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The Governor of Bermuda (fully the ''Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Somers Isles (alias the Islands of Bermuda)'') is the representative of the
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in the
British overseas territory The British Overseas Territories (BOTs), also known as United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs), are fourteen dependent territory, territories all with a constitutional and historical link with the United Kingdom. They are remnants of the B ...
of
Bermuda ) , anthem = "God Save the Queen "God Save the Queen", alternatively "God Save the King" (dependent on the gender of the reigning monarch), is the or in most s, their territories, and the British . The author of the tune is unknown, ...

Bermuda
. For the purposes of this article, ''Governor of Bermuda'' refers to the local office, although this was originally a ''Lieutenant-Governorship'' (''"Lieutenant Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Our Islands in America commonly called or known by the name of the Bermuda or Summer (
sic The Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with ...
) Islands"''; the ''Lieutenant-Governor of Bermuda'' was re-titled ''Governor of Bermuda'' in 1738), which – like the Lieutenant-Governorship of the Jamestown colony – was subordinate to the actual Governor located in England. For a period following the 1783 independence of those continental colonies that were to become the United States of America, the remaining continental colonies, Bermuda and the Bahamas were grouped together as
British North America British North America comprised the British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or admini ...
, and the civil, naval, military, and ecclesiastic government of Bermuda was made subordinate to the ''Captain-General and Governor-in-Chief in and over the Provinces of Upper-Canada, Lower-Canada, Nova-Scotia, and New~Brunswick, and their several Dependencies, Vice-Admiral of the same, Lieutenant-General and Commander of all His Majesty’s Forces in the said Provinces of Lower Canada and Upper-Canada, Nova-Scotia and New-Brunswick, and their several Dependencies, and in the islands of Newfoundland, Prince Edward, Cape Breton and the Bermudas, &c. &c. &c.'', with the Governor of Bermuda again becoming a Lieutenant-Governor. Although soon restored to a full civil Governorship, in his military role as Commander-in-chief he remained subordinate to the Commander-in-Chief in Halifax, and naval and ecclesiastic links to the
Maritimes The Maritimes, also called the Maritime provinces, is a list of regions of Canada#National regions, region of Eastern Canada consisting of three provinces and territories of Canada, provinces: New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Islan ...

Maritimes
remained. The military links were severed by Canadian confederation at the end of the 1860s, when the Governor of Bermuda, in his office of ''Commander-in-Chief of Bermuda'', was elevated upon the removal of the British Army from Canada and the taking up by the Canadian Dominion Government of responsibility for the defence of all of the former British North American continental colonies excepting Newfoundland. The established Church of England in Bermuda, within which the Governor held office as
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, remained linked to the colony of
Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada, in the country's Atlantic Canada, Atlantic region. It is composed of the island of Newfoundland (island), Newfoundland and the continental ...

Newfoundland
under the same Bishop until 1919. The Governor is appointed by the monarch on the advice of the
British government ga, Rialtas na Ríochta Aontaithe sco, Govrenment o the Unitit Kinrick , image = HM Government logo.svg , image_size=220px, date_established = , state = United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, comm ...
. The role of the Governor is to act as the ''de facto''
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, and he or she is responsible for appointing the
Premier Premier is a title for the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the Executive (government), executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, aut ...
and the 11 members of the
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(the upper house of Bermuda's Parliament). The Governor is also Commander-in-Chief of Bermuda, formerly in control of a large
Bermuda Garrison The Bermuda Garrison was the military establishment maintained on the British Overseas Territory of Bermuda by the regular British Army, and its local militia and Territorial Army (United Kingdom), voluntary reserves from 1701 to 1957. The garri ...
composed of
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, Militia, Volunteer, and Territorial units, of which only the
Royal Bermuda Regiment The Royal Bermuda Regiment (RBR), formerly the Bermuda Regiment, is the home defence unit of the British Overseas Territory The British Overseas Territories (BOTs), also known as United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs), are fourteen d ...

Royal Bermuda Regiment
remains. Until 1867, the Governor also held the appointment of Vice-Admiral of Bermuda. The current Governor is
Rena Lalgie Rena Lalgie is a British civil servant. It was announced in June 2020 that Lalgie would take up office as Governor of Bermuda The Governor of Bermuda (fully the ''Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Somers Isles (alias the Islands of Bermu ...
; she was sworn in on 14 December 2020. The Governor has her own flag in Bermuda, a
Union Flag The Union Jack, or Union Flag, is the de facto national flag of the United Kingdom The national flag of the United Kingdom is the Union Jack The Union Jack, or Union Flag, is the de facto national flag of the United Kingdom. Though ...

Union Flag
with the
territory's coat of arms
territory's coat of arms
superimposed.


History

Bermuda's settlement began in 1609, with the wrecking of the flagship of the
Virginia Company The Virginia Company was an English trading companyTrading companies are business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling Product (business), products (such as goods and services). ...
, the ''
Sea Venture ''Sea Venture'' was a seventeenth-century English sailing ship, part of the Third SupplyThe Jamestown supply missions were a series of fleets (or sometimes individual ships) from 1607 to around 1611 that were dispatched from England by the Londo ...
''. Although most of the passengers and crew ultimately completed their voyage to
Virginia Virginia (), officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), '' ...

Virginia
, the archipelago was permanently settled from that point, and left in the hands of the Virginia Company. The first intentional settlers arrived in 1612, under Richard Moore, whose appointment was officially as the Deputy Governor of Bermuda. Sir Thomas Smith remained in England as the first Governor and Treasurer of Bermuda. A carpenter by trade, Moore ensured the long-term survival of the colony by concentrating on building fortifications, including the first stone forts in the English New World, and developing St. George's Town. Moore brought with him to Bermuda two consecutively numbered boxes. The first, only to be opened in the case of his death, incapacitation or absence from the colony, contained the name of the settler who was to replace him. In the case of that settler also having died, or otherwise being incapable of taking the office, a second was named in the other box. More was also instructed to appoint a ''Counsell of Six'' to assist in the governance of the colony. The six appointed Counsellors were Captain Miles Kendall, Captain John Mansfield, Thomas Knight, Charles Caldycot, Edward Waters (some records give his name as ''Robert Waters''), and Christopher Carter (Christopher Carter and Edward Waters were among three men who had first arrived in Bermuda with the 1609 wreck of the
Sea Venture ''Sea Venture'' was a seventeenth-century English sailing ship, part of the Third SupplyThe Jamestown supply missions were a series of fleets (or sometimes individual ships) from 1607 to around 1611 that were dispatched from England by the Londo ...
. They had remained behind when the ''Deliverance'' and ''Patience'' had departed for Jamestown in 1610 with the remainder of the Sea Venture's passengers and crew, and remained again with the addition of Edward Chard, after the Patience had returned from Jamestown and departed once more in the same year for England, thereby ensuring that Bermuda has been permanently settled since the wreck of the Sea Venture). Bermuda was the second permanent English colony established (as an extension of the first,
Jamestown, Virginia The Jamestown settlement in the Colony of Virginia was the first permanent British colonization of the Americas, English settlement in the Americas. It was located on the northeast bank of the James River, James (Powhatan) River about southwe ...
, which had been settled in 1607). Bermuda was administered under
Royal charter A royal charter is a formal grant issued by a monarch under royal prerogative The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege and immunity, recognized in common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or ...

Royal charter
s by the Virginia Company, and its successor, the
Somers Isles Company The Somers Isles Company (fully, the Company of the City of London for the Plantacion of The Somers Isles or the Company of The Somers Isles) was formed in 1615 to operate the English colony of the Somers Isles, also known as Bermuda ) , ...
, which appointed the colony's governors until the Crown revoked the charter and took over administration in 1684. With the transfer to the Somers Isles Company in 1615, Sir Thomas Smith remained in England as Governor and Treasurer of Bermuda, and Captain Daniel Tucker was sent to Bermuda in 1616 aboard the ''George'', in consort with the ''Edwin'', to succeed Moore as Deputy Governor. Twenty-four Assistants were also appointed. By the 1630s, the Somers Isles Company had ceased sending Governors to Bermuda and had begun appointing prominent Bermudians, such as
William Sayle Captain William Sayle (c. 1590–1671) was a prominent British landholder who was Governor of Bermuda, Governor of Bermuda in 1643 and again in 1658. As an Independent in religion and politics, and an adherent of Oliver Cromwell, he was dissatisf ...
, to the position. The Crown maintained the system of government established under the company; an elected parliament (originally a single
House of Assembly House of Assembly is a name given to the legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. They are often contrasted w ...
, which held is first session in 1620) which held its and a privy council under a governor. The Privy Council, made up of the Chief Justice, certain senior civil servants, and appointees, was also known as the Governor's Council and the Legislative Council (most of its responsibilities are now filled by the Cabinet and the
Senate of Bermuda The Senate of Bermuda is the upper house of the Parliament of Bermuda The Parliament of Bermuda is the bicameral Bicameralism is a type of legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociol ...
, with the Council now only an advisory body for the Governor). The last company-appointed Governor was reappointed by the Crown. In 1707 the
British State The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shortha ...

British State
was created by the union of the
Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or ...

Kingdom of England
with the
Kingdom of Scotland The Kingdom of Scotland ( gd, Rìoghachd na h-Alba; sco, Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843. Its territories expanded and shrank, but it came to occupy the northern thi ...
, and Bermuda thereby became a British colony. Since the 1783 independence of Virginia, it has been Britain's oldest colony. Following US independence, Bermuda became an
Imperial fortress Imperial fortress was the designation given in the British Empire to four British Overseas Territory, colonies that were located in strategic positions from each of which Royal Navy squadrons could control the surrounding regions and, between the ...
, with an important
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapon A ...
base and a large military garrison to guard it. As such, the policy of the government until the 1950s, when the Royal Naval Dockyard was reduced to a base (in 1951) leading to the final closure of the regular army's
Bermuda Garrison The Bermuda Garrison was the military establishment maintained on the British Overseas Territory of Bermuda by the regular British Army, and its local militia and Territorial Army (United Kingdom), voluntary reserves from 1701 to 1957. The garri ...
in 1957, had been to appoint retiring senior military (or occasionally naval) officers as Bermuda's Governor and Commander-in-Chief. On the rare occasions when a civilian was appointed to the role, it was only as Governor – the role of Commander-in-Chief being filled by a serving General or Admiral in Bermuda or Newfoundland. Since the 1950s, those appointed Governor and Commander-in-Chief have tended to be prominent career-politicians at the ends of their political lives. Prior to the creation of the lower (and, originally, ''only'')
house A house is a single-unit residential building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house A house is a single-unit residential building, which may range ...
of the
Parliament of Bermuda The Parliament of Bermuda is the bicameral Bicameralism is the practice of having a legislature A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gather ...
, the
House of Assembly House of Assembly is a name given to the legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. They are often contrasted w ...

House of Assembly
, in 1620, the Governors ruled supreme, and were often draconian. Governor Daniel Tucker, formerly of Virginia, who arrived in 1616, was notorious for his harshness, having many islanders hanged, maimed, or whipped on the slightest provocation. One Bermudian, John Wood, was hanged for airing his views on the Governor in church. Governor Tucker's personal boat was reportedly stolen by five islanders, one named Saunders, who left a note saying they were ''on their way to England, or
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, either place being preferable'' to Bermuda under Tucker's rule. On reaching England, they complained about the harshness of Tucker's rule, though their complaints fell on deaf ears. Governor Tucker also, reportedly, used his oversight of the surveying of Bermuda to enrich himself and future generations of Bermudian Tuckers with prime real estate when he appropriated the ''overplus'' (surplus) land left after
Richard Norwood Richard Norwood (1590? – 1675) was an English mathematician, Underwater diving, diver, and surveying, surveyor. He has been called "Bermuda’s outstanding genius of the seventeenth century". Life Born about 1590, he was in 1616 sent out by the ...
's 1616 survey of the colony. Much of this land, forming an estate known as ''The Grove'', would still be in the hands of his relatives during the
American War of Independence The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegates from thirteen American colonies of British America British America comprised the colon ...
. For the remainder of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the real political power in Bermuda lay in the elected parliament and the appointed Council, both dominated by members of Bermuda's wealthy commercial class. By the mid-Seventeenth Century, the Somers Isles Company had ceased sending Governors from overseas, and instead appointed Bermudians such as
William Sayle Captain William Sayle (c. 1590–1671) was a prominent British landholder who was Governor of Bermuda, Governor of Bermuda in 1643 and again in 1658. As an Independent in religion and politics, and an adherent of Oliver Cromwell, he was dissatisf ...
from this same local elite; a policy which ended after the
Civil Wars A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publish ...
, during which Bermuda tended to the Cavalier, Royalist side. The Adventurers in England, many of whom were Parliamentarians, had exerted their authority over the preceding two decades to strangle Bermuda's emerging maritime industry, and the Bermudians' animosity towards the Adventurers in England consequently further acted to place them on the side of the Crown (The Somers Isles Company had tended towards the Royalist side in 1647, but was in the Parliamentary camp by 1649, and Robert Rich, 2nd Earl of Warwick, one of the major shareholders of the Somers Isles Company, was appointed Lord High Admiral of the Parliamentary navy from 1642 to 1649, and was related to Oliver Cromwell by the marriage of his grandson and heir to Cromwell's daughter). In a letter to ''Alexander Pym'' at Derby House, Westminster, dated 9 May 1646, ''William Renner'' wrote: A Somers Isles Company magazine ship, which had left England before the King's 30 January 1649 execution, arrived at Bermuda in March 1649, bearing news of the King's impending trial. It also bore instructions from the Company stripping the moderate Royalist Captain ''Thomas Turner'' of the office of Governor (which had been filled by a succession of Bermudian settlers since the 1630s, in contrast to the company's earlier practice of dispatching governors to the colony) and ordering that the colony be governed by a triumvirate composed of the moderate
Richard Norwood Richard Norwood (1590? – 1675) was an English mathematician, Underwater diving, diver, and surveying, surveyor. He has been called "Bermuda’s outstanding genius of the seventeenth century". Life Born about 1590, he was in 1616 sent out by the ...
, Captain Leacraft (also spelt ''Leicroft''), and Mr. Wilkinson. However, Leacraft had died before the instructions arrived, Wilkinson was a ''strong Independent'', ''obnoxious to the dominant Church faction'' in the Council and the House of Assembly, and ''was not permitted by them to exercise his commission'', and Norwood would not accept his own commission without Wilkinson. Captain Turner, Captain Josias Forster, and Roger Wood (colonial administrator), Roger Wood (all three having formerly held the office of Governor) were put forward as candidates for the Governorship, which was voted upon by the other members of the Council. Although Captain Richard Jennings and the Sheriff both voted for Wood, the others all voted for Turner, who reluctantly resumed the office. Turner was too moderate for most of the Royalist party, however. News of the execution of King Charles I reached Bermuda by July, and a proposition was made to the Governor and Council by ''the Country'' (analogous to the Royalist party) at a meeting on 5 July 1649: The answer of the Governor and Council to the Country's proposition was to make Bermuda the first colony to recognize Charles II as King, and included: On 20 August 1649, Governor Turner ordered a proclamation to be drawn up and published (dated 21 August) requiring that, as various persons in the colony had ''taken the oath of supremacy and alleadgiance vunto his matie the Lawfull kinge of England and yet neuertheles they contrarye to theire oathes doe deny conformity to the lawes and Government here established'', all such persons who refused conformity to the Government in both the church and state could expect no protection by virtue of any former power or order, and would face prosecution. A Mr Romer and a Thomas Wilson were imprisoned the same day for refusing to take the oath of allegiance. A Mr. Hunt was summoned before the Council the same month for treasonable speeches against the King, the Parliament, and the Governor. Hunt refused to accept the Council's authority to question him and, having been sentenced to an hour in the pillory to be followed by imprisonment until he provided bail against his good behaviour, he refused to submit and was ordered to lie in irons until he willingly submitted. Turner's governorship would end after Mr. Whetenhall, in the name of the Country, impeached the Reverend Nathaniel White of the Puritan party for being an enemy of the King, Company, and country. A warrant was issued for White's arrest. On 25 September 1649, the Council and Country met at the home of John Trimingham after ''the party in arms called 'The Country had arrested White under the aforementioned warrant, along with most of the Independents (who had been imprisoned in the house of a Mrs. Taylor). The Country exhibited articles against Governor Turner. Although the Council deemed the articles not to be grounds for his displacement, the Country was insistent against Turner, who therefore resigned the office of Governor. The Country then put forward John Trimingham and Thomas Burrows to the Council as candidates for Turner's replacement. The Council members elected Trimingham. On Thursday, 27 September 1649, ''the Army brought downe the new Gour and he tooke his oathe in the St. Peter's Church, St. George's, Church according to the usuall forme and vppon ffryday they marched awaye out of the towne (of St Georges) into the mayne''. Under Independent Puritan and Cromwell-loyalist
William Sayle Captain William Sayle (c. 1590–1671) was a prominent British landholder who was Governor of Bermuda, Governor of Bermuda in 1643 and again in 1658. As an Independent in religion and politics, and an adherent of Oliver Cromwell, he was dissatisf ...
, many of the island's defeated Puritans were forced to emigrate, settling in the Bahamas as the Eleutheran Adventurers. The Royalists in Bermuda, with control of the army (nine companies of militia and the complements of the coastal forts), were confident in Bermuda's natural and man-made defences (including a barrier reef and numerous fortified coastal artillery batteries). The Parliamentary government, however, believed the defences weak and formed plans to capture the colony. On 18 December 1649, the Earl of Pembroke, Colonel Purefoy, Sir W. Constable, the Earl of Denbigh, Lord Whitelocke, Colonel Wanton, and Mr. Holland were appointed by the Council of State, with any three or more of them to be a committee with authority to examine the business of Bermuda. The Council of State Orders for 1 January 1650 lists: These instructions and Forster's commission arrived in Bermuda on the 29 May 1650. Although the Country made charges against Forster and Captain Jennings on learning of this, demanding their charges be answered before the commission read, and many members of the Council ''denied to take notice of it because the l'tre was not directed to them with the Gour as here to fore'', but eventually it was agreed to read it, and Forster was accepted as Governor. The following day, Trimingham, Mr. Miller, Captain Jennings, and Mr. Morgan accepted the oaths of Councillors. Richard Norwood, Mr. Berkeley, and Mr. Wainwright refused. Mr. Deuitt ''would not accept because the company deserted him''. Despite accepting the instructions from London on the matter of the new appointments, the Government of Bermuda remained Royalist. The Reverend Mr. Hooper informed the Council that a ship under the command of Captain Powell, with Commissioners Colonel Rich, Mr. Hollond, Captain Norwood, Captain Bond, and a hundred men aboard, was prepared to seize Bermuda. The An Act for prohibiting Trade with the Barbadoes, Virginia, Bermuda and Antego, Act prohibiting trade with Bermuda and the other colonies considered in rebellion was passed on 3 October 1650. In Bermuda, tailors Thomas Walker of Paget and George Washington of Hamilton were tried at the Assizes held 11–22 November 1650, on charges of being traitors against ''our Soveraigne Lord the Kinge''. Admiral Sir George Ayscue, in command of the task force sent in 1651 by Parliament to capture the Royalist colonies, received additional instructions from Whitehall (dated 13 February 1651) addressed to him and the other Commissioners, instructing ''aswell to take Care for the reducemt of Bermuda's Virginia & Antego, as of the Island of Barbada's''; ''In the case that (through the blessing of God upon yor endeavors) you shall be able to recover the Island of Barbada's unto its due subjection to this Comonwealth or after you have used your utmost dilligence to effect the same. If that you finde yorselves in a Capacity to send one or more of yo ships for the reduceing of any or all of the other plantacons to the like obedience. You are hereby Authorized and required soe to doe. And you are to make yor attempt upon the Island of Bermuda's, wch it is informed may without much strength or difficulty be gained or upon any the other plantacons now in defection as your Intelligence and oportunity shall serve''. The instructions also specified that the officer in command of the force that captured a colony should then become its Governor, ''But if either Care of the Fleet wth you or any othar important publiq service, will not admit of his Continuance there, to exercise the office & Comand of Governor thereof then it shall be lawfull for him the said Comr or commandrs in chiefe to depute & Constitute William Wilkinson of the Island of Bermudas or some other able and faithfull person to be Governor there, and to appoint such & soe many well affected & discreet persons to be a Councell for his Assistance as he thinks fit''. Barbados would surrender on 13 January 1652, but no attempt would be made to test Bermuda's defences. At a meeting of the Governor and Council on 25 February 1652 (at which were present Governor Forster, Council members Captain Roger Wood, Captain Richard Jennings, Captain Thomas Turner, Captain William Seymour, Mr. Stephen Painter, Mr. William Wilkinson, Mr. John Miller, Mr. William Berkeley, Mr. Richard Norwood, and Secretary Anthony Jenour), a Generall Letter received from the Company was read, which instructed them to engage to the Commonwealth of England ''as yt is now established without a kinge or House of Lordes'', which engagement was given and a proclomation ordered by the Governor explaining and commanding all inhabitants of Bermuda to take the same engagement when it should be tendered unto them. Governors who were too high-handed or injudicious in the exercise of their office occasionally fell foul of the local political institutions. Governor Isaac Richier, who arrived in 1691, quickly made himself unpopular with his carousing and criminal behaviour. Bermudian complaints saw him placed in jail, and replaced by Governor Goddard. When Goddard proved worse than Richier, attorney general Samuel Trott had him jailed alongside Richier. The two governors were to be tried before a pair of prominent Bermudians, John Trimmingham and William Butterfield. After Trott called the amateur judges ''bush lawyers'', however, he found himself in St. George's jail alongside the two governors. After they confided in him their plan for escape, Trott informed the judges. Richier and Goddard were sent back to England for trial. At the written request of George Washington, during the course of the
American War of Independence The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegates from thirteen American colonies of British America British America comprised the colon ...
, 100 barrels of gunpowder were stolen from a magazine in St. George's and provided to the American rebels. No one was ever prosecuted in relation to this act of treason. The theft had been the result of a conspiracy involving powerful Bermudians, who were motivated as much by Bermuda's desperate plight, denied her primary trading partner and source of food, as by any favourable sentiments they may have had in regard to either the American colonists or their cause. The chief conspirator was Henry Tucker (of The Grove), Henry Tucker of The Grove (the ''overplus'' estate appropriated in 1616 by Governor Daniel Tucker), a Member of the House of Assembly, former Member of the Council, and Militia officer (soon to be promoted to Colonel), who had plotted with Benjamin Franklin while attending the rebel Continental Congress as a delegate for Bermuda. Two of his sons served in the rebel Army and were to achieve high office in the post-War US Government. A third son, also named ''Henry Tucker'', was at the time the President of the Council (and later acting Governor on multiple occasions), and married to the daughter of Governor George James Bruere. Following this, Bermudians and their political institutions were looked at suspiciously by the British Government. With the build-up of the naval and military bases on the island following American independence, the position of the Governor was enhanced. Despite this, the Governors – appointed by the Crown – remained largely dependent on the Bermudian parliament to pass laws and to provide funds. This fact often found Governors pleading in vain for the required acts of parliament or money to carry out policies determined at Government House, or in London. This was particularly noticeable in the Bermudian Parliament's neglect to maintain militia, which (other than during the course of the War of 1812, American War of 1812), it allowed to become moribund after the build-up of the naval and military base began in 1795. Attempts to raise militias directly under the control of the Governor, without acts of the local parliament, ultimately failed because the parliament did not provide funds. In the 1860s, it became the policy of the British Government to reduce the costly professional military garrison in Bermuda. As it was not wished to leave the colony, seen more as a naval base, unguarded, this could only be done if the professional soldiers were replaced with part-time Volunteer Force (Great Britain), Volunteer units. Successive governors were set the task of convincing the Bermudian parliament to raise the required units, but, concerned of being saddled with the cost of maintaining the entire garrison, as well as with the possibility for social disruption that could be caused by raising either racially segregated or integrated units, the Bermudian Parliamentarians simply refused. This state of affairs continued until the Secretary of State for War found a lever (the The Fairmont Hamilton Princess, Princess Hotel) to blackmail the Bermuda Parliament with in 1885, which resulted it finally passing acts in 1892 for the creation of militia and volunteer forces (although the units would be entirely funded by the British Government). Struggles between the Governor and the Parliament would continue to recur. In 1939, the Governor, General Sir Reginald Hildyard, resigned his post, reportedly because the Bermudian Parliament refused to allow him a motor car (motor vehicles having been banned in Bermuda before the First World War, following a petition signed by numerous Bermudians, and by visitors including Woodrow Wilson). On 10 March 1973, the 121st Governor, Sir Richard Sharples, and his aide-de-camp Captain Hugh Sayers, were assassinated in an attack by a Bermudian black activist named Buck Burrows and an accomplice, Larry Tacklin, who were members of the Black Beret Cadres. Under Bermudian law at the time, premeditated murder was a capital offence, and death sentences were often handed out, though routinely commuted. No death sentence had been carried out since the 1940s. After much debate due to the controversial moral issues raised, the sentence stood despite a 6,000-strong petition from Bermudians to the Queen. Both men were hanged in 1977 for the killings and other murders, sparking riots throughout Bermuda. Buck Burrows explained in his confession that he had killed the Governor to prove that he was not untouchable and that white-dominated politics was fallible. He was also found guilty of murdering the police commissioner, George Duckett (police officer), George Duckett, six months earlier on 9 September 1972, and of killing the co-owner and book-keeper of a supermarket called the Shopping Centre, Victor Rego and Mark Doe in April 1973.


List of governors of Bermuda

# 1612–1616 Richard Moore (Deputy Governor in Bermuda. Sir Thomas Smith remained in England as Governor and Treasurer of Bermuda) # Between Moore's 1615 departure for England aboard the ''Welcome'' and the 1616 arrival of Captain Tucker, the role of acting Deputy Governor was to be rotated monthly among the members of the Counsell of Six: Captain Miles Kendall, Captain John Mansfield, Thomas Knight, Charles Caldicot, Edward Waters, and Christopher Carter, beginning (after the Lottery, drawing of lots) with Caldicot. At the end of the first month, Caldicot, Knight and Waters departed aboard a frigate to obtain supplies from the West Indies but met with misadventure, and those members of the crew who returned did not do so for years). The monthly succession thereafter was Mansfield, Carter, and Kendall, before starting again with Mansfield # 1616–1619: Capt. Daniel Tucker (Deputy Governor in Bermuda. Sir Thomas Smith remained in England as Governor and Treasurer of Bermuda) # 1619–1622: Nathaniel Butler # 1622–1622: Capt. John Bernard (governor), John Bernard # 1622–1623: Capt. John Harrison (diplomat), John Harrison # 1623–1626: Capt. Henry Woodhouse (governor), Henry Woodhouse # 1626–1629: Capt. Philip Bell (governor), Philip Bell # 1629–1637: Capt. Roger Wood (governor), Roger Wood # 1637–1641: Capt. Thomas Chaddock # 1641–1642: Capt.
William Sayle Captain William Sayle (c. 1590–1671) was a prominent British landholder who was Governor of Bermuda, Governor of Bermuda in 1643 and again in 1658. As an Independent in religion and politics, and an adherent of Oliver Cromwell, he was dissatisf ...
# 1642–1643: Capt. Josias Forster # 1643–1644: Capt. William Sayle # 1644–1645: Capt. William Sayle # 1645: Capt. Josias Forster # 1645–1647: The Triumvirate # 1647–1649: Capt. Thomas Turner # 1649–1650: John Trimingham (Elected by the People) # 1650–1659: Capt. Josias Forster # 1659–1663: Capt. William Sayle # 1663–1668: Capt. Florentius Seymour # 1668–1669: Samuel Whalley # 1669–1681: Sir John Heydon # 1681–1682: Capt. Florentius Seymour # 1682–1683: Henry Durham (Act. Gov.) # 1683–1687: Col. Richard Coney (last Company appointee. Re-appointed by Crown in 1684) # 1687–1690: Sir Richard Robinson # 1691–1693: Isaac Richier # 1693–1698: Capt. John Goddard # 1698–1700: Samuel Day # 1701–1713: Capt. Benjamin Bennett (governor), Benjamin Bennett # 1713–1718: Henry Pulleine # 1718–1722: Capt. Benjamin Bennett # 1722–1727: Sir John Bruce Hope, 7th Baronet, Sir John Hope # 1727–1728: John Trimingham # 1728–1737: Capt. John Pitt (soldier), John Pitt # 1737–1738: Andrew Auchinleck # 1738–1744: Alured Popple # 1744–1747: Francis Jones # 1747–1751: William Popple (governor), William Popple # 1751–1755: Francis Jones # 1755–1763: William Popple # 1763–1764: Francis Jones # 1764–1780: George James Bruere # 1780: Thomas Jones # 1780–1781: George Bruere the younger # 1782–1788: William Brown (Massachusetts judge), William Browne # 1788–1794: Henry Hamilton (governor), Henry Hamilton (Lt. Gov.) # 1794–1796: James Crawford # 1796: Henry Tucker # 1796: Lieutenant-Colonel William Campbell (British Army officer and Governor), William Campbell (arrived 22 November 1796, but died within days) # 1796–1798: Henry Tucker # 1798–1803: Colonel (later General) George Beckwith (British Army officer), George Beckwith # 1803–1805: Henry Tucker # 1805–1806: Major Francis Gore (Lt. Gov.) # 1806: Henry Tucker # 1806–1810: Brigadier John Hodgson (British Army officer), John Studholme Hodgson # 1810–1811: Samuel Trott # 1811–1812: Sir Sir James Cockburn, 9th Baronet, James Cockburn # 1812 William Smith # 1812–1816: Brigadier-General (promoted Major-General, 4 June 1813) George Horsford (Lt. Gov.) # 1814–1816: Sir Sir James Cockburn, 9th Baronet, James Cockburn # 1816–1817: William Smith # 1817–1819: Sir James Cockburn # 1819: William Smith # 1819–1822: Lieutenant-General Sir William Lumley # 1822–1823: William Smith # 1823–1825: Lieutenant-General Sir William Lumley # 1825–1826: William Smith # 1826–1829: Lieutenant-General Sir Hilgrove Turner, Tomkyns Hilgrove Turner, Scots Guards, Third Regiment of Foot Guards and Colonel of the Green Howards, 19th (or The 1st Yorkshire North Riding) Regiment of Foot # 1829: Robert Kennedy (Act. Gov.) # 1829–1830: Lieutenant-General Sir Tomkyns Hilgrove Turner # 1830 Robert Kennedy (Act. Gov.) # 1830–1832: General Sir Tomkyns Hilgrove Turner # 1832–1835: Colonel Stephen Chapman (British Army officer), Sir Stephen Remnant Chapman, Royal Engineers # 1835: Henry G. Hunt (Act. Gov.) # 1835–1836: Robert Kennedy # 1836–1839: Colonel (from 1837, Major-General) Stephen Chapman (British Army officer), Sir Stephen Remnant Chapman, Royal Engineers # 1839–1846: Lieutenant-Colonel (later Major General) William Reid (general), Sir William Reid, Royal Engineers # 1846: Lieutenant-Colonel William Nelson Hutchinson, William N. Hutchinson (Act. Gov) # 1846–1852: Captain (later Admiral) Sir Charles Elliot # 1852–1853: Lieutenant-Colonel William Hassell Eden, 56th Regiment of Foot (ex-88th Regiment of Foot (Connaught Rangers), 88th Regiment of Foot, later Commandant at Chatham) (Act. Gov.) # 1853: Lieutenant-Colonel George Philpots, Royal Engineers (Act. Gov.) # 1853: Major Soulden Oakley, 56th Regiment of Foot (Act. Gov.) # 1853: Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas C. Robe, Royal Artillery (Act. Gov.) # 1853: Major Soulden Oakley, 56th Regiment of Foot (Act. Gov.) # 1853–1854: Captain (later Admiral) Sir Charles Elliot, Royal Navy # 1854: Lieutenant-Colonel Montgomery Williams, Royal Engineers (Act. Gov.) # 1854–1859: Colonel Freeman Murray, late 72nd Regiment of Foot # 1859: Colonel Andrew T. Hemphill, 26th (Cameronian) Regiment of Foot (Act. Gov.) # 1859–1860: Colonel William Munro, 39th Regiment of Foot # 1860–1861: Colonel Freeman Murray, late 72nd Regiment of Foot # 1861–1864: Colonel Harry Ord, Harry St. George Ord, Royal Engineers # 1864: Colonel William Munro, 39th Regiment of Foot (Act. Gov.) # 1864–1865: Lieutenant-Colonel William George Hamley, Royal Engineers (Lt. Gov.) # 1865–1866: Colonel Harry St. George Ord, Royal Engineers (the last Governor to also hold the appointment of Vice-Admiral of Bermuda) # 1866–1867: Lieutenant-Colonel William George Hamley, Royal Engineers (Lt. Gov.) # 1867: Colonel Arnold Thompson, Royal Artillery (Act. Gov.) # 1867–1870: Colonel Frederick Chapman (British Army officer), Sir Frederick Edward Chapman, Royal Engineers # 1870: Colonel William Freeland Brett, 61st (South Gloucestershire) Regiment of Foot (Lt. Gov.) # 1871–1877: Maj. Gen. Sir John Henry Lefroy, Royal Artillery # 1877: Colonel William Laurie Morrison, Commanding Royal Engineer in Bermuda (Act. Gov.) # 1877–1882: Brigadier Sir Robert Michael Laffan, Royal Engineers (Gazetted Major-General 2 October 1877, antedated to 8 February 1870. Later Lieutenant-General) # 1882–1888: Lt. Gen. Sir Thomas Lionel John Gallwey, Royal Engineers # 1888–1891: Lt. Gen. Sir Edward Newdegate, Lt. Gen. Edward Newdegate, Rifle Brigade (The Prince Consort's Own), Rifle Brigade # 1892–1896: Lt. Gen. Thomas Lyons (British Army officer), Thomas Lyons, Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Regiment#16th (Bedfordshire) Regiment of Foot (1809 – 1881), 16th (Bedfordshire) Regiment of Foot # 1896–1901: Lt. Gen. Sir George Digby Barker, 78th (Highlanders) Regiment of Foot, 78th (Highlanders) Regiment of Foot (or The Ross-shire Buffs) # 1902–1904: Lt. Gen. Sir Henry Geary, Henry LeGuay Geary, Royal Artillery # 1904–1907: Lt. Gen. Sir Robert MacGregor Stewart, Royal Artillery # 1907–1908: Lt. Gen. Josceline Wodehouse, Sir Joscelyn Heneage Wodehouse, Royal Artillery # 1908–1912: Lt. Gen. Frederick Walter Kitchener, Sir Frederick Walter Kitchener, West Yorkshire Regiment # 1912–1917: Lt. Gen. George Bullock (British Army officer), Sir George M. Bullock, Devonshire Regiment # 1917–1922: Gen. James Willcocks, Sir James Willcocks, 100th (Prince of Wales's Royal Canadian) Regiment of Foot # 1922–1927: Lt. Gen. J. J. Asser, Sir Joseph John Asser, Dorsetshire Regiment # 1927–1931: Lt. Gen. Louis Bols, Sir Louis Jean Bols, Devonshire Regiment # 1931–1936: Lt. Gen. Thomas Cubitt (British Army officer), Sir Thomas Astley Cubitt, Royal Artillery # 1936–1939: General Sir Reginald Hildyard, Reginald John Thoroton Hildyard, Queen's Own (Royal West Kent Regiment) # 1939–1941: Lt. Gen. Denis Bernard (British Army officer), Sir Denis John Charles Kirwan Bernard, Rifle Brigade # 1941–1943: The Rt. Hon. Edward Knollys, 2nd Viscount Knollys, Viscount Knollys # 1943–1945: Honorary Colonel David Cecil, 6th Marquess of Exeter, Lord Burghley, Northamptonshire Regiment (Territorial Army) (substantive Major, Reserve of Officers) # 1945 – May 1946: William Addis (Governor of Bermuda), William Addis (acting) # May 1946 – 1949: Admiral Ralph Leatham, Sir Ralph Leatham # 1949–1955: Lt. Gen. Alexander Hood (Governor of Bermuda), Sir Alexander Hood # 1955–1959: Lt. Gen. John Woodall (British Army officer), Sir John Woodall # 1959–1964: Maj. Gen. Julian Gascoigne, Sir Julian Gascoigne # 1964–1972: The Rt. Hon. Roland Robinson, 1st Baron Martonmere, Lord Martonmere # 1972–1973: Richard Sharples, Sir Richard Sharples (assassinated) # 1973 – 7 April 1977: Edwin Leather, Sir Edwin Leather # 7 April – 6 September 1977: Peter Lloyd (acting – 1st tenure) # 1977 – 30 December 1980: The Hon. Peter Ramsbotham, Sir Peter Ramsbotham # 1 January – February 1981: Peter Lloyd (acting – 2nd tenure) # February 1981 – 15 March 1983: Richard Posnett, Sir Richard Posnett # 14 February – July 1983: Mark Herdman (acting) – Acting for Governor Posnett until 15 March 1983 # 1983–1988: The Rt. Hon. John Morrison, 2nd Viscount Dunrossil, Viscount Dunrossil # 1988–1992: Major-Gen Desmond Langley, Sir Desmond Langley # 25 August 1992 – 4 June 1997: The Rt. Hon. David Waddington, Baron Waddington, Lord Waddington # 4 June 1997 – 27 November 2001: Thorold Masefield # 27 November 2001 – 11 April 2002: Tim Gurney (acting) # 11 April 2002 – 12 October 2007: John Vereker (governor), Sir John Vereker # 12 October – 12 December 2007: Mark Andrew Capes (acting) # 12 December 2007 – 18 May 2012: Richard Gozney, Sir Richard Gozney # 18–23 May 2012: David Arkley (acting) # 23 May 2012 – 2 August 2016: George Fergusson (diplomat), Hon. George Fergusson # 2 August – 5 December 2016: Ginny Ferson (acting) # 5 December 2016 – 12 December 2020: John Rankin (diplomat), John Rankin # 14 December 2020 – present:
Rena Lalgie Rena Lalgie is a British civil servant. It was announced in June 2020 that Lalgie would take up office as Governor of Bermuda The Governor of Bermuda (fully the ''Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Somers Isles (alias the Islands of Bermu ...


Sources


Government of Bermuda- list of Governors

BBC News- "British officials shot dead in Bermuda"


Bermuda Online Portal


External links


Government of Bermuda – Governor's Biography
Senior appointments of the British Army, Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Bermuda (or Governor and General Officer Commanding Bermuda) {{DEFAULTSORT:Governor Of Bermuda Government of Bermuda Governors of Bermuda, 1612 establishments in the British Empire