cities in the People's Republic of China by population * Suzhou numerals – in the Unicode standard version 3.0, these characters are incorrectly named Hangzhou style numerals


Notes


References


Citations


Sources

* * * * * * * * *
Economic profile for Hangzhou
at Hong Kong Trade Development Council, HKTDC


Further reading

* *


External links

*
Hangzhou Government website

Arts Crafts Museum Hangzhou in Google Cultural Institute

EN.GOTOHZ.COM
– The Official Website of Hangzhou Tourism Commission
TRAVELWESTLAKE
– The Official Travel Guide of Hangzhou
TRAVELZHEJIANG
– The Official Travel Guide of Zhejiang Province * {{Authority control Hangzhou, Cities in Zhejiang Populated places established in the 3rd century BC Provincial capitals in China Sub-provincial cities in the People's Republic of China Yangtze River Delta National Forest Cities in China Jiangnan