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Graz ( , ; sl, Gradec) is the capital city of the
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastli ...

Austria
n state of
Styria Styria (german: Steiermark ; Croatian Croatian may refer to: *Croatia *Croatian cuisine *Croatian language *Croatian name *Croats, people from Croatia, or of Croatian descent *Citizens of Croatia, see demographics of Croatia See also * Croati ...
and second-largest city in Austria after
Vienna Vienna ( ; german: Wien ; bar, Wean, label=Bavarian language, Austro-Bavarian ) is the Capital city, national capital, largest city, and one of States of Austria, nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's List of cities and towns in Austria, mos ...

Vienna
. As of 1 January 2021, it had a population of 331,562 (294,236 of whom had principal-residence status). In 2018, the population of the Graz
larger urban zone The larger urban zone (LUZ), or functional urban area (FUA), is a measure of the population and expanse of metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populate ...
(LUZ) stood at 652,654, based on principal-residence status. Graz is known as a college and university city, with four colleges and four universities. Combined, the city is home to more than 60,000 students. Its historic centre ''(
Altstadt ''Altstadt'' is the German language word for "old town", and generally refers to the historical town or city centre within the old town or city wall, in contrast to younger suburbs outside. ''Neustadt (urban district), Neustadt'' (new town), the ...

Altstadt
'') is one of the best-preserved city centres in Central Europe. In 1999, the city's historic centre was added to the
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
list of
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
s and in 2010 the designation was expanded to include
Eggenberg Palace
Eggenberg Palace
(german: Schloss Eggenberg) on the western edge of the city. Graz was designated the
Cultural Capital of Europe A European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union (EU) for a period of one calendar year during which it organises a series of cultural events with a strong pan-European dimension. Being a European Capital of Culture can be ...
in 2003 and became a City of Culinary Delights in 2008.


Etymology

The name of the city, Graz, formerly spelled Gratz, most likely stems from the Slavic ''gradec'', which means "small castle". Some archaeological finds point to the erection of a small castle by Alpine Slavic people, which over time became a heavily defended fortification. In literary
Slovene Slovene or Slovenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Slovenia, a country in Central Europe * Slovene language, a South Slavic language mainly spoken in Slovenia * Slovenes, an ethno-linguistic group mainly living in Slovenia * Sla ...
, ''gradec'' still means "small castle", forming a
hypocoristic A hypocorism ( or ; from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the follow ...
derivative of Proto-West-South Slavic *gradьcъ, which descends via liquid metathesis from
Common Slavic Proto-Slavic is the unattested, reconstructed proto-language of all the Slavic languages The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European languages The Indo-European languages are a language family nati ...
*gardьcъ and via the Slavic third palatalisation from
Proto-Slavic Proto-Slavic is the unattested, reconstructed Reconstruction may refer to: Politics, history, and sociology *Reconstruction (law), the transfer of a company's (or several companies') business to a new company *''Perestroika'' (Russian for ...
*gardiku, originally denoting "small town, settlement". The name thus follows the common South Slavic pattern for naming settlements as '' grad''. The German name 'Graz' first appears in records in 1128.


Geography

Graz is situated on both sides of the Mur river in southeast Austria. It is about southwest of Vienna (''Wien''). The nearest larger urban centre is
Maribor Maribor ( , , ; also known by other #Name, historical names) is the second-largest city in Slovenia and the largest city of the traditional region of Styria (Slovenia), Lower Styria. It is also the seat of the City Municipality of Maribor, the s ...

Maribor
(''Marburg'') in Slovenia, which is about to the south. Graz is the state capital and largest city in Styria, a green and heavily forested region on the eastern edge of the
Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest and most extensive mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt ...

Alps
. It is located in the Graz Basin and surrounded by mountains and hills to the north, east and west. The city center sits at an elevation of , the highest point is Plabutsch mountain with at the western border. The mountain Schöckl is just a few kilometers to the north and surmounts the city by .


Neighbouring municipalities

These towns and villages border Graz: * to the north: Gratkorn, Stattegg, Weinitzen * to the east: Kainbach bei Graz, Hart bei Graz, Raaba * to the south: Gössendorf,
Feldkirchen bei Graz Feldkirchen bei Graz is a municipality in the district of Graz-Umgebung in the Austrian state of Styria. History It is the site of the mass grave of prisoners interned, tortured and killed by the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the nearby Thalerhof in ...
,
Seiersberg
Seiersberg
* to the west: Attendorf, Thal,
Judendorf-Straßengel
Judendorf-Straßengel


Districts

Graz is divided into 17 municipal districts ( ''Stadtbezirke''):


History

The oldest settlement on the ground of the modern city of Graz dates back to the
Copper Age The Chalcolithic (),The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) , p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective ''Archaeology'' of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BC, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, ...
. However, no historical continuity exists of a settlement before the Middle Ages. During the 12th century, dukes under
Babenberg Babenberg was a noble dynasty of Austrian margraves and dukes. Originally from Bamberg in the Duchy of Franconia (present-day Bavaria Bavaria (; German language, German and Bavarian language, Bavarian: ''Bayern'' ), officially the Free State ...
rule made the town into an important commercial center. Later, Graz came under the rule of the
Habsburg The House of Habsburg (), alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English (german: Haus Habsburg ; es, Casa de Habsburgo ; hu, Habsburg-család), also known as the House of Austria (german: link=no, Haus Österreich; es, link=no, Casa de Austria), ...

Habsburg
s and, in 1281, gained special privileges from King Rudolph I. In the 14th century, Graz became the city of residence of the
Inner Austria Inner Austria (german: Innerösterreich, sl, Notranja Avstrija, it, Austria Interiore) was a term used from the late 14th to the early 17th century for the Habsburg The House of Habsburg (; ; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; german: ...
n line of the Habsburgs. The royalty lived in the Schlossberg castle and from there ruled
Styria Styria (german: Steiermark ; Croatian Croatian may refer to: *Croatia *Croatian cuisine *Croatian language *Croatian name *Croats, people from Croatia, or of Croatian descent *Citizens of Croatia, see demographics of Croatia See also * Croati ...
,
Carinthia Carinthia (german: Kärnten ; sl, Koroška ) is the southernmost Austrian state or ''Land''. Situated within the Eastern Alps Eastern Alps is the name given to the eastern half of the Alps, usually defined as the area east of a line from L ...
, most of today's Slovenia, and parts of Italy (
Carniola Carniola (Slovene Slovene or Slovenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Slovenia, a country in Central Europe * Slovene language, a South Slavic language mainly spoken in Slovenia * Slovenes, an ethno-linguistic group mainly li ...

Carniola
,
Gorizia and Gradisca The Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca (german: Gefürstete Grafschaft Görz und Gradisca; it, Principesca Contea di Gorizia e Gradisca; sl, Poknežena grofija Goriška in Gradiščanska), historically sometimes shortened to and spelled "Go ...
,
Trieste Trieste ( , ; sl, Trst ; german: Triest ) is a city and in northeastern . It is the capital city, and largest city, of the of , one of two autonomous regions which are not subdivided into . Trieste is located at the head of the , on a narrow ...

Trieste
). In the 16th century, the city's design and planning were primarily controlled by Italian Renaissance architects and artists. One of the most famous buildings representative of this style is the Landhaus, designed by Domenico dell'Allio, and used by the local rulers as a governmental headquarters. The
University of Graz A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various Discipline (academia), academic d ...

University of Graz
was founded by Archduke Karl II in 1585, it's the city's oldest university. For most of its existence, it was controlled by the
Catholic church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Catholics Catholic Church by country, worldwide . As the wo ...

Catholic church
, and was closed in 1782 by
Joseph II Joseph II (German: ''Josef Benedikt Anton Michel Adam''; English: ''Joseph Benedict Anthony Michael Adam''; 13 March 1741 – 20 February 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from August 1765 and sole ruler of the Habsburg Monarchy, Habsburg lands from N ...

Joseph II
in an attempt to gain state control over educational institutions. Joseph II transformed it into a lyceum where civil servants and medical personnel were trained. In 1827 it was re-established as a university by Emperor Franz I, and was named 'Karl-Franzens Universität' or 'Charles-Francis University' in English. More than 30,000 students are currently enrolled at this university. Astronomer
Johannes Kepler Johannes Kepler (; ; 27 December 1571 – 15 November 1630) was a German astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth. They observe as ...

Johannes Kepler
lived in Graz for a short period. He worked as a math teacher and was a professor of mathematics at the University of Graz, but still found time to study astronomy. He left Graz for
Prague Prague ( ; cs, Praha ; german: Prag, ; la, Praga) is the capital and largest city A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people ...

Prague
when
Lutheran Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism that identifies with the teachings of Jesus Christ and was founded by Martin Luther, a 16th-century German monk and Protestant Reformers, reformer whose efforts to reform the theology ...
s were banned from the city.
Ludwig Boltzmann Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (; 20 February 1844 – 5 September 1906) was an Austria Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a landlocked country in the southern part of Central Europe, located on the Eastern Alps. It is compo ...
was Professor for Mathematical Physics from 1869 to 1890. During that time,
Nikola Tesla Nikola Tesla ( ; sr-cyr, Никола Тесла, ; 10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was a Serbian-American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, and futurist best known for his contributions to the design of the moder ...

Nikola Tesla
studied electrical engineering at the Polytechnic in 1875. Nobel Laureate
Otto Loewi Otto Loewi (; 3 June 1873 – 25 December 1961) was a German-born pharmacologist Pharmacology is a branch of medicine and pharmaceutical sciences concerned with drug or medication action, where a drug may be defined as any artificial, natu ...

Otto Loewi
taught at the University of Graz from 1909 until 1938.
Ivo Andrić Ivo Andrić ( sr-Cyrl, Иво Андрић, ; born Ivan Andrić; 9 October 1892 – 13 March 1975) was a Yugoslav novelist, poet and short story writer who won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1961. His writings dealt mainly with life in hi ...
, the 1961 Nobel Prize for Literature Laureate obtained his doctorate at the University of Graz.
Erwin Schrödinger Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (, ; ; 12 August 1887 – 4 January 1961), sometimes written as or , was a Nobel Prize-winning Austrian-Irish physicist who developed a number of fundamental results in quantum field theory, quantum the ...
was briefly chancellor of the University of Graz in 1936. Graz is centrally located within today's '' Bundesland'' (state) of
Styria Styria (german: Steiermark ; Croatian Croatian may refer to: *Croatia *Croatian cuisine *Croatian language *Croatian name *Croats, people from Croatia, or of Croatian descent *Citizens of Croatia, see demographics of Croatia See also * Croati ...
, or ''Steiermark'' in German. ''Mark'' is an old German word indicating a large area of land used as a defensive border, in which the peasantry is taught how to organize and fight in the case of an invasion. With a strategic location at the head of the open and fertile Mur valley, Graz was historically a target of invaders, such as the Hungarians under
Matthias Corvinus Matthias Corvinus, also called Matthias I ( hu, Hunyadi Mátyás, ro, Matei Corvin, sh, Matija Korvin, sk, Matej Korvín, cz, Matyáš Korvín; ), was King of Hungary and King of Croatia, Croatia from 1458 to 1490. After conducting several m ...

Matthias Corvinus
in 1481, and the
Ottoman Turks The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, tr, Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish language , Turkish-speaking people of the Ottoman Empire ( 1299–1922/1923). Reliable information about the early history of Ottoman Turks remains scarce, but the ...
in 1529 and 1532. Apart from the Riegersburg Castle, the Schlossberg was the only fortification in the region that never fell to the Ottoman Turks. Graz is home to the region's provincial armory, which is the world's largest historical collection of late medieval and Renaissance weaponry. It has been preserved since 1551, and displays over 30,000 items. From the earlier part of the 15th century, Graz was the residence of the younger branch of the Habsburgs, which succeeded to the imperial throne in 1619 in the person of
Emperor Ferdinand II Ferdinand II (9 July 1578 – 15 February 1637) was Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia, King of Hungary, Hungary, and List of Croatian monarchs, Croatia between the late 1610s and his death in 1637. He was the son of Charles II, Archduke of Aus ...
, who moved the capital to Vienna. New fortifications were built on the Schlossberg at the end of the 16th century.
Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General o ...
's army occupied Graz in 1797. In 1809, the city withstood another assault by the French army. During this attack, the commanding officer in the fortress was ordered to defend it with about 900 men against Napoleon's army of about 3,000. He successfully defended the Schlossberg against eight attacks, but they were forced to give up after the Grande Armée occupied Vienna and the Emperor ordered to surrender. Following the defeat of Austria by Napoleonic forces at the
Battle of Wagram The Battle of Wagram (; 5–6 July 1809) was a military engagement of the Napoleonic Wars that ended in a costly but decisive victory for Emperor of the French, Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte's French and allied army against the Austrian Empire, Austr ...

Battle of Wagram
in 1809, the fortifications were demolished using explosives, as stipulated in the Peace of
Schönbrunn
Schönbrunn
of the same year. The belltower (Glockenturm) and the civic clock tower (''Uhrturm''), which is a leading tourist attraction and serves as a symbol for Graz, were spared after the citizens of Graz paid a ransom for their preservation. Archduke Karl II of Inner Austria had 20,000
Protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Reformation reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of , but disagree among themselves ...
books burned in the square of what is now a mental hospital, and succeeded in returning Styria to the authority of the
Holy See The Holy See ( lat, Sancta Sedes, ; it, Santa Sede ), also called the See of Rome or Apostolic See, is the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian ...
.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand Archduke Franz Ferdinand Carl Ludwig Joseph Maria of Austria (18 December 1863 – 28 June 1914) was the heir presumptive to the throne of Austria-Hungary. His Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, assassination in Sarajevo is conside ...
was born in Graz in what is now the Stadtmuseum (city museum). On April 2, 1945, while the heaviest Allied bomb raid of Graz occurred, the Gestapo and Waffen-SS committed a massacre against resistance fighters, Hungarian-Jewish forced laborers, and POWs at the SS barracks at Graz-Wetzelsdorf.


Population development

The more recent population figures do not give the whole picture as only people with principal-residence status are counted and people with secondary residence status are not. Most of the people with secondary residence status in Graz are students. At the end of 2016 there were 33,473 people with secondary residence status in Graz.


Climate

Oceanic climate An oceanic climate, also known as a maritime climate or marine climate, is the Köppen classification of climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the deg ...
is the type found in the city, but due to the 0 °C isotherm, the same occurs in a
humid continental climate A humid continental climate is a climatic Climate is the long-term average of weather, typically averaged over a period of 30 years. More rigorously, it is the mean and variability of meteorological variables over a time spanning from months t ...
with based in Köppen system (Cfb/Dfb borderline).
Wladimir Köppen Wladimir Peter Köppen (; russian: Влади́мир Петро́вич Кёппен, translit=Vladímir Petróvič Këppen); 25 September 1846 – 22 June 1940) was a History of Germans in Russia, Ukraine and the Soviet Union, Russian-German geo ...
himself was in town and conducted studies to see how the climate of the past influenced the Continental Drift theory. Due to its position southeast of the
Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest and most extensive mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt ...

Alps
, Graz is shielded from the prevailing westerly winds that bring weather fronts in from the North Atlantic to northwestern and central Europe. The weather in Graz is thus influenced by the Mediterranean, and it has more hours of sunshine per year than Vienna or Salzburg and also less wind or rain. Graz lies in a basin that is only open to the south, causing the climate to be warmer than would be expected at that latitude. Plants are found in Graz that normally grow much further south. * average temperatures:
Graz Airport Graz Airport , known as ''Flughafen Graz'' in German, is a primary international airport serving southern Austria. It is located near Graz, the second-largest city in Austria, in the municipalities of Feldkirchen bei Graz, Feldkirchen and Kalsdorf ...
/ Karl-Franzens University * average rainfall: with on average 92 days of rain (Karl Franzens University) * average hours of sunshine: 1,989 (Karl Franzens University)


Slovenes and Graz

Politically, culturally, scientifically and religiously, Graz was an important centre for all
Slovenes The Slovenes, also known as Slovenians ( sl, Slovenci ), are a nation A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research ta ...
, especially from the establishment of the University of Graz in 1586 until the establishment of
University of Ljubljana The University of Ljubljana ( sl, Univerza v Ljubljani, , la, Universitas Labacensis), often referred to as UL, is the oldest and largest university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of high ...
in 1919. In 1574, the was published in Graz, and in 1592,
Hieronymus Megiser Hieronymus Megiser (c.1554 in Stuttgart – 1618 or 1619 in Linz, Austria) was a German polymath, linguist and historian. Career From 1571 he studied at the University of Tübingen, and was a favourite student of the humanist and philologist Nicod ...
published in Graz the book ''
Dictionarium quatuor linguarum ''Dictionarium quatuor linguarum'' (The Dictionary of Four Languages) is a 16th-century book by the German polymath Hieronymus Megiser that includes a multilingual dictionary and a multilingual grammar of Italian language, Italian, Slovene language ...
'', the first multilingual dictionary of Slovene. The Styrian Slovenes did not consider Graz a German-speaking city, but their own, a place to study while living at their relatives' homes and to fulfill one's career ambitions. The student associations in Graz were a crucible of the Slovene identity, and the Slovene students in Graz were more nationally aware than some others. This led to fierce anti-Slovene efforts of German-speaking nationalists in Graz before and during World War II. Many Slovenian Styrians study there. Slovenes are among the professors at the Institute for Jazz in Graz. Numerous Slovenes have found employment there, while being formerly unemployed in Slovenia. For the Slovene culture, Graz remains permanently important due to its university and the
Universalmuseum Joanneum The Universalmuseum Joanneum is a multidisciplinary museum with buildings in several locations in the province of Styria Styria (german: Steiermark ; Croatian and sl, ; hu, Stájerország, Austro-Bavarian: ''Steiamoak'') is a state (''Bu ...
archives containing numerous documents from the Slovenian Styria. A symposium on the relation of Graz and the Slovenes was held in Graz in 2010, at the occasion of the 200th anniversary of the establishment of the first and oldest chair of Slovene. It was established at the Lyzeum of Graz in July 1811 on the initiative of . A collection of lectures on the topic was published. The Slovenian Post commemorated the anniversary with a stamp.


Main sights

For the year that Graz was
Cultural Capital of Europe A European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union (EU) for a period of one calendar year during which it organises a series of cultural events with a strong pan-European dimension. Being a European Capital of Culture can be ...
, new structures were erected. The Graz Museum of Contemporary Art (German: Kunsthaus) was designed by
Peter Cook Peter Edward Cook (17 November 1937 – 9 January 1995) was an English satirist and comedic actor. He was a leading figure of the British satire boom of the 1960s, and he was associated with the anti-establishment comedic movement that emerge ...
and Colin Fournier and is situated next to the Mur river. The Island in the Mur is a floating platform made of steel. It was designed by American architect
Vito Acconci File:'City of Words', lithograph by Vito Acconci, 1999.jpg, 250px, ''City of Words'', lithograph by Acconci, 1999 Vito Acconci (, ; January 24, 1940 – April 27, 2017) was an influential American performance art, performance, video and installa ...
and contains a café, an open-air theatre and a playground.


Historic city centre

The historic centre was added to the
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
World Heritage List A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...
in 1999 due to the harmonious co-existence of typical buildings from different epochs and in different architectural styles. Situated in a cultural borderland between Central Europe, Italy and the Balkan States, Graz absorbed various influences from the neighbouring regions and thus received its exceptional townscape. Today the historic centre consists of over 1,000 buildings, their age ranging from Gothic to contemporary. The most important sights in the historic centre are: * Town Hall (Rathaus). * The Castle hill (German: Schlossberg), a hill dominating the historic centre ( high), site of a demolished fortress, with views over Graz. * The Clock Tower (Uhrturm) is a symbol of Graz, at the top of the Castle hill. * The New Gallery (Neue Galerie), a museum of art. * The Castle hill funicular (Schlossbergbahn), a funicular railway on the Castle hill's slope. * The seat of Styria's provincial parliament (Landhaus), a palace in Lombardic style. It is one of the most important examples of Renaissance architecture in Austria and was built by Italian architect Domenico dell'Allio between 1557 and 1565. * The Armoury (Landeszeughaus) is the largest of its kind in the world. * The (Opernhaus), the principal venue for opera, ballet, and operetta performances. It is the 2nd largest opera house in Austria. * The Graz Theatre (Schauspielhaus), Graz's principal theatre for productions of plays. * The
Cathedral A cathedral is a church (building), church that contains the ''cathedra'' () of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, Annual Conference, conference, or episcopate. Churches with the function of "cathedral" are usually spec ...
(Dom), a rare monument of Gothic architecture. Once, there were many frescos on the outer walls; today, only a few remain, like the ''Landplagenbild'' ("picture of plagues") painted in 1485, presumably by Thomas von Villach. The three plagues it depicts are locusts, pestilence and the invasion of the Turks, all of them striking the town in 1480. It features the oldest painted view of Graz. * The mausoleum of Emperor next to the cathedral, the most important building of
Mannerism Mannerism, also known as Late Renaissance, is a style in European art ''; by Johannes Vermeer Johannes Vermeer ( , , #Pronunciation of name, see below; October 1632 – December 1675) was a Dutch Baroque Period Painting, painter who speciali ...
in Graz. It includes both the grave where Ferdinand II and his wife are buried, and a church dedicated to St Catherine of Alexandria. * The Graz city park, the park is located in the middle of the city centre during the Habsburg monarchy. it was designed by the german architect Johannes Schirgie von Premstätten-Tobelbad. During the period of the Covid-19 pandemic eccentric parties were celebrated which were later dissolved by the police, the responsible jonas fabio cristo pinter an Italian club owner was arrested and the partiing stopped. * The Castle (Burg), with Gothic double staircase, built between 1438 and 1453 by Emperor
Frederick IIIFrederick III may refer to: * Frederick III, Duke of Upper Lorraine (died 1033) * Frederick III, Duke of Swabia (1122–1190) * Friedrich III, Burgrave of Nuremberg (1220–1297) * Frederick III, Duke of Lorraine (1240–1302) * Frederick III of Sici ...

Frederick III
, because the old castle on the Schlossberg hill was too small and uncomfortable. The castle remained the residence of the Inner Austrian Court until 1619. Today, it serves as residence for the Styrian government. * The Painted House (Gemaltes Haus) in Herrengasse 3. It is completely covered with frescos (painted in 1742 by Johann Mayer). * The Museum of Contemporary Art Graz (Kunsthaus) * The Island in the Mur (Murinsel), an artificial island in the Mur river. * Buildings, inner courtyards (e. g. Early Renaissance courtyard of the ''Former House of Teutonic Knights'' in Sporgasse 22) and roofscape of the old town.


Outside the historic city centre

* Eggenberg Palace (Schloss Eggenberg) a baroque palace on the western edge of Graz with State rooms and museum. In 2010 it was added to the existing World Heritage site of the historic centre of Graz. * The Mariatrost Basilica (Basilika Mariatrost) a late Baroque church, on the eastern edge of Graz. * The Jesus's Heart Church (Herz-Jesu-Kirche) is the largest church in Graz with the third highest spire in Austria, built in Gothic Revival style by Daniel Schmidbauer (austrian Politician and Doctor). * The Calvary Hill (Kalvarienberg) in the Gösting area of Graz with a 17th-century calvary and church. * The Graz University Hospital is the largest hospital in Graz and one of the largest hospitals in
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastli ...

Austria
. It's the largest Jugendstil building complex in Austria and was built between 1904 and 1912. It's run by the province Styria and is one of the most renowned hospitals in Austria and Central Europe. * The Gösting Ruin (Ruine Gösting), a ruin of a hilltop castle on the city's northwestern edge, and Plabutsch/Fürstenstand, behind Eggenberg Palace, with a hilltop restaurant and viewing tower, as well as Buchkogel/Kronprinz-Rudolf-Warte are viewpoints for vistas of the city. * The Schwanzberghotel in Hart bei Graz, a gothic built hotel during the lead of Jonas Draxler his disabled wife.


Greater Graz area

* Österreichisches Freilichtmuseum Stübing, an open-air museum containing old farmhouses/farm buildings from all over Austria reassembled in historic setting. * Lurgrotte, the most extensive cave system in Austria. * Lipizzanergestüt Piber,
Lipizzaner The Lipizzan or Lipizzaner ( hr, Lipicanac, cz, Lipicán, hu, Lipicai, it, Lipizzano, sl, Lipicanec), is a horse breed named for the Lipizza Stud of the Habsburg monarchy. The breed is closely associated with the Spanish Riding School of Vien ...
stud at Piber where the famous horses are bred. * The Steirische Weinstraße is a wine-growing region south of Graz, also known as the "Styrian Tuscany". * Thermenregion, spa region east of Graz. * Riegersburg Castle, a mighty fortress that was never taken. It was a bastion against Turkish invasions


Politics

For much of its post-war history Graz was a stronghold of the
Social Democratic Party of Austria The Social Democratic Party of Austria (german: Sozialdemokratische Partei Österreichs, SPÖ), founded and known as the Social Democratic Workers' Party of Austria (german: link=no, Sozialdemokratische Arbeiterpartei Österreichs, SDAPÖ) until ...
(SPÖ), but since the late 1990s the party has lost most of its support on a local level. It was overtaken by the
Austrian People's Party The Austrian People's Party (german: Österreichische Volkspartei, ÖVP) is a Christian-democratic Christian democracy is a political ideology that emerged in 19th-century Europe under the influence of Catholic social teaching, as well ...
(ÖVP) in 2003, which remained the largest party in the city council (''Gemeinderat'') until 2021. With the decline of the SPÖ, the
Communist Party of Austria The Communist Party of Austria (german: Kommunistische Partei Österreichs, KPÖ) is a communist party A communist party is a left-wing political party that seeks to realize the social and economic goals of communism. The term ''communist pa ...
(KPÖ) has become highly popular in Graz, despite its negligible presence on a national level. The party placed third with 20.8% of votes in the 2003 local election, which has been attributed to the popularity of local leader Ernest Kaltenegger. It fell to 11.2% in 2008, but recovered under new leader Elke Kahr, becoming the second most popular party in Graz with 19.9% in 2012 and 20.3% in 2017. The KPÖ's popularity in Graz allowed them to enter to the Styrian state parliament in the 2005 election, marking their first appearance in a state parliament in 35 years; they have retained their seats in the subsequent 2010, 2015, and 2019 elections. The 2021 municipal election saw a collapse in the ÖVP's popularity, allowing the KPÖ, once again led by Elke Kahr, to become the largest party with 29% of votes. She was subsequently elected mayor in November, leading a coalition with the Greens and SPÖ. The most recent city council election was held on 26 September 2021, and the results were as follows: ! colspan=2, Party ! Lead candidate ! Votes ! % ! +/- ! Seats ! +/- ! ! +/- , - , bgcolor=, , align=left,
Communist Party of Austria The Communist Party of Austria (german: Kommunistische Partei Österreichs, KPÖ) is a communist party A communist party is a left-wing political party that seeks to realize the social and economic goals of communism. The term ''communist pa ...
(KPÖ) , align=left, Elke Kahr , 34,283 , 28.84 , 8.50 , 15 , 5 , 3 , 1 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left,
Austrian People's Party The Austrian People's Party (german: Österreichische Volkspartei, ÖVP) is a Christian-democratic Christian democracy is a political ideology that emerged in 19th-century Europe under the influence of Catholic social teaching, as well ...
(ÖVP) , align=left,
Siegfried Nagl Siegfried Nagl (born 18 April 1963, in Graz) is, since 2003, the current mayor of Graz. He is a member of ÖVP, the Austrian People's Party. He was one of the many witnesses to the 2015 Graz van attack that killed three and injured more than 30. ...
, 30,797 , 25.91 , 11.88 , 13 , 6 , 2 , 1 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left,
The Greens – The Green Alternative The Austrian Green Party (german: Die Grünen – Die Grüne Alternative, lit, The Greens – The Green Alternative) is a green politics, green list of political parties in Austria, political party in Austria. The party was founded in 1986 under ...
(GRÜNE) , align=left, , 20,593 , 17.32 , 6.81 , 9 , 4 , 1 , ±0 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left,
Freedom Party of Austria The Freedom Party of Austria (german: Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs, FPÖ) is a right-wing populist and national-conservative political party in Austria. It has been led by Norbert Hofer since September 2019. It is the third largest of fiv ...
(FPÖ) , align=left, Mario Eustacchio , 12,612 , 10.61 , 5.25 , 5 , 3 , 1 , ±0 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left,
Social Democratic Party of Austria The Social Democratic Party of Austria (german: Sozialdemokratische Partei Österreichs, SPÖ), founded and known as the Social Democratic Workers' Party of Austria (german: link=no, Sozialdemokratische Arbeiterpartei Österreichs, SDAPÖ) until ...
(SPÖ) , align=left, Michael Ehmann , 11,325 , 9.53 , 0.52 , 4 , 1 , 0 , ±0 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left,
NEOS – The New Austria and Liberal Forum NEOS – The New Austria and Liberal Forum (german: NEOS – Das Neue Österreich und Liberales Forum) is a liberal political party in Austria. It was founded as NEOS – The New Austria in 2012. In 2014, NEOS merged with Liberal Forum and adopt ...
(NEOS) , align=left, Philipp Pointner , 6,447 , 5.42 , 1.48 , 2 , 1 , 0 , ±0 , - , , align=left, Others , align=left, – , 2,825 , 2.37 , – , 0 , ±0 , 0 , ±0 , - ! colspan=3, Invalid votes ! 1,807 ! ! ! ! ! ! , - ! colspan=3, Total ! 120,689 ! 100.00 ! ! 48 ! ±0 ! 7 ! ±0 , - ! colspan=3, Electorate/voter turnout ! 223,512 ! 54.00 ! 3.39 ! ! ! ! , - , colspan=10, Source
Stadt Graz


Culture

During 2003 Graz held the title of "
European Capital of Culture A European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members ha ...

European Capital of Culture
" and was one of the
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
"Cities of Design" in 2011.


Museums

The most important museums in Graz are: *
Schloss Eggenberg Eggenberg Palace (german: link=no, Schloss Eggenberg) in Graz Graz ( , ; sl, Gradec) is the capital city of the Austria Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a landlocked country in the southern part of Central Euro ...
with Alte Galerie (paintings and sculptures from the Romanesque to the end of the Baroque period), Coin Collection,
Lapidarium 210px, The lapidarium section in the Aquincum Museum, Budapest, Hungary A lapidarium is a place where stone (Latin: ) monuments and fragments of archaeological interest are exhibited. They can include stone epigraphy, epigraphs; statues; architectu ...

Lapidarium
(Roman stonework collection),Archeological Museum (featuring the Cult Wagon of Strettweg) a special exhibitions area and the 90,000 m2 romantic landscape gardens. * Museum im Palais: museum of Styrian cultural history from the Middle Ages to the present. * Neue Galerie: visual arts from the 19th and 20th centuries. * Natural History Museum: exhibition of botany, mineralogy and zoology. * Stadtmuseum Graz: city museum. * Kunsthaus: exhibition hall of
contemporary art Contemporary art is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and ...

contemporary art
. * Forum Stadtpark: museum of contemporary art. * Camera Austria: museum of contemporary photography. * Landeszeughaus: medieval armory comprising 32,000 pieces of armour and weaponry, largest of its kind in the world. * Volkskundemuseum: museum of
folk culture Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition ab ...
and
lore Lore may refer to: * Folklore, acquired knowledge or traditional beliefs * Oral lore or oral tradition, orally conveyed cultural knowledge and traditions Places * Loré, former French commune * Loré (East Timor), a city and subdistrict in Lautém ...

lore
. * Diözesanmuseum: museum of the
Roman Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Roman Catholic Church
. * Künstlerhaus: exhibition hall of contemporary visual arts. * Literaturhaus: museum of contemporary
German literature German literature () comprises those literary Literature broadly is any collection of written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an art form, especially prose fiction, drama Drama is the ...
. * Museum der Wahrnehmung: museum of the senses,
samadhi Image:Anuradhapura-Samadhi Statue-hd.jpg, 260px, The Samadhi Statue, Samādhi Buddha, Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka ''Samadhi'' ( sa, समाधि), in Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, Sikhism and yogic schools, is a state of meditation, meditative cons ...

samadhi
bath. * Kindermuseum Frida&Fred: museum for children. * Tramway Museum: 40 historic
tram A tram (also known as a streetcar or trolley in North America) is a train that runs on tramway track Tramway track is used on tramways or light rail operations. Groove (engineering), Grooved rails (or Rail profile#Grooved rail, girder ...

tram
s, the oldest dating from 1873. * Kriminalmuseum: museum of criminology. * Luftfahrtmuseum: (Graz airport) aviation museum. * Hanns Schell Collection:
key Key or The Key may refer to: Common meanings * Key (cryptography), a piece of information that controls the operation of a cryptography algorithm * Key (lock), device used to control access to places or facilities restricted by a lock * Key (map) ...
and lock museum, largest of its kind in the world. * Austrian Sculpture Park: seven hectares of contemporary sculpture. * Botanical Garden of Graz: three architecturally interesting glass houses plus gardens.


Architecture

The Old Town and the adjacent districts are characterized by the historic residential buildings and churches found there. In the outer districts buildings are predominantly of the architectural styles from the second half of the 20th century. In 1965 the ''Grazer Schule'' (School of Graz) was founded. Several buildings around the universities are of this style, for example the green houses by Volker Giencke and the ''RESOWI'' center by Günther Domenig. Before Graz became the European Capital of Culture in 2003, several new projects were realized, such as the ''Stadthalle'', the ''Kindermuseum'' (museum for children), the ''Helmut-List-Halle'', the ''Kunsthaus'' and the ''Murinsel''. * Tallest buildings Buildings in Graz which are at least 50m tall:


Sports

SK Sturm Graz Sportklub Sturm Graz is an Austrian association football club, based in Graz, Styria, playing in the Austrian Football Bundesliga. The club was founded in 1909. Its colours are black and white. In its history, Sturm Graz has won the Austrian foot ...

SK Sturm Graz
is the main football club of the city, with three Austrian championships and five runner-up seasons.
Grazer AK Grazer AK, founded 18 August 1902 as Grazer Athletiksport Klub (in Austria the abbreviation GAK is more common), is an Austrian sports club, from the city of Graz in the federal state of Styria (''Steiermark''). The football section used to be one ...
also won an Austrian championship, but went into administration in 2007 and was excluded from the professional league system. In ice hockey, ATSE Graz was the
Austrian Hockey League The ICE Hockey League (International Central European Hockey League) known as the bet-at-home ICE Hockey League for sponsorship reasons) is a Central European hockey league that also serves as the top-tier ice hockey league in Austria, it currently ...
champion in 1975 and 1978. EC Graz was runner-up in 1991–92, 1992–93 and 1993–94.
Graz 99ers The Moser Medical Graz99ers are an Austria, Austrian professional ice hockey team from Graz, Styria. The club was founded in 1999 after the previous club, EHC Graz, folded prior to the 1998-99 Austrian Hockey League season, 1998–99 season due to ...
has played in the first division since 2000. UBSC Raiffeisen Graz plays in the
Austrian Basketball League The Austrian Basketball Bundesliga (in German language, German: Österreichische Basketball Bundesliga) was the top men's professional basketball league in Austria.Graz Giants play in the
Austrian Football League The Austrian Football League (AFL) is the elite league of American football American football, referred to simply as football in the United States and Canada and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players ...
(American Football). The city bid for the 2002 Winter Olympics in 1995, but lost the election to
Salt Lake City Salt Lake City (often shortened to Salt Lake and abbreviated as SLC) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or c ...

Salt Lake City
. Nowadays there is a plan to bid for the 2026 Winter Olympics with some venues in
Bavaria Bavaria (; German language, German and Bavarian language, Bavarian: ''Bayern'' ), officially the Free State of Bavaria (German and Bavarian: ''Freistaat Bayern''; ), is a Landlocked country, landlocked Federated state, state (''States of Germany ...

Bavaria
,
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the and by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the , according to population within city l ...

Germany
to cut costs using existing venues around national borders. It's still facing a referendum, meaning usually the end for many former Olympic bids in
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered ...

Europe
and
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
since 1970.


Styriarte

Graz hosts the annual festival of classical music
Styriarte Styriarte (also written styriarte) is an annual summer festival of classical music in Graz and Styria, Austria, established in 1985. It is focused on Early music, Baroque music and music of the Classical period (music), Classical period. Intended to ...
, founded in 1985 to tie conductor
Nikolaus Harnoncourt Johann Nikolaus Harnoncourt or historically Johann Nikolaus Graf de la Fontaine und d'Harnoncourt-Unverzagt; () (6 December 1929 – 5 March 2016) was an Austrian conductor Conductor or conduction may refer to: Music * Conductor (music), a ...
closer to his hometown. Events have been held at different venues in Graz and in the surrounding region.


Dialect

Referred to as ''Steirisch'' by locals, Graz belongs to the
Austro-Bavarian Austro-Bavarian (also known as Austrian or Bavarian; or ; german: Bairisch ) is a West Germanic language spoken in parts of Bavaria and most of Austria. Before 1945, Austro-Bavarian was also prevalent in parts of the southern Czech Republic ...
region of dialects, more specifically a mix of
Central Bavarian Central Bavarian, also known as Central Austro-Bavarian, form a subgroup of Bavarian language, Bavarian dialects in large parts of Austria and the German state of Bavaria along the Danube river, on the northern side of the Eastern Alps. They are spo ...
in the western part of
Styria Styria (german: Steiermark ; Croatian Croatian may refer to: *Croatia *Croatian cuisine *Croatian language *Croatian name *Croats, people from Croatia, or of Croatian descent *Citizens of Croatia, see demographics of Croatia See also * Croati ...
and
Southern Bavarian Southern Bavarian, or Southern Austro-Bavarian, is a cluster of Upper German dialects of the Bavarian language, Bavarian group. They are primarily spoken in County of Tyrol, Tyrol (i.e. the Austrian federal state of Tirol, Austria, Tyrol and the It ...
in the eastern part. The Grazer ORF, the Graz subsidiary of Austrian Broadcasting Corporation, launched an initiative in 2008 called ''Scho wieda Steirisch g'redt'' in order to highlight the numerous dialects of Graz and Styria in general and to cultivate the pride many Styrians hold for their local culture. Two reasons for a melding of these dialects with
Standard German Standard High German (SHG), less precisely Standard German or High German (not to be confused with High German The High German languages or High German dialects (german: hochdeutsche Mundarten) comprise the varieties of German spoken south ...
: the influence of television and radio bringing Standard German into the home and the industrialization causing the disappearance of the single farmer since the farming communities are seen as the true keepers of dialect speaking.


Transport

An extensive
public transport Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, mass transit, or simply transit) is a system of transport Transport (commonly used in the U.K.), or transportation (used in the U.S.), is the Motion, movement of huma ...

public transport
network makes Graz an easy city to navigate without a car. The city has a comprehensive bus network, complementing the Graz tram network consisting of eight lines. Four lines pass through the underground tram stop at the central railway station (Hauptbahnhof) and on to the city centre before branching out. Furthermore, there are seven night-time bus routes, although these run only at weekends and on evenings preceding public holidays. The Schlossbergbahn, a
funicular railway A funicular (, , ) is a transportation system that uses cable-driven cars to connect points along a steep incline. By definition, a funicular uses two counterbalanced passenger cars attached to opposite ends of the same cable, which is looped ...
, and the Schlossberg lift, a vertical lift, link the city centre to the Schlossberg. From the central railway station (
Hauptbahnhof Central stations or central railway stations emerged in the second half of the nineteenth century as railway stations that had initially been built on the edge of city centres were enveloped by urban expansion and became an integral part of the ...

Hauptbahnhof
), regional trains link to most of Styria. Direct trains run to most major cities nearby including
Vienna Vienna ( ; german: Wien ; bar, Wean, label=Bavarian language, Austro-Bavarian ) is the Capital city, national capital, largest city, and one of States of Austria, nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's List of cities and towns in Austria, mos ...

Vienna
,
Salzburg Salzburg (, ; literally "Salt Castle"; bar, Soizbuag, label=Bavarian language, Austro-Bavarian) is the List of cities and towns in Austria, fourth-largest city in Austria. In 2020, it had a population of 156,872. The town is on the site of the ...

Salzburg
,
Innsbruck Innsbruck (; bar, Innschbruck, label=Bavarian language, Austro-Bavarian ) is the capital of Tyrol (state), Tyrol and the List of cities and towns in Austria, fifth-largest city in Austria. On the Inn (river), River Inn, at its junction with the W ...

Innsbruck
,
Maribor Maribor ( , , ; also known by other #Name, historical names) is the second-largest city in Slovenia and the largest city of the traditional region of Styria (Slovenia), Lower Styria. It is also the seat of the City Municipality of Maribor, the s ...

Maribor
and
Ljubljana Ljubljana (also known by other historical names) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more for ...

Ljubljana
in
Slovenia Slovenia ( ; sl, Slovenija ), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: , abbr.: ''RS''), is a country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, lin ...

Slovenia
,
Zagreb Zagreb ( , , , ) is the capital (political), capital and List of cities and towns in Croatia#List of cities and towns, largest city of Croatia. It is in the northwest of the country, along the Sava river, at the southern slopes of the Medvedni ...

Zagreb
in
Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = "Lijepa naša domovino ''Lijepa naša domovino'' (; ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that ...

Croatia
,
Budapest Budapest (, ) is the capital and the List of cities and towns of Hungary, most populous city of Hungary, and the Largest cities of the European Union by population within city limits, ninth-largest city in the European Union by population with ...

Budapest
in
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a in . Spanning of the , it is bordered by to the north, to the northeast, to the east and southeast, to the south, and to the southwest and to the west. Hungary has a population of 10 million, mostl ...

Hungary
,
Prague Prague ( ; cs, Praha ; german: Prag, ; la, Praga) is the capital and largest city A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people ...

Prague
and
Brno Brno ( , ; german: Brünn, ) is a Statutory city (Czech Republic), city in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic. Located at the confluence of the Svitava (river), Svitava and Svratka (river), Svratka rivers, Brno has about 380,000 inh ...

Brno
in the
Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It ...
,
Zürich , neighboring_municipalities = Adliswil, Dübendorf, Fällanden, Kilchberg, Zurich, Kilchberg, Maur, Switzerland, Maur, Oberengstringen, Opfikon, Regensdorf, Rümlang, Schlieren, Zurich, Schlieren, Stallikon, Uitikon, Urdorf, Wallisellen, Zollik ...

Zürich
in
Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under an assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_title1 = Fe ...

Switzerland
, as well as
Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria. With a population of 1,558,395 inhabitants as of 31 July 2020, it is the List of cities in Germany by population, third-largest city in Germany, ...

Munich
,
Stuttgart Stuttgart (; : ; ) is the and of the of . It is located on the river in a fertile valley known locally as the "Stuttgart Cauldron" and lies an hour from the and the . Its area has a population of 635,911, making it the in Germany. 2.8 m ...

Stuttgart
,
Heidelberg Heidelberg () is a in the of , situated on the river in south-west . In the 2016 census, its population was 159,914, of which roughly a quarter consisted of students. Located about south of , Heidelberg is the in Baden-Württemberg. Heidel ...

Heidelberg
, and
Frankfurt Frankfurt, officially Frankfurt am Main (; Hessian dialects, Hessian: , "Franks, Frank ford (crossing), ford on the Main (river), Main"; french: Francfort-sur-le-Main), is the most populous city in the States of Germany, German state of Hess ...

Frankfurt
in
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the and by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the , according to population within city l ...

Germany
. Trains for Vienna leave every hour. In recent years many railway stations within the city limits and in the suburbs have been rebuilt or modernised and are now part of the "S-Bahn Graz", a commuter train service connecting the city with its suburban area and towns nearby.
Graz Airport Graz Airport , known as ''Flughafen Graz'' in German, is a primary international airport serving southern Austria. It is located near Graz, the second-largest city in Austria, in the municipalities of Feldkirchen bei Graz, Feldkirchen and Kalsdorf ...
is located about south of the city centre and is accessible by bus, railway
taxi
and car. Direct destinations include Amsterdam, Berlin,
Düsseldorf Düsseldorf (, , ; often in English sources; Low Franconian and Ripuarian language, Ripuarian: ''Düsseldörp'' ; archaic nl, Dusseldorp) is the capital city of North Rhine-Westphalia, the most populous state of Germany. It is the second-large ...

Düsseldorf
, Frankfurt, Munich,
Stuttgart Stuttgart (; : ; ) is the and of the of . It is located on the river in a fertile valley known locally as the "Stuttgart Cauldron" and lies an hour from the and the . Its area has a population of 635,911, making it the in Germany. 2.8 m ...

Stuttgart
, Istanbul, Vienna and Zurich. In 2021 a two-line
metro Metro, short for metropolitan, may refer to: Geography * Metro (city), a city in Indonesia * A metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surro ...
system was proposed for Graz, which would make Graz the second Austrian city with a rapid transit system after Vienna.


Health

In Graz there are seven hospitals, several private hospitals and sanatoriums, as well as 44 pharmacies. The ''University Hospital Graz'' (LKH-Universitäts-Klinikum Graz) is located in eastern Graz and has 1,556 beds and 7,190 employees. The ''Regional Hospital Graz II'' (LKH Graz II) has two sites in Graz. The western site (LKH Graz II Standort West) is located in Eggenberg and has 280 beds and about 500 employees, the southern site (LKH Graz II Standort Süd) specializes in neurology and psychiatry and is located in Straßgang with 880 beds and 1,100 employees. The ''AUVA Accident Hospital'' (Unfallkrankenhaus der AUVA) is in Eggenberg and has 180 beds and a total of 444 employees. The Albert Schweitzer Clinic in the western part of the city is a geriatric hospital with 304 beds, the Hospital of St. John of God (Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Brüder) has two sites in Graz, one in Lend with 225 beds and one in Eggenberg with 260 beds. The Hospital of the Order of Saint Elizabeth (Krankenhaus der Elisabethinen) in Gries has 182 beds. There are several private clinics as well: the Privatklinik Kastanienhof, the Privatklinik Leech, the Privatklinik der Kreuzschwestern, the Sanatorium St. Leonhard, the Sanatorium Hansa and the Privatklinik Graz-Ragnitz.
EMS#REDIRECT EMS Ems or EMS may refer to: Places and rivers * Domat/Ems Domat/Ems ( rm, Domat ; german: Ems) is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powe ...
in Graz is provided solely by the
Austrian Red Cross The Austrian Red Cross (German language, German: ''Österreichisches Rotes Kreuz'', ÖRK) is the national Red Cross Organization in Austria and is part of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement. It was established on March 14, 1880, ...
. Perpetually two emergency doctor's cars (''NEF – Notarzteinsatzfahrzeug''), two NAWs (''Notarztwagen'' – ambulances staffed with a physician in addition to regular personnel) and about 30 RTWs (''Rettungswagen'' – regular ambulances) are on standby. Furthermore, several non-emergency ambulances (''KTW – Krankentransportwagen'') and a Mobile Intensive Care Unit (MICU) are operated by the
Red Cross The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international movement with approximately 97 million , members and staff worldwide, which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to ...

Red Cross
to transport non-emergency patients to and between hospitals. In addition to the Red Cross, the Labourers'-Samaritan-Alliance (Arbeiter-Samariter-Bund Österreichs), the Austrian organisation of the
Order of Malta Ambulance Corps The Order of Malta Ireland – Ambulance Corps is a voluntary Voluntary may refer to: * Voluntary (music)In music a voluntary is a piece of music, usually for an organ, that is played as part of a church service. In English-speaking countries, t ...
(Malteser Hospitaldienst Austria) and the Green Cross (''Grünes Kreuz'') operate ambulances (''KTW'') for non-emergency patient transport. In addition to the cars, there's also the C12 air ambulance helicopter stationed at Graz airport, staffed with an emergency physician in addition to regular personnel.


International relations


Twin towns and sister cities

Graz is twinned with: *
MontclairMontclair is a toponym which is French for ''clear mountain''. It may refer to: Places in the United States *Montclair, New Jersey **Montclair Art Museum **Montclair State University **Upper Montclair, New Jersey **Montclair Public Library * Mont ...
,
New Jersey New Jersey is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic States, Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States, Northeastern regions of the United States. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York (state), New York; on the ea ...
, United States, since 1950 *
Coventry Coventry ( or ) is a City status in the United Kingdom, city in the West Midlands (county), West Midlands, England. It is on the River Sherbourne. Coventry has been a large settlement for centuries, although it was not founded and given its c ...

Coventry
, England, United Kingdom, since 1957 *
Groningen Groningen ( , , , ; gos, Grunn or ) is the capital city and main municipality of Groningen province Groningen (; gos, Grunn; fry, Grinslân) is the northeasternmost Provinces of the Netherlands, province of the Netherlands. It borders on ...
, Netherlands, since 1964 *
Darmstadt Darmstadt (, also , , ) is a city in the States of Germany, state of Hesse in Germany, located in the southern part of the Frankfurt Rhine Main Area, Rhine-Main-Area (Frankfurt Metropolitan Region). Darmstadt has around 160,000 inhabitants, m ...

Darmstadt
, Germany, since 1968 *
Trondheim Trondheim (, , ; sma, Tråante), historically Kaupangen, and Trondhjem, is a city and in county, . It has a population of 205,332 as of 2020, and is the third most populous municipality in Norway, although the . Trondheim lies on the south ...

Trondheim
, Norway, since 1968Trondheims offisielle nettsted – Vennskapsbyer
*
Pula Pula (; Italian language, Italian: ''Pola'', Istriot language, Istriot: ''Puola'', Slovene language, Slovene: ''Pulj'') is the largest city in Istria County, Croatia, and the List of cities and towns in Croatia, eighth-largest city in the count ...

Pula
, Croatia, since 1972 *
Trieste Trieste ( , ; sl, Trst ; german: Triest ) is a city and in northeastern . It is the capital city, and largest city, of the of , one of two autonomous regions which are not subdivided into . Trieste is located at the head of the , on a narrow ...

Trieste
, Italy, since 1973 *
Timișoara), City of Roses ( ro, Orașul florilor), City of Parks ( ro, Orașul parcurilor) , image_map = Timisoara pe Harta Timisului.png , pushpin_map = Romania#Europe , pushpin_relief = 1 , pushpin_label_position = bottom ...
, Romania, since 1982 *
Maribor Maribor ( , , ; also known by other #Name, historical names) is the second-largest city in Slovenia and the largest city of the traditional region of Styria (Slovenia), Lower Styria. It is also the seat of the City Municipality of Maribor, the s ...

Maribor
, Slovenia, since 1987 *
Pécs Pécs ( , ; german: Fünfkirchen, ; known by #Name, alternative names) is List of cities and towns of Hungary#Largest cities in Hungary, the fifth largest city of Hungary, located on the slopes of the Mecsek mountains in the south-west of the count ...
, Hungary, since 1989 *
Dubrovnik Dubrovnik (), historically known as Ragusa ( see notes on naming), is a city on the Adriatic Sea The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the from the . The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the , extending from the (where it co ...

Dubrovnik
, Croatia, since 1994 *
Ljubljana Ljubljana (also known by other historical names) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more for ...

Ljubljana
, Slovenia, since 2001 *
Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), ...

Saint Petersburg
, Russia, since 2001 ;Other forms of cooperation and city friendship similar to the twin city programmes: *
Niš Niš (; sr-cyr, Ниш, ; names of European cities in different languages (M–P)#N, names in other languages) is the list of cities in Serbia, third largest city in Serbia and the administrative center of the Nišava District. , the city proper ...
, Serbia *
Banja Luka Banja Luka ( sr-cyrl, Бања Лука, ) or Banjaluka ( sr-cyrl, Бањалука, ) is the List of cities in Bosnia and Herzegovina, second largest city in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the largest city of Republika Srpska. Banja Luka is also de ...
, Bosnia and Herzegovina


Notable residents

The following are past and present notable residents of Graz. *
Anne of Austria french: Anne-Marie-Mauricie d'Autriche , house =Habsburg The House of Habsburg (), alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English (german: Haus Habsburg ; es, Casa de Habsburgo ; hu, Habsburg-család), also known as the House of Austria (g ...
, Queen of Poland and
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe.The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names states that the country's fo ...

Sweden
* Carl Julius Haidvogel, writer * Wolfgang Bauer (writer), Wolfgang Bauer, Austrian writer * Karl Böhm, Austrian conductor *
Ludwig Boltzmann Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (; 20 February 1844 – 5 September 1906) was an Austria Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a landlocked country in the southern part of Central Europe, located on the Eastern Alps. It is compo ...
, Austrian physicist, Professor of Mathematical Physics at the
University of Graz A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various Discipline (academia), academic d ...

University of Graz
(1869), chair of Experimental Physics at the
University of Graz A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various Discipline (academia), academic d ...

University of Graz
(1876–1890) * Bernd Brückler, professional ice hockey player * Constance of Austria, Queen of Poland * Hans Dobida * Elisabeth Eberl, Olympic javelin thrower * Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, Archduke of Austria-Este and heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne * Olaf Fjord, actor, film director and producer * Michael Gspurning, current goalkeeper for FC Schalke 04 II * Gregor Hammerl, President of the Federal Council of Austria * Nicolaus Harnoncourt, born in Berlin and raised in Graz, conductor known for performances of classical works on period instruments * Victor Franz Hess, Nobel prize-winning physicist * Manfred Hoeberl, powerlifter and strongman * Hans Hollmann (director), Hans Hollmann, theatre director and actor *
Johannes Kepler Johannes Kepler (; ; 27 December 1571 – 15 November 1630) was a German astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth. They observe as ...

Johannes Kepler
, was a mathematics teacher at a seminary school in Graz * Helmut Kollars, writer and illustrator *
Otto Loewi Otto Loewi (; 3 June 1873 – 25 December 1961) was a German-born pharmacologist Pharmacology is a branch of medicine and pharmaceutical sciences concerned with drug or medication action, where a drug may be defined as any artificial, natu ...

Otto Loewi
Nobel prize-winning physiologist * Helmut Marko, former racing driver * Marisa Mell (1939–1992), actress born and raised in Graz * Franziska Meissner-Diemer, journalist and writer * August Meyszner (1886–1947), Austrian SS officer executed for war crimes * August Musger, inventor of slow motion technique in cinema * Olga Neuwirth, contemporary Austrian composer * Lili Novy,
Slovenia Slovenia ( ; sl, Slovenija ), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: , abbr.: ''RS''), is a country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, lin ...

Slovenia
n poet * Emanuel Pogatetz, defender at 1. FC Nürnberg * Johann Puch,
Slovenia Slovenia ( ; sl, Slovenija ), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: , abbr.: ''RS''), is a country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, lin ...

Slovenia
n inventor, mechanic and vehicle producer * Adam Rainer, only documented person in history to have been both one of the shortest and one of tallest people. * Jochen Rindt, first Austrian Formula One champion raised in Graz by his grandmother * Anton Rintelen, cabinet minister and Nazi conspirator * Eduard Roschmann (1908–1977), Austrian Nazi SS Riga ghetto commandant * Hermann Schloffer, surgeon * Andreas Schnider (born 1959), theologian, academic teacher, author, publisher, consultant and politician of the ÖVP * Gert Schnider, Abalone-champion * Markus Schopp, former football midfielder *
Erwin Schrödinger Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (, ; ; 12 August 1887 – 4 January 1961), sometimes written as or , was a Nobel Prize-winning Austrian-Irish physicist who developed a number of fundamental results in quantum field theory, quantum the ...
, briefly chancellor of the University of Graz in 1936 * Werner Schwab, playwright and visual artist * Arnold Schwarzenegger, former bodybuilding champion, actor and former governor of California. Born and raised in farming village Thal, from Graz. * Friedrich St. Florian, Austrian-American architect * Robert Stolz, Austrian composer and conductor * Thomas Tebbich, decathlete and pole vaulter *
Nikola Tesla Nikola Tesla ( ; sr-cyr, Никола Тесла, ; 10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was a Serbian-American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, and futurist best known for his contributions to the design of the moder ...

Nikola Tesla
, studied electrical engineering in Graz * Hertha Töpper, contralto, born in Graz * Thomas Vanek, professional hockey player, born in Baden bei Wien, raised in Graz * Hans Ulrich von Eggenberg, Austrian statesman and early "prime minister" during the Thirty Years' War * Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach, architect of the Baroque architecture, Baroque period * Ernestine von Kirchsberg, painter * Leopold von Sacher-Masoch, writer and journalist, studied in Graz; the term masochism is derived from his name * Baron Roman Ungern von Sternberg, prominent figure in the Russian White movement and dictator of Mongolia in 1921 * Otto Wanz, former professional wrestler who held AWA World Heavyweight Championship *Walter Wolf, business person *Oktavia Aigner-Rollett, prominent physician *


See also

* *List of World Heritage Sites in Austria *Kastner & Öhler


References

*


Further reading


External links

Official websites
City website

Graz Citizen's Service

Graz Tourism Office

KulturServerGraz Town's cultural portal

Public transport in Graz

Graz old town - Secret World
History

(from Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971) Further information
Various Graz Information
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