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Francis Xavier (born Francisco de Jasso y Azpilicueta;
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the ...
: ''Franciscus Xaverius'';
Basque Basque may refer to: * Basques The Basques ( or ; eu, euskaldunak ; es, vascos ; french: basques ) are a Southern European ethnic group, characterised by the Basque language, a Basque culture, common culture and shared genetic ancestry to the ...
: ''Frantzisko Xabierkoa'';
French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consistin ...

French
: ''François Xavier'';
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
: ''Francisco Javier'';
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal Portugal (), officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=no ), is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula, in Souther ...

Portuguese
: ''Francisco Xavier''; 7 April 15063 December 1552), venerated as Saint Francis Xavier, was a
Navarre Navarre (; es, Navarra ; eu, Nafarroa ; oc, Navarra ), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre ( es, Comunidad Foral de Navarra, links=no ; eu, Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea, links=no ), is an autonomous community and province A prov ...

Navarre
se
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ri ...

Catholic
missionary A missionary is a member of a Religious denomination, religious group sent into an area to promote their faith or provide services, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.Thomas Hale 'On Being a Missio ...

missionary
and
saint In religious belief, a saint is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of Q-D-Š, holiness, likeness, or closeness to God. However, the use of the term "saint" depends on the context and Christian denomination, denomination. ...

saint
who was a co-founder of the
Society of Jesus , image = Ihs-logo.svg , caption = ChristogramOfficial seal of the Jesuits , abbreviation = SJ , nickname = Jesuit , formation = , founders = Ignatius of LoyolaFrancis Xavi ...
. Born in Javier (Xavier in
Old Spanish Old Spanish, also known as Old Castilian ( es, castellano antiguo; osp, romance castellano ) or Medieval Spanish ( es, español medieval), was originally a dialect of Vulgar Latin spoken in the former provinces of the Roman Empire that provided ...
and in
Navarro-Aragonese Navarro-Aragonese is a Romance language The Romance languages (less commonly Latin languages, or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin between the third and eighth centuries. They are a subgroup of the ...
, or Xabier (Basque language for "new house")), Kingdom of Navarre (in present-day
Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_ ...

Spain
), he was a companion of
Ignatius of Loyola Ignatius of Loyola, Society of Jesus, S.J. (born Iñigo López de Oñaz y Loyola; eu, Ignazio Loiolakoa; es, Ignacio de Loyola; la, Ignatius de Loyola; – 31 July 1556), venerated as Saint Ignatius of Loyola, was a Spanish Catholic priest a ...

Ignatius of Loyola
and one of the first seven
Jesuits , image = Ihs-logo.svg , caption = Christogram A Christogram (Latin ') is a monogram or combination of letters that forms an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, traditionally used as a Christian symbolism, ...
who took vows of poverty and chastity at
Montmartre Image:StPierreParis.jpg, upSaint-Pierre de Montmartre (originally 1133, much of it destroyed in 1790 and rebuilt in the 19th century) seen from the dome of the Basilica of the Sacré-Cœur Montmartre ( , , ) is a large hill in 18th arrondissem ...

Montmartre
,
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents as of 2018, in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, ...

Paris
in 1534. He led an extensive mission into Asia, mainly in the
Portuguese Empire The Portuguese Empire ( pt, Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (''Ultramar Português'') or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (''Império Colonial Português''), was composed of the overseas Colonialism, colonies, Factory ( ...
of the time and was influential in
evangelization Image:Jakob Jordaens 002.jpg, The Four Evangelists In Christianity, evangelism (or witnessing) is the act of preacher, preaching the gospel with the intention of sharing the message and teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus Christ. Christians wh ...
work, most notably in India. Although some sources claim that the
Goa Inquisition The Goa Inquisition ( pt, Inquisição de Goa) was an extension of the Portuguese Inquisition in colonial-era Portuguese India The State of India ( pt, Estado da Índia), also referred as the Portuguese State of India (''Estado Português da ...
was proposed by Francis Xavier, his letter to the king of Portugal,
John III
John III
, asked for a special minister whose sole office would be to further Christianity in Goa. He also was the first
Christian missionary A Christian mission is an organized effort to spread Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Je ...
to venture into
Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg , alt_coat = Golden circle subdiv ...

Japan
,
Borneo Borneo (; id, Kalimantan Kalimantan is the Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian Ocean, Indian and Pacific Oc ...

Borneo
, the
Maluku Islands The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas () (''Molukken'') are an archipelago in the east of Indonesia. Tectonically they are located on the Halmahera Plate within the Molucca Sea Collision Zone. Geographically they are located east of Sulawesi, west ...

Maluku Islands
, and other areas. In those areas, struggling to learn the local languages and in the face of opposition, he had less success than he had enjoyed in India. Xavier was about to extend his missionary preaching to China when he died on
Shangchuan Island Shangchuan Island (, also known as "Schangschwan", "Sancian", "Sanchão", "Chang-Chuang", "St. John's Island" or "St John Island") is the main island of Chuanshan Archipelago on the southern coast of Guangdong, China. Its name originated from São ...
. He was beatified by
Pope Paul V Pope Paul V ( la, Paulus V; it, Paolo V) (17 September 1550 – 28 January 1621), born Camillo Borghese, was bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is ...

Pope Paul V
on 25 October 1619 and
canonized Canonization is the declaration of a deceased person as an officially recognized saint In religious belief, a saint is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of Q-D-Š, holiness, likeness, or closeness to God. However, t ...
by
Pope Gregory XV Pope Gregory XV ( la, Gregorius XV; 9 January 15548 July 1623), born Alessandro Ludovisi, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 9 February 1621 to his death in 1623. Biography Early life Alessandro Ludovisi was bor ...

Pope Gregory XV
on 12 March 1622. In 1624, he was made co-patron of Navarre. Known as the "Apostle of the Indies" and "Apostle of Japan", he is considered to be one of the greatest missionaries since
Paul the Apostle Paul; el, Παῦλος, translit=Paulos; cop, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; he, פאולוס השליח, name=, group= (born Saul of Tarsus;; ar, بولس الطرسوسي; el, Σαῦλος Ταρσεύς, Saũlos Tarseús; tr, Tarsuslu Pavlus AD ...
. In 1927,
Pope Pius XI Pope Pius XI ( it, Pio XI), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti (; 31 May 1857 – 10 February 1939), was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christia ...
published the decree "Apostolicorum in Missionibus" naming Francis Xavier, along with
Thérèse of Lisieux Therese of Lisieux (french: sainte Thérèse de Lisieux), born Marie Françoise-Thérèse Martin (2 January 1873 – 30 September 1897), also known as Saint Therese of the Child Jesus and the Holy Face, was a French Catholic The Catholi ...
, co-patron of all foreign missions. He is now co-patron saint of Navarre, with
Fermin Fermin (also Firmin, from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of ...

Fermin
. The Day of Navarre in
Navarre Navarre (; es, Navarra ; eu, Nafarroa ; oc, Navarra ), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre ( es, Comunidad Foral de Navarra, links=no ; eu, Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea, links=no ), is an autonomous community and province A prov ...

Navarre
, Spain, marks the anniversary of Francis Xavier's death, on 3 December 1552.


Early life

Francis Xavier was born in the royal castle of Xavier, in the
Kingdom of Navarre ) , religion = , common_languages = , title_leader = List of Navarrese monarchs, Monarch , leader1 = Íñigo Arista of Pamplona, Íñigo Arista (first) , year_leader1 ...
, on 7 April 1506 according to a family register. He was the youngest son of Juan de Jasso y Atondo, seneschal of Xavier castle, who belonged to a prosperous farming family and had acquired a doctorate in law at the
University of Bologna The University of Bologna ( it, Alma mater studiorum - Università di Bologna, UNIBO) is a research university in Bologna, Italy. Founded in 1088 by an organised guild of students (hence ''studiorum''), it is the List of oldest universities in con ...
.
Basque Basque may refer to: * Basques The Basques ( or ; eu, euskaldunak ; es, vascos ; french: basques ) are a Southern European ethnic group, characterised by the Basque language, a Basque culture, common culture and shared genetic ancestry to the ...
was his
mother tongue A first language, native tongue, native language, or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1), is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period hypothesis, critical period. In so ...
. Juan later became a privy counsellor and finance minister to King John III of Navarre (
Jean d'Albret John III (french: Jean d'Albret; 1469 – 14 June 1516) was ''jure uxoris'' King of Navarre from 1484 until his death, as husband and co-ruler with Catherine of Navarre, Queen Catherine. He was a son of Alain I of Albret, Alain I, Lord of Albret a ...
). Francis's mother was Doña María de Azpilcueta y Aznárez, sole heiress of two noble Navarrese families. He was through her related to the great theologian and philosopher
Martín de Azpilcueta
Martín de Azpilcueta
. In 1512,
Ferdinand Ferdinand is a Germanic nameGermanic given names are traditionally dithematic; that is, they are formed from two elements, by joining a prefix A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word. Adding it to the beginning of one w ...
, King of
Aragon Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon. In northeastern Spain, the Aragonese autonomous community comprises thre ...
and regent of
Castile
Castile
, invaded Navarre, initiating a war that lasted over 18 years. Three years later, Francis's father died when Francis was only nine years old. In 1516, Francis's brothers participated in a failed Navarrese-French attempt to expel the Spanish invaders from the kingdom. The Spanish Governor, Cardinal Cisneros, confiscated the family lands, demolished the outer wall, the gates, and two towers of the family castle, and filled in the moat. In addition, the height of the keep was reduced by half. Only the family residence inside the castle was left. In 1522, one of Francis's brothers participated with 200 Navarrese nobles in dogged but failed resistance against the Castilian Count of Miranda in Amaiur, Baztan, the last Navarrese territorial position south of the Pyrenees. In 1525, Francis went to study in Paris at the Collège Sainte-Barbe,
University of Paris , image_name = Coat of arms of the University of Paris.svg , image_size = 150px , caption = , latin_name = Universitas magistrorum et scholarium Parisiensis , motto = ''Hic et ubique terrarum'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical lan ...
, where he spent the next eleven years. In the early days he acquired some reputation as an athlete and a high-jumper. In 1529, Francis shared lodgings with his friend
Pierre Favre Peter Faber (french: Pierre Lefevre or Favre, la, Petrus Faver) (13 April 1506 – 1 August 1546) was the first Jesuit priest and theology, theologian, who was also a co-founder of the Society of Jesus, along with Ignatius of Loyola and Francis ...

Pierre Favre
. A new student,
Ignatius of Loyola Ignatius of Loyola, Society of Jesus, S.J. (born Iñigo López de Oñaz y Loyola; eu, Ignazio Loiolakoa; es, Ignacio de Loyola; la, Ignatius de Loyola; – 31 July 1556), venerated as Saint Ignatius of Loyola, was a Spanish Catholic priest a ...

Ignatius of Loyola
, came to room with them. At 38, Ignatius was much older than Pierre and Francis, who were both 23 at the time. Ignatius convinced Pierre to become a priest, but was unable to convince Francis, who had aspirations of worldly advancement. At first Francis regarded the new lodger as a joke and was sarcastic about his efforts to convert students. When Pierre left their lodgings to visit his family and Ignatius was alone with Francis, he was able to slowly break down Francis's resistance. According to most biographies Ignatius is said to have posed the question: "What will it profit a man to gain the whole world, and lose his own soul?" However, according to
James Broderick James Joseph Broderick III (March 7, 1927November 1, 1982) was an American actor. He is known for his role as Doug Lawrence in the television series ''Family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either b ...
such method is not characteristic of Ignatius and there is no evidence that he employed it at all. In 1530, Francis received the degree of Master of Arts, and afterwards taught Aristotelian philosophy at Beauvais College,
University of Paris , image_name = Coat of arms of the University of Paris.svg , image_size = 150px , caption = , latin_name = Universitas magistrorum et scholarium Parisiensis , motto = ''Hic et ubique terrarum'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical lan ...
.


Missionary work

On 15 August 1534, seven students met in a crypt beneath the Church of Saint Denis (now
Saint Pierre de Montmartre Saint-Pierre de Montmartre () is one of the oldest surviving churches in Paris but the lesser known of the two main churches in Montmartre, the other being the more famous 19th-century Basilique du Sacré-Cœur, Paris, Sacré-Cœur Basilica. Saint- ...

Saint Pierre de Montmartre
), on the hill of
Montmartre Image:StPierreParis.jpg, upSaint-Pierre de Montmartre (originally 1133, much of it destroyed in 1790 and rebuilt in the 19th century) seen from the dome of the Basilica of the Sacré-Cœur Montmartre ( , , ) is a large hill in 18th arrondissem ...

Montmartre
, overlooking Paris. They were Francis,
Ignatius of Loyola Ignatius of Loyola, Society of Jesus, S.J. (born Iñigo López de Oñaz y Loyola; eu, Ignazio Loiolakoa; es, Ignacio de Loyola; la, Ignatius de Loyola; – 31 July 1556), venerated as Saint Ignatius of Loyola, was a Spanish Catholic priest a ...

Ignatius of Loyola
,
Alfonso Salmeron Alfonso (Alphonsus) Salmerón (8 September 1515 – 13 February 1585) was a Spanish biblical scholar, a Catholic priest, and one of the first Jesuits. Biography He was born in Toledo, Spain on 8 September 1515. He studied literature and philoso ...

Alfonso Salmeron
,
Diego Laínez ''Several spellings of his names (James, Jacob; Laines, Laynez, Lainez) are in use and some of them can be found in other Wikipedia articles'' Image:Portret van de jezuïet Jacobus Laynez Portretten van generaal oversten van de jezuïeten (serietit ...
, Nicolás Bobadilla from Spain,
Peter Faber Peter Faber (french: Pierre Lefevre or Favre, la, Petrus Faver) (13 April 1506 – 1 August 1546) was the first Jesuit The Society of Jesus (SJ; la, Societas Iesu) is a religious order of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, ...

Peter Faber
from
Savoy Savoy (; frp, Savouè ; french: Savoie is a cultural-historical region in the Western Alps it, Alpi occidentaligerman: Westalpen , photo=Mont Blanc from Punta Helbronner, 2010 July.JPG , photo_caption=Mont Blanc, the highest summit of the Wes ...

Savoy
, and
Simão Rodrigues Simão Rodrigues de Azevedo (1510, Vouzela, Portugal - 15 June 1579, Lisbon), was a Portuguese Society of Jesus, Jesuit Catholic priesthood, priest and one of the co-founders of the Society of Jesus. A Portuguese nobleman, Rodrigues was one of th ...
from
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a sovereign state, country whose mainland is located on the Iberian Peninsula, in Southern Europe, Southwestern Europe, and whose territory also includ ...

Portugal
. They made private vows of
poverty, chastity, and obedience The three evangelical counsels or counsels of perfection in Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings ...
to the Pope, and also vowed to go to the Holy Land to convert infidels. Francis began his study of theology in 1534 and was ordained on 24 June 1537. In 1539, after long discussions, Ignatius drew up a formula for a new religious order, the
Society of Jesus , image = Ihs-logo.svg , caption = ChristogramOfficial seal of the Jesuits , abbreviation = SJ , nickname = Jesuit , formation = , founders = Ignatius of LoyolaFrancis Xavi ...
(the Jesuits). Ignatius's plan for the order was approved by
Pope Paul III Pope Paul III ( la, Paulus III; 29 February 1468 – 10 November 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominati ...

Pope Paul III
in 1540. In 1540,
King John of Portugal
King John of Portugal
had
Pedro Mascarenhas Dom Pedro Mascarenhas (1480 – 16 June 1555) was a Portuguese explorer and colonial administrator. He was the first European to discover the island of Diego Garcia in the Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's ...
, Portuguese ambassador to the
Holy See The Holy See ( lat, Sancta Sedes, ; it, Santa Sede ), also called the See of Rome or Apostolic See, is the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope, which includes the apostolic see, apostolic episcopal see of the Diocese of Rome ...
, request Jesuit missionaries to spread the faith in his new possessions in India, where the king believed that Christian values were eroding among the Portuguese. After successive appeals to the Pope asking for missionaries for the
East Indies File:Indies.PNG, 300px, The East Indies, and the Indies, are Archaism, archaic terms referring to the lands, as the names suggest, east of the Indian subcontinent, most particularly Maritime Southeast Asia and parts of East Asia.Oxford D ...
under the
Padroado The ''Padroado'' (, "patronage") was an arrangement between the Holy See and the Kingdom of Portugal and later the Republic of Portugal, through a series of concordats by which the Holy See, Vatican delegated the administration of the local churches ...
agreement, John III was encouraged by Diogo de Gouveia, rector of the Collège Sainte-Barbe, to recruit the newly graduated students who had established the Society of Jesus. Ignatius promptly appointed
Nicholas Bobadilla Nicolas Bobadilla (1511 – 23 September 1590) was one of the first Jesuits The Society of Jesus (SJ; la, Societas Iesu) is a religious order of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Chu ...
and
Simão Rodrigues Simão Rodrigues de Azevedo (1510, Vouzela, Portugal - 15 June 1579, Lisbon), was a Portuguese Society of Jesus, Jesuit Catholic priesthood, priest and one of the co-founders of the Society of Jesus. A Portuguese nobleman, Rodrigues was one of th ...
. At the last moment, however, Bobadilla became seriously ill. With some hesitance and uneasiness, Ignatius asked Francis to go in Bobadilla's place. Thus, Francis Xavier began his life as the first Jesuit missionary almost accidentally. Leaving Rome on 15 March 1540, in the Ambassador's train, Francis took with him a
breviary A breviary (Ecclesiastical Latin, Latin: ''breviarium'') is a liturgical book used in Christianity for praying the canonical hours, usually recited at Fixed prayer times#Christianity, seven fixed prayer times. Historically, different breviaries w ...
, a
catechism A catechism (; from grc, κατηχέω, "to teach orally") is a summary or exposition of doctrine Doctrine (from la, doctrina, meaning "teaching, instruction") is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught pri ...
, and by
Croatia :* french: link=no, République de Croatie :* hu, Horvát Köztársaság :* it, Repubblica di Croazia :* rue, Републіка Хорватія :* sr, Република Хрватска :* sk, Chorvátska republika :* sl, Republika H ...

Croatia
n humanist
Marko Marulić Marko Marulić Splićanin (), in Latin Marcus Marulus Spalatensis (18 August 1450 – 5 January 1524), was a Croatian poet, lawyer, judge, and Renaissance humanism, Renaissance humanist who coined the term "psychology". He is the national poet of ...
, a Latin book that had become popular in the
Counter-Reformation The Counter-Reformation (), also called the Catholic Reformation () or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic Church, Catholic resurgence that was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, also known as the Protestant Revol ...
. According to a 1549 letter of F. Balthasar Gago from Goa, it was the only book that Francis read or studied. Francis reached Lisbon in June 1540 and, four days after his arrival, he and Rodrigues were summoned to a private audience with the King and the Queen. Francis Xavier devoted much of his life to missions in Asia, mainly in four centres: Malacca, Amboina and Ternate, Japan, and off-shore China. His growing information about new places indicated to him that he had to go to what he understood were centres of influence for the whole region. China loomed large from his days in India. Japan was particularly attractive because of its culture. For him, these areas were interconnected; they could not be evangelised separately.


Goa and India

Francis Xavier left
Lisbon Lisbon (; pt, Lisboa ) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 544,851 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2. Grande Lisboa, Lisbon's urban area extends beyond the city's admini ...

Lisbon
on 7 April 1541, his thirty-fifth birthday, along with two other Jesuits and the new
viceroy A viceroy () is an official who runs a polity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of institutionalized social relations, and have a capacity to mo ...

viceroy
Martim Afonso de Sousa Martim Afonso de Sousa ( – 21 July 1564) was a Portuguese '' fidalgo'', explorer Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answe ...
, on board the ''Santiago''. As he departed, Francis was given a brief from the pope appointing him
apostolic nuncio An apostolic nuncio (also known as a papal nuncio or simply as a nuncio) is an ecclesiastical diplomat, serving as an envoy or a permanent diplomatic representative of the Holy See to a state or to an international organization. A nuncio is ...
to the East. From August until March 1542 he remained in
Portuguese Mozambique Portuguese Mozambique ( pt, Moçambique) or Portuguese East Africa (''África Oriental Portuguesa'') were the common terms by which Mozambique Mozambique (), officially the Republic of Mozambique ( pt, Moçambique or , ; ny, Mozambiki; sw ...
, and arrived in
Goa Goa () is a state on the southwestern coast of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the ...

Goa
, then capital of
Portuguese India The State of India ( pt, Estado da Índia), also referred as the Portuguese State of India (''Estado Português da Índia'', EPI) or simply Portuguese India (''Índia Portuguesa''), was a colonial state of the Portuguese Empire founded six year ...

Portuguese India
, on 6 May 1542, thirteen months after leaving Lisbon. The Portuguese, following quickly on the great voyages of discovery, had established themselves at Goa thirty years earlier. Francis's primary mission, as ordered by King John III, was to restore Christianity among the Portuguese settlers. According to Teotonio R. DeSouza, recent critical accounts indicate that apart from the posted civil servants, "the great majority of those who were dispatched as 'discoverers' were the riff-raff of Portuguese society, picked up from Portuguese jails." Nor did the soldiers, sailors, or merchants come to do missionary work, and Imperial policy permitted the outflow of disaffected nobility. Many of the arrivals formed liaisons with local women and adopted Indian culture. Missionaries often wrote against the "scandalous and undisciplined" behaviour of their fellow Christians. The Christian population had churches, clergy, and a bishop, but there were few preachers and no priests beyond the walls of Goa. Xavier decided that he must begin by instructing the Portuguese themselves, and gave much of his time to the teaching of children. The first five months he spent in preaching and ministering to the sick in the hospitals. After that, he walked through the streets ringing a bell to summon the children and servants to catechism. He was invited to head Saint Paul's College, a pioneer
seminary A seminary, school of theology, theological seminary, or divinity school is an educational institution for educating students (sometimes called ''seminarians'') in scripture Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or h ...
for the education of secular priests, which became the first Jesuit headquarters in Asia. Xavier soon learned that along the Pearl Fishery Coast, which extends from
Cape Comorin Kanyakumari () (also known as Cape Comorin) is a town in Kanyakumari District in the state of Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu () is a States and union territories of India, state in southern India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu ...
on the southern tip of India to the island of Mannar, off Ceylon (
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකාව, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO (); ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO ()), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is ...

Sri Lanka
), there was a
Jāti ''Jāti'' is a group of clans, tribes, communities, and sub-communities, and religions in India. Each Jāti typically has an association with a traditional job function or tribe. Religious beliefs (e.g. Sri Vaishnavism Sri Vaishnavism, or the ...
of people called
Paravas Paravar (also known as Bharathar or Bharathakula) is a Tamil caste Caste is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of a style of life which often includes an occupation, ritual status in a hierarch ...
. Many of them had been baptised ten years before, merely to please the Portuguese who had helped them against the Moors, but remained uninstructed in the faith. Accompanied by several native clerics from the seminary at Goa, he set sail for Cape Comorin in October 1542. He taught those who had already been baptised, and preached to those who weren't. His efforts with the high-caste Brahmins remained unavailing. He devoted almost three years to the work of preaching to the people of southern India and Ceylon, converting many. He built nearly 40 churches along the coast, including St. Stephen's Church, Kombuthurai, mentioned in his letters dated 1544. During this time, he was able to visit the tomb of
Thomas the Apostle Thomas the Apostle ( hbo, תוֹמָאס הקדוש; grc, Θωμᾶς; cop, ⲑⲱⲙⲁⲥ; syc, ܬܐܘܡܐ ܫܠܝܚܐ ''Tʾōmā šliḥā''; mal, മാര്‍ തോമാ ശ്ലീഹ ''mar thoma sliha''), also called Didymus ("twi ...
in
Mylapore Mylapore () is a neighborhood in the central part of the city of Chennai Chennai (, ; also known as Madras, List of renamed Indian cities and states#Tamil Nadu, the official name until 1996) is the Capital city, capital of the states and ...
(now part of Madras/
Chennai Chennai (, ), also known as Madras (List of renamed Indian cities and states#Tamil Nadu, the official name until 1996), is the capital city of the states and territories of India, Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The state's largest city in area ...

Chennai
then in Portuguese India). He set his sights eastward in 1545 and planned a missionary journey to
Makassar Makassar () is the capital city, capital of the Indonesian Provinces of Indonesia, province of South Sulawesi. It is the largest city in the region of Eastern Indonesia and the country's fifth-largest urban center after Jakarta, Surabaya, Bandu ...

Makassar
on the island of
Celebes Sulawesi (), also known as Celebes (), is one of the four Greater Sunda Islands. It is governed by Indonesia. The List of islands by area, world's eleventh-largest island, it is situated east of Borneo, west of the Maluku Islands, and south of ...

Celebes
(today's
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian Ocean, Indian and Pacific Ocean, Pacific oceans. It consists of more than List of islands ...

Indonesia
). As the first Jesuit in India, Francis had difficulty achieving much success in his missionary trips. His successors, such as de Nobili,
Matteo Ricci Matteo Ricci (; la, Mattheus Riccius; 6 October 1552 – 11 May 1610), was an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian ...
, and Beschi, attempted to convert the noblemen first as a means to influence more people, while Francis had initially interacted most with the lower classes; (later though, in Japan, Francis changed tack by paying tribute to the Emperor and seeking an audience with him).


Southeast Asia

In the spring of 1545 Xavier started for
Portuguese Malacca Portuguese control of Malacca, a city on the Malay Peninsula The Malay Peninsula (Malay language, Malay: ''Semenanjung Tanah Melayu'') is a peninsula in Southeast Asia. The land mass runs approximately north–south and, at its terminus, ...
. He laboured there for the last months of that year. About January 1546, Xavier left Malacca for the
Maluku Islands The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas () (''Molukken'') are an archipelago in the east of Indonesia. Tectonically they are located on the Halmahera Plate within the Molucca Sea Collision Zone. Geographically they are located east of Sulawesi, west ...

Maluku Islands
, where the Portuguese had some settlements. For a year and a half he preached the Gospel there. He went first to
Ambon Island Ambon Island is part of the Maluku Islands of Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian Ocean, Indian and Pacific Oc ...
, where he stayed until mid-June. He then visited other Maluku Islands, including
Ternate Ternate is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It ca ...

Ternate
, Baranura, and
Morotai Morotai Island ( id, Pulau Morotai) is an island in the Halmahera group of eastern Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the ...
. Shortly after Easter 1547, he returned to Ambon Island; a few months later he returned to Malacca.


Japan

In Malacca in December 1547, Francis Xavier met a Japanese man named Anjirō. Anjirō had heard of Francis in 1545 and had travelled from
Kagoshima is the capital Cities of Japan, city of Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. Located at the southwestern tip of the island of Kyushu, Kagoshima is the largest city in the prefecture by some margin. It has been nicknamed the "Naples of the Eastern world" ...

Kagoshima
to Malacca to meet him. Having been charged with murder, Anjirō had fled Japan. He told Francis extensively about his former life, and the customs and culture of his homeland. Anjirō became the first Japanese Christian and adopted the name of 'Paulo de Santa Fé'. He later helped Xavier as a mediator and interpreter for the mission to Japan that now seemed much more possible. In January 1548 Francis returned to Goa to attend to his responsibilities as superior of the mission there. The next 15 months were occupied with various journeys and administrative measures. He left Goa on 15 April 1549, stopped at Malacca, and visited
Canton Canton may refer to: Administrative division terminology * Canton (administrative division), territorial/administrative division in some countries, notably Switzerland * Township (Canada), known as ''canton'' in Canadian French Arts and entert ...

Canton
. He was accompanied by Anjiro, two other Japanese men, Father Cosme de Torrès and Brother Juan Fernández. He had taken with him presents for the " King of Japan" since he was intending to introduce himself as the
Apostolic Nuncio An apostolic nuncio (also known as a papal nuncio or simply as a nuncio) is an ecclesiastical diplomat, serving as an envoy or a permanent diplomatic representative of the Holy See to a state or to an international organization. A nuncio is ...
. Europeans had already come to Japan: the Portuguese had landed in 1543 on the island of
Tanegashima is one of the Ōsumi Islands belonging to Kagoshima Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat ...

Tanegashima
, where they introduced matchlock firearms to Japan. From Amboina, he wrote to his companions in Europe: "I asked a Portuguese merchant, ... who had been for many days in Anjirō's country of Japan, to give me ... some information on that land and its people from what he had seen and heard. ...All the Portuguese merchants coming from Japan tell me that if I go there I shall do great service for God our Lord, more than with the pagans of India, for they are a very reasonable people." (To His Companions Residing in Rome, From Cochin, 20 January 1548, no. 18, p. 178). Francis Xavier reached Japan on 27 July 1549, with Anjiro and three other Jesuits, but he was not permitted to enter any port his ship arrived at until 15 August, when he went ashore at
Kagoshima is the capital Cities of Japan, city of Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. Located at the southwestern tip of the island of Kyushu, Kagoshima is the largest city in the prefecture by some margin. It has been nicknamed the "Naples of the Eastern world" ...

Kagoshima
, the principal port of
Satsuma Province was an old province of Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg , alt_coat ...
on the island of
Kyūshū is the third largest island of Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg , alt_coat ...
. As a representative of the Portuguese king, he was received in a friendly manner.
Shimazu Takahisa , the son of Shimazu Tadayoshi, was a ''daimyō'' during Japan's Sengoku period. He was the fifteenth head of the Shimazu clan. In 1514, he is said to have been born in Izaku Castle. On 1526, Takahisa was adopted as the successor to Shimazu Katsuhi ...
(1514–1571), ''
daimyō were powerful Japanese magnate A magnate, from the late Latin ''magnas'', a great man, itself from Latin ''magnus'', "great", is a noble or a man in a high social position, by birth, wealth or other qualities. In reference to the Middle Ages, ...
'' of Satsuma, gave a friendly reception to Francis on 29 September 1549, but in the following year he forbade the conversion of his subjects to Christianity under penalty of death; Christians in Kagoshima could not be given any catechism in the following years. The Portuguese missionary Pedro de Alcáçova would later write in 1554: Francis was the first Jesuit to go to Japan as a missionary. He brought with him paintings of the Madonna and the Madonna and Child. These paintings were used to help teach the Japanese about Christianity. There was a huge language barrier as Japanese was unlike other languages the missionaries had previously encountered. For a long time Francis struggled to learn the language. He was hosted by Anjirō's family until October 1550. From October to December 1550, he resided in Yamaguchi. Shortly before Christmas, he left for
Kyoto Kyoto (; Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat ...

Kyoto
but failed to meet with the Emperor. He returned to Yamaguchi in March 1551, where the daimyo of the province gave him permission to preach. Having learned that evangelical poverty did not have the appeal in Japan that it had in Europe and in India, he decided to change his approach. Hearing after a time that a Portuguese ship had arrived at a port in the province of Bungo in Kyushu and that the prince there would like to see him, Xavier now set out southward. The Jesuit, in a fine cassock, surplice, and stole, was attended by thirty gentlemen and as many servants, all in their best clothes. Five of them bore on cushions valuable articles, including a portrait of Our Lady and a pair of velvet slippers, these not gifts for the prince, but solemn offerings to Xavier, to impress the onlookers with his eminence. Handsomely dressed, with his companions acting as attendants, he presented himself before Oshindono, the ruler of Nagate, and as a representative of the great kingdom of Portugal, offered him letters and presents: a musical instrument, a watch, and other attractive objects which had been given him by the authorities in India for the emperor. For forty-five years the Jesuits were the only missionaries in Asia, but the Franciscans also began proselytising in Asia as well. Christian missionaries were later forced into exile, along with their assistants. Some were able to stay behind, however Christianity was then kept underground so as to not be persecuted. The Japanese people were not easily converted; many of the people were already
Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, worldviews, religious text, texts, shrine, ...

Buddhist
or
Shinto Shinto () is a religion which originated in Japan. Classified as an East Asian religions, East Asian religion by Religious studies, scholars of religion, its practitioners often regard it as Japan's indigenous religion and as a nature religion. S ...

Shinto
. Francis tried to combat the disposition of some of the Japanese that a God who had created everything, including evil, could not be good. The concept of Hell was also a struggle; the Japanese were bothered by the idea of their ancestors living in Hell. Despite Francis's different religion, he felt that they were good people, much like Europeans, and could be converted. Xavier was welcomed by the
Shingon of the Womb Realm In Vajrayana Buddhism, the Womb Realm ( sa, garbhakoṣadhātu, ja, 胎蔵界 ''taizōkai'') is the metaphysical space inhabited by the Five Tathagatas, Five Compassion Buddhas. The Womb Realm is based on the ''Mahavairocana ...
monks since he used the word '' Dainichi'' for the Christian God; attempting to adapt the concept to local traditions. As Xavier learned more about the religious nuances of the word, he changed to ''Deusu'' from the Latin and Portuguese ''Deus''. The monks later realised that Xavier was preaching a rival religion and grew more aggressive towards his attempts at conversion. With the passage of time, his sojourn in Japan could be considered somewhat fruitful as attested by congregations established in
Hirado is a Cities of Japan, city located in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. The part historically named Hirado is located on Hirado Island. With recent mergers, the city's boundaries have expanded, and Hirado now occupies parts of the main island of Kyushu ...
, Yamaguchi, and Bungo. Xavier worked for more than two years in Japan and saw his successor-Jesuits established. He then decided to return to India. Historians debate the exact path by which he returned, but from evidence attributed to the captain of his ship, he may have travelled through Tanegeshima and Minato, and avoided Kagoshima because of the hostility of the daimyo.


China

During his trip from Japan back to India, a tempest forced him to stop on an island near
Guangzhou Guangzhou (, ; ; or ; ), also known as Canton and alternatively romanized as Kwongchow or Kwangchow, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the ...

Guangzhou
,
Guangdong Guangdong (, ), Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Canton Province or Kwangtung, is a coastal Provinces of China, province in South China on the north shore of the South China Sea. The capital of the province is Guangzhou. W ...

Guangdong
, China, where he met Diogo Pereira, a rich merchant and an old friend from
Cochin , settlement_type = Metropolis , translit_lang1_info = , image_skyline = Kochi montage2.jpg , image_caption = Clockwise from top: Marine Drive, Kochi, Marine Drive Skyline, Chinese fishing nets, Chinese ...

Cochin
. Pereira showed him a letter from Portuguese prisoners in Guangzhou, asking for a Portuguese ambassador to speak to the Chinese Emperor on their behalf. Later during the voyage, he stopped at Malacca on 27 December 1551, and was back in Goa by January 1552. On 17 April he set sail with Diogo Pereira on the ''Santa Cruz'' for China. He planned to introduce himself as Apostolic Nuncio and Pereira as ambassador of the King of Portugal. But then he realized that he had forgotten his testimonial letters as an Apostolic Nuncio. Back in Malacca, he was confronted by the captain Álvaro de Ataíde da Gama who now had total control over the harbour. The captain refused to recognize his title of Nuncio, asked Pereira to resign from his title of ambassador, named a new crew for the ship, and demanded the gifts for the Chinese Emperor be left in Malacca. In late August 1552, the ''Santa Cruz'' reached the Chinese island of Shangchuan, 14 km away from the southern coast of mainland China, near Taishan, Guangdong, 200 km south-west of what later became
Hong Kong Hong Kong (, ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR) (), is a metropolitan area and Special administrative regions of China, special administrative region of the China, People's Repu ...

Hong Kong
. At this time, he was accompanied only by a Jesuit student, Álvaro Ferreira, a Chinese man called António, and a Malabar servant called Christopher. Around mid-November he sent a letter saying that a man had agreed to take him to the mainland in exchange for a large sum of money. Having sent back Álvaro Ferreira, he remained alone with António. He died from a fever at Shangchuan, Taishan, China, on 3 December 1552, while he was waiting for a boat that would take him to mainland China.


Burials and relics

Xavier was first buried on a beach at
Shangchuan Island Shangchuan Island (, also known as "Schangschwan", "Sancian", "Sanchão", "Chang-Chuang", "St. John's Island" or "St John Island") is the main island of Chuanshan Archipelago on the southern coast of Guangdong, China. Its name originated from São ...
, Taishan, Guangdong. His body was taken from the island in February 1553 and temporarily buried in St. Paul's Church in
Portuguese Malacca Portuguese control of Malacca, a city on the Malay Peninsula The Malay Peninsula (Malay language, Malay: ''Semenanjung Tanah Melayu'') is a peninsula in Southeast Asia. The land mass runs approximately north–south and, at its terminus, ...
on 22 March 1553. An open grave in the church now marks the place of Xavier's burial. Pereira came back from Goa, removed the corpse shortly after 15 April 1553, and moved it to his house. On 11 December 1553, Xavier's body was shipped to Goa. The body is now in the
Basilica of Bom Jesus , location_town= Old Goa, Goa , location_country=India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the ...

Basilica of Bom Jesus
in Goa, where it was placed in a glass container encased in a silver casket on 2 December 1637.Cappella di san Francesco Saverio
, at the official website of Il Gesù.
This casket, constructed by Goan silversmiths between 1636 and 1637, was an exemplary blend of Italian and Indian aesthetic sensibilities. There are 32 silver plates on all four sides of the casket, depicting different episodes from the life of Xavier: *Francis lies on the ground with his arms and legs tied, but the cords break miraculously. *Francis kisses the ulcer of a patient in a Venetian hospital. *He is visited by Jerom as he lies ailing in the hospital of Vicenza. *A vision about his future apostolate. *A vision about his sister's prophecy about his fate. *He saves the secretary of the Portuguese Ambassador while crossing the Alps. *He lifts a sick man who dies after receiving communion but freed from fever. *He baptises in Travancore. *He resuscitates a boy who died in a well at Cape Comorin. *He cures miraculously a man full of sores. *He drives away the Badagas in Travancore. *He resuscitates three persons: a man who was buried at Coulao; a boy about to be buried at Multao; and a child. *He takes money from his empty pockets and gives it to a Portuguese at Malyapore. *A miraculous cure. *A crab restores his crucifix which had fallen into the sea. *He preaches in the island of Moro. *He preaches in the sea of Malacca and announces the victory against the enemies. *He converts a Portuguese soldier. *He helps the dying Vicar of Malacca. *Francis kneels down and on his shoulders there rests a child whom he restores to health. *He goes from Amanguchi to Macao walking. *He cures a mute or unable to speak and paralytic man in Amanguchi. *He cures a deaf Japanese person. *He prays in the ship during a storm. *He baptises three kings in Cochin. *He cures a religious in the college of St. Paul. *Due to the lack of water, he sweetens the sea water during a voyage. *The agony of Francis at Sancian. *After his death he is seen by a lady according to his promise. *The body dressed in sacerdotal vestments is exposed for public veneration. *Francis levitates as he distributes communion in the College of St. Paul. *The body is placed in a niche at Chaul with lighted candles. On the top of this casket there is a cross with two angels. One is holding a burning heart and the other a legend which says, "Satis est Domine, satis est." (''It's enough Lord, it's enough'') The right forearm, which Xavier used to bless and baptise his converts, was detached by Superior General of the Society of Jesus, Superior General Claudio Acquaviva in 1614. It has been displayed since in a silver reliquary at the main Jesuit church in Rome, Il Gesù. Another of Xavier's arm bones was brought to Colonial Macau, Macau where it was kept in a silver reliquary. The relic was destined for Japan but religious persecution there persuaded the church to keep it in Macau's Ruins of St. Paul, Cathedral of St. Paul. It was subsequently moved to St. Joseph's Seminary and Church, St. Joseph's and in 1978 to the Chapel of St. Francis Xavier on Coloane, Coloane Island. More recently the relic was moved to St. Joseph's Church.Chapel of St. Francis Xavier
, at the official website of the Macau Government Tourist Office.
In 2006, on the 500th anniversary of his birth, the Xavier Tomb Monument and Chapel on the Shangchuan Island, in ruins after years of neglect under communist rule in China, was restored with support from the alumni of Wah Yan College, Hong Kong, Wah Yan College, a Jesuit high school in Hong Kong. From December 2017 to February 2018, Catholic Christian Outreach (CCO) in cooperation with the Jesuits, and the Archdiocese of Ottawa (Canada) brought Xavier's right forearm to tour throughout Canada. The faithful, especially university students participating with CCO at Rise Up (conference), Rise Up 2017 in Ottawa, venerated the relics. The tour continued to every city where CCO and/or the Jesuits are present in Canada: Quebec City, St. John's, Halifax, St. Francis Xavier University in Antigonish, Nova Scotia, Antigonish (neither CCO nor the Jesuits are present here), Kingston, Toronto, Winnipeg, Saskatoon, Regina, Calgary, Vancouver, Victoria, and Montreal before returning to Ottawa. The relic was then returned to Rome with a Mass of Thanksgiving celebrated by Terrence Prendergast, Archbishop Terrence Prendergast at the Church of the Gesù, Church of the Gesu.


Veneration


Beatification and canonization

Francis Xavier was beatified by Paul V on 25 October 1619, and was
canonized Canonization is the declaration of a deceased person as an officially recognized saint In religious belief, a saint is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of Q-D-Š, holiness, likeness, or closeness to God. However, t ...
by Gregory XV on 12 March 1622, at the same time as Ignatius Loyola. Pius XI proclaimed him the "Patron of Catholic Missions". His feast day is 3 December.


Pilgrimage centres


Goa

Saint Francis Xavier's relics are kept in a silver casket, elevated inside the Bom Jesus Basilica and are exposed (being brought to ground level) generally every ten years, but this is discretionary. The sacred relics went on display starting on 22 November 2014 at the XVII Solemn Exposition. The display closed on 4 January 2015. The previous exposition, the sixteenth, was held from 21 November 2004 to 2 January 2005. Relics of Saint Francis Xavier are also found in the Espirito Santo (Holy Spirit) Church, Margão, in Sanv Fransiku Xavierachi Igorz (Church of St. Francis Xavier), Batpal, Canacona, Goa, and at St. Francis Xavier Chapel, Portais, Panjim.


Other places

Other pilgrimage centres include Xavier's birthplace in Navarra, Church of Il Gesu, Rome, Malacca (where he was buried for 2 years, before being brought to Goa), Sancian (place of death), and more. Xavier is a major venerated saint in both Sonora and the neighbouring U.S. state of Arizona. In Magdalena de Kino in Sonora, Mexico, in the Church of Santa María Magdalena, there is reclining statue of San Francisco Xavier brought by pioneer Jesuit missionary Padre Eusebio Kino in the early 18th century. The statue is said to be miraculous and is the object of pilgrimage for many in the region. Also Mission San Xavier del Bac is a pilgrimage site. The mission is an active parish church ministering to the people of the San Xavier District, Tohono O'odham Nation, and nearby Tucson, Arizona. Francis Xavier is Calendar of saints (Church of England), remembered in the Church of England with a Commemoration (Anglicanism), commemoration on December 3, 3 December.


Novena of grace

The Novena of Grace is a popular devotion to Francis Xavier, typically prayed either on the nine days before 3 December, or on 4 March through 12 March (the anniversary of Pope Gregory XV's canonisation of Xavier in 1622). It began with the Italian Jesuit missionary Marcello Mastrilli. Before he could travel to the Far East, Mastrilli was gravely injured in a freak accident after a festive celebration dedicated to the Immaculate Conception in Naples. Delirious and on the verge of death, Mastrilli saw Xavier, who he later said asked him to choose between travelling or death by holding the respective symbols, to which Mastrilli answered, "I choose that which God wills." Upon regaining his health, Mastrilli made his way via Goa and the Philippines to Satsuma, Japan. The Tokugawa shogunate beheaded the missionary in October 1637, after undergoing three days of tortures involving the volcanic sulphurous fumes from Mount Unzen, Mt. Unzen, known as the ''Hell mouth'' or "pit" that had supposedly caused an earlier missionary to renounce his faith.


Legacy

Francis Xavier became widely noteworthy for his missionary work, both as an organiser and as a pioneer; he reputedly converted more people than anyone else had done since
Paul the Apostle Paul; el, Παῦλος, translit=Paulos; cop, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; he, פאולוס השליח, name=, group= (born Saul of Tarsus;; ar, بولس الطرسوسي; el, Σαῦλος Ταρσεύς, Saũlos Tarseús; tr, Tarsuslu Pavlus AD ...
. In 2006 Pope Benedict XVI said of both
Ignatius of Loyola Ignatius of Loyola, Society of Jesus, S.J. (born Iñigo López de Oñaz y Loyola; eu, Ignazio Loiolakoa; es, Ignacio de Loyola; la, Ignatius de Loyola; – 31 July 1556), venerated as Saint Ignatius of Loyola, was a Spanish Catholic priest a ...

Ignatius of Loyola
and Francis Xavier: "not only their history which was interwoven for many years from
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents as of 2018, in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, ...

Paris
and Rome, but a unique desire – a unique passion, it could be said – moved and sustained them through different human events: the passion to give to God-Trinity a glory always greater and to work for the proclamation of the Gospel of Christ to the peoples who had been ignored." By consulting with the earlier ancient Christians of St. Thomas in India, Xavier developed Jesuit missionary methods. His success also spurred many Europeans to join the Jesuit order, as well as to become missionaries throughout the world. His personal efforts most affected religious practice in India and in the
East Indies File:Indies.PNG, 300px, The East Indies, and the Indies, are Archaism, archaic terms referring to the lands, as the names suggest, east of the Indian subcontinent, most particularly Maritime Southeast Asia and parts of East Asia.Oxford D ...
(
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian Ocean, Indian and Pacific Ocean, Pacific oceans. It consists of more than List of islands ...

Indonesia
, Malaysia, Timor). India still has numerous Jesuit missions, and many more schools. Xavier also worked to propagate Christianity in China and
Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg , alt_coat = Golden circle subdiv ...

Japan
. However, following the persecutions (1587 onwards) instituted by Toyotomi Hideyoshi and the subsequent closing of Japan to foreigners (1633 onwards), the Kakure Kirishitan , Christians of Japan had to go underground to preserve an independent Christian culture. Likewise, while Xavier inspired many missionaries to China, Chinese Christians also were forced underground there and developed their own Christian culture. A small chapel designed by Achille-Antoine Hermitte was completed in 1869 over Xavier's death-place on Shangchuan Island, Canton. It was damaged and restored several times; the most recent restoration in 2006 marked the 500th anniversary of the saint's birth. Francis Xavier is the patron saint of his native
Navarre Navarre (; es, Navarra ; eu, Nafarroa ; oc, Navarra ), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre ( es, Comunidad Foral de Navarra, links=no ; eu, Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea, links=no ), is an autonomous community and province A prov ...

Navarre
, which celebrates his feast day on 3 December as a government holiday. In addition to Roman Catholic Masses remembering Xavier on that day (now known as the Day of Navarra), celebrations in the surrounding weeks honour the region's cultural heritage. Furthermore, in the 1940s, devoted Catholics instituted the Javierada, an annual day-long pilgrimage (often on foot) from the capital at Pamplona to Xavier, where the Jesuits have built a basilica and museum and restored Francis Xavier's family's castle.


Personal names

As the foremost saint from Navarre and one of the main Jesuit saints, Francis Xavier is much venerated in Spain and the Hispanic countries where ''Francisco Javier'' or ''Javier'' are common male given names.
The most frequent names, simple and exact for the national total and exact for the province of residence
', Instituto Nacional de Estadística (Spain), Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Excel spreadsheet format. Javier is the 10th-most popular complete name for males, Francisco Javier, the 18th. Together, Javier becomes the 8th most frequent name for males.
The alternative spelling ''Xavier'' is also popular in the Basque Country (greater region), Basque Country,
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a sovereign state, country whose mainland is located on the Iberian Peninsula, in Southern Europe, Southwestern Europe, and whose territory also includ ...

Portugal
, Catalonia, Brazil, France, Belgium, and southern Italy. In India, the spelling ''Xavier'' is almost always used, and the name is quite common among Christians, especially in
Goa Goa () is a state on the southwestern coast of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the ...

Goa
and in the southern states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Karnataka. The names ''Francisco Xavier'', ''António Xavier'', ''João Xavier'', ''Caetano Xavier'', ''Domingos Xavier'' and so forth, were very common till quite recently in Goa. ''Fransiskus Xaverius'' is commonly used as a name for
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian Ocean, Indian and Pacific Ocean, Pacific oceans. It consists of more than List of islands ...

Indonesia
n Catholics, usually abbreviated as FX. In Austria and Bavaria the name is spelled as ''Xaver'' (pronounced (ˈk͡saːfɐ)) and often used in addition to Francis as ''Franz-Xaver'' (frant͡sˈk͡saːfɐ). In Polish language , Polish the name becomes ''Ksawery''. Many Catalan men are named for him, often using the two-name combination ''Francesc Xavier''. In English-speaking countries, "Xavier" until recently was likely to follow "Francis"; in the 2000s, however, "Xavier" by itself became more popular than "Francis", and after 2001 featured as one of the hundred most common male baby-names in the U.S.A. Furthermore, the Sevier family name, possibly most famous in the United States for John Sevier (1745-1815), originated from the name "Xavier".


Church dedications

Many churches all over the world, often founded by Jesuits, have been named in honour of Xavier. The many in the United States include the historic St. Francis Xavier Church (Warwick, Maryland) , St. Francis Xavier Shrine at Warwick, Maryland (founded 1720), and the Basilica of St. Francis Xavier in Dyersville, Iowa. Note also the American educational teaching order, the Xaverian Brothers, and the Mission San Xavier del Bac in Tucson, Arizona (founded in 1692, and known for its Spanish Colonial architecture).


In art

* Rubens (1577-1640) painted ''St Francis Xavier Raising the Dead'' for a Jesuit church in Antwerp, in which he depicted one of St Francis's many miracles.Rubens, William Unger, S. R. K. "St. Francis Xavier Raising the Dead". ''The American Art Review'', Vol. 1, No. 2 (Dec. 1879), p. 66. * The Charles Bridge in Prague, Czech Republic, features a Statue of Francis Xavier, Charles Bridge, statue of Francis Xavier. * In front of Oita Station of Ōita (city) , Oita City, in Oita Prefecture (previously known as Bungo Province) in Japan, there stands a statue of Francis Xavier. * The monument Padrão dos Descobrimentos in Belém (Lisbon), Portugal, features a Francis Xavier image.


Music

* Marc-Antoine Charpentier, ''In honorem Sancti Xaverij canticum'' H.355, for soloists, chorus, flutes, strings and continuo (1688 ?) * Marc-Antoine Charpentier, ''Canticum de Sto Xavierio'' H.355 a, for soloists, chorus, flutes, oboes, strings and continuo (1690).


Missions

Shortly before leaving for the East, Xavier issued a famous instruction to Father Gaspar Barazeuz who was leaving to go to Ormuz (a kingdom on an island in the Persian Gulf, formerly attached to the Persia, Empire of Persia, now part of Iran), that he should mix with sinners: Modern scholars assess the number of people converted to Christianity by Francis Xavier at around 30,000. While some of Xavier's methods have subsequently come under criticism (he forced converts to take Portuguese language, Portuguese names and to dress in Western clothes, approved the persecution of the Eastern Orthodox , Eastern Church, and used the
Goa Goa () is a state on the southwestern coast of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the ...

Goa
government as a missionary tool), he has also earned praise. He insisted that missionaries adapt to many of the customs, and most certainly to the language, of the culture they wish to evangelise. And unlike later missionaries, Xavier supported an educated native clergy. Though for a time it seemed that persecution had subsequently destroyed his work in
Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg , alt_coat = Golden circle subdiv ...

Japan
, Protestant missionaries three centuries later discovered that approximately 100,000 Christians still practised the faith in the Nagasaki area. Francis Xavier's work initiated permanent change in eastern
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian Ocean, Indian and Pacific Ocean, Pacific oceans. It consists of more than List of islands ...

Indonesia
, and he became known as the "Apostle of the Indies" - in 1546–1547 he worked in the
Maluku Islands The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas () (''Molukken'') are an archipelago in the east of Indonesia. Tectonically they are located on the Halmahera Plate within the Molucca Sea Collision Zone. Geographically they are located east of Sulawesi, west ...

Maluku Islands
among the people of Ambon Island , Ambon,
Ternate Ternate is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It ca ...

Ternate
, and
Morotai Morotai Island ( id, Pulau Morotai) is an island in the Halmahera group of eastern Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the ...
(or Moro), and laid the foundations for a permanent mission. After he left the Maluku Islands, others carried on his work, and by the 1560s there were 10,000 Roman Catholics in the area, mostly on Ambon. By the 1590s, there were 50,000 to 60,000.


Role in the Goa Inquisition

The role of Francis Xavier in the
Goa Inquisition The Goa Inquisition ( pt, Inquisição de Goa) was an extension of the Portuguese Inquisition in colonial-era Portuguese India The State of India ( pt, Estado da Índia), also referred as the Portuguese State of India (''Estado Português da ...
is significant. He had written to King John III of Portugal , João III of Portugal in 1546, encouraging him to dispatch the Inquisition to Goa. This the king did, after seeing mass immigration of Crypto-Jews and Crypto-Muslims from the Iberian peninsula. The Inquisition had jurisdiction only over Christians and would help veer them back to the Faith. Francis Xavier died in 1552 without living to see the commencement of the Goa Inquisition, but his Iberian background meant that he was aware of the Portuguese Inquisition's activities. In a 2010 interview granted to an Indian newspaper, historian Teotónio de Souza stated that Francis Xavier and
Simão Rodrigues Simão Rodrigues de Azevedo (1510, Vouzela, Portugal - 15 June 1579, Lisbon), was a Portuguese Society of Jesus, Jesuit Catholic priesthood, priest and one of the co-founders of the Society of Jesus. A Portuguese nobleman, Rodrigues was one of th ...
, another founder-member of the
Society of Jesus , image = Ihs-logo.svg , caption = ChristogramOfficial seal of the Jesuits , abbreviation = SJ , nickname = Jesuit , formation = , founders = Ignatius of LoyolaFrancis Xavi ...
, were together in Lisbon before Francis left for India. Both were asked to assist spiritually the prisoners of the Inquisition and were present at the very first auto-da-fé celebrated in Portugal in September 1540, at which 23 were absolved and two were condemned to be burnt, including a French cleric. Hence, he believes that Xavier was aware of the brutal punishment that could be meted out by the Inquisition against relapsed heretics.


See also

* Catholicism in China * Catholicism in Japan * Catholicism in India * Catholicism in Indonesia * Christianity in China * Christianity in Japan * Christianity in India * Christianity in Indonesia *
Goa Inquisition The Goa Inquisition ( pt, Inquisição de Goa) was an extension of the Portuguese Inquisition in colonial-era Portuguese India The State of India ( pt, Estado da Índia), also referred as the Portuguese State of India (''Estado Português da ...
* History of Roman Catholicism in Japan * Jesuit China missions * List of Westerners who visited Japan before 1868 * Mission San Xavier del Bac — San Xavier District, Tohono O'odham Nation, Arizona * Xaverian Brothers — religious order in America * Xavier High School (New York City) * Xavier School — San Juan, Metro Manila, San Juan City, Philippines * Xavier University - Ateneo de Cagayan, Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines * St. Francis Xavier University - Antigonish, Nova Scotia, Canada * St. Francis Xavier Catholic Secondary School - Milton, Ontario, Canada * St. Francis Xavier Secondary School (Mississauga), St. Francis Xavier Catholic Secondary School - Mississauga, Ontario, Canada * St. Xavier's Institution - Georgetown, Penang, Malaysia * Portal:Catholic Church/Patron Archive/December 3, Saint Francis Xavier, patron saint archive * Xavier College - Melbourne, Victoria, Australia * St. Xavier's College, Kolkata * St. Xavier's Collegiate School, St. Xavier's School, Kolkata


References


Notes


Citations


Sources

* This article incorporates material from the ''Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religion'' * * * * * * * * * George M. Moraes (1952): ''St. Francis Xavier, Apostolic Nuncio (1542-52)'', Bombay, Konkan Institute of Arts and Science, 35p. * Jou, Albert (1984). ''The Saint on a Mission''. Anand Press, Anand, India. * * Pinch, William R., "The Corpse and Cult of St. Francis Xavier, 1552–1623", in Mathew N. Schmalz and Peter Gottschalk ed. ''Engaging South Asian Religions: Boundaries, Appropriations, and Resistances'' (New York, State University of New York Press, 2011) * *


Further reading

* Andrew Dickson White (1896 first edition. A classic work constantly reprinted) ''A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom'', See chapter 13, part 2, ''Growth of Legends of Healing: the life of Saint Francis Xavier as a typical example''.


External links


Official website of Basilica of Bom Jesus, Old Goa
The Shrine of Saint Francis Xavier
Basilica of Bom Jesus, Old Goa
The Shrine of Saint Francis Xavier
''The Life of St. Francis Xavier''''The life and letters of St. Francis Xavier''
Francis Xavier, Saint, 1506–1552 Coleridge, Henry James, 1822–1893 London: Burns and Oates, (1872)


Picture of Shangchuan island. The chapel marks the location of his death
by John Hardon, John Hardon, SJ
Brief History of Saint Francis Xavier
* * {{DEFAULTSORT:Xavier, Francis 1506 births 1552 deaths 16th-century Christian saints 16th-century Spanish Jesuits Anglican saints Incorrupt saints Jesuit missionaries in China Jesuit saints People celebrated in the Lutheran liturgical calendar Roman Catholic missionaries in China Roman Catholic missionaries in Japan Spanish Roman Catholic missionaries Spanish Roman Catholic saints University of Paris alumni Spanish exploration in the Age of Discovery Portuguese exploration in the Age of Discovery Canonizations by Pope Gregory XV People from Tafalla (comarca) 16th-century people from the Kingdom of Navarre