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Guarda () is a city and a municipality in the
District of Guarda The Districts of Portugal, district of Guarda ( pt, Distrito de Guarda ) is located in the Centro, Portugal, Centro Region of Portugal, except Vila Nova de Foz Côa, which is in the Norte, Portugal, Norte Region. The district capital and most popu ...
and the capital of the
Beiras e Serra da Estrela The Intermunicipal communities of Portugal, Comunidade Intermunicipal das Beiras e Serra da Estrela () is an administrative division in eastern Portugal. It was created in 2013. Since January 2015, Beiras e Serra da Estrela is also a NUTS3 subregio ...

Beiras e Serra da Estrela
sub-region in
central Central is an adjective In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign languag ...
Portugal. The population in 2011 was 42,541, in an area of with 31,224 inhabitants in the city proper in 2006. Founded by King Sancho I in 1199, Guarda is the city located at the highest altitude in Portugal ( a.s.l.) and one of the most important cities in the Portuguese region of Beira Alta.
Serra da Estrela Serra da Estrela (, "Star Mountain Range") is the highest mountain range in Continental Portugal. Together with the Serra da Lousã it is the westernmost constituent range of the Sistema Central and also one of the highest in the system. It include ...

Serra da Estrela
, the highest mountain range in continental Portugal, is partially located in the district. The city is served by national and international trains on the Beira Alta and Baixa railway lines. The present mayor is Carlos Chaves Monteiro, substituting for Álvaro Amaro. The municipal holiday is
November 27 Events Pre-1600 *AD 25 – Luoyang is History of the Han dynasty#Reconsolidation under Guangwu, declared capital of the Eastern Han dynasty by Emperor Guangwu of Han. * 176 – Emperor Marcus Aurelius grants his son Commodus the rank o ...
. Guarda is known as the "city of the five F's": ''Farta'', ''Forte'', ''Fria'', ''Fiel'' e ''Formosa'' - abundant (or totally satisfied), strong, cold, loyal and beautiful. The explanation of the five F's is as follows: *Farta (abundant), due to the fertility of the lands of the
Mondego River The Rio Mondego () or Mondego River is the longest river located exclusively in Portugal, Portuguese territory. It has its source in Serra da Estrela, the highest mountain range in Continental Portugal, mainland Portugal (i.e. except the Portugues ...
valley; *Forte (strong), because the castle tower, the walls and its geographical location demonstrate its strength; *Fria (cold), due to its proximity to
Serra da Estrela Serra da Estrela (, "Star Mountain Range") is the highest mountain range in Continental Portugal. Together with the Serra da Lousã it is the westernmost constituent range of the Sistema Central and also one of the highest in the system. It include ...

Serra da Estrela
; *Fiel (loyal), because the Captain General of the Castle Guard, Álvaro Gil Cabral,
Pedro Álvares Cabral Pedro Álvares Cabral ( or ; born ''Pedro Álvares de Gouveia''; c. 1467 or 1468 – c. 1520) was a Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, trad ...
's great-great-grandfather, refused to hand over the keys to the city to the King of Castile during the Crisis of 1383-1385 and still had the strength to participate in the
Battle of Aljubarrota The Battle of Aljubarrota (; see Aljubarrota) was a battle fought between the Kingdom of Portugal and the Crown of Castile on 14 August 1385. Forces commanded by King John I of Portugal and his general Nuno Álvares Pereira, with the support of E ...
; *Formosa (beautiful), for the natural beauty of the urban nucleus.


Geography

Guarda is the largest city in its district, capital of the
Guarda District The district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by the local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or County, counties, several Municipal ...
and the
Beira Interior Norte Subregion Image:LocalNUTS3BeiraInteriorNorte.svg, 250px, Map showing the location of the Beira Interior Norte subregion Beira Interior Norte () is a former Portugal, Portuguese subregion (NUTS level 3) in the Centro Region. It was abolished at the January 201 ...
within the
Centro Region The Central Region ( pt, Região do Centro, ) or Central Portugal is one of the statistical regions of Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a dist ...
. The municipality is bordered by
Pinhel Pinhel () is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, ...
to the north, to the east by
Almeida
Almeida
, to the southeast by
Sabugal Sabugal () is a city and a municipality in the Guarda (district), District of Guarda, Portugal. A border municipality with Spain, the population of the municipality in 2011 was 12,544, in an area of 822.70 km². The city proper, located along t ...

Sabugal
, to the south by Belmonte and
Covilhã Covilhã () is a city and a concelho, municipality in the Centro, Portugal, Centro region, Portugal. The city proper had 34,772 inhabitants in 2001. The municipality population in 2011 was 51,797, in an area of . It is located in the Beiras e Serra ...

Covilhã
, to the west by
Manteigas Manteigas () is a town and a municipality in Portugal. The population in 2011 was 3,430, in an area of . The municipality is located in Guarda District; in Centro Region and Beira Interior Norte Subregion. It is located in the Serra da Estrela Mou ...

Manteigas
and
Gouveia
Gouveia
, and to the northwest by
Celorico da Beira Celorico da Beira () is a municipality in Guarda District The district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by the local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in siz ...

Celorico da Beira
. Guarda is the highest city in continental Portugal (altitude 1,056 m), located to the northeast of
Serra da Estrela Serra da Estrela (, "Star Mountain Range") is the highest mountain range in Continental Portugal. Together with the Serra da Lousã it is the westernmost constituent range of the Sistema Central and also one of the highest in the system. It include ...

Serra da Estrela
(the largest mountain in mainland Portugal). The main attraction in Guarda is its cathedral, known as the
Sé da Guarda The Cathedral of Guarda ( pt, Catedral da Guarda, Sé da Guarda) is a Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church, with 1.3&n ...

Sé da Guarda
. Guarda is a diocese of the same name. Guarda railway station is served by the railway line ''Linha da Beira Alta'', with international services towards Salamanca and Madrid, and domestic services to Pinhel, Vila Franca das Naves/Trancoso, Celorico da Beira, Gouveia, Nelas, Carregal do Sal, Santa Comba Dão, Mortagua, Luso/Buçaco and Pampilhosa. The station at Guarda has (2013) eighteen daily arrivals and departures of passenger trains and there is a small freight terminal. The section of the Linha da Beira Baixa which runs from Guarda through Belmonte/Sabugal, Covilhã, Fundão, Castelo Branco and Abrantes to Entroncamento is operating again, having been closed in 2010 between Guarda and Covilhã. The main motorways are A25 (Aveiro, Viseu, Guarda, Vilar Formoso) and A23 (Guarda, Covilhã, Fundão, Castelo Branco, Abrantes, Torres Novas). Numerous motorcoach (long distance bus) services use these motorways to link Guarda with Porto, Lisbon and other Portuguese cities. Guarda is the antipode to
Pūponga The tiny settlement of Pūponga in New Zealand is the northernmost settlement in the South Island The South Island, also officially named , is the larger of the two major islands of New Zealand in surface area, the other being the smaller but ...
in
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ''Aotearoa'' (; commonly pronounced by English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Engl ...

New Zealand
.


Climate

Guarda has a cool
Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by dry summers and mild, wet winters. The climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degre ...
( Köppen: ''Csb'') with some
oceanic Oceanic may refer to: *Of or relating to the ocean *Of or relating to Oceania **Oceanic climate **Oceanic languages **Oceanic person or people, also called "Pacific Islander(s)" Places *Oceanic, British Columbia, a settlement on Smith Island, Br ...
influences. It has lower average temperatures than most climates of this subtype, in part due to its high altitude. Winters are cool and wet and summers are warm and dry.


Toponym

For a long time historians believed that the civitas Igaeditanorum (Egitania) was located in Guarda, but more recently it has been established that this location was in
Idanha-a-Velha Idanha-a-Velha (Idanha "the old") is a village in the civil parish (''freguesia'') of Monsanto e Idanha-a-Velha, in the concelho, municipality of Idanha-a-Nova (Idanha "the new"), central eastern Portugal, and the site of ancient Egitânia, a forme ...
, in Beira Baixa. It was from here that the gentile "egitanian", in relation to the natives of the city, took root. Bordering the lands of the igaeditani, north of Guarda, were the lands of the Lancians Oppidani whose capital, the civitas Lancia Oppidana, was referred to as being located a short distance from the current location of Guarda. This theory was fiercely defended by General João de Almeida (influential Portuguese military man, hero of the African campaigns, native of Guarda), which has led some critics to disparage it. However, all the following investigations indicate its veracity. The place name "Guarda" may have been a derivation of a fortress overlooking the Mondego River, the
Castro Castro is a Romance language word that originally derived from Latin ''castrum'', a pre-Roman military camp or fortification (cf: Greek: kastron; Proto-Celtic: * *Kassrik; br, kaer, *kastro). The English-language equivalent is ''Chester (disambigua ...
Tintinolho, whose place was called "Ward" by the Visigoths.


History


Prehistory

There is evidence of a meteorite impact in the region, northeast of Guarda, with about 35 km in diameter. Some pre-
Ordovician The Ordovician ( ) is a geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other eart ...

Ordovician
evidence (from the
Cambrian period The Cambrian Period ( ; sometimes symbolized Ꞓ) was the first geological period A geological period is one of the several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place. These peri ...
, the earliest Phanerozoic epoch) is present.


From the Neolithic to the Christian Reconquest

In the first centuries of the Romanization of the Iberian Peninsula, Lusitanian tribes lived in the Guarda region. These tribes included, namely, the Igaeditani, the Lancienses Oppidani, and the Transcudani. These peoples, united under a true federation, resisted Romanization for two centuries. Unlike the Latinized towns, these towns did not consume wine, but instead, acorn beer. His weapon of choice was the falcata: a curved sword, which easily broke Roman swords due to its metallurgical superiority. Their pagan gods also differed from the Romans. Some Lusitanian religious inscriptions can still be found in some sanctuaries such as Cabeço de Fráguas. It is argued that the ancestral town of Castelos Velhos, from the Iron Age, was located in the current city of Guarda. Although there are doubts about the place of birth, the Lusitanian warrior
Viriathus Viriathus (also spelled Viriatus; known as in Portuguese and Spanish; died 139 BC) was the most important leader of the Lusitanian people that resisted Roman expansion into the regions of western Hispania Hispania ( ; ) was the Ancient R ...
(hero of Portuguese history to the present day) could have been born in the Guarda region in the "Herminios Mountains", corresponding to the current
Serra da Estrela Serra da Estrela (, "Star Mountain Range") is the highest mountain range in Continental Portugal. Together with the Serra da Lousã it is the westernmost constituent range of the Sistema Central and also one of the highest in the system. It include ...

Serra da Estrela
. Other historians suggest that he may have been born closer to the Portuguese coast. His death by murder by traitors paid by Caepio, Roman consul and military man who participated in the Lusitanian War, occurred in Cabeço de Fráguas, in the current municipality of Guarda, in 139 or 138 BC. After Roman times, the period of occupation by the
Visigoths The Visigoths (; la, Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi) were an early Germanic people The Germanic peoples were a historical group of people living in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe a ...
followed. Later, the region was occupied by the Islamic civilization and by the
Kingdom of Asturias The Kingdom of Asturias ( la, Asturum Regnum; ast, Reinu d'Asturies) was a kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese Aragonese or Aragones may refer to: * Something related to Aragon, an autonomous commun ...
. Only after the process of the Christian reconquest was its jurisdiction granted, which definitely confirmed the importance of the city and the region.


Burgundy dynasty

In 1199
Sancho I of Portugal Sancho I (), nicknamed "the Populator" ( pt, "o Povoador"), King of Portugal This is a list of Portuguese monarchs who ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of Portugal, in 1139, to the deposition of the Portuguese monarchy and creation ...
transferred the diocese of Egitania (modern day
Idanha-a-Velha Idanha-a-Velha (Idanha "the old") is a village in the civil parish (''freguesia'') of Monsanto e Idanha-a-Velha, in the concelho, municipality of Idanha-a-Nova (Idanha "the new"), central eastern Portugal, and the site of ancient Egitânia, a forme ...
) to Guarda, while granting the city a charter that was based on the short charter of Salamanca. Situated high up, the city had a remarkable defensive and strategic importance. The Jewish quarter of the city, which already had some importance back in the 13th century among the communities of the kingdom of Portugal, was between 600 and 850 people in the 15th century, and hosted a significant number Jews expelled from Spain in 1492. In 1202 the diocese of Guarda was created, transferred from Idanha, the ancient and important Egitanian Roman city, which was largely abandoned during the time of the invasions and wars against the Moors (Muslims), since, according to the legends, its situation on the border and its difficult location and defense exposed it to military attacks by Moors and Christians. The city of Guarda was founded in a place much easier to defend, which would allow it to be taken Idanha as the main post of Beira Interior. The first Cathedral of Guarda was built in that same year, on the initiative of Bishop D. Martinho and with the support of King Sancho I. However, a few years later, it would be transferred to another place inside the city gates, between the years 1208 and 1214. Between 1390 and 1396 the current Cathedral of Guarda was built, at the initiative of Bishop D. Frei Vasco after the support granted by the king
John I John I may refer to: People * John I (bishop of Jerusalem)John I of Jerusalem was the seventh Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem, Bishop of Jerusalem. He was, according to Eusebius, a Jewish Christian born to Jewish parents who kept the Law of ...
. The cathedral was later expanded between 1397 and 1426, between 1435 and 1458, and between 1504 and 1517. King Denis and Queen
Elizabeth Elizabeth or Elisabeth may refer to: People * Elizabeth (given name), a female given name (including people with that name) * Elizabeth (biblical figure), mother of John the Baptist Ships * HMS Elizabeth, HMS ''Elizabeth'', several ships * Elisab ...
were in the Guarda region after their marriage, held on February 11, 1281 at the Royal Palace of Barcelona. They were there between November 1281 and the end of July 1282, particularly in the town of Trancoso. The king signed the "Customs of Guarda" which consisted of letters from King Denis regarding the appeals of the residents of the villages and farms under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the bishop, on the income of 1,100 pounds that the county leased to Afonso,
count of Boulogne Count of Boulogne was a historical title in the Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France; frm, Royaulme de France; french: link=yes, Royaume de France) is the historiographical name or Hyponymy and hypernymy, umbrella ...
, and also on the conflict that existed between the inhabitants of Vela and the inhabitants of Guarda (1311, 1315, 1321). There King Denis also prepared war with Castile, which would be resolved through the Treaty of Alcañices. In 1282, King Denis held the first Cortes de Guarda.


1383–1385 Portuguese interregnum The 1383–1385 Portuguese interregnum was a civil war in Portuguese history during which no crowned king of Portugal reigned. The interregnum began when King Ferdinand I of Portugal, Ferdinand I died without a male heir and ended when King Joh ...
and
House of Aviz The House of Aviz (Portuguese language, Portuguese: ''Casa de Avis''), also known as the Joanine Dynasty (''Dinastia Joanina''), was a dynasty of Portuguese people, Portuguese origin which flourished during the Portuguese Renaissance, Renaissance ...

In 1371, Denis granted in Guarda a "land of refuge" for the "humanized", who were the people convicted of murder, whom the king pardoned certain crimes or misdemeanors, with the aim that they would settle in the lands near borders. In 1383 a college for poor students was created in the city by Bishop Afonso Correia II, associated with the Episcopal school of Guarda, existing since (at least) the 13th century. In 1465 King
Afonso V Afonso VRendered as Affonso in Archaic Portuguese () (15 January 1432 – 28 August 1481), known by the sobriquet A sobriquet ( ), or soubriquet, is a nickname A nickname (also moniker) is a substitute for the proper name of a familiar person ...
made new Courts in Guarda, where the judges of the Civil Chamber were forbidden to disembark facts related to the city of Lisbon and whose resolutions were exclusive powers of the king. In 1475, Prince John (future King ) led a Council in Guarda to gather the troops that would participate in the
Battle of Toro The Battle of Toro was a royal battle from the War of the Castilian Succession, fought on 1 March 1476, near the city of Toro, Zamora, Toro, between the Castilian-Aragonese troops of the Catholic Monarchs and the Portuguese-Castilian forces of ...
, within the course of the
War of the Castilian Succession The War of the Castilian Succession was the military conflict contested from 1475 to 1479 for the succession of the Crown of Castile The Crown of Castile was a medieval polity in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the ...
. In the 90s of the 15th century, when the expulsion of the Jews from Spain happened, Guarda received new inhabitants for its Jewish community, who would bring a new life to commerce in this border area. In 1493, the born and resident of Guarda,
Rui de Pina Rui (or Ruy) de Pina (1440–1522) was a Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese d ...

Rui de Pina
, planned the
Treaty of Tordesillas The Treaty of Tordesillas, ; pt, Tratado de Tordesilhas . signed in Tordesillas Tordesillas () is a town and municipality in the province of Valladolid, Castile and León, central Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaum ...

Treaty of Tordesillas
and set out on a diplomatic mission to Castile. In 1496 and 1497, during the reign of
Manuel I Manuel I may refer to: *Manuel I Komnenos Manuel I Komnenos ( el, Μανουήλ Α' Κομνηνός; 28 November 1118 – 24 September 1180), Latinized Latinisation or Latinization can refer to: * Latinisation of names, the practice of rend ...

Manuel I
, the conversion or expulsion of the Jews was ordered, which led to the appearance of the so-called New Christians (or
Marrano Marranos were Spanish and Portuguese Jews living in the Iberian Peninsula who converted or were Forced conversion#Spanish Inquisition, forced to convert to Christianity during the Middle Ages, yet continued to crypto-Judaism, practice Judaism i ...
s), and as well as the expulsion of the moors, dand or place to the appearance of
crypto-Judaism Crypto-Judaism is the secret adherence to Judaism Judaism is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Reli ...
in the region. On October 22, 1536, the
Inquisition The Inquisition, in historical ecclesiastical terminology also referred to as the "Holy Inquisition", was a group of institutions within the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1. ...
began, and the persecution against Hindus (in
Portuguese India The State of India ( pt, Estado da Índia), also referred as the Portuguese State of India (''Estado Português da Índia'', EPI) or simply Portuguese India (''Índia Portuguesa''), was a List of states of the Portuguese Empire, colonial state ...

Portuguese India
), Muslims and Jews was launched. The persecutions were also launched in Guarda, particularly as of June 8, 1564, when authorization was given to D. Ambrosio Capelo, inquisitor of Guarda, to conduct the inquisition in the dioceses of Guarda and
Lamego Lamego (; cel-x-proto, Lamecum) is a city and municipality in the Viseu District, in the Norte Region, Portugal, Norte Region of the Douro Subregion, Douro in northern Portugal. Located on the shores of the Balsemão River, the municipality has a ...

Lamego
.


Portuguese succession crisis of 1580 The Portuguese succession crisis of 1580 ( pt, Crise de sucessão de 1580) came about as a result of the deaths of young King Sebastian I of Portugal in the Battle of Alcácer Quibir in 1578 and his successor and great-uncle Henry I of Portugal ...

In 1580, during the course of the dynastic crisis of 1580, the Bishop of Guarda, D. João, took sides for the independence of Portugal and opposed Philippine rule. The bishop then resisted the outcome of the Battle of Alcântara and continued to side with
António, Prior of Crato António, Prior of Crato (; 153126 August 1595; sometimes called ''The Determined'', ''The Fighter'' or ''The Independentist''), was a grandson of King Manuel I of Portugal Manuel I (; 31 May 146913 December 1521), known as the Fortunate ( pt ...
, contrary to all the other Portuguese bishops. On March 18, 1582, the Pope condemned the "excesses" committed by D. João, bishop of Guarda, and he died in 1592 under the rule of
Philip II of Spain Philip II) in Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption ...

Philip II of Spain
(Philip I of Portugal).


Iberian Union The Iberian Union was the dynastic union of the Kingdom of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = ...

On September 21, 1597, the synod was held in which new statutes or constitutions of the bishopric of the city began, in order to accommodate the decrees of the
Council of Trent The Council of Trent ( la, Concilium Tridentinum), held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent (or Trento, in northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of ...

Council of Trent
, in the context of the
Counter-Reformation The Counter-Reformation (), also called the Catholic Reformation () or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic Church, Catholic resurgence that was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, also known as the Protestant Revo ...
of the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic Church
.


Braganza Dynasty The Most Serene House of Braganza ( pt, Sereníssima Casa de Bragança), also known as the Brigantine Dynasty (''Dinastia Brigantina''), is a dynasty of emperors, kings, princes, and dukes of Portuguese people, Portuguese origin which reigned in ...

In 1655 the exploitation of
tin Tin is a with the Sn (from la, ) and  50. Tin is a silvery-colored metal that characteristically has a faint yellow hue. Tin is soft enough to be cut with little force and a bar of tin can be bent by hand with little effort. When bent ...

tin
mines in Guarda was intensified. In 1674, the diocesan synod of Guarda took place, in order to regulate tithes. Between 1728 and 1730, the Guardense doctor Simão de Castro was convicted of the inquisition in the city, for accusations of Judaism. As a result, he took refuge in
Portuguese India The State of India ( pt, Estado da Índia), also referred as the Portuguese State of India (''Estado Português da Índia'', EPI) or simply Portuguese India (''Índia Portuguesa''), was a List of states of the Portuguese Empire, colonial state ...

Portuguese India
, where he settled from 1734. In 1762-1763 the Guarda region was invaded by Spanish forces, during the
Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Kingdom of Great Britain, Great Britain and Kingdom of France, France. In Europe, the conflict ar ...
, and several towns in the area were occupied by Spain, including . This town was returned to Portugal in 1763, after the peace treaty signed in Paris. In 1801, the
Marquis of Alorna {{Use dmy dates, date=March 2012 Marquis of Alorna was a Portugal, Portuguese title of nobility granted, on 9 November 1748, by King John V of Portugal, to Don (honorific), D. Pedro Miguel de Almeida Portugal e Vasconcelos, 3rd Count of Assumar an ...
built bunkers in Guarda, against bomb attacks, after the deterioration of diplomatic relations with Spain. That same year, the first section of the walls was demolished, on the orders of Alorna Marqués, in order to reuse its stone in the construction of a fort in the neighboring town of Vale de Estrela, to the west of the city. As a result of the Napoleonic invasion of Portugal, with troops commanded by the French general Loison, a revolt took place in Guarda on June 21, 1808, after the
transfer of the Portuguese court to Brazil The Portuguese royal court transferred from Lisbon Lisbon (; pt, Lisboa ) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 544,851 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2. Grande Lisb ...
as a result of these invasions. The March 22, 1811, the French general
André Masséna André Masséna, 1st Duke of Rivoli, 1st Prince of Essling (born Andrea Massena; 16 May 1758 – 4 April 1817) was a French military commander during the French Revolutionary Wars The French Revolutionary Wars (french: Guerres de la Révol ...

André Masséna
decided to concentrate the French army around Guarda and , far from the fortresses of
Ciudad Rodrigo Ciudad Rodrigo () is a small cathedral city in the province of Salamanca Salamanca ( , ) is a city situated in western Spain and is the capital of the Province of Salamanca in the Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Casti ...

Ciudad Rodrigo
and . On April 3 of the same year, at the
Battle of Sabugal The Battle of Sabugal was an engagement of the Peninsular War which took place on 3 April 1811 between anglo-Portuguese Army, Anglo-Portuguese forces under Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, Arthur Wellesley (later the Duke of Wellington ( ...
, the British military man
Wellington Wellington ( mi, Te Whanganui-a-TaraTe Whanganui-a-Tara is the Māori name for Wellington Harbour. The term is also used to refer to the city of Wellington Wellington ( mi, Te Whanganui-a-Tara ) is the capital city of New Zealand. It i ...

Wellington
won against General
Jean Reynier Jean Louis Ebénézer Reynier (14 January 1771 – 27 February 1814) was a Swiss Swiss may refer to: * the adjectival form of Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_ ...
, and forced to leave Portugal. After the particularly severe devastations caused in the
Diocese of Guarda The Roman Catholic Diocese of Guarda ( la, Dioecesis Aegitaniensis) is a diocese located in central eastern Portugal, a suffragan in the Ecclesiastical province of the Latin Patriarchate of Lisbon in southern Portugal. The present episcopal seat ...
and its neighboring
Diocese of Pinhel Pinhel () is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subord ...
(currently also in the
district of Guarda The Districts of Portugal, district of Guarda ( pt, Distrito de Guarda ) is located in the Centro, Portugal, Centro Region of Portugal, except Vila Nova de Foz Côa, which is in the Norte, Portugal, Norte Region. The district capital and most popu ...
), these two dioceses were, in Portugal, until August 1811, the third and fourth most benefited by donations to the victims of the third French invasion of Portugal led by Masséna, just behind Leiria and Lisbon. In 1829, during a cold snap, it was reported in Guarda that temperatures had dropped to low enough to freeze eggs,
brandy Brandy is a liquor Liquor or spirit (also hard liquor, or distilled alcohol) is an alcoholic drink produced by distillation of grains, fruits, or vegetables that have already gone through alcoholic fermentation. The distillation process co ...

brandy
, and other things that only freeze in severe cold. In 1835, another section of the wall was destroyed, between the
keep A keep (from the Middle English ''kype'') is a type of fortified tower built within castles during the Middle Ages by European nobility. Scholars have debated the scope of the word ''keep'', but usually consider it to refer to large towers in ca ...

keep
and '' Porta Nova '' (New Gate), and its stone was used in the construction of the new public cemetery. In 1855 the
Lyceum The lyceum is a category of educational institution An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education, including preschools, childcare, primary-elementary schools, secondary-high schools, and universities. ...

Lyceum
of Guarda was founded. In this institution, famous people related to literature and other intellectual areas in Portugal studied, including Vergílio Ferreira (writer awarded the
Camões Prize The Camões Prize (Portuguese, ''Prémio Camões'', ), named after Luís de Camões, is the most important prize for literature in the Portuguese language Portuguese ( or, in full, ) is a Romance languages, Romance language originating in the I ...

Camões Prize
), (essayist and philosopher) and (neo-romantic poet) In 1868, during the reign of
Luis I Luis is a given name. It is the Spanish language, Spanish form of the originally Germanic language, Germanic name or . Other Iberian Romance languages have comparable forms: (with an accent mark on the i) in Portuguese language, Portuguese and ...

Luis I
, the publication of Guarda's ''O Egytaniense'' began, which was one of the first newspapers in Guarda and probably the first newspaper in the city. The Humanitarian Association of Egitanian Volunteer Firefighters (which, today, is better known as "Guarda Volunteer Firefighters"), was founded in 1876 at the initiative of a group of Guardenses concerned about the lack of a fire department in the city. In 1881, the
Diocese of Pinhel Pinhel () is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subord ...
(including, namely Almeida) was extinct and incorporated into the
Diocese of Guarda The Roman Catholic Diocese of Guarda ( la, Dioecesis Aegitaniensis) is a diocese located in central eastern Portugal, a suffragan in the Ecclesiastical province of the Latin Patriarchate of Lisbon in southern Portugal. The present episcopal seat ...
. In 1882 the Beira Alta railway line was inaugurated (with the presence of King
Louis I Louis I may refer to: * Louis the Pious, Louis I of France, "the Pious" (778–840), king of France and Holy Roman Emperor * Ludwig I of Thuringia (ruled 1123–1140) * Ludwig I, Count of Württemberg (c. 1098–1158) * Louis I of Blois (1172–120 ...

Louis I
and the royal family), which linked the coastal city of
Figueira da Foz Figueira da Foz (), also known as Figueira for short, is a city and a municipality in the Coimbra District, in Portugal. Practically at the midpoint of the Iberian Peninsula's Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic coast, it is located at the mouth of the Mond ...
and , on the border with
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
, stopping at the Guarda railway station. It is currently the main railway connection between Portugal and the rest of Europe. In 1893, a second railway line was completed with the terminal station in Guarda (the Beira Baixa line), connecting this city and
Abrantes Abrantes () is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivisio ...

Abrantes
, in
Ribatejo The Ribatejo () is the most central of the traditional provinces of Portugal The term "provinces" ( pt, províncias) has been used throughout history to identify regions of continental Portugal. Current legal subdivisions of Portugal do n ...
. On January 1, 1899, electric lighting was introduced in Guarda, making it one of the first Portuguese cities to be electrified. In 1897 the "Escola Normal" (Normal School) was founded in the city for the training of secondary school teachers. In May 1907, with the presence of King
Carlos Carlos may refer to: Places ;Canada * Carlos, Alberta Clearwater County is a List of municipal districts in Alberta, municipal district in west central Alberta, Canada in Division No. 9, Alberta, Division No. 9. Its northwest boundary is the ...
and Queen Amélia, the Sousa Martins
Sanatorium A sanatorium (also spelled sanitarium or sanitorium) is a medical facility for long-term illness, most typically associated with the treatment of tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease An infection is the invasion o ...

Sanatorium
was inaugurated in the city, the first of its kind that has been introduced by the National Assistance to tuberculosis victims.


First Portuguese Republic The First Portuguese Republic ( pt, Primeira República Portuguesa; officially: ''República Portuguesa'', Portuguese Republic) spans a complex 16-year period in the history of Portugal The history of Portugal can be traced from circa 400,000 ...
, Estado Novo,
Third Portuguese Republic The Third Portuguese Republic () is a period in the history of Portugal corresponding to the current democracy, democratic regime installed after the Carnation Revolution of 25 April 1974, that put an end to the paternal autocratic regime of Est ...

After the implementation of the republic in Portugal, in 1910, newspapers would appear throughout the
District of Guarda The Districts of Portugal, district of Guarda ( pt, Distrito de Guarda ) is located in the Centro, Portugal, Centro Region of Portugal, except Vila Nova de Foz Côa, which is in the Norte, Portugal, Norte Region. The district capital and most popu ...
, with a special concentration in Guarda and
Seia Seia () is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as ...
, that for the most part would clearly assume republican ideals for propaganda purposes. These constituted a source of extreme importance for the reconstruction of the recent history of the various communities of the District during the implementation of the republican regime. The legendary Guardense poet died on February 26, 1929, already at the time of the military dictatorship. After the political and military upheavals and the economic crisis, largely caused by the decision on Portugal's participation in the First World War, the military coup of May 28, 1926, occurred, which would lead to a 48-year dictatorship, military until the mid-1930s, and then civil, until 1974. Meanwhile, the only moment in which the dictatorship of Salazar (Franco's ally in Spain) was threatened, occurred in 1958 when General
Humberto Delgado Humberto da Silva Delgado, ComC, GCA, GOA Goa () is a state on the southwestern coast of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies b ...

Humberto Delgado
decided to run for the presidential elections, proposing the resignation of Salazar. On the night of April 24, 1974, Captain Augusto José Monteiro Valente, of the Guarda Infantry Regiment, arrested its commander and joined the
Armed Forces Movement file:Rumo a liberdade Henrique Matos.jpg, 230px, A mural dedicated to the MFA, it reads: ''Towards freedom. Long live the 25th of April!'' The Armed Forces Movement ( pt, Movimento das Forças Armadas; MFA) was an organization of lower-ranking, po ...
(MFA) that the following day was going to overthrow the dictatorial regime of Salazar and Caetano in the
Carnation Revolution The Carnation Revolution ( pt, Revolução dos Cravos), also known as the 25 April ( pt, 25 de Abril, links=no), was initially a 25 April 1974 military coup A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly ...
, being described as one of the brightest and most committed Portuguese military in this revolution. In 1942 the first hotel was opened in the city of Guarda, the "Hotel Turismo" active to this day, and an iconic symbol of tourism in this city. In 1963, the Industrias Lusitanas
Renault Groupe Renault ( , , , also known as the Renault Group in English; legally Renault S.A.) is a French multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinati ...

Renault
(automobile factory) began to work in Guarda, which would be active until 1987, producing 189,461 vehicles of the models Renault 4, Renault 5, Renault 6, Renault 8, Renault 10, Renault 12 , Renault 16 and Renault Trafic. Then came "Delco Remy" and then "
Delphi Delphi (; ), in legend previously called Pytho (Πυθώ), in ancient times was a sacred precinct that served as the seat of Pythia, the major oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world. The oracle ...
(Autopeças)", until the closure of this American multinational in December 2010. In 1965 the Guarda Nursing School (now known as the Escola Superior de Saúde) was created, which later, in 2001, would be integrated into the Guarda Polytechnic Institute. In 1980, the Guarda Polytechnic Institute was created, which began its academic activities in 1986 through the Higher School of Education and, the following year, the Higher School of Technology and Management. In 1999, the Higher School of Tourism and Telecommunications would also be created in this institute, in the neighboring city of
Seia Seia () is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as ...
.


Gastronomy

The gastronomy of Guarda is associated with the gastronomy of the
Serra da Estrela Serra da Estrela (, "Star Mountain Range") is the highest mountain range in Continental Portugal. Together with the Serra da Lousã it is the westernmost constituent range of the Sistema Central and also one of the highest in the system. It include ...

Serra da Estrela
. Some of the most outstanding typical dishes are the following: roast lamb, rice with duck in the Guarda way, and Lagareiro cod, which can be easily found in regional cuisine restaurants. The gastronomy of the city includes a wide range of meat-based dishes, given the geographical location of the city, as well as the surrounding lands, which are conducive to grazing. There is also a wide variety of fish dishes from freshwater streams. Cod is the exception, since its conservation process () has always allowed its consumption in lands far from the sea. The pig occupies an important place in the local gastronomy, with countless dishes made with this type of meat. The ham cured in sea salt can be highlighted, as well as the typical local cured meats (black pudding,
farinheira Farinheira () is a Portugal, Portuguese Enchido, smoked sausage made mainly from wheat flour, pork fat and seasonings (white wine, paprika, salt and pepper). It has a yellow/brown colour and is served in traditional dishes like ''feijoada'' or ''co ...

farinheira
and
chouriço Chorizo (, from Spanish ) or chouriço (from Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal Portugal (), officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=no ), ...

chouriço
), such as tripe with vegetables. Other common meats are lamb, goat, beef, and white meat. Carquesa (''
Genista ''Genista'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circum ...

Genista
tridentata'') rice is also a very typical dish in the city and the region. At the time of the hunting season, unique dishes, such as hare rice "malandrinho", or wild boar with beans are eaten. In the fall, Trancoso's edible mushroom stew () and chestnut soup are popular (it can also be eaten cooked, boiled, or sweet).


Heritage

*
Guarda Cathedral The Cathedral of Guarda ( pt, Catedral da Guarda, Sé da Guarda) is a Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek ...
A medieval temple built in
Gothic Gothic or Gothics may refer to: People and languages *Goths The Goths ( got, 𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰, translit=''Gutþiuda''; la, Gothi) were a Germanic people The Germanic peoples were a historical group of people living in C ...
and
Manueline The Manueline ( pt, estilo manuelino, ), occasionally known as Portuguese late Gothic, is the sumptuous, composite Portuguese architecture, Portuguese architectural style originating in the 16th century, during the Portuguese Renaissance and Ag ...
styles. Its restoration, carried out by the architect Rosendo Carvalheira, took place between 1899 and 1921. * Castle of Guarda The castle was declared a National Monument on June 16, 1910. Its construction, supposedly on a Roman-Lusitanian fort from the 1st century, took place between the 12th and 14th centuries. * Old Episcopal Palace of Guarda * Anta de Pêra do Moço * Tower of the blacksmiths (''ferreiros'') * Convent of São Francisco de Guarda or Convent of the Holy Spirit * Chapel of Our Lady of Mileu * Archaeological site of Póvoa do Mileu * Fountain of ''Dorna'' * Church of São Vicente * Church of Misericórdia * Cruise or pillory (''pelourinho'') from Guarda * Castro do Jarmelo (place built in List of the Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula, pre-Roman) times * Paços do Concelho, (old town hall) * Castro de Tintinolho, an important place in the wars between Lusitanians and Roman Empire, Romans * Solar na Rua do Encontro (house built in the 15th or 16th century, which at the end of the 17th century was enriched in its facade, with an innovative element that transformed the appearance of the room, which gave it a nobility status to the family that lived there.) * Casa das Chaves Bandarra (''House of the Keys Bandarra''), on Calle Sancho I * Fountain (''Chafariz'') of the Alameda de Santo André


Economy

The main economic sectors of Guarda are: tourism, textiles, electric wire and cable industry for automobile manufacturing and for energy industries, wood, glass, marble and granite processing, metallurgy, aluminum manufacturing, chemical products, blinds, cold cuts, bakery and pastry, dairy industry, as well as construction companies. There are also handicraft activities and agricultural and agro-livestock activities in the rural environment of the municipality.


Recreational and sports clubs

The main association football, football club in the city is ''Guarda Unida'', which participates in the first district division in the 2014-2015 season. Other clubs and associations of this type in the city include the Guarda Mountaineering Club, founded in 1981, The Pinheiro Center for Sport, Culture and Social Solidarity, integrated into the Guarda Athletics Association, the CSS - Associação de Desenvolvimento Carapito S. Salvador and the Lameirinhas Sports and Recreation Group, dedicated to futsal.


Parishes

The municipality consists of the following 43 parishes: * Adão * Aldeia do Bispo * Aldeia Viçosa * Alvendre * Arrifana (Guarda), Arrifana * Avelãs da Ribeira * Avelãs de Ambom e Rocamondo * Benespera * Casal de Cinza * Castanheira * Cavadoude * Codesseiro * Corujeira e Trinta * Faia * Famalicão (Guarda), Famalicão * Fernão Joanes * Gonçalo * Gonçalo Bocas * Guarda * Jarmelo São Miguel * Jarmelo São Pedro * João Antão * Maçainhas * Marmeleiro * Meios * Mizarela, Pêro Soares e Vila Soeiro * Panóias de Cima * Pega * Pêra do Moço * Porto da Carne * Pousade e Albardo * Ramela * Rochoso e Monte Margarida * Santana da Azinha * Sobral da Serra * Vale de Estrela * Valhelhas * Vela * Videmonte * Vila Cortês do Mondego * Vila Fernando * Vila Franca do Deão * Vila Garcia


International relations

Guarda is Twin towns and sister cities, twinned with: * Béjar, Spain (since 1979) * Safad, Israel (since 1982) * Waterbury, United States (since 1984) * Siegburg, Germany (since 1985) * Wattrelos, France (since 1990)


Notable people

*
Rui de Pina Rui (or Ruy) de Pina (1440–1522) was a Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese d ...

Rui de Pina
(1440–1522) a Portuguese chronicler. * Francisco Cabral (1529-1609) a Portuguese Jesuit priest and missionary in Japan. * Francisco de Pina (1585–1625) a Portuguese Jesuit priest and missionary in Vietnam * José de Castro (1868–1929) lawyer, journalist and 63rd Prime Minister of Portugal in 1915 * (1873 - 1929 in Guarda) a lawyer and poet, combining Symbolist verse with satire and simple lyricism, * Álvaro de Castro (1878-1928) 78th and 88th Prime Minister of Portugal in 1920 & 1923/4. * Fausto Lopo de Carvalho (1890–1970) a Pulmonology, pulmonologist specialising in phthisiology * José Saraiva Martins (born 1932 in Gagos de Jarmelo) a Portuguese Cardinal (Catholic Church), Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and the Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints * Lili Caneças (born 1944) a Portuguese socialite. * Evelina Coelho (1945-2013) a Portuguese painter from Vila Fernando * Carmen Yazalde (born 1950) a Portuguese Argentine model and actress. * José Urbano (born 1966) a retired three-time Olympian race walker * Inês Monteiro (born 1980) a middle and long distance track running athlete * Pedro Carvalho (actor), Pedro Carvalho (born 1985) a Portuguese actor. Pedro Carvalho, IMDb Database
retrieved 05 August 2021.


References


External links


Municipality official websiteGuarda PhotosPhotos from Guarda
{{Authority control Guarda, Portugal, Municipalities of Guarda District Cities in Portugal