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''Esox'' is a
genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscribing) and classifying gr ...
of
freshwater fish are common freshwater fish throughout temperate Eurasia. Freshwater fish are those that spend some or all of their lives in fresh water, such as river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, s ...
commonly known as pike or pickerel. It is the type genus of the
family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically subject to the same Politic ...
Esocidae ''Esox'' is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a s ...
. The
type species In zoological nomenclature The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted Convention (norm), convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific name, scientific naming of organisms treated as animals. It is al ...
of the genus is ''
Esox lucius The northern pike (''Esox lucius'') is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as t ...

Esox lucius
'', the
northern pike The northern pike (''Esox lucius'') is a species of carnivorous fish of the genus ''Esox'' (the pikes). They are typical of brackish water, brackish and fresh waters of the Northern Hemisphere (''i.e.'' holarctic in distribution). They are kno ...

northern pike
. Ancestral ''Esox'' species had been present in
Laurentia Image:North america craton nps.gif, upright=1.4, Laurentia, also called the North American craton Laurentia or the North American Craton is a large continental craton that forms the Geology of North America, ancient geological core of North Ameri ...
(which later became
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
) and
Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a ...

Eurasia
since the
Paleogene The Paleogene ( ; also spelled Palaeogene or Palæogene; informally Lower Tertiary or Early Tertiary) is a geologic period and system that spans 43 million years from the end of the Cretaceous The Cretaceous ( ) is a geological period A geolo ...
. Modern large pike species are native to the
Palearctic The Palearctic or Palaearctic is the largest of the eight biogeographic realms of the Earth. It stretches across all of Eurasia north of the foothills of the Himalayas, and North Africa. The realm consists of several bioregions: the Euro-Siberi ...

Palearctic
and
Nearctic realm The Nearctic realm is one of the eight biogeographic realm A biogeographic realm or ecozone is the broadest biogeography, biogeographic division of Earth's land surface, based on distributional patterns of terrestrial animal, terrestrial o ...
s, ranging across
Northern America Northern America is the north North is one of the four compass points The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar remn ...
and from
Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical r ...

Western Europe
to
Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region, constituting all of North Asia, from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east. It has been a part of R ...

Siberia
in
North Asia North Asia or Northern Asia, also referred to as Siberia, is the northern region of Asia, which is defined in Geography, geographical terms and is coextensive with the Asian part of Russia, and consists of three Russian regions east of the Ural ...
. Pikes have the elongated,
torpedo A modern torpedo is an underwater ranged weapon A ranged weapon is any weapon A weapon, arm or armament is any implement or device that can be used with the intent to inflict physical damage or harm. Weapons are used to increase the eff ...

torpedo
-like shape typical of
predatory fish Predatory fish are fish Fish are Aquatic animal, aquatic, craniate, gill-bearing animals that lack Limb (anatomy), limbs with Digit (anatomy), digits. They form a sister group to the tunicates, together forming the Chordate#Taxonomy, olfactor ...
es, with sharply pointed heads and sharp teeth. Their coloration is typically grey-green with a mottled or spotted appearance with stripes along their backs, providing
camouflage Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see, or by disguising them as something else. Examples include the leopard The leopard (''Pan ...

camouflage
among underwater weeds, and each individual pike marking patterns are unique like fingerprints. Pikes can grow to a maximum recorded length of , reaching a maximum recorded weight of .


Etymology

The generic name ''Esox'' (pike fish) derives from the
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
ἴσοξ (''ee-soks'', a large fish) and appears to be both profoundly
archaic Archaic is a period of time preceding a designated classical period, or something from an older period of time that is also not found or used currently: *List of archaeological periods **Archaic Sumerian language, spoken between 31st - 26th centu ...
and
cognate In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Itali ...
with
Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: ...
,
Welsh Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a Brittonic Celtic language of the Indo-European language family, indigenous to the British Isles, spoken in Wales ** Patagonian Welsh, a dialect of Wels ...
''eog'' and
Irish Gaelic Irish ( in Standard Irish Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard (metrology), an object that bears a d ...
''iasc'' (fish), as well as alpine Gaulic ''*esosk'' which is consistent with the original indoeuropean root for the common word for fish, ''*pei(k)sk''.
Pliny Pliny may refer to: People from antiquity * Pliny the Elder (AD 23–79), ancient Roman nobleman, scientist, historian, and author of ''Naturalis Historia'' (''Pliny's Natural History'') * Pliny the Younger (died 113), ancient Roman statesman, ...

Pliny
uses the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
form ''Esox'' in reference to a large fish in the
Rhine ), Surselva Surselva Region is one of the eleven administrative districts Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many s ...

Rhine
normally identified with
Salmonidae Salmonidae is a Family (biology), family of ray-finned fish, the only living family currently placed in the Order (biology), order Salmoniformes . It includes salmon (both ocean-going and lake-locked), trout, Salvelinus, chars, freshwater whitef ...
(''lax'' or salmon).
Carolus Linnæus Carl Linnaeus (; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement Ennoblement is the conferring of nobility—the induction of an individual into the noble social class, class. Currently only a few kingdoms still grant nobi ...
attributes ''Esox'' to the pike fish which is of similar form and appearance but taxonomically different from the salmoniformes, whereas the first mention of ''Esox'' as a marine animal appears in the writings of Hesych(ius). The
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
common name "pike" is an apparent shortening of "pike-fish", in reference to its pointed head, as the
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language ...
word ''píc'' originally referring to a
pickaxe A pickaxe, pick-axe, or pick is a generally T-shaped hand tool A hand tool is any tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environment. Although many animals use simple to ...

pickaxe
. The
plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version of the word or ph ...

plural
of pike is also pike. A Northern English and Lowland Scots name for the pike, ''ged'', similarly derives from
Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germanic dialects before their final divergence into separate Nordic languages. Old Norse was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia Scandinavia; : ''Skades ...
''gaddr'' (spike) (cf. the modern
Swedish Swedish or ' may refer to: * Anything from or related to Sweden, a country in Northern Europe * Swedish language, a North Germanic language spoken primarily in Sweden and Finland * Swedish alphabet, the official alphabet used by the Swedish langua ...
name for the pike, ''gädda'', the Danish "gedde", the Norwegian "gjedde" and
Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig ), also known as Scots Gaelic and Gaelic, is a Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, cànanan Goidhealach; gv, çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups o ...
: ''geadais''). The
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...
name for the pike (''snoek'') has been given to a wide variety of fish reminding sailors of the pike (see snoek, snook). The English "pike" originally referred specifically to the adult fish, the diminutive form "pickerel" (now used to name some of the smaller pike species, e.g. '' E. americanus'' and '''') referring to the young. The
walleye The walleye (''Sander vitreus'', synonym A synonym is a word, morpheme A morpheme is the smallest meaningful lexical item in a language. A morpheme is not a word. The difference between a morpheme and a word is that a morpheme bound and ...

walleye
(''Sander vitreus'') is sometimes called a pickerel, but it is unrelated to the pike, being a member of the perch family (
Percidae The Percidae are a family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain the well-being of its members and of society ...
). Pike are not to be confused with the unrelated pikeminnows (traditionally known as squawfish) of genus '' Ptychocheilus'' (family
Cyprinidae Cyprinidae is a family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically ...
) or pikeperch (''Sander lucioperca'') which is more akin to walleye than to pike. Pike are also called "jackfish" in North America and informally "slough shark" in Western Canada.


Species

Currently, seven recognized species are placed in this genus: Hybrids between ''Esox masquinongy'' and ''Esox lucius'' are well-known and referred to as the
tiger muskellunge The tiger muskellunge (''Esox masquinongy × lucius'' or ''Esox lucius × masquinongy''), commonly called tiger muskie, is a carnivorous fish, and is the usually-sterile, hybrid offspring of the true muskellunge The muskellunge ''(Esox masquin ...
.


Fossil species

One fossil species, '' Esox kronneri'', is known from the
Eocene The Eocene ( ) Epoch is a geological epoch In chronology 222px, Joseph Scaliger's ''De emendatione temporum'' (1583) began the modern science of chronology Chronology (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the ...
of the
Green River formation The Green River Formation is an Eocene The Eocene ( ) Epoch is a geological epoch (geology), epoch that lasted from about 56 to 33.9 million years ago (mya). It is the second epoch of the Paleogene Period (geology), Period in the modern Cenozoic ...
, and a second, '' Esox nogaicus'', is known from the
Pleistocene The Pleistocene ( , often referred to as the ''Ice Age'') is the geological Epoch (geology), epoch that lasted from about 2,580,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the earth’s most recent period of repeated glaciations. Before a change finally ...
of the
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also shares borders with to the north; , , and to the west; and to the south; and has a coastli ...

Ukraine
. Additional species are found in
Miocene The Miocene ( ) is the first geological epoch In geochronology, an epoch is a subdivision of the geologic timescale that is longer than an age (geology), age but shorter than a period (geology), period. The current epoch is the Holocene Epoch of ...
('' Esox sibiricus'') and
Pliocene The Pliocene ( ; also Pleiocene) epoch (geology), Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58Esox moldavicus'') deposits from the Ukraine, Poland, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and Moldavia. Two additional fossil species, both from the Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada, are placed in their own genera: '' Estesesox foxi''Wilson, Brinkman & Neuman, 1992 (
Santonian The Santonian is an age (geology), age in the geologic timescale or a chronostratigraphy, chronostratigraphic stage (stratigraphy), stage. It is a subdivision of the Late Cretaceous epoch (geology), Epoch or Upper Cretaceous series (stratigraphy), ...
to
Campanian The Campanian is the fifth of six age (geology), ages of the Late Cretaceous epoch (geology), epoch on the geologic timescale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS). In chronostratigraphy, it is the fifth of six stage (stratigraphy) ...
), and '' Oldmanesox canadensis'' (Campanian to
Maastrichtian The Maastrichtian () is, in the ICS ICS may refer to: Computing * Image Cytometry Standard, a digital multidimensional image file format used in life sciences microscopy * Industrial control system, computer systems and networks used to contr ...
).


Diet

Pike feed on a wide range of food sources, predominantly smaller shoal fish. Pike are also cannibalistic, sometimes preying upon smaller members of their own species. This can be seen clearly in the
northern pike The northern pike (''Esox lucius'') is a species of carnivorous fish of the genus ''Esox'' (the pikes). They are typical of brackish water, brackish and fresh waters of the Northern Hemisphere (''i.e.'' holarctic in distribution). They are kno ...

northern pike
. They will also prey on
insect Insects (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in ...

insect
s and
amphibian Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the Class (biology), class Amphibia. All living amphibians belong to the group Lissamphibia. They inhabit a wide variety of habitats, with most species living within terrestrial animal, ter ...
s such as
newt A newt is a salamander Salamanders are a group of amphibian Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the Class (biology), class Amphibia. All living amphibians belong to the group Lissamphibia. They inhabit a wide variet ...

newt
s or
frog A frog is any member of a diverse and largely carnivorous A carnivore , meaning "meat Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food. Humans have hunted and killed animals for meat since prehistoric times. The advent of civilization all ...

frog
s in times when their usual food is scarce, and occasionally on small
mammal Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be i ...
s like moles or
mice A mouse, plural mice, is a small mammal Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ...

mice
when caught water-borne. Small birds such as
duckling Duck is the common name for numerous species in the waterfowl family (biology), family Anatidae which also includes swans and goose, geese. Ducks are divided among several subfamilies in the family Anatidae; they do not represent a clade, mono ...

duckling
s may become a target for hungry pike. Pike are also known to prey on swimming
snake Snakes are elongated, limbless, carnivore, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes . Like all other Squamata, squamates, snakes are ectothermic, amniote vertebrates covered in overlapping Scale (zoology), scales. Many species of snakes ...

snake
s. They are, however, undeserving of their reputation for being overly vicious predators. There are few substantiated incidents of pike "attacks" on people. Pike's further reputation as a
pest Pest or The Pest may refer to: Science and medicine * Pest (organism), an animal or plant detrimental to humans or human concerns ** Weed, a plant considered undesirable * Infectious disease, an illness resulting from an infection ** Plague (diseas ...
seems to lie predominantly amongst a small handful of anglers and fishery managers who think, perhaps unfairly, that pike are a threat to native rough fish and also other sport fish.


Angling

Effective methods for catching this hard-fighting fish include dead baits, live baits, and lure fishing. Pike can easily be damaged when handled since they are not as robust as their reputation would suggest. Colour of lure can be influenced by water clarity and weather conditions. Since pike have numerous sharp teeth it is wise to take extreme care when unhooking them. The use of a wet leather
gauntlet Gauntlet or The Gauntlet may refer to: Common uses *Gauntlet (glove) no. 1386&A-1888 A gauntlet is a variety of glove, particularly one having been constructed of hardened leather or metal plates which protected the hand and wrist of a co ...
and surgical forceps to remove hooks is highly recommended on safety grounds. If practicing catch and release fishing, care for the pike should be the pike angler's utmost concern. The formerly recommended practice of grasping a pike by its eye sockets (misinterpreted as "its eyes") resulted in numerous released pike that quickly died from inability to see prey any longer. The current recommended method of grasping pike is to close the hand firmly over the gill covers, and to make the period of handling as short as possible before release. Grabbing a pike by the gill covers is not feasible when a pike is very big, but it is easy to handle a pike by inserting the fingers at the bottom of the gill opening and grabbing the lower jaw. Big pike should also be supported at the belly. When a pike is held this way it is also easier to keep the mouth open to remove a hook. Some anglers now use special grips to grab the pike's front lower jaw, which can add to the safety of an anglers because of the danger imposed by the hooks of the lure or tackle and the pike's teeth. However these can cause serious damage to a pike's lower jaw. The Pike Anglers Club was formed in 1977 to campaign for the preservation of pike and the sport of pike fishing. Pike are susceptible to ''gut hooking'' when fished for with natural bait. Upon taking the bait, the pike will hold it for a short time in its mouth as it moves off. The pike will then, usually, turn the bait in its mouth, so that it sits in alignment with its throat to ease swallowing. It is recommended that when pike fishing the process is not allowed to go this far and a strike is recommended as soon as a bite is indicated. Otherwise, what is known as ''gut hooking'' will result, which will normally kill or seriously injure the fish. Dutch research shows that cutting the line immediately when the fish is gut hooked will still give low mortality (14%). The hooks in the gut or stomach were either encapsulated or removed from the body. Placing hooks near the rear of the bait reduces the risk of deep hooking. Other methods of catching and handing pike that are now frowned upon are the
gaff Gaff may refer to: Ankle-worn devices * Spurs in variations of cockfighting * Climbing spikes used to ascend wood poles, such as utility poles Arts and entertainment * A character in the ''Blade Runner'' film franchise * Penny gaff A penny g ...
and the gag. The gaff is a metal hook on the end of a pole used to hook through the fish's body in place of a more humane landing net. A gag is a device for holding open the pike's mouth whilst unhooking. These are now illegal in Scotland, as they put a huge amount of pressure on a pike's jaw, thus causing irreparable damage.


Cuisine

The taste of pike and pickerel is highly esteemed, but the "multitude of long, fine, forked bones" are problematic.Waverley Root, ''Food'', 1996, p. 353 The dish of '' quenelles de brochet'' (pike dumplings), which puts the meat through a sieve, was invented to deal with this. Indeed,
Escoffier Georges Auguste Escoffier (; 28 October 1846 – 12 February 1935) was a French chef An Italian chef preparing a truffle for diners A chef is a trained professional cook and tradesman who is proficient in all aspects of food preparation, ...

Escoffier
believed, falsely, that ''quenelles'' had completely displaced the whole fish from the menu.


Submarines and tanks

Two
United States Navy ), (unofficial)."''Non sibi sed patriae''" ( en, "Not for self but for country") (unofficial). , colors = Blue and gold  , colors_label = Colors , march = "Anchors Aweigh" , mascot = , equipment = List of equipment of the United St ...
submarine A submarine (or sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater. It differs from a submersible, which has more limited underwater capability. It is also sometimes used historically or colloquially to refer to remotely operated ...

submarine
s have been named ''Pike'' – of 1903 and of 1935 – and three – SS-22 of 1912, of 1936, and SS-524 of 1944 – named ''Pickerel''. In addition, the
Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a socialist state A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a sove ...
submarines known to
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance A military alliance is a formal agreement betwe ...
as the Victor III class and Akula class are called the ''Shchuka'' (Щука, "pike") class in
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
. The Soviet Iosif Stalin tank (IS-3) was also nicknamed ''Shchuka'', in reference to its sharply pointed hull front.


Cultural significance


Mythology

Russian mythology holds that the pike is one of several forms assumed by evil water spirits called
vodyanoy In Slavic mythology, vodyanoy or vodyanoi ( rus, водяно́й, p=vədʲɪˈnoj; Literal translation, lit. 'from the water' or 'watery') is a male water spirit. Vodník (or in Germanized form: Hastrman), in Czech fairy tales, is the same ...

vodyanoy
, and a ravenous mythical pike is traditionally blamed for decimating the fish population in the
Sheksna River The Sheksna (russian: Шексна́) is a river in Belozersky District, Vologda Oblast, Belozersky, Kirillovsky District, Kirillovsky, Sheksninsky District, Sheksninsky, and Cherepovetsky Districts of Vologda Oblast in Russia. It is a left tributa ...
. Russian fairy tales, on the other hand, also tell about an old wise pike that can fulfil wishes of the one who catches it, if its catcher releases it back into its habitat."Emelya the Simpleton", russian folklore fairy tale. At the Pike's Behest In the Finnish ''
Kalevala The ''Kalevala'' ( fi, Kalevala, ) is a 19th-century work of epic poetry compiled by Elias Lönnrot from Karelian language, Karelian and Finnish language, Finnish oral folklore and Finnish mythology, mythology, telling an epic story about the Cre ...
'',
Väinämöinen Väinämöinen () is a deity, demigod, hero and the central character in Finland, Finnish folklore and the main character in the national epic ''Kalevala'' by Elias Lönnrot. Väinämöinen was described as an old and wise man, and he possesse ...

Väinämöinen
creates a
kantele A kantele () or kannel () is a traditional Finns, Finnish and Karelians, Karelian plucked string instrument (chordophone) belonging to the south east Baltic region, Baltic box zither family known as the Baltic psaltery along with Estonian people ...

kantele
(string instrument) from the jawbone of a pike.


Heraldry

In
heraldry Heraldry () is a discipline relating to the design, display and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology Vexillology () is the study of the history, symbolism and usage of flag A fla ...
, the pike is called a lucy (English heraldry) or a
ged The General Educational Development (GED) tests are a group of four subject tests which, when passed, provide certification that the test taker has United States or Canada, Canadian high school-level academic skills. It is an alternative to the ...
(Scottish heraldry). It is usually
blazon In heraldry Heraldry () is a discipline relating to the design, display and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, Imperial, royal and noble rank ...

blazon
ed either ''
naiant In heraldry, an attitude is the ''position'' in which an animal, bird, fish, human or human-like being is emblazoned as a Charge (heraldry), charge, Supporter (heraldry), supporter or Crest (heraldry), crest. It always precedes any reference to t ...
'' (swimming), ''embowed'' (bowed) or ''hauriant'' (jumping), though pairs of lucies may appear ''addorsed'' (back to back), as in the arms of the
Finnish Finnish may refer to: * Something or someone from, or related to Finland * Finnish culture * Finnish people or Finns, the primary ethnic group in Finland * Finnish language, the national language of the Finnish people * Finnish cuisine See also

...

Finnish
town of
Uusikaupunki Uusikaupunki (; sv, Nystad) is a town A town is a . Towns are generally larger than s and smaller than , though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and use The word "town" s ...
(''Argent, two lucies addorsed azure'').


Literature

In
George R. R. Martin George Raymond Richard Martin (born George Raymond Martin; September 20, 1948), also known as GRRM, is an American novelist and short story A short story is a piece of prose fiction that typically can be read in one sitting and focuses on a se ...

George R. R. Martin
's '' A Song of Ice and Fire'' series of
epic fantasy High fantasy, or epic fantasy, is a subgenre of fantasy, defined by the epic poetry, epic nature of its setting (narrative), setting or by the epic stature of its character (arts), characters, theme (narrative), themes, or plot (narrative), plo ...
novels, both the
seat SEAT S.A. (, ; ''Sociedad Española de Automóviles de Turismo'') is a Spanish car manufacturer, which sells its vehicles under the SEAT and Cupra brands. It was founded on 9 May 1950, by the Instituto Nacional de Industria Instituto Nacional d ...
and the highborn bastards of the
Iron Islands The fictional world in which the ''A Song of Ice and Fire'' novels by George R. R. Martin take place is divided into several continents, known collectively as The Known World. Most of the story takes place on the continent of #Westeros, Westeros ...
are named "Pyke", likely inspired by the pike fish since the islands are inhabited by
Vikings Vikings—"pirate", non, víkingr is the modern name given to seafaring people primarily from Scandinavia Scandinavia; : ''Skadesi-suolu''/''Skađsuâl''. ( ) is a in , with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. In ...

Vikings
-like
seafaring Seamanship is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intel ...
warriors who frequently
pirate Piracy is an act of robbery Robbery is the crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term ''crime'' does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted ...

pirate
ships and
raid Raid or RAID may refer to: Attack * Raid (military) Raiding, also known as depredation, is a military tactics, military tactic or operational warfare mission which has a specific purpose. Raiders do not capture and hold a location, but quickly ...
the coastal regions.


References


External links

* * ''
Oxford English Dictionary The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED'') is the principal historical dictionary A historical dictionary or dictionary on historical principles is a dictionary which deals not only with the latterday meanings of words but also the historica ...
,'' s.vv. "Esox", "Ged1", and "Pike, n.4".
Pike in Your Waters
the Pike Anglers Club, pub 2003
Pike Preservation - Fishing Equipment
Pike Fishing Scotland

Pike Fishing from a Float Tube * Pike Fishing in Denmar
Coarse Fishing in Denmark
* Pike Fishing in Scotlan
Coarse Fishing in the Highlands


mentions Pike attack as a risk of
open water swimming Open water swimming is a swimming discipline which takes place in outdoor bodies of water such as open ocean The ocean (also the or the world ocean) is the body of that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of and contains 97% of . ...

open water swimming
. Accessed 21 October 2007 {{Authority control Fish in heraldry
Taxa named by Carl Linnaeus Taxonomy (biology), Taxa named by Carl Linnaeus (1707−1778), an 18th-century Swedish taxonomist, botanist, and zoologist. Known as the "father of modern taxonomy" – from his inventing and developing binomial nomenclature; the taxonomy (biology) ...
Freshwater fish genera Extant Santonian first appearances