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Georgian (, , ) is the most widely-spoken of the
Kartvelian languages The Kartvelian languages (; ka, ქართველური ენები, tr; also known as Iberian, South CaucasianBoeder (2002), p. 3 or Kartvelic) are a language family Languages of the Caucasus, indigenous to the South Caucasus and spoke ...
and serves as the
literary language A literary language is the form of a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing system c ...
or
lingua franca A lingua franca (; ; for plurals see ), also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vehicular language, or link language, is a language or dialect The term dialect (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a ...
for speakers of related languages. It is the
official language An official language is a language given a special status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction. Typically the term "official language" does not refer to the language used by a people or country, but by its government (e.g. judiciary ...

official language
of
Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country located at the intersection of Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the region of the European continent between Wester ...
and the native or primary language of 87.6% of its population. Its speakers today number approximately four million.


Classification

No claimed genetic links between the Kartvelian languages and any other language family in the world are accepted in mainstream linguistics. Among the Kartvelian languages, Georgian is most closely related to the so-called
Zan languages The Zan languages, or Zanuri ( ka, ზანური ენები), are a branch of the Kartvelian languages The Kartvelian languages (; ka, ქართველური ენები, tr; also known as Iberian, South CaucasianBoeder (200 ...
( Megrelian and Laz); glottochronological studies indicate that it split from the latter approximately 2700 years ago. Svan is a more distant relative that split off much earlier, perhaps 4000 years ago.


Dialects

Standard Georgian is largely based on the
Kartlian
Kartlian
dialect.''Georgian Dialects''
The ARMAZI project. Retrieved on March 28, 2007
Over the centuries it has exerted a strong influence on the other dialects, as a result of which they are all, for the most part, mutually intelligible with it and with each other.


History

The history of the Georgian language is conventionally divided into the following phases: * Early
Old Georgian Old Georgian (ႤႬႠჂ ႵႠႰႧႭჃႪႨ ''enay kartuli'') was a literary language of the Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country locate ...
: 5th–8th centuries * Classical Old Georgian: 9th–11th centuries * Middle Georgian: 11th/12th–17th/18th centuries * Modern Georgian: 17th/18th century–present The earliest extant references to Georgian are found in the writings of
Marcus Cornelius Fronto Marcus Cornelius Fronto (c. 100late 160s), best known as Fronto, was a Roman grammarian, rhetorician, and advocate. Of Berber origin, he was born at Cirta in Numidia. He was suffect consul for the '' nundinium'' of July-August 142 with Gaius La ...
, a Roman grammarian from the 2nd century AD. The first direct attestations of the language are inscriptions and
palimpsest In textual studies, a palimpsest () is a manuscript A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, traditionally, any document written by hand – or, once practical typewriters became available, typewritten — as opp ...

palimpsest
s dating to the 5th century, and the oldest surviving literary work is the 5th century '' Martyrdom of the Holy Queen Shushanik'' by Iakob Tsurtaveli. The emergence of Georgian as a written language appears to have been the result of the Christianization of Georgia in the mid-4th century, which led to the replacement of Aramaic as the
literary language A literary language is the form of a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing system c ...
. Tuite, Kevin, "Early Georgian", pp. 145-6, in: Woodard, Roger D. (2008), ''The Ancient Languages of Asia Minor''.
Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge , mottoeng = Literal: From here, light and sacred draughts. Non literal: From this place, we gain enlightenment and precious knowled ...
,
By the 11th century, Old Georgian had developed into Middle Georgian. The most famous work of this period is the
epic poem An epic poem is a lengthy narrative poem Narrative poetry is a form of poetry Poetry (derived from the Greek language, Greek ''poiesis'', "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetics, aesthetic and often rhythmic qualities of l ...
''
The Knight in the Panther's Skin ''The Knight in the Panther's Skin'' ( ka, ვეფხისტყაოსანი, tr literally "one with a skin of a tiger") is a Georgia (country), Georgian Medieval literature, medieval epic poem, written in the 12th century by Georgia's n ...

The Knight in the Panther's Skin
,'' written by
Shota Rustaveli Shota Rustaveli ( ka, შოთა რუსთაველი, c. 1160 – after c. 1220), mononymously A mononymous person is an individual who is known and addressed by a single name, or mononym. In some cases, that name has been selected by ...

Shota Rustaveli
in the 12th century. In 1629 a certain Nikoloz Cholokashvili authored the first printed books written (partially) in Georgian, the '' Alphabetum Ibericum sive Georgianum cum Oratione'' and the ''''. These were meant to help western Catholic missionaries learn Georgian for
evangelical Evangelicalism (), evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide trans-denominational movement within Protestant Christianity that maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salv ...
purposes.


Phonology


Consonants

On the left are
IPA IPA commonly refers to: * India pale ale, a style of beer * International Phonetic Alphabet The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin script Latin script, also ...
symbols, and on the right are the corresponding letters of the modern Georgian alphabet, which is essentially phonemic. # Opinions differ on the aspiration of , as it is non-contrastive. # Opinions differ on how to classify and ; classifies them as post-velar, argues that they range from velar to uvular according to context. #Uvular ejective stop is realised as uvular ejective fricative Former () has merged with (), leaving only the latter. The glottalization of the ejectives is rather light, and in many romanization systems it is not marked, for transcriptions such as ejective ''p'', ''t'', ''ts'', ''ch'', ''k'' and ''q'', against aspirated ''p‘'', ''t‘'', ''ts‘'', ''ch‘'' and ''k‘'' (as in transcriptions of Armenian). The coronal occlusives (, not necessarily affricates) are variously described as apical dental, laminal alveolar, and "dental".


Vowels


Prosody

Prosody Prosody may refer to: * Sanskrit prosody, Prosody (Sanskrit), the study of poetic meters and verse in Sanskrit and one of the six Vedangas, or limbs of Vedic studies * Prosody (Greek), the theory and practice of Greek versification * Prosody (Lati ...
in Georgian involves stress, intonation, and rhythm. Stress is very weak, and linguists disagree as to where stress occurs in words. Jun, Vicenik, and Lofstedt have proposed that Georgian stress and intonation are the result of
pitch accent A pitch-accent language is a language that has word accents in which one syllable in a word or morpheme is more prominent than the others, but the accentuated syllable is indicated by a contrasting pitch Pitch may refer to: Acoustic frequency ...
s on the first syllable of a word and near the end of a phrase. The rhythm of Georgian speech is syllable-timed.


Phonotactics

Georgian contains many "harmonic clusters" involving two consonants of a similar type (voiced, aspirated, or ejective) which are pronounced with only a single release; e.g. ''bgera'' (sound), ''tskhovreba'' (life), and ''ts'q'ali'' (water). There are also frequent
consonant cluster In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the metho ...
s, sometimes involving more than six consonants in a row, as may be seen in words like ''gvprtskvni'' ("you peel us") and ''mts'vrtneli'' ("trainer"). Vicenik has observed that Georgian vowels following ejective stops have
creaky voice In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include ph ...
and suggests this may be one cue distinguishing ejectives from their aspirated and voiced counterparts.


Writing system

Georgian has been written in a variety of scripts over its history. Currently the ''
Mkhedruli The Georgian scripts are the three writing systems used to write the Georgian language: #Asomtavruli, Asomtavruli, #Nuskhuri, Nuskhuri and #Mkhedruli, Mkhedruli. Although the systems differ in appearance, all three are unicase, their Letter (alp ...

Mkhedruli
'' script is almost completely dominant; the others are used mostly in religious documents and architecture. ''Mkhedruli'' has 33 letters in common use; a half dozen more are obsolete in Georgian, though still used in other alphabets, like Mingrelian, Laz, and Svan. The letters of ''Mkhedruli'' correspond closely to the phonemes of the Georgian language. According to the traditional account written down by
Leonti MroveliLeonti Mroveli ( ka, ლეონტი მროველი) was the 11th-century Georgian chronicler, presumably an ecclesiastic. ''Mroveli'' is not his last name, but the adjective for the diocese of Ruisi, whose bishop A bishop is an ordain ...
in the 11th century, the first Georgian script was created by the first ruler of the
Kingdom of Iberia In Greco-Roman geography The history of geography includes many histories of geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabi ...
, Pharnavaz, in the 3rd century BC. However, the first examples of a Georgian script date from the 5th century AD. There are now three Georgian scripts, called ''
Asomtavruli The Georgian scripts are the three writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among ...

Asomtavruli
'' "capitals", ''
Nuskhuri The Georgian scripts are the three writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among ...

Nuskhuri
'' "small letters", and ''Mkhedruli''. The first two are used together as upper and lower case in the writings of the
Georgian Orthodox Church The Apostolic Autocephalous Orthodox Church of Georgia ( ka, საქართველოს სამოციქულო ავტოკეფალური მართლმადიდებელი ეკლესია, tr), commonly ...
and together are called ''Khutsuri'' "priests' lphabet. In ''Mkhedruli'', there is no case. Sometimes, however, a capital-like effect, called ''Mtavruli'', "title" or "heading", is achieved by modifying the letters so that their vertical sizes are identical and they rest on the baseline with no descenders. These capital-like letters are often used in page headings, chapter titles, monumental inscriptions, and the like.


Keyboard layout

This is the Georgian standard keyboard layout. The standard Windows keyboard is essentially that of manual
typewriter A typewriter is a or machine for characters. Typically, a typewriter has an array of , and each one causes a different single character to be produced on paper by striking an inked ribbon selectively against the paper with a . At the end ...

typewriter
s.


Grammar


Morphology

Georgian is an
agglutinative language An agglutinative language is a type of synthetic language A synthetic language uses inflection In linguistic morphology, inflection (or inflexion) is a process of word formation, in which a word is modified to express different grammatica ...
. There are certain prefixes and suffixes that are joined together in order to build a verb. In some cases, there can be up to eight different morphemes in one verb at the same time. An example is ''ageshenebinat'' ("you (pl) should have built (it)"). The verb can be broken down to parts: ''a-g-e-shen-eb-in-a-t''. Each morpheme here contributes to the meaning of the verb tense or the person who has performed the verb. The verb conjugation also exhibits polypersonalism; a verb may potentially include morphemes representing both the subject and the object.


Morphophonology

In Georgian
morphophonology Morphophonology (also morphophonemics or morphonology) is the branch of linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language ...
,
syncope Syncope may refer to: * Syncope (medicine), also known as fainting * Syncope (phonology), the loss of one or more sounds, particularly an unstressed vowel, from the interior of a word * Syncopation, a musical effect caused by off-beat or otherwise ...
is a common phenomenon. When a suffix (especially the plural suffix -''eb''-) is attached to a word which has either of the vowels ''a'' or ''e'' in the last syllable, this vowel is, in most words, lost. For example, ''megobari'' means "friend". To say "friends", one says, ''megobØrebi'' (''megobrebi''), with the loss of ''a'' in the last syllable of the word root.


Inflection

Georgian has seven noun cases:
nominative In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as ...
, ergative,
dative In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as we ...
,
genitive In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, a ...
,
instrumental An instrumental is a recording normally without any vocals, although it might include some inarticulate vocal The human voice consists of sound In physics, sound is a vibration that propagates as an acoustic wave, through a transmissio ...
,
adverbial In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as ...
and
vocative In grammar, the vocative Grammatical case, case (list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ) is a grammatical case which is used for a noun that identifies a person (animal, object, etc.) being addressed, or occasionally for the determiner (li ...
. An interesting feature of Georgian is that, while the subject of a sentence is generally in the nominative case and the object is in the
accusative case The accusative case (abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version of the word or phras ...
(or dative), one can find this reversed in many situations (this depends mainly on the character of the verb). This is called the
dative construction The dative construction is a grammatical way of constructing a sentence, using the dative case In grammar In linguistics, the grammar (from Ancient Greek ''grammatikḗ'') of a natural language is its set of structure, structural constraints ...
. In the past tense of the transitive verbs, and in the present tense of the verb "to know", the subject is in the ergative case.


Syntax

* Georgian is a left-branching language, in which adjectives precede nouns, possessors precede possessions, objects normally precede verbs, and
postpositions Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (''in'', ''under'', ''towards'', ''before'') or mark various semantic ...
are used instead of
prepositions Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a part of speech, class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (''in'', ''under'', ''towards'', ''before'') or mark vari ...
. * Each postposition (whether a suffix or a separate word) requires the modified noun to be in a specific case. This is similar to the way prepositions govern specific cases in many
Indo-European languages The Indo-European languages are a language family A language family is a group of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, based on speech and gesture (spoken language), Signed language, sign, or o ...
such as
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
,
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...
, or
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
. * Georgian is a
pro-drop A pro-drop language (from "pronoun-dropping") is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a ...
language; both subject and object pronouns are frequently omitted except for emphasis or to resolve ambiguity. * A study by Skopeteas ''et al.'' concluded that Georgian word order tends to place the
focus Focus, FOCUS, or foci may refer to: Arts * Focus or Focus Festival, former name of the Adelaide Fringe The Adelaide Fringe, formerly Adelaide Fringe Festival, is the world's second-largest annual arts festival (after the Edinburgh Festival ...
of a sentence immediately before the verb, and the topic before the focus. A subject–object–verb ( SOV) word order is common in idiomatic expressions and when the focus of a sentence is on the object. A subject–verb–object ( SVO) word order is common when the focus is on the subject, or in longer sentences. Object-initial word orders ( OSV or OVS) are also possible, but less common. Verb-initial word orders including both subject and object ( VSO or VOS) are extremely rare. * Georgian has no
grammatical gender In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most langua ...
; even the pronouns are gender-neutral. * Georgian has no
article Article often refers to: * Article (grammar) An article is any member of a class of dedicated words that are used with noun phrases to mark the identifiability of the referents of the noun phrases. The category of articles constitutes a part of ...
s. Therefore, for example, "guest", "a guest" and "the guest" are said in the same way. In
relative clause A relative clause is typically a clause that modifies a noun A noun () is a word that functions as the name of a specific object or set of objects, such as living creatures, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.Example nouns ...
s, however, it is possible to establish the meaning of the definite article through use of some particles.


Vocabulary

Georgian has a rich word-derivation system. By using a root, and adding some definite prefixes and suffixes, one can derive many nouns and adjectives from the root. For example, from the root -''kart''-, the following words can be derived: ''Kartveli'' (a Georgian person), ''Kartuli'' (the Georgian language) and ''Sakartvelo'' (Georgia). Most Georgian surnames end in -''dze'' ("son") (Western Georgia), -''shvili'' ("child") (Eastern Georgia), -''ia'' (Western Georgia,
Samegrelo Mingrelia ( ka, სამეგრელო ''Samegrelo''; xmf, სამარგალო ''Samargalo'') is a historic province in the western part of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქარ ...

Samegrelo
), -''ani'' (Western Georgia,
Svaneti Svaneti or Svanetia (Suania in ancient sources; ka, სვანეთი ) is a historic province of Georgia (country), Georgia, in the northwestern part of the country. It is inhabited by the Svans, an ethnic subgroup of Georgians. Geograp ...

Svaneti
), -''uri'' (Eastern Georgia), etc. The ending -''eli'' is a particle of nobility, equivalent to French ''de'', German ''von'' or Polish -''ski''. Georgian has a
vigesimal A vigesimal () or base-20 (base-score) numeral system is based on 20 (number), twenty (in the same way in which the decimal, decimal numeral system is based on 10 (number), ten). ''wikt:vigesimal#English, Vigesimal'' is derived from the Latin adje ...
numeric system like
Basque Basque may refer to: * Basques The Basques ( or ; eu, euskaldunak ; es, vascos ; french: basques ) are a Southern European ethnic group, characterised by the Basque language, a Basque culture, common culture and shared genetic ancestry to th ...
or (partially) , based on the counting system of 20. In order to express a number greater than 20 and less than 100, first the number of 20s in the number is stated and the remaining number is added. For example, 93 is expressed as - ''otkh-m-ots-da-tsamet'i'' (lit. four-times-twenty-and-thirteen). One of the most important Georgian dictionaries is the '' Explanatory dictionary of the Georgian language'' (Georgian: ). It consists of eight volumes and about 115,000 words. It was produced between 1950 and 1964, by a team of linguists under the direction of
Arnold ChikobavaArnold Chikobava ( ka, არნოლდ ჩიქობავა) (March 14, 1898 – November 5, 1985) was a Georgia (country), Georgian linguist and Philology, philologist best known for his contributions to Caucasian studies and for being on ...

Arnold Chikobava
.


Examples


Word formations

Georgian has a word derivation system, which allows the derivation of nouns from verb roots both with prefixes and suffixes, for example: * From the root -- ("write"), the words ("letter") and ''mts'erali'' ("writer") are derived. * From the root -- ("give"), the word ("broadcast") is derived. * From the root -- ("try"), the word ("exam") is derived. * From the root -- ("resemble"), the words ("similar") and ''msgavseba'' ("similarity") are derived. * From the root -- ("build"), the word ("building") is derived. * From the root -- ("bake"), the word ("cake") is derived. * From the root -- ("cold"), the word ("refrigerator") is derived. * From the root -- ("fly"), the words ("plane") and ("take-off") are derived. It is also possible to derive verbs from nouns: * From the noun -- ("war"), the verb ("wage war") is derived. * From the noun -- ("lunch"), the verb ("eat lunch") is derived. * From the noun - ("breakfast"), the verb ("eat a little breakfast") is derived; the preverb ''ts'a''- in Georgian could add the meaning "''VERB''ing ''a little''". * From the noun -- ("home"), the verb (the infinite form of the verb "to relocate, to move") is derived. Likewise, verbs can be derived from adjectives, for example: * From the adjective -- ("red"), the verb (the infinite form of both "to blush" and "to make one blush") is derived. This kind of derivation can be done with many adjectives in Georgian. * From the adjective - ("blind"), the verbs (the infinite form of both "to become blind" and "to blind someone") are derived. * From the adjective -- ("beautiful"), the verb (the infinite form of the verb "to become beautiful") is derived.


Words that begin with multiple consonants

In Georgian many nouns and adjectives begin with two or more contiguous consonants. This is because syllables in the language often begin with two consonants. Recordings are available on the relevant Wiktionary entries, linked to below. *Some examples of words that begin with two consonants are: ** (), "water" ** (), "correct" ** (), "milk" ** (), "hair" ** (), "mountain" ** (), "horse" * There are also many words that begin with three contiguous consonants: ** (), "you (plural)" ** (), "green" ** (), "nose" ** (), "sweet" ** (), "painful" ** (), "north" * There are also a few words in Georgian that begin with four contiguous consonants. Examples are: ** (), "murderer" ** (), "dead" ** (), "drunk" ** (), "row, screeve" * There can also be some extreme cases in Georgian. For example, the following word begins with six contiguous consonants: ** (), "trainer" *While the following word begins with seven: ** (), "you train us" * And the following words begin with eight: ** (), "you peel us" ** (), "you tear us"


Language example

Article 1 of the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is an international document adopted by the United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; french: link=no, Assemblée générale, AG) is one of the six p ...
in Georgian: * Transliteration: . * Translation: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.


See also

*
Old Georgian Old Georgian (ႤႬႠჂ ႵႠႰႧႭჃႪႨ ''enay kartuli'') was a literary language of the Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country locate ...

Old Georgian
*
Georgian dialects Georgian (ქართული ''kartuli'') is a Kartvelian languages, Kartvelian language spoken by about 4 million people, primarily in Georgia (country), Georgia but also by indigenous communities in northern Turkey and Azerbaijan, and the diasp ...

Georgian dialects
*
Georgian alphabet The Georgian scripts are the three writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among ...

Georgian alphabet
*
Georgian calligraphy Georgian calligraphy ( ka, ქართული კალიგრაფია ) is a form of calligraphy Calligraphy (from Greek: καλλιγραφία) is a visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is ...
*
Georgian calendar The Georgian calendar ( ka, ქართული კალენდარი) is the ancient or modern calendar of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is ...
* Georgian grammar *
Georgian numerals The Georgian numerals are the system of number names In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. ...
* Georgian profanity


References


Bibliography

* * Zaza Aleksidze. ''Epistoleta Tsigni'', Tbilisi, 1968, 150 pp (in Georgian) * . ''Georgica et Irano-Semitica'' Studies on Iranian, Semitic and Georgian Linguistics, Wiesbaden 2010, 401 pp (in German, English, Russian and Georgian summary) * Korneli Danelia, Zurab Sarjveladze. ''Questions of Georgian Paleography'', Tbilisi, 1997, 150 pp (in Georgian, English summary) * * * * Pavle Ingorokva. Georgian inscriptions of antique.- Bulletin of ENIMK, vol. X, Tbilisi, 1941, pp. 411–427 (in Georgian) *
Ivane Javakhishvili Ivane Javakhishvili ( ka, ივანე ჯავახიშვილი, 11 April 1876 – 18 November 1940) was a Georgian historian and a linguist whose voluminous works heavily influenced the modern scholarship of the History of Georgia ( ...

Ivane Javakhishvili
. ''Georgian Paleography'', Tbilisi, 1949, 500 pp (in Georgian) * * * * Elene Machavariani. ''The graphical basis of the Georgian Alphabet'', Tbilisi, 1982, 107 pp (in Georgian, French summary) * Ramaz Pataridze. ''The Georgian Asomtavruli'', Tbilisi, 1980, 600 pp (in Georgian) * * * "Great discovery" (about the expedition of Academician Levan Chilashvili).- Newspaper ''Kviris Palitra'', Tbilisi, April 21–27, 2003 (in Georgian) * *


External links

* *


Grammars


Reference grammar of Georgian by Howard Aronson (SEELRC, Duke University)

Georgian Grammar


Dictionaries


Georgian English, English Georgian online dictionary

English-Georgian, German-Georgian and Russian-Georgian dictionaries



Georgian Swadesh list of basic vocabulary words
(from Wiktionary'
Swadesh-list appendix


Software


Georgian fonts, compliant with Unicode 4.0, also available for MAC OS 9 or X

A keyboard for typing georgian characters for firefox

Learn Georgian Alphabet Now app
Gives the name, pronunciation of each letter, and example words. Shows the stroke order of each letter. Permits drawing practice and has a quiz to learn the letters.


Literature and culture


About Georgia - Language and Alphabet



Learn how to write Georgian hand-written letters correctly
{{DEFAULTSORT:Georgian Language Languages attested from the 5th century Kartvelian languages Languages of Georgia (country) Languages of Abkhazia Languages of Russia Languages of Turkey Languages of Azerbaijan Languages of Iran Agglutinative languages Georgian-Zan languages