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Georgism, also called in modern times geoism and known historically as the single tax movement, is an
economic ideology An economic ideology distinguishes itself from economic theory in being Normative economics, normative rather than just explanatory in its approach. Economic ideologies express perspectives on the way an economy should run and to what end, whereas ...
holding that, although people should own the value they produce themselves, the economic rent derived from
land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable over geologic time frames) and consists mainly of Earth's crust, crustal components such a ...
– including from all
natural resources Natural resources are resource Resource refers to all the materials available in our environment which help us to satisfy our needs and wants. Resources can broadly be classified upon their availability — they are classified into renewabl ...
, the
commons The commons is the culture, cultural and nature, natural resources accessible to all members of a society, including natural materials such as air, water, and a habitable earth. These resources are held in common, not owned privately. Commons c ...

commons
, and urban locations – should belong equally to all members of society. Developed from the writings of American economist and social reformer
Henry George Henry George (September 2, 1839 – October 29, 1897) was an American political economist Political economy is the study of Production (economics), production and trade and their relations with law, Custom (law), custom and government; and ...

Henry George
, the Georgist paradigm seeks solutions to
social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology The word "Social" derives fr ...
and
ecological problems Human impact on the environment or anthropogenic impact on the environment includes changes to biophysical environments A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism In biology, an organism (from Anc ...
, based on principles of land rights and public finance which attempt to integrate
economic efficiency In , economic efficiency is, roughly speaking, a situation in which nothing can be improved without something else being hurt. Depending on the context, it is usually one of the following two related concepts: * or : any changes made to assist on ...
with
social justice Social justice is justice in terms of the distribution of wealth Wealth is the abundance of valuable financial asset A financial asset is a non-physical asset whose value is derived from a contractual claim, such as deposit (finance), ban ...
. Georgism is concerned with the distribution of economic rent caused by land ownership,
natural monopolies A natural monopoly is a monopoly A monopoly (from Greek el, μόνος, mónos, single, alone, label=none and el, πωλεῖν, pōleîn, to sell, label=none) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular c ...
,
pollution Pollution is the introduction of contaminant Contamination is the presence of a constituent, impurity, or some other undesirable element that spoils, corrupts, infects, makes unfit, or makes inferior a material, physical body, natural en ...

pollution
and the control of commons, including
title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academic qualification. In some languages, titles may be inserted between the firs ...
of ownership for natural resources and other contrived privileges (e.g.
intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depending on the nature of the property, an owner o ...
). Any natural resource which is inherently limited in
supply Supply may refer to: *The amount of a resource Resource refers to all the materials available in our environment which help us to satisfy our needs and wants. Resources can broadly be classified upon their availability — they are classified in ...
can generate economic rent, but the classical and most significant example of
land monopoly Concentration of land ownership refers to the ownership of land in a particular area by a small number of people or organizations. It is sometimes defined as additional concentration beyond that which produces optimally efficient land use. Distrib ...
involves the extraction of common
ground rent Ground may refer to: * Soil, a mixture of clay, sand and organic matter present on the surface of the Earth * Ground (electricity), the reference point in an electrical circuit from which voltages are measured ** Earthing system, part of an elect ...
from valuable urban locations. Georgists argue that taxing economic rent is efficient,
fair A fair (archaic: faire or fayre) is a gathering of people for a variety of entertainment or commercial activities. It is normally of the essence of a fair that it is temporary with scheduled times lasting from an afternoon to several weeks. ...

fair
and equitable. The main Georgist policy recommendation is a tax assessed on land value, arguing that revenues from a
land value tax A land value tax (LVT) is a levy on the value of land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable over geologic time frames) and c ...
(LVT) can be used to reduce or eliminate existing taxes (such as on
income In microeconomics Microeconomics is a branch of mainstream economics Mainstream economics is the body of knowledge, theories, and models of economics, as taught by universities worldwide, that are generally accepted by economists as a bas ...
,
trade Trade involves the transfer of goods from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money. Economists refer to a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of r ...
, or purchases) that are unfair and inefficient. Some Georgists also advocate for the return of surplus public revenue to the people by means of a
basic income Universal basic income (UBI) is a sociopolitical financial transfer concept in which all citizens of a given population regularly receive a legally stipulated and equal financial grant paid by the government without a means test A means te ...
or
citizen's dividend Citizen's dividend is a proposed policy based upon the Georgist Georgism, also called in modern times geoism and known historically as the single tax movement, is an economic ideology holding that, although people should own the value they pro ...
. The concept of gaining public revenues mainly from land and natural resource privileges was widely popularized by Henry George through his first book, ''
Progress and Poverty ''Progress and Poverty: An Inquiry into the Cause of Industrial Depressions and of Increase of Want with Increase of Wealth: The Remedy'' is an 1879 book by social theorist and economist Henry George. It is a treatise on the questions of why povert ...
'' (1879). The philosophical basis of Georgism dates back to several early thinkers such as
John Locke John Locke (; 29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment Enlightenment, enlighten or enlightened may refer to: Age of Enlightenment * ...

John Locke
,
Baruch Spinoza Baruch (de) Spinoza (; ; ; born Baruch Espinosa; later as an author and a correspondent Benedictus de Spinoza, anglicized to Benedict de Spinoza; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677) was a Dutch philosopher of Spanish and Portuguese Jews, Por ...

Baruch Spinoza
and
Thomas Paine Thomas Paine (born Thomas Pain; – In the contemporary record as noted by Conway, Paine's birth date is given as January 29, 1736–37. Common practice was to use a dash or a slash to separate the old-style year from the new-style year. In th ...

Thomas Paine
. Economists since
Adam Smith Adam Smith ( 1723 – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher as well as a moral philosopher Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and ...

Adam Smith
and
David Ricardo David Ricardo (18 April 1772 – 11 September 1823) was a British political economist, one of the most influential of the classical economists along with Thomas Malthus Thomas Robert Malthus (; 13/14 February 1766 – 23 December 1834) w ...

David Ricardo
have observed that a public levy on land value does not cause economic inefficiency, unlike other taxes. A land value tax also has
progressive tax A progressive tax is a tax in which the tax rate increases as the taxable amount increases.Sommerfeld, Ray M., Silvia A. Madeo, Kenneth E. Anderson, Betty R. Jackson (1992), ''Concepts of Taxation'', Dryden Press: Fort Worth, TX The term ''progre ...
effects. Advocates of land value taxes argue that they would reduce
economic inequality There are wide varieties of economic inequality, most notably measured using the distribution of incomeIn economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (econom ...
, increase economic efficiency, remove incentives to underutilize urban land and reduce property speculation. Georgist ideas were popular and influential during the late 19th and early 20th century. Political parties, institutions and communities were founded based on Georgist principles during that time. Early devotees of Henry George's economic philosophy were often termed ''Single Taxers'' for their political goal of raising public revenue mainly or only from a land value tax, although Georgists endorsed multiple forms of rent capture (e.g.
seigniorage Seigniorage , also spelled seignorage or seigneurage (from the Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern langua ...
) as legitimate. The term ''Georgism'' was invented later, and some prefer the term ''geoism'' as more generic.


Main tenets

Henry George Henry George (September 2, 1839 – October 29, 1897) was an American political economist Political economy is the study of Production (economics), production and trade and their relations with law, Custom (law), custom and government; and ...

Henry George
is best known for popularizing the argument that government should be funded by a tax on land rent rather than taxes on labor. George believed that although
scientific experiment An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis. Experiments provide insight into Causality, cause-and-effect by demonstrating what outcome occurs when a particular factor is manipulated. Experiments vary ...
s could not be performed in political economy, theories could be tested by comparing different societies with different conditions and by
thought experiments A thought experiment is a hypothetical situation in which a hypothesis, theory, or principle is laid out for the purpose of thinking through its consequences. Johann Witt-Hansen established that Hans Christian Ørsted was the first to use the Germ ...
about the effects of various factors. Applying this method, he concluded that many of the problems that beset society, such as poverty, inequality, and economic booms and busts, could be attributed to the private ownership of the necessary resource, land rent. In his most celebrated book, ''
Progress and Poverty ''Progress and Poverty: An Inquiry into the Cause of Industrial Depressions and of Increase of Want with Increase of Wealth: The Remedy'' is an 1879 book by social theorist and economist Henry George. It is a treatise on the questions of why povert ...
'', George argues that the appropriation of land rent for private use contributes to persistent poverty in spite of technological progress, and causes economies to exhibit a tendency toward boom and bust cycles. According to George, people justly own what they create, but natural opportunities and
land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable over geologic time frames) and consists mainly of Earth's crust, crustal components such a ...
belong equally to all. George believed there was an important distinction between common and collective property. Although equal rights to land might be achieved by nationalizing land and then leasing it to private users, George preferred taxing unimproved land value and leaving the control of land mostly in private hands. George's reasoning for leaving land in private control and slowly shifting to land value tax was that it would not penalize existing owners who had improved land and would also be less disruptive and controversial in a country where land titles have already been granted. Georgists have observed that privately created wealth is socialized via the tax system (e.g., through income and sales tax), while socially created wealth in land values are privatized in the price of land titles and bank mortgages. The opposite would be the case if land rents replaced taxes on labor as the main source of public revenue; socially created wealth would become available for use by the community, while the fruits of labor would remain private. According to Georgists, a land value tax can be considered a user fee instead of a tax, since it is related to the market value of socially created locational advantage, the privilege to exclude others from locations. Assets consisting of commodified privilege can be considered as wealth since they have exchange value, similar to taxi medallions. A land value tax, charging fees for exclusive use of land, as a means of raising public revenue is also a
progressive tax A progressive tax is a tax in which the tax rate increases as the taxable amount increases.Sommerfeld, Ray M., Silvia A. Madeo, Kenneth E. Anderson, Betty R. Jackson (1992), ''Concepts of Taxation'', Dryden Press: Fort Worth, TX The term ''progre ...
tending to reduce
economic inequality There are wide varieties of economic inequality, most notably measured using the distribution of incomeIn economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (econom ...
, since it applies entirely to ownership of valuable land, which is correlated with income, and there is generally no means by which landlords can shift the
tax burden In economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relationships among individuals within those societies. T ...
onto tenants or laborers. Landlords are unable to pass the tax on to tenants because the supply and demand of rented land is unchanged. Because the supply of land is perfectly
inelastic In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods ...
, land rents depend on what tenants are prepared to pay, rather than on the expenses of landlords, and so the tax cannot be passed on to tenants.


Economic properties

Standard
economic An economy (; ) is an area of the production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products ...

economic
theory suggests that a land value tax would be extremely efficient – unlike other taxes, it does not reduce economic productivity.
Milton Friedman Milton Friedman (; July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist An economist is a professional and practitioner in the social science Social science is the branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( ...

Milton Friedman
described Henry George's tax on unimproved value of land as the "least bad tax", since unlike other taxes, it would not impose an excess burden on economic activity (leading to zero or even negative "
deadweight loss Deadweight loss, also known as excess burden, is a measure of lost economic efficiency In , economic efficiency is, roughly speaking, a situation in which nothing can be improved without something else being hurt. Depending on the context, it is ...
"); hence, a replacement of other more distortionary taxes with a land value tax would improve economic welfare. As land value tax can improve the use of land and redirect investment toward productive, non-
rent-seeking In public-choice theory, as well as in economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumpt ...
activities, it could even have a negative deadweight loss that boosts productivity. Because land value tax would apply to foreign land speculators, the Australian Treasury estimated that land value tax was unique in having a negative marginal excess burden, meaning that it would increase long-run living standards. It was
Adam Smith Adam Smith ( 1723 – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher as well as a moral philosopher Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and ...

Adam Smith
who first noted the efficiency and distributional properties of a land value tax in his book ''
The Wealth of Nations ''An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations'', generally referred to by its shortened title ''The Wealth of Nations'', is the ''magnum opus 's ''The Creation of Adam ''The Creation of Adam'' () is a fresco Fresco (pl ...

The Wealth of Nations
''.
Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin ( April 17, 1790) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States The Founding Fathers of the United States, or simply the Founding Fathers or Founders, were a group of American revolutionary Patriots (also ...

Benjamin Franklin
and
Winston Churchill Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill, (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British statesman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The hea ...

Winston Churchill
made similar distributional and efficiency arguments for taxing land rents. They noted that the costs of taxes and the benefits of public spending always eventually apply to and enrich, respectively, the owners of land. Therefore, they believed it would be best to defray public costs and recapture value of public spending by applying public charges directly to owners of land titles, rather than harming public welfare with taxes assessed against beneficial activities such as trade and labor. Henry George wrote that his plan for a high land value tax would cause people "to contribute to the public, not in proportion to what they produce ... but in proportion to the value of natural ommonopportunities that they hold onopolize. He went on to explain that "by taking for public use that value which attaches to land by reason of the growth and improvement of the community", it would, "make the holding of land unprofitable to the mere owner, and profitable only to the user". A high land value tax would discourage speculators from holding valuable natural opportunities (like urban real estate) unused or only partially used. Henry George claimed this would have many benefits, including the reduction or elimination of tax burdens from poorer neighborhoods and agricultural districts; the elimination of a multiplicity of taxes and expensive obsolete government institutions; the elimination of corruption, fraud, and evasion with respect to the collection of taxes; the enablement of true free trade; the destruction of monopolies; the elevation of wages to the full value of labor; the transformation of labor-saving inventions into blessings for all; and the equitable distribution of comfort, leisure, and other advantages that are made possible by an advancing civilization. In this way, the vulnerability that market economies have to credit bubbles and property manias would be reduced.


Sources of economic rent and related policy interventions

Income flow resulting from payments for restricted access to natural opportunities or for contrived privileges over geographic regions is termed economic rent. Georgists argue that economic rent of land, legal privileges, and
natural monopolies A natural monopoly is a monopoly A monopoly (from Greek el, μόνος, mónos, single, alone, label=none and el, πωλεῖν, pōleîn, to sell, label=none) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular c ...
should accrue to the community, rather than private owners. In economics, "
land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable over geologic time frames) and consists mainly of Earth's crust, crustal components such a ...
" is everything that exists in nature independent of human activity. George explicitly included climate, soil, waterways, mineral deposits, laws/forces of nature, public ways, forests, oceans, air, and solar energy in the category of land. While the philosophy of Georgism does not say anything definitive about specific policy interventions needed to address problems posed by various sources of economic rent, the common goal among modern Georgists is to capture and share (or reduce) rent from all sources of natural monopoly and legal privilege. Henry George shared the goal of modern Georgists to socialize or dismantle rent from all forms of land monopoly and legal privilege. However, George emphasized mainly his preferred policy known as
land value tax A land value tax (LVT) is a levy on the value of land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable over geologic time frames) and c ...
, which targeted a particular form of unearned income known as
ground rent Ground may refer to: * Soil, a mixture of clay, sand and organic matter present on the surface of the Earth * Ground (electricity), the reference point in an electrical circuit from which voltages are measured ** Earthing system, part of an elect ...
. George emphasized ground-rent because basic locations were more valuable than other monopolies and everybody needed locations to survive, which he contrasted with the less significant streetcar and telegraph monopolies, which George also criticized. George likened the problem to a laborer traveling home who is waylaid by a series of highway robbers along the way, each who demand a small portion of the traveler's wages, and finally at the very end of the road waits a robber who demands all that the traveler has left. George reasoned that it made little difference to challenge the series of small robbers when the final robber remained to demand all that the common laborer had left. George predicted that over time technological advancements would increase the frequency and importance of lesser monopolies, yet he expected that ground rent would remain dominant. George even predicted that ground-rents would rise faster than wages and income to capital, a prediction that modern analysis has shown to be plausible, since the supply of land is fixed.Mattauch, Linus; Siegmeier, Jan; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Creutzig, Felix (2013) : Financing Public Capital through Land Rent Taxation: A Macroeconomic Henry George Theorem, CESifo Working Paper, No. 4280 http://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/77659/1/cesifo_wp4280.pdf Spatial rent is still the primary emphasis of Georgists because of its large value and the known diseconomies of misused land. However, there are other sources of rent that are theoretically analogous to ground-rent and are debated topics of Georgists. The following are some sources of economic rent. * Extractable resources (minerals and hydrocarbons) * Severables (forests and stocks of fish) * Extraterrestrial domains (geosynchronous orbits and airway corridor use) * Legal privileges that apply to specific location (taxi medallions, billboard and development permits, or the monopoly of ) * Restrictions/taxes of pollution or severance ( tradable emission permits and fishing quotas) *
Right-of-way (transportation) A right-of-way (ROW) is a right to make a way over a piece of land, usually to and from another piece of land. A right of way is a type of easement granted or reserved over the land for transportation purposes, such as a highway, public footpat ...
used by railroads, utilities, and internet service providers * Issuance of
legal tender Legal tender is a form of money Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the left corner, 1 ...
(see
seigniorage Seigniorage , also spelled seignorage or seigneurage (from the Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern langua ...
) * Privileges that are less location dependent but that still exclude others from natural opportunities (
patents A patent is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depe ...
) Where free competition is impossible, such as telegraphs, water, gas, and transportation, George wrote, " ch business becomes a proper social function, which should be controlled and managed by and for the whole people concerned." Georgists were divided by this question of
natural monopolies A natural monopoly is a monopoly A monopoly (from Greek el, μόνος, mónos, single, alone, label=none and el, πωλεῖν, pōleîn, to sell, label=none) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular c ...

natural monopolies
and often favored public ownership only of the rents from common
rights-of-way Right of way is "the legal right, established by usage or grant, to pass along a specific route through grounds or property belonging to another", or "a path or thoroughfare A thoroughfare is a primary passage or way as a transit route through ...

rights-of-way
, rather than public ownership of utility companies themselves.


Georgism and environmental economics

The early conservationism of the
Progressive Era The Progressive Era (1896–1916) was a period of widespread social activism Activism consists of efforts to promote, impede, direct, or intervene in Social change, social, Political campaign, political, Economics, economic, or Natural ...
was inspired partly by
Henry George Henry George (September 2, 1839 – October 29, 1897) was an American political economist Political economy is the study of Production (economics), production and trade and their relations with law, Custom (law), custom and government; and ...

Henry George
, and his influence extended for decades afterward. Some ecological economists still support the Georgist policy of
land value tax A land value tax (LVT) is a levy on the value of land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable over geologic time frames) and c ...
as a means of freeing or rewilding unused land and conserving nature by reducing
urban sprawl Urban sprawl (also known as suburban sprawl or urban encroachment) is the unrestricted growth in many urban area An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. ...
.Daly, Herman E., and Joshua C. Farley. Ecological Economics: Principles and Applications. Washington: Island, 2004. Pollution degrades the value of what Georgists consider to be
commons The commons is the culture, cultural and nature, natural resources accessible to all members of a society, including natural materials such as air, water, and a habitable earth. These resources are held in common, not owned privately. Commons c ...

commons
. Because pollution is a negative contribution, a taking from the commons or a cost imposed on others, its value is economic rent, even when the polluter is not receiving an explicit income. Therefore, to the extent that society determines pollution to be harmful, most Georgists propose to limit pollution with taxation or quotas that capture the resulting rents for public use, restoration, or a ''citizen's dividend''. Georgism is related to the school of
ecological economics Ecological economics, bioeconomics, ecolonomy, eco-economics, or ecol-econ is both a transdisciplinary Transdisciplinarity connotes a research strategy that crosses many disciplinary boundaries to create a holistic Holism (from Greek Greek m ...
, since both propose market-based restrictions for pollution. The schools are compatible in that they advocate using similar tools as part of a conservation strategy, but they emphasize different aspects. Conservation is the central issue of ecology, whereas economic rent is the central issue of geoism. Ecological economists might price pollution fines more conservatively to prevent inherently unquantifiable damage to the environment, whereas Georgists might emphasize mediation between conflicting interests and human rights.
Geolibertarianism Geolibertarianism is a List of political ideologies, political and economic ideology that integrates Libertarianism in the United States, libertarianism with Georgism. Overview Geolibertarians maintain that geographical space and Raw material, r ...
, a market-oriented branch of geoism, tends to take a direct stance against what it perceives as burdensome regulation and would like to see auctioned pollution quotas or taxes replace most
command and control regulationCommand and Control (CAC) regulation finds common usage in academic literature and beyond. The relationship between CAC and environmental policy is considered in this article, an area that demonstrates the application of this type of regulation. Howe ...
. Since ecologists are primarily concerned with conservation, they tend to emphasize less the issue of equitably distributing scarcity/pollution rents, whereas Georgists insist that unearned income not accrue to those who hold title to natural assets and pollution privilege. To the extent that geoists recognize the effect of pollution or share conservationist values, they will agree with ecological economists about the need to limit pollution, but geoists will also insist that pollution rents generated from those conservation efforts do not accrue to polluters and are instead used for public purposes or to compensate those who suffer the negative effects of pollution. Ecological economists advocate similar pollution restrictions but, emphasizing conservation first, might be willing to grant private polluters the privilege to capture pollution rents. To the extent that ecological economists share the geoist view of social justice, they would advocate auctioning pollution quotas instead of giving them away for free. This distinction can be seen in the difference between basic
cap and trade Emissions trading is a market-based approach to controlling pollution Pollution is the introduction of contaminant Contamination is the presence of a constituent, impurity, or some other undesirable element that spoils, corrupts, infect ...
and the geoist variation,
cap and share 300px, A diagram which sets out the basic process of the policy Cap and Share was originally developed by Feasta (the Foundation for the Economics of Sustainability) and is a regulatory and economic framework for controlling the use of fossil fue ...
, a proposal to auction temporary pollution permits, with rents going to the public, instead of giving pollution privilege away for free to existing polluters or selling perpetual permits.


Revenue uses

The revenue can allow the reduction or elimination of taxes, greater public investment/spending, or the direct distribution of funds to citizens as a pension or
basic income Universal basic income (UBI) is a sociopolitical financial transfer concept in which all citizens of a given population regularly receive a legally stipulated and equal financial grant paid by the government without a means test A means te ...
/
citizen's dividend Citizen's dividend is a proposed policy based upon the Georgist Georgism, also called in modern times geoism and known historically as the single tax movement, is an economic ideology holding that, although people should own the value they pro ...
. In practice, the elimination of all other taxes implies a high land value tax, greater than any currently existing land tax. Introducing or increasing a land value tax would cause the purchase price of land to decrease. George did not believe landowners should be compensated and described the issue as being analogous to compensation for former slave owners. Other geoists disagree on the question of compensation; some advocate complete compensation while others endorse only enough compensation required to achieve Georgist reforms. Some geoists advocate compensation only for a net loss due to a shift of taxation to land value; most taxpayers would gain from the replacement of other taxes with a tax on land value. Historically, those who advocated for taxes on rent tax only great enough to replace other taxes were known as endorsers of ''single tax limited''.


Synonyms and variants

Most early advocacy groups described themselves as single taxers and George reluctantly accepted the single tax as an accurate name for his main political goal—the repeal of all unjust or inefficient taxes, to be replaced with a
land value tax A land value tax (LVT) is a levy on the value of land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable over geologic time frames) and c ...
(LVT). Some modern proponents are dissatisfied with the name ''Georgist''. While Henry George was well known throughout his life, he has been largely forgotten by the public and the idea of a single tax of land predates him. Some now prefer the term ''geoism'', with ''geo'' (from Greek "earth, land") being the first compound of the name ''George'' < (Gr.) < "farmer" or "agriculture, farming" < + "work" deliberately ambiguous. The terms ''Earth Sharing'', ''geonomics'' and ''
geolibertarianism Geolibertarianism is a List of political ideologies, political and economic ideology that integrates Libertarianism in the United States, libertarianism with Georgism. Overview Geolibertarians maintain that geographical space and Raw material, r ...
'' are also used by some Georgists. These terms represent a difference of emphasis and sometimes real differences about how land rent should be spent (
citizen's dividend Citizen's dividend is a proposed policy based upon the Georgist Georgism, also called in modern times geoism and known historically as the single tax movement, is an economic ideology holding that, although people should own the value they pro ...
or just replacing other taxes), but they all agree that land rent should be recovered from its private recipients. Compulsory fines and fees related to land rents are the most common Georgist policies, but some geoists prefer voluntary
value capture Value capture is a type of public financing that recovers some or all of the value that public infrastructure Public infrastructure is infrastructure Infrastructure is the set of fundamental facilities and systems that support the sustainable fun ...
systems that rely on methods such as non-compulsory or self-assessed location value fees,
community land trust A community land trust (CLT) is a nonprofit corporation that holds land on behalf of a place-based community, while serving as the long-term steward for affordable housing, community gardens, civic buildings, commercial spaces and other community a ...
s and purchasing land value covenants. Some geoists believe that partially compensating landowners is a politically expedient compromise necessary for achieving reform. For similar reasons, others propose capturing only future land value increases, instead of all land rent. Although Georgism has historically been considered as a radically
progressive Progressive may refer to: Politics * Progressivism is a political philosophy in support of social reform Political organizations * Congressional Progressive Caucus, members within the Democratic Party in the United States Congress dedicated to th ...
or
socialist Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the Cognition, cognitive pr ...

socialist
ideology, some
libertarians Libertarianism (from french: libertaire, "libertarian"; from la, libertas, "freedom") is a political philosophy Political philosophy is the philosophical study of government, addressing questions about the nature, scope, and legitimacy of ...
and take the position that limited social spending should be financed using Georgist concepts of rent
value capture Value capture is a type of public financing that recovers some or all of the value that public infrastructure Public infrastructure is infrastructure Infrastructure is the set of fundamental facilities and systems that support the sustainable fun ...
, but that not all land rent should be captured. Today, this relatively conservative adaptation is usually considered incompatible with true
geolibertarianism Geolibertarianism is a List of political ideologies, political and economic ideology that integrates Libertarianism in the United States, libertarianism with Georgism. Overview Geolibertarians maintain that geographical space and Raw material, r ...
, which requires that excess rents be gathered and then distributed back to residents. During Henry George's time, this restrained Georgist philosophy was known as "single tax limited", as opposed to "single tax unlimited". George disagreed with the limited interpretation, but he accepted its adherents (e.g. Thomas Shearman) as legitimate "single-taxers".


Influence

Georgist ideas heavily influenced the politics of the early 20th century. Political parties that were formed based on Georgist ideas include the United States Commonwealth Land Party, the
Henry George Justice Party The Henry George Justice Party, also called the Henry George League, was a minor political party in the Australian state of Victoria during the 1950s. The party followed the tenets of Georgism Georgism, also called in modern times geoism and kno ...
, the
Single Tax League The Single Tax League was a Georgism, Georgist List of political parties in Australia, Australian political party that flourished throughout the 1920s and 1930s based on support for single tax. Based upon the ideas of Henry George, who argued that ...
, and Denmark's
Justice PartyJustice Party is the name of several different political parties around the world: *Justicialist Party, Argentina *Henry George Justice Party, Australia *Derryn Hinch's Justice Party, Australia *Justice Party (Azerbaijan) *Justice Party (Burma) *Jus ...
. In the United Kingdom, the
Liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberalism by country *an adherent of a Liberal Party Arts, entertainment and media *''El Liberal'', a Spanish newspaper published betw ...
government included a land tax as part of several taxes in the 1909
People's Budget The 1909/1910 People's Budget was a proposal of the Liberal government that introduced unprecedented taxes on the lands and incomes of Britain's wealthy to fund new social welfare programmes. It passed the House of Commons The House of Commo ...
intended to redistribute wealth (including a progressively graded income tax and an increase of inheritance tax). This caused a political crisis that resulted indirectly in reform of the
House of Lords The House of Lords, formally The Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled, is the of the . Membership is by , or . Like the , it meets in the . ar ...

House of Lords
. The budget was passed eventually—but without the land tax. In 1931, the minority
Labour Labour or labor may refer to: * Childbirth Childbirth, also known as labour or delivery, is the ending of pregnancy where one or more babies leaves the uterus by passing through the vagina or by Caesarean section. In 2015, there were about 13 ...
government passed a land value tax as part III of the 1931 Finance act. However, this was repealed in 1934 by the National Government before it could be implemented. In Denmark, the Georgist
Justice PartyJustice Party is the name of several different political parties around the world: *Justicialist Party, Argentina *Henry George Justice Party, Australia *Derryn Hinch's Justice Party, Australia *Justice Party (Azerbaijan) *Justice Party (Burma) *Jus ...
has previously been represented in
Folketinget The Folketing ( da, Folketinget, ; lit. ''the people's thing'', ''people's assembly''), also known as the Parliament of Denmark or the Danish Parliament in English, is the unicameral national legislature (parliament In modern polit ...
. It formed part of a centre-left government 1957–60 and was also represented in the
European Parliament The European Parliament (EP) is one of three Legislature, legislative branches of the European Union and one of its seven Institutions of the European Union, institutions. Together with the Council of the European Union, it adopts European legi ...

European Parliament
1978–1979. The influence of Henry George has waned over time, but Georgist ideas still occasionally emerge in politics. For the United States 2004 presidential election,
Ralph Nader Ralph Nader (; born February 27, 1934) is an American political activist, author, lecturer, and attorney noted for his involvement in consumer protection Consumer protection is the practice of safeguarding buyers of goods and services, and ...
mentioned George in his policy statements. Economists still generally favor a land value tax.
Milton Friedman Milton Friedman (; July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist An economist is a professional and practitioner in the social science Social science is the branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( ...

Milton Friedman
publicly endorsed the Georgist land value tax as the "least bad tax".
Joseph Stiglitz Joseph Eugene Stiglitz (; born February 9, 1943) is an American economist An economist is a professional and practitioner in the social science Social science is the branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) ...

Joseph Stiglitz
stated that: "Not only was Henry George correct that a tax on land is non-distortionary, but in an equilibrium society … tax on land raises just enough revenue to finance the (optimally chosen) level of government expenditure." He dubbed this proposition the Henry George theorem.


Communities

Several communities were initiated with Georgist principles during the height of the philosophy's popularity. Two such communities that still exist are
Arden, Delaware Arden is a village and art colony in New Castle County, Delaware Delaware ( ) is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Maryland to its south and west; Pennsylvania to i ...
, which was founded in 1900 by Frank Stephens and
Will Price William Lightfoot Price (November 9, 1861 – October 14, 1916) was an American architect, a pioneer in the use of reinforced concrete, and a founder of the utopian communities of Arden, Delaware and Rose Valley, Pennsylvania. Early life Price was ...
, and
Fairhope, Alabama Fairhope is a city in Baldwin County, Alabama (We dare defend our rights) , anthem = "Alabama (state song), Alabama" , image_map = Alabama in United States.svg , seat = Montgomery, Alabama, Montgomery , LargestCity = Huntsville, Alaba ...
, which was founded in 1894 under the auspices of the Fairhope Single Tax Corporation. Some established communities in the United States also adopted Georgist tax policies. A Georgist in Houston, Texas, Joseph Jay "J.J." Pastoriza, promoted a Georgist club in that city established in 1890. Years later, in his capacity as a city alderman, he was selected to serve as Houston Tax Commissioner, and promulgated a "Houston Plan of Taxation" in 1912. Improvements to land and merchants' inventories were taxed at 25 percent of the appraised value, unimproved land was taxed at 70 percent of appraisal, and personal property was exempt. This Georgist tax continued until 1915, when two courts struck it down as violating the Texas Constitution in 1915. This quashed efforts in several other Texas cities which took steps towards implementing the Houston Plan in 1915: Beaumont, Corpus Christi, Galveston, San Antonio, and Waco. The German protectorate of the
Kiautschou Bay concession The Kiautschou Bay concession or Kiautschou Bay Leased Territory, a German leased territory in Imperial and Early Republican China, existed from 1898 to 1914. Covering an area of , it centered on Jiaozhou Bay, Jiaozhou ("Kiautschou") Bay on ...
in Jiaozhou Bay, China fully implemented Georgist policy. Its sole source of government revenue was the land value tax of six percent which it levied in its territory. The German government had previously had economic problems with its African colonies caused by
land speculation Speculation is the purchase of an asset (a commodity In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distr ...
. One of the main reasons for using the land value tax in Jiaozhou Bay was to eliminate such speculation, which the policy achieved. The colony existed as a German protectorate from 1898 until 1914, when seized by Japanese and British troops. In 1922 the territory was returned to China. Georgist ideas were also adopted to some degree in
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
,
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Pe ...

Hong Kong
,
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bor ...

Singapore
,
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital citie ...

South Africa
,
South Korea South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korea, Korean Peninsula and sharing a Korean Demilitarized Zone, land border with North Korea. Its western border is for ...

South Korea
, and
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
. In these countries, governments still levy some type of land value tax, albeit with exemptions. Many municipal governments of the US depend on real
property tax A property tax or millage rate is an ad valorem tax An ''ad valorem'' tax (Latin language, Latin for "according to value") is a tax whose amount is based on the value of a transaction or of property. It is typically imposed at the time of a ...
as their main source of revenue, although such taxes are not Georgist as they generally include the value of buildings and other improvements. One exception is the town of
Altoona, Pennsylvania Altoona is a city in Blair County, Pennsylvania Blair County is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, E ...
, which for a time in the 21st century only taxed land value, phasing in the tax in 2002, relying on it entirely for tax revenue from 2011, and ending it 2017; the ''
Financial Times The ''Financial Times'' (''FT'') is a daily newspaper printed in broadsheet and published digitally that focuses on business and economic Current affairs (news format), current affairs. Based in London, England, the paper is owned by a Japanese ...
'' noted that "Altoona is using LVT in a city where neither land nor buildings have much value".


Institutes and organizations

Various organizations still exist that continue to promote the ideas of Henry George. According to ''
The American Journal of Economics and Sociology ''The American Journal of Economics and Sociology'' is a peer-reviewed Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work ( peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qu ...
'', the periodical '' Land&Liberty'', established in 1894, is "the longest-lived Georgist project in history". Founded during the
Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression An economic depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe economic downturn than a economic recession, recess ...
in 1932, the Henry George School of Social Science in New York offers courses, sponsors seminars, and publishes research in the Georgist paradigm. Also in the US, the
Lincoln Institute of Land Policy The Lincoln Institute of Land Policy is a think tank based in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The Lincoln Institute of Land Policy seeks to improve quality of life through the effective use, taxation, and stewardship of land. A nonprofit private operatin ...
was established in 1974 based on the writings of Henry George. It "seeks to improve the dialogue about urban development, the built environment, and tax policy in the United States and abroad". The Henry George Foundation continues to promote the ideas of Henry George in the United Kingdom.
The IU The IU, in full the International Union for Land Value Taxation, The IU is the popular name of the International Union for Land Value Taxation and Free Trade, officially also known as the International Union for Land Value Taxation, and the Internat ...
is an international umbrella organisation that brings together organizations worldwide that seek land value tax reform.


Reception

The economist
Alfred Marshall Alfred Marshall (26 July 1842 – 13 July 1924) was an English economist, who was one of the most influential economists of his time. His book, '' Principles of Economics'' (1890), was the dominant economic textbook in England for many years. ...

Alfred Marshall
believed that George's views in ''
Progress and Poverty ''Progress and Poverty: An Inquiry into the Cause of Industrial Depressions and of Increase of Want with Increase of Wealth: The Remedy'' is an 1879 book by social theorist and economist Henry George. It is a treatise on the questions of why povert ...
'' were dangerous, even predicting wars, terror, and economic destruction from the immediate implementation of its recommendations. Specifically, Marshall was upset about the idea of rapid change and the unfairness of not compensating existing landowners. In his lectures on ''Progress and Poverty'', Marshall opposed George's position on compensation while fully endorsing his ultimate remedy. So far as land value tax moderately replaced other taxes and did not cause the price of land to fall, Marshall supported
land value taxation A land value tax or location value tax (LVT), also called a site valuation tax, split rate tax, or site-value rating, is an ''ad valorem An ''ad valorem'' tax (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages ...
on economic and moral grounds, suggesting that a three or four percent tax on land values would fit this condition. After implementing land taxes, governments would purchase future land values at discounted prices and take ownership after 100 years. Marshall asserted that this plan, which he strongly supported, would end the need for a tax collection department of government. For newly formed countries where land was not already private, Marshall advocated implementing George's economic proposal immediately.
Karl Marx Karl Heinrich Marx (; 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, M ...

Karl Marx
considered the Single Tax platform as a regression from the transition to
communism Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...

communism
and referred to Georgism as "Capitalism’s last ditch". Marx argued that, "The whole thing is ... simply an attempt, decked out with
socialism Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, ...
, to save capitalist domination and indeed to establish it afresh on an even wider basis than its present one." Marx also criticized the way land value tax theory emphasizes the value of land, arguing that, "His fundamental dogma is that everything would be all right if ground rent were paid to the state." Georgists such as Fred Harrison (2003) replied to these Marxist objections.
Richard T. Ely Richard Theodore Ely (April 13, 1854 – October 4, 1943) was an American economist, author, and leader of the Progressivism in the United States, Progressive movement who called for more government intervention in order to reform what they percei ...
, known as the "Father of Land Economics", agreed with the economic arguments for Georgism but believed that correcting the problem the way Henry George wanted (without compensation) was unjust to existing landowners. In explaining his position, Ely wrote that "If we have all made a mistake, should one party to the transaction alone bear the cost of the common blunder?"
John R. Commons John Rogers Commons (October 13, 1862 – May 11, 1945) was an American institutional economist Institutional economics focuses on understanding the role of the evolutionary Evolution is change in the Heredity, heritable Phenotypic trait ...
supported Georgist economics, but opposed what he perceived as an environmentally and politically reckless tendency for advocates to rely on a one-size-fits-all approach to tax reform, specifically, the "single tax" framing. Commons concluded ''The Distribution of Wealth'', with an estimate that "perhaps 95% of the total values represented by these millionnaire 'sic''fortunes is due to those investments classed as land values and natural monopolies and to competitive industries aided by such monopolies", and that "tax reform should seek to remove all burdens from capital and labour and impose them on monopolies". However, he criticized Georgists for failing to see that Henry George's anti-monopoly ideas must be implemented with a variety of policy tools. He wrote, "Trees do not grow into the sky—they would perish in a high wind; and a single truth, like a single tax, ends in its own destruction." Commons uses the natural soil fertility and value of forests as an example of this destruction, arguing that a tax on the in situ value of those depletable natural resources can result in overuse or over-extraction. Instead, Commons recommends an income tax based approach to forests similar to a modern Georgist
severance tax Severance taxes are taxes imposed on the removal of natural resources , Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federation, federal constitutional monarchy consists of States and federal territories of Malaysia, thirte ...
. Other contemporaries such as
Austrian Austrian may refer to: * Austrians, someone from Austria or of Austrian descent ** Someone who is considered an Austrian citizen, see Austrian nationality law * Something associated with the country Austria, for example: ** Austria-Hungary ** Austr ...
economist
Frank Fetter Frank Albert Fetter (; March 8, 1863 – March 21, 1949) was an American economist of the Austrian School The Austrian School is a heterodox In religion, heterodoxy (from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Gree ...
and
neoclassical Neoclassical or neo-classical may refer to: * Neoclassicism or New Classicism, any of a number of movements in the fine arts, literature, theatre, music, language, and architecture beginning in the 17th century ** Neoclassical architecture, an arc ...
economist John Bates Clark argued that it was impractical to maintain the traditional distinction between land and capital, and used this as a basis to attack Georgism. Mark Blaug, a specialist in the history of economic thought, credits Fetter and Clark with influencing mainstream economists to abandon the idea "that land is a unique factor of production and hence that there is any special need for a special theory of ground rent" claiming that "this is in fact the basis of all the attacks on Henry George by contemporary economists and certainly the fundamental reason why professional economists increasingly ignored him".Blaug, Mark. Interview in Andelson, Robert V
''Critics of Henry George: An Appraisal of Their Strictures on Progress and Poverty''
Blackwell Publishing. 1979. p. 686.
Robert Solow endorsed the theory of Georgism, but is wary of the perceived injustice of expropriation. Solow stated that taxing away expected land rents "would have no semblance of fairness"; however, Georgism would be good to introduce where location values were not already privatized or if the transition could be phased in slowly. George has also been accused of exaggerating the importance of his "all-devouring rent thesis" in claiming that it is the primary cause of poverty and injustice in society. George argued that the rent of land increased faster than wages for labor because the supply of land is fixed. Modern economists, including Ottmar Edenhofer have demonstrated that George's assertion is plausible but was more likely to be true during George's time than now. An early criticism of Georgism was that it would generate too much public revenue and result in unwanted growth of government, but later critics argued that it would not generate enough income to cover government spending. Joseph Schumpeter concluded his analysis of Georgism by stating that, "It is not economically unsound, except that it involves an unwarranted optimism concerning the yield of such a tax." Economists who study land conclude that Schumpeter's criticism is unwarranted because the rental yield from land is likely much greater than what modern critics such as Paul Krugman suppose. Krugman agrees that land value taxation is the best means of raising public revenue but asserts that increased spending has rendered land rent insufficient to fully fund government. Georgists have responded by citing studies and analyses implying that land values of nations like the US, UK, and Australia are more than sufficient to fund all levels of government. Anarcho-capitalism, Anarcho-capitalist political philosopher and economist Murray Rothbard criticized Georgism in ''Man, Economy, and State'' as being philosophically incongruent with subjective value theory, and further stating that land is irrelevant in the factors of production, trade, and price systems, but this critique is seen by some, including other opponents of Georgism, as relying on false assumptions and flawed reasoning.
Austrian Austrian may refer to: * Austrians, someone from Austria or of Austrian descent ** Someone who is considered an Austrian citizen, see Austrian nationality law * Something associated with the country Austria, for example: ** Austria-Hungary ** Austr ...
economist Friedrich Hayek credited early enthusiasm for Henry George with developing his interest in economics. Later, Hayek said that the theory of Georgism would be very strong if assessment challenges did not result in unfair outcomes, but he believed that they would.


Notable Georgists


Economists

* Harry Gunnison Brown *
John R. Commons John Rogers Commons (October 13, 1862 – May 11, 1945) was an American institutional economist Institutional economics focuses on understanding the role of the evolutionary Evolution is change in the Heredity, heritable Phenotypic trait ...
* Raymond Crotty * Herman Daly * Paul Douglas * Ottmar Edenhofer * Fred Foldvary *
Milton Friedman Milton Friedman (; July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist An economist is a professional and practitioner in the social science Social science is the branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( ...

Milton Friedman
Excerpt: Prof. Friedman:... In my opinion, and this may come as a shock to some of you, the least bad tax is the property tax on the unimproved value of land, the Henry George argument of many, many years ago. " * Mason Gaffney * Max Hirsch (economist), Max Hirsch * Harold Hotelling * Wolf Ladejinsky * Donald Shoup * Herbert A. Simon * Robert Solow *
Joseph Stiglitz Joseph Eugene Stiglitz (; born February 9, 1943) is an American economist An economist is a professional and practitioner in the social science Social science is the branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) ...

Joseph Stiglitz
* Nicolaus Tideman * William Vickrey * Léon Walras * Philip Wicksteed * Michael Hudson (economist), Michael Hudson


Heads of government

* John Ballance *
Winston Churchill Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill, (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British statesman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The hea ...

Winston Churchill
* Alfred Deakin * Andrew Fisher * George Edward Grey, George Grey * Rutherford B. Hayes * William Morris Hughes * Robert Stout * Sun Yat-sen


Other political figures

* John Peter Altgeld * Newton D. Baker * Willie Brown (politician), Willie Brown * Clyde Cameron * George F. Cotterill * William Jay Gaynor * Frederic C. Howe * Blas Infante * Tom L. Johnson * Samuel M. Jones * Frank de Jong * Franklin Knight Lane * Hazen S. Pingree * Philip Snowden, 1st Viscount Snowden, Philip Snowden * Josiah Wedgwood, 1st Baron Wedgwood, Josiah C. Wedgwood * William Bauchop Wilson * Jackson Stitt Wilson * Andrew MacLaren MP * Joshua Nkomo * Baldomero Argente


Activists

* Jane Addams * Peter Barnes (entrepreneur), Peter Barnes * Sara Bard Field * Michael Davitt * Samuel Gompers * Bolton Hall (activist), Bolton Hall * Hubert Harrison * John Haynes Holmes * Stewart Headlam * Mary Elizabeth Lease * Benjamin C. Marsh * James Ferdinand Morton, Jr., James Ferdinand Morton * Thomas Mott OsborneGorgas, William Crawford, and Lewis Jerome Johnson. Two Papers on Public Sanitation and the Single Tax. New York: Single Tax Information Bureau, 1914. https://books.google.com/books?id=v3NHAAAAYAAJWare, Louise. George Foster Peabody, Banker, Philanthropist, Publicist. Athens: U of Georgia, 1951. http://dlg.galileo.usg.edu/ugapressbks/pdfs/ugp9780820334561.pdf * Amos Pinchot * Terence V. Powderly * Samuel Seabury (judge), Samuel Seabury * Catherine Helen Spence * Helen Taylor (feminist), Helen Taylor * William Simon U'Ren * Ida B. Wells * Frances Willard (suffragist), Frances Willard


Authors

* Ernest Howard Crosby * Charles Eisenstein * Hamlin Garland * Fred Harrison * James A. Herne * Ebenezer Howard * Elbert Hubbard * Aldous Huxley * James Howard Kunstler * Jose Martí * William D. McCrackan * Albert Jay Nock * Kathleen Norris * Upton Sinclair * George Bernard Shaw * Leo Tolstoy * Charles Erskine Scott Wood * Frank McEachran


Journalists

* William F. Buckley Jr. * Timothy Thomas Fortune * Theodor Herzl * Michael Kinsley * Suzanne La Follette * Dylan Matthews * Raymond Moley * Charles Edward Russell * Jacob Riis * Reihan Salam * Horace Traubel * Martin Wolf * Merryn Somerset Webb * Brand Whitlock * Tim Worstall * Matthew Yglesias


Artists

* David Bachrach * John Wilson BengoughMills, Allen. "Single Tax, Socialism and the Independent Labour Party of Manitoba: The Political Ideas of F.J. Dixon and S.J. Farmer." Labour / Le Travail 5 (1980): 33–56. JSTOR. Weborn 04 Dec. 2014. * Daniel Carter Beard * Matthew Bellamy * George de Forest Brush * Walter Burley Griffin * Hutchinson Family Singers, John Hutchinson * George Inness * Emma Lazarus * Agnes de Mille * Henry Churchill de Mille * William C. deMille * Francis Neilson * Eddie Palmieri * Banjo Paterson * Louis Prang *
Will Price William Lightfoot Price (November 9, 1861 – October 14, 1916) was an American architect, a pioneer in the use of reinforced concrete, and a founder of the utopian communities of Arden, Delaware and Rose Valley, Pennsylvania. Early life Price was ...
* Frank Stephens (sculptor), Frank Stephens * Frank Lloyd Wright


Philosophers

* Ralph Borsodi * Ludwig Büchner * Nicholas Murray Butler * Frank Chodorov * John B. Cobb * John Dewey * Silvio Gesell * Leon MacLaren * Franz Oppenheimer * Philippe Van Parijs * Bertrand Russell * Hillel Steiner


Others

* Roger Babson * Louis Brandeis * Clarence Darrow * Albert Einstein * Henry Ford * Spencer Heath * Mumia Abu-Jamal * Margrit Kennedy * Lincoln Electric, John C. Lincoln * Elizabeth Magie * Edward McGlynn * Buckey O'Neill * George Foster Peabody * Louis Freeland Post * Walter Rauschenbusch * Raymond A. Spruance * Silvanus P. Thompson * Fiske Warren * Alfred Russel Wallace * Joseph Fels


See also

* ''Agrarian Justice'' *
Arden, Delaware Arden is a village and art colony in New Castle County, Delaware Delaware ( ) is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Maryland to its south and west; Pennsylvania to i ...
* Basic income * Cap and Share * Causes of poverty * Citizen's dividend * Classical economics * Classical liberalism * Community land trust * Deadweight loss * Diggers * Economic rent * Enclosure * Excess burden of taxation * Externality * Free-market environmentalism * Freiwirtschaft *
Geolibertarianism Geolibertarianism is a List of political ideologies, political and economic ideology that integrates Libertarianism in the United States, libertarianism with Georgism. Overview Geolibertarians maintain that geographical space and Raw material, r ...
* Green economy * Labour economics, Labor economics * ''Laissez-faire'' * Land (economics) * Landed property * Land law * Land monopoly * Land registration * Land tenure * Land value tax * Law of rent * Lockean proviso * Manorialism * Natural and legal rights * Neoclassical liberalism * Optimal tax * Physiocracy * Pigovian tax * Poverty reduction * ''
Progress and Poverty ''Progress and Poverty: An Inquiry into the Cause of Industrial Depressions and of Increase of Want with Increase of Wealth: The Remedy'' is an 1879 book by social theorist and economist Henry George. It is a treatise on the questions of why povert ...
'' *
Progressive Era The Progressive Era (1896–1916) was a period of widespread social activism Activism consists of efforts to promote, impede, direct, or intervene in Social change, social, Political campaign, political, Economics, economic, or Natural ...
* Prosper Australia * Radical center (politics), Radical centrism * Rent-seeking * Tax reform * Tax shift * Tragedy of the anticommons * Value capture * Wealth concentration * YIMBY


References

{{schools of economic thought Georgism, Agrarianism Economic ideologies Eponymous economic ideologies Eponymous political ideologies Land value taxation Left-libertarianism History of liberalism Property taxes Schools of economic thought Tax reform Tax reform in the United States