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The or is the period between 1603 and 1867 in the
history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxima ...
of
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
, when Japan was under the rule of the
Tokugawa shogunate The Tokugawa shogunate (, Japanese 徳川幕府 ''Tokugawa bakufu''), also known as the , was the military government {{Systems of government Military dictatorships A military government is generally any government A government is th ...

Tokugawa shogunate
and the country's 300 regional ''
daimyo were powerful Japanese magnate A magnate, from the late Latin ''magnas'', a great man, itself from Latin ''magnus'', "great", is a noble or a man in a high social position, by birth, wealth or other qualities. In reference to the Middle Age ...
''. Emerging from the chaos of the
Sengoku period The is a period in Japanese history The first human habitation in the Japanese archipelago has been traced to prehistoric times around 30,000 BCE. The Jōmon period The is the time in Japanese prehistory, traditionally dated between ...
, the Edo period was characterized by economic growth, strict social order,
isolationist Isolationism is a category of foreign policy, foreign policies institutionalized by leaders who assert that nations' best interests are best served by keeping the affairs of other countries at a distance. One possible motivation for limiting intern ...
foreign policies, a stable population, perpetual peace, and popular enjoyment of
arts The arts refers to the theory, human application and physical expression of creativity Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something somehow new and somehow valuable is formed. The created item may be intangible (such as an idea, a scienti ...
and
culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior among two or more organisms within the same species, and encompasses any behavior in which one member affects the other. This is due to an int ...
. The shogunate was officially established in
Edo Edo ( ja, , , "bay-entrance" or "estuary"), also Romanization of Japanese, romanized as Jedo, Yedo or Yeddo, is the geographical renaming, former name of Tokyo. Edo, formerly a ''jōkamachi'' (castle town) centered on Edo Castle located in Musas ...

Edo
(now Tokyo) on March 24, 1603, by
Tokugawa Ieyasu was the founder and first ''shōgun , officially , was the title of the military dictatorship, military dictators of Japan during most of the period spanning from 1185 to 1868. Nominally appointed by the Emperor of Japan, Emperor, shoguns ...

Tokugawa Ieyasu
. The period came to an end with the
Meiji Restoration#REDIRECT Meiji Restoration The , referred to at the time as the , and also known as the Meiji Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was a political event that restored practical imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji. Although t ...
on May 3, 1868, after the
fall of Edo The , also known as and , took place in May and July 1868, when the Japanese capital of Edo Edo ( ja, , , "bay-entrance" or " estuary"), also romanized as Jedo, Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of Tokyo Tokyo ( , ; Japanese language, ...
.


Consolidation of the shogunate

A
revolution In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, suc ...

revolution
took place from the time of the
Kamakura shogunate The was the feudal Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe In the history of Europe The history of Europe concer ...
, which existed with the
Tennō The Emperor of Japan is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 " he head of statebeing an embodiment of the State itself o ...
's court, to the
Tokugawa
Tokugawa
, when the ''
samurai were the hereditary military nobility and officer caste of History of Japan#Medieval Japan (1185–1573/1600), medieval and Edo period, early-modern Japan from the late 12th century to their abolition in 1876. They were the well-paid retainer ...

samurai
'' became the unchallenged rulers in what historian Edwin O. Reischauer called a "centralized
feudal Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discov ...
" form of shogunate. Instrumental in the rise of the new
bakufu , officially , was the title of the military dictators of Japan during most of the period spanning from 1185 to 1868. Nominally appointed by the Emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the so ...
was
Tokugawa Ieyasu was the founder and first ''shōgun , officially , was the title of the military dictatorship, military dictators of Japan during most of the period spanning from 1185 to 1868. Nominally appointed by the Emperor of Japan, Emperor, shoguns ...

Tokugawa Ieyasu
, the main beneficiary of the achievements of
Oda Nobunaga was a Japanese daimyo were powerful Japanese magnate A magnate, from the late Latin ''magnas'', a great man, itself from Latin ''magnus'', "great", is a noble or a man in a high social position, by birth, wealth or other qualities. In ...

Oda Nobunaga
and
Toyotomi Hideyoshi was a Japanese samurai were the hereditary military nobility and officer caste of History of Japan#Medieval Japan (1185–1573/1600), medieval and Edo period, early-modern Japan from the late 12th century to their abolition in 1876. ...

Toyotomi Hideyoshi
. Already a powerful ''
daimyo were powerful Japanese magnate A magnate, from the late Latin ''magnas'', a great man, itself from Latin ''magnus'', "great", is a noble or a man in a high social position, by birth, wealth or other qualities. In reference to the Middle Age ...
'' (feudal lord), Ieyasu profited by his transfer to the rich Kantō area. He maintained two million ''
koku The is a Chinese-based Japanese unit Traditional Japanese units of measurement or the shakkanhō (, "''shaku–kan'' system") is the traditional system of measurement A system of measurement is a collection of units of measurement and rules r ...
'' of land, a new headquarters at
Edo Edo ( ja, , , "bay-entrance" or "estuary"), also Romanization of Japanese, romanized as Jedo, Yedo or Yeddo, is the geographical renaming, former name of Tokyo. Edo, formerly a ''jōkamachi'' (castle town) centered on Edo Castle located in Musas ...

Edo
, a strategically situated castle town (the future
Tokyo Tokyo (Japanese language, Japanese: , ''Tōkyō'' ), historically known in the west as Tokio and officially the Tokyo Metropolis (, ''Tōkyō-to''), is capital of Japan, the capital and most populous Prefectures of Japan, prefecture of Japan ...

Tokyo
), and also had an additional two million ''koku'' of land and thirty-eight
vassal A vassal or liege subject is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord Lord is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power (social and political), power over others, acting as a master, a chief ...
s under his control. After Hideyoshi's death, Ieyasu moved quickly to seize control from the
Toyotomi clan The was a Japanese clan This is a list of Japanese clans. The old clans (Gōzoku) mentioned in the Nihon Shoki The , sometimes translated as ''The Chronicles of Japan'', is the second-oldest book of classical History of Japan, Japanese h ...
. Ieyasu's victory over the western ''daimyo'' at the
Battle of Sekigahara The Battle of Sekigahara (Shinjitai are the simplified forms of kanji are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the Japanese writing system. They are used alongside the Japanese language, Japanese syllabic sc ...

Battle of Sekigahara
(October 21, 1600, or in the Japanese calendar on the 15th day of the ninth month of the fifth year of the
Keichō was a after ''Bunroku'' and before ''Genna''. This period spanned from October 1596 to July 1615. The reigning emperors were and . Change of era * 1596 : The era name was changed to ''Keichō'' to mark the passing of various natural disasters ...
era) gave him control of all
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
. He rapidly abolished numerous enemy ''daimyo'' houses, reduced others, such as that of the Toyotomi, and redistributed the spoils of war to his family and allies. Ieyasu still failed to achieve complete control of the western ''daimyo'', but his assumption of the title of ''
shōgun , officially , was the title of the military dictatorship, military dictators of Japan during most of the period spanning from 1185 to 1868. Nominally appointed by the Emperor of Japan, Emperor, shoguns were usually the ''de facto'' rulers of th ...
'' helped consolidate the alliance system. After further strengthening his power base, Ieyasu installed his son Hidetada (1579–1632) as ''shōgun'' and himself as retired ''shōgun'' in 1605. The Toyotomi were still a significant threat, and Ieyasu devoted the next decade to their eradication. In 1615, the Tokugawa army destroyed the Toyotomi stronghold at
Osaka is a designated city in the Kansai region The or the , lies in the southern-central region of Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , ...

Osaka
. The Tokugawa (or Edo) period brought 250 years of stability to Japan. The political system evolved into what historians call ''bakuhan'', a combination of the terms ''bakufu'' and ''
han Han may refer to: Ethnic groups * Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
. Huayuqiao.org. Retrieved on ...
'' (domains) to describe the government and society of the period. In the ''bakuhan'', the ''shōgun'' had national authority and the ''daimyo'' had regional authority. This represented a new unity in the feudal structure, which featured an increasingly large bureaucracy to administer the mixture of
centralized Centralisation or centralization (see American and British English spelling differences#iseize, spelling differences) is the process by which the activities of an organisation, particularly those regarding planning and decision-making, framing ...

centralized
and decentralized authorities. The Tokugawa became more powerful during their first century of rule: land redistribution gave them nearly seven million ''koku'', control of the most important cities, and a land assessment system reaping great revenues. The feudal hierarchy was completed by the various classes of ''daimyo''. Closest to the Tokugawa house were the ''
shinpan was a class of ''daimyō were powerful Japanese magnate A magnate, from the late Latin ''magnas'', a great man, itself from Latin ''magnus'', "great", is a noble or a man in a high social position, by birth, wealth or other qualities. In re ...
'', or "related houses". They were twenty-three ''daimyo'' on the borders of Tokugawa lands, all directly related to Ieyasu. The shinpan held mostly honorary titles and advisory posts in the bakufu. The second class of the hierarchy were the '' fudai'', or "house ''daimyo''", rewarded with lands close to the Tokugawa holdings for their faithful service. By the 18th century, 145 ''fudai'' controlled much smaller ''han'', the greatest assessed at 250,000 ''koku''. Members of the ''fudai'' class staffed most of the major bakufu offices. Ninety-seven ''han'' formed the third group, the '' tozama'' (outside vassals), former opponents or new allies. The ''tozama'' were located mostly on the peripheries of the archipelago and collectively controlled nearly ten million ''koku'' of productive land. Because the ''tozama'' were least trusted of the ''daimyo'', they were the most cautiously managed and generously treated, although they were excluded from central
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...

government
positions. The Tokugawa shogunate not only consolidated their control over a reunified Japan, they also had unprecedented power over the
emperor An emperor (from la, imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as a title roughly equivalent to ''commander'' under the Roma ...
, the court, all ''daimyo'' and the religious orders. The emperor was held up as the ultimate source of political sanction for the ''shōgun'', who ostensibly was the vassal of the imperial family. The Tokugawa helped the imperial family recapture its old glory by rebuilding its palaces and granting it new lands. To ensure a close tie between the imperial clan and the Tokugawa family, Ieyasu's granddaughter was made an imperial consort in 1619. A code of laws was established to regulate the ''daimyo'' houses. The code encompassed private conduct, marriage, dress, types of weapons and numbers of troops allowed; required feudal lords to reside in Edo every other year (the '' sankin-kōtai'' system); prohibited the construction of ocean-going ships; proscribed Christianity; restricted castles to one per domain (''han'') and stipulated that bakufu regulations were the national law. Although the ''daimyo'' were not taxed per se, they were regularly levied for contributions for
military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or pa ...

military
and logistical support and for such public works projects as castles, roads, bridges and palaces. The various regulations and levies not only strengthened the Tokugawa but also depleted the wealth of the ''daimyo'', thus weakening their threat to the central administration. The ''han'', once military-centered domains, became mere local
administrative Administration may refer to: Management of organizations * Management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes th ...
units. The ''daimyo'' did have full administrative control over their territory and their complex systems of retainers,
bureaucrat A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy The term bureaucracy () may refer both to a body of non-elected governing officials (bureaucrats A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy and can compose the administration of any organization of ...

bureaucrat
s and commoners. Loyalty was exacted from religious foundations, already greatly weakened by Nobunaga and Hideyoshi, through a variety of control mechanisms.


Foreign trade relations

Like Hideyoshi, Ieyasu encouraged foreign trade but also was suspicious of outsiders. He wanted to make Edo a major port, but once he learned that the Europeans favored ports in
Kyūshū is the third largest island of Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an in . It is situated in the northwest , and is bordered on the west by the , while extending from the in the north toward the and in the south. Japa ...
and that China had rejected his plans for official trade, he moved to control existing trade and allowed only certain ports to handle specific kinds of commodities. The beginning of the Edo period coincides with the last decades of the
Nanban trade period The or , was a period in the history of Japan from the arrival of Europeans in 1543 to the first ''Sakoku'' Seclusion Edicts of isolationism in 1614. Nanban (南蛮 Lit. “Southern barbarian”) is a Japanese word which had been used to desig ...
during which intense interaction with European powers, on the economic and religious plane, took place. It is at the beginning of the Edo period that Japan built its first ocean-going
warships A warship or combatant ship is a naval ship A naval ship is a military (or sometimes , depending on classification) used by a . Naval ships are differentiated from civilian ships by construction and purpose. Generally, naval ships ar ...
, such as the ''San Juan Bautista'', a 500-
ton The ton is a unit of measure A unit of measurement is a definite magnitude of a quantity Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude, which illustrate discontinuity and continuity. Quantities can be compared ...
galleon on the "Suez Expedition" (part of the Portuguese Armada of 72 ships sent against the Ottoman fleet anchor in Suez, Egypt, in response to its entry in the Indian Ocean and the siege of Diu in 1538) – ''Tábuas da India'' in the João de Cast ...
-type ship that transported a Japanese embassy headed by
Hasekura Tsunenaga was a kirishitan Japanese samurai were the hereditary military nobility and officer caste of medieval and early-modern Japan from the 12th century to their abolition in the 1870s. They were the well-paid retainers of the daimyo (the g ...
to the Americas and then to Europe. Also during that period, the ''bakufu'' commissioned around 720
Red Seal Ships sails, rudder A rudder is a primary control surface used to steer a ship, boat, submarine, hovercraft, aircraft, or other conveyance that moves through a fluid medium (generally air or water). On an aircraft the rudder is used primarily to ...
, three-masted and armed trade ships, for intra-Asian commerce. Japanese adventurers, such as
Yamada Nagamasa ) , commands= , battles= , awards= , laterwork= , module = was a Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat ...
, used those ships throughout Asia. The "Christian problem" was, in effect, a problem of controlling both the Christian ''daimyo'' in Kyūshū and their trade with the
Europeans Europeans are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe, nations of Europe. Groups may be defined by commo ...

Europeans
. By 1612, the ''shōgun''s retainers and residents of Tokugawa lands had been ordered to forswear Christianity. More restrictions came in 1616 (the restriction of foreign trade to Nagasaki and Hirado, an island northwest of Kyūshū), 1622 (the execution of 120 missionaries and converts), 1624 (the expulsion of the Spanish), and 1629 (the execution of thousands of Christians). Finally, the Closed Country Edict of 1635 prohibited any Japanese from traveling outside Japan or, if someone left, from ever returning. In 1636, the Dutch were restricted to
Dejima was a Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Por ...

Dejima
, a small
artificial island An artificial island or man-made island is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on at ...
—and thus, not true Japanese soil—in Nagasaki's harbor. The shogunate perceived Christianity to be an extremely destabilizing factor, and so decided to target it. The
Shimabara Rebellion The , also known as the or , was an uprising Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order. It refers to the open resistance against the orders of an established authority. A rebellion originates from a sentiment ...
of 1637–38, in which discontented Catholic samurai and peasants rebelled against the bakufu—and Edo called in Dutch ships to bombard the rebel stronghold—marked the end of the Christian movement, although some Christians survived by going underground, the so-called
Kakure Kirishitan ''Kakure Kirishitan'' () is a modern term for a member of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church, with ...
. Soon thereafter, the Portuguese were permanently expelled, members of the Portuguese diplomatic mission were executed, all subjects were ordered to register at a Buddhist or Shinto temple, and the Dutch and Chinese were restricted, respectively, to Dejima and to a special quarter in
Nagasaki is the capital and the largest city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. ...

Nagasaki
. Besides small trade of some outer ''daimyo'' with
Korea Korea is a region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental ...

Korea
and the
Ryukyu Islands The , also known as the or the , are a chain of Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or ...

Ryukyu Islands
, to the southwest of Japan's main islands, by 1641, foreign contacts were limited by the policy of ''
sakoku was the of the ese under which, for a period of 264 years during the (from 1603 to 1868), relations and trade between Japan and other countries were severely limited, and nearly all foreign nationals were barred from entering Japan, while ...
'' to Nagasaki. The last Jesuit was either killed or reconverted by 1644 and by the 1660s, Christianity was almost completely eradicated, and its external political, economic, and religious influence on Japan became quite limited. Only China, the
Dutch East India Company The Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company ( nl, Vereenigde Oost Indische Compagnie; VOC), was a multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—u ...

Dutch East India Company
, and for a short period, the English, enjoyed the right to visit Japan during this period, for commercial purposes only, and they were restricted to the
Dejima was a Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Por ...

Dejima
port in Nagasaki. Other Europeans who landed on Japanese shores were put to death without trial.


Society

During the Tokugawa period, the social order, based on inherited position rather than personal merits, was rigid and highly formalized. At the top were the emperor and court nobles (''
kuge The was a Japanese aristocratic Aristocracy ( grc-gre, ἀριστοκρατία , from 'excellent', and , 'rule') is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class, the aristocrats. The ter ...
''), together with the ''shōgun'' and ''daimyo''. Below them the population was divided into four classes in a system known as ''mibunsei'' (身分制): the samurai on top (about 5% of the population) and the peasants (more than 80% of the population) on the second level. Below the peasants were the craftsmen, and even below them, on the fourth level, were the merchants. Only the peasants lived in the rural areas. Samurai, craftsmen and merchants lived in the
cities A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellings grouped to ...
that were built around ''daimyo''
castles in East Sussex East Sussex is a county in South East England on the English Channel The English Channel,, "The Sleeve"; nrf, la Maunche, "The Sleeve" ( Cotentinais) or (Jèrriais), (Guernésiais), "The Channel"; br, Mor Breizh, ...
, each restricted to their own quarter. Edo society had an elaborate social structure, in which every family knew its place and level of prestige. At the top were the Emperor and the court nobility, invincible in prestige but weak in power. Next came the shōgun, ''daimyo'' and layers of feudal lords whose rank was indicated by their closeness to the Tokugawa. They had power. The ''daimyo'' comprised about 250 local lords of local "han" with annual outputs of 50,000 or more bushels of rice. The upper strata was much given to elaborate and expensive rituals, including elegant architecture, landscaped gardens, Noh drama, patronage of the arts, and the tea ceremony. Then came the 400,000 warriors, called "samurai", in numerous grades and degrees. A few upper samurai were eligible for high office; most were foot soldiers. Since there was very little fighting, they became civil servants paid by the daimyo, with minor duties. The samurai were affiliated with senior lords in a well-established chain of command. The shogun had 17,000 samurai retainers; the daimyo each had hundreds. Most lived in modest homes near their lord's headquarters, and lived off of hereditary rights and stipends. Together these high status groups comprised Japan's ruling class making up about 6% of the total population. After a long period of inner conflict, the first goal of the newly established Tokugawa government was to pacify the country. It created a balance of power that remained (fairly) stable for the next 250 years, influenced by
Confucian , Shanxi Shanxi (; ; Chinese postal romanization, formerly romanised as Shansi) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China and is part of the North China region. The capital and largest city of th ...
principles of
social order The term social order can be used in two senses: In the first sense, it refers to a particular system of social structure In the social sciences, social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergence, emergen ...
. Most samurai lost their direct possession of the land: the ''daimyo'' took over their land. The samurai had a choice: give up their sword and become peasants, or move to the city of their feudal lord and become a paid retainer. Only a few land samurai remained in the border provinces of the north, or as direct vassals of the ''shōgun'', the 5,000 so-called ''
hatamoto A was a high ranking samurai in the direct service of the Tokugawa shogunate of feudal Japan. While all three of the Shōgun, shogunates in History of Japan, Japanese history had official retainers, in the two preceding ones, they were referred ...
''. The ''daimyo'' were put under tight control of the shogunate. Their families had to reside in Edo; the ''daimyo'' themselves had to reside in Edo for one year and in their province (''han'') for the next. This system was called '' sankin-kōtai''. Lower orders divided into two main segments—the peasants—80% of the population—whose high prestige as producers was undercut by their burden as the chief source of taxes. They were illiterate and lived in villages controlled by appointed officials who kept the peace and collected taxes. The family was the smallest legal entity, and the maintenance of family status and privileges was of great importance at all levels of society. The individual had no separate legal rights. The 1711 ''Gotōke reijō'' was compiled from over 600 statutes promulgated between 1597 and 1696. Outside the four classes were the so-called ''
eta Eta (uppercase , lowercase ; grc, ἦτα ''ē̂ta'' or ell, ήτα ''ita'' ) is the seventh letter of the Greek alphabet The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late ninth or early eighth century BC. It is ...
'' and ''hinin'', those whose professions broke the taboos of Buddhism. ''Eta'' were butchers, tanners and undertakers. ''Hinin'' served as town guards, street cleaners, and executioners. Other outsiders included the beggars, entertainers, and prostitutes. The word ''eta'' literally translates to "filthy" and ''hinin'' to "non-humans", a thorough reflection of the attitude held by other classes that the ''eta'' and ''hinin'' were not even people. ''Hinin'' were only allowed inside a special quarter of the city. Other persecution of the hinin included disallowing them from wearing robes longer than knee-length and the wearing of hats. Sometimes ''eta'' villages were not even printed on official maps. A sub-class of hinin who were born into their social class had no option of mobility to a different social class whereas the other class of hinin who had lost their previous class status could be reinstated in Japanese society. In the 19th century the umbrella term ''burakumin'' was coined to name the ''eta'' and ''hinin'' because both classes were forced to live in separate village neighborhoods. The ''eta'', ''hinin'' and ''burakumin'' classes were officially abolished in 1871. However, their cultural and societal impact, including some forms of discrimination, continues into modern times.


Economic development

The Edo period bequeathed a vital commercial sector to be in burgeoning urban centers, a relatively well-educated elite, a sophisticated government bureaucracy, productive agriculture, a closely unified nation with highly developed financial and marketing systems, and a national infrastructure of roads. Economic development during the Tokugawa period included
urbanization Urbanization (or urbanisation) refers to the population shift from rural File:Rural landscape in Finland.jpg, A rural landscape in Lappeenranta, South Karelia, Finland. 15 July 2000. In general, a rural area or a countryside is a geographi ...
, increased shipping of commodities, a significant expansion of domestic and, initially, foreign commerce, and a diffusion of trade and
handicraft A handicraft, sometimes more precisely expressed as artisanal handicraft or handmade, is any of a wide variety of types of work where useful and decorative objects are made completely by one’s hand or by using only simple, non-automated rela ...

handicraft
industries. The construction trades flourished, along with banking facilities and merchant associations. Increasingly, ''han'' authorities oversaw the rising agricultural production and the spread of rural handicrafts.


Population

By the mid-18th century, Edo had a population of more than one million, likely the biggest city in the world at the time.
Osaka is a designated city in the Kansai region The or the , lies in the southern-central region of Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , ...

Osaka
and
Kyoto Kyoto (; Japanese language, Japanese: , ''Kyōto'' ), officially , is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture in Japan. Located in the Kansai region on the island of Honshu, Kyoto forms a part of the Keihanshin, Keihanshin metropolitan area along w ...

Kyoto
each had more than 400,000 inhabitants. Many other
castle town A castle town is a settlement built adjacent to or surrounding a castle in East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes ...
s grew as well. Osaka and Kyoto became busy trading and handicraft production centers, while Edo was the center for the supply of food and essential urban consumer goods. Around the year 1700, Japan was perhaps the most urbanized country in the world, at a rate of around 10–12%. Half of that figure would be samurai, while the other half, consisting of merchants and artisans, would be known as ''chōnin''. In the first part of the Edo period, Japan experienced rapid demographic growth, before leveling off at around 30 million.Hanley, S. B. (1968). Population trends and economic development in Tokugawa Japan: the case of Bizen province in Okayama. ''Daedalus'', 622-635. Between the 1720s and 1820s, Japan had almost
zero population growth 0 (zero) is a number, and the numerical digit used to represent that number in numeral system, numerals. It fulfills a central role in mathematics as the additive identity of the integers, real numbers, and many other algebraic structures. As ...
, often attributed to lower birth rates in response to widespread famine, but some historians have presented different theories, such as a high rate of infanticide artificially controlling population. At around 1721, the population of Japan was close to 30 million and the figure was only around 32 million around the Meiji Restoration around 150 years later. From 1721, there were regular national surveys of the population until the end of the Tokugawa Shogunate. In addition, regional surveys, as well as religious records initially compiled to eradicate Christianity, also provide valuable demographic data.


Economy and financial services

The Tokugawa era brought peace, and that brought prosperity to a nation of 31 million, 80% of them rice farmers. Rice production increased steadily, but population remained stable. Rice paddies grew from 1.6 million in 1600 to 3 million by 1720.One chō, or chobu, equals 2.45 acres. Improved technology helped farmers control the all-important flow of water to their paddies. The daimyos operated several hundred castle towns, which became loci of domestic trade. The system of ''sankin kōtai'' meant that daimyos and their families often resided in Edo or travelled back to their domains, giving demand to an enormous consumer market in Edo and trade throughout the country. Samurai and daimyos, after prolonged peace, are accustomed to more elaborate lifestyles. To keep up with growing expenditures, the ''bakufu'' and daimyos often encouraged commercial crops and artifacts within their domains, from textiles to tea. The concentration of wealth also led to the development of financial markets. As the shogunate only allowed ''daimyos'' to sell surplus rice in Edo and Osaka, large-scale rice markets developed there. Each daimyo also had a capital city, located near the one castle they were allowed to maintain. Daimyos would have agents in various commercial centers, selling rice and cash crops, often exchanged for paper credit to be redeemed elsewhere. Merchants invented credit instruments to transfer money, and currency came into common use. In the cities and towns, guilds of merchants and artisans met the growing demand for goods and services. The merchants benefited enormously, especially those with official patronage. However, the Neo-Confucian ideology of the shogunate focused the virtues of frugality and hard work; it had a rigid class system, which emphasized agriculture and despised commerce and merchants. A century after the Shogunate's establishment, problems began to emerge. The samurai, forbidden to engage in farming or business but allowed to borrow money, borrowed too much, some taking up side jobs as bodyguards for merchants, debt collectors, or artisans. The ''bakufu'' and ''daimyos'' raised taxes on farmers, but did not tax business, so they too fell into debt, with some merchants specializing in loaning to daimyos. Yet it was inconceivable to systematically tax commerce, as it would make money off "parasitic" activities, raise the prestige of merchants, and lower the status of government. As they paid no regular taxes, the forced financial contributions to the daimyos were seen by some merchants as a cost of doing business. The wealth of merchants gave them a degree of prestige and even power over the daimyos. By 1750, rising taxes incited peasant unrest and even revolt. The nation had to deal somehow with samurai impoverishment and treasury deficits. The financial troubles of the samurai undermined their loyalties to the system, and the empty treasury threatened the whole system of government. One solution was reactionary—cutting samurai salaries and prohibiting spending for luxuries. Other solutions were modernizing, with the goal of increasing agrarian productivity. The eighth Tokugawa shogun, (in office 1716–1745) had considerable success, though much of his work had to be done again between 1787 and 1793 by the shogun's chief councilor
Matsudaira Sadanobu was a Japanese ''daimyō were powerful Japanese magnates, feudal lords who, from the 10th century to the early Meiji period in the middle 19th century, ruled most of Japan from their vast, hereditary land holdings. They were subordinate to th ...

Matsudaira Sadanobu
(1759–1829). Other shoguns debased the coinage to pay debts, which caused inflation. Overall, while commerce (domestic and international) was vibrant and sophisticated financial services had developed in the Edo period, the shogunate remained ideologically focused on honest agricultural work as the basis of society and never sought to develop a mercantile or capitalistic country. By 1800, the commercialization of the economy grew rapidly, bringing more and more remote villages into the national economy. Rich farmers appeared who switched from rice to high-profit commercial crops and engaged in local money-lending, trade, and small-scale manufacturing. Wealthy merchants were often forced to "lend" money to the shogunate or daimyos (often never returned). They often had to hide their wealth, and some sought higher social status by using money to marry into the samurai class. There is some evidence that as merchants gain greater political influence, the rigid
class division Class or The Class may refer to: Common uses not otherwise categorized * Class (biology), a taxonomic rank * Class (knowledge representation), a collection of individuals or objects * Class (philosophy), an analytical concept used differentl ...
between samurai and merchants were beginning to break down towards to end of the Edo period. A few domains, notably Chōsū and Satsuma, used innovative methods to restore their finances, but most sunk further into debt. The financial crisis provoked a reactionary solution near the end of the "Tempo era" (1830-1843) promulgated by the chief counselor Mizuno Tadakuni. He raised taxes, denounced luxuries and tried to impede the growth of business; he failed and it appeared to many that the continued existence of the entire Tokugawa system was in jeopardy.


Agriculture

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Rice
was the base of the economy. About 80% of the people were rice farmers. Rice production increased steadily, but population remained stable, so prosperity increased. Rice paddies grew from 1.6 million chō in 1600 to 3 million by 1720. Improved technology helped farmers control the all-important flow of irrigation to their paddies. The ''daimyo'' operated several hundred castle towns, which became loci of domestic trade. Large-scale rice markets developed, centered on Edo and Ōsaka. In the cities and towns, guilds of merchants and artisans met the growing demand for goods and services. The merchants, while low in status, prospered, especially those with official patronage. Merchants invented credit instruments to transfer money, currency came into common use, and the strengthening credit market encouraged entrepreneurship. The ''daimyo'' collected the taxes from the peasants in the form of rice. Taxes were high, often at around 40%-50% of the harvest. The rice was sold at the '' fudasashi'' market in Edo. To raise money, the ''daimyo'' used
forward contract In finance, a forward contract or simply a forward is a non-standardized contract between two parties to buy or sell an asset at a specified future time at a price agreed on at the time of conclusion of the contract, making it a type of derivat ...
s to sell rice that was not even harvested yet. These contracts were similar to modern
futures trading In finance Finance is the study of financial institutions, financial markets and how they operate within the financial system. It is concerned with the creation and management of money and investments. Savers and investors have money availabl ...
. It was during the Edo period that Japan developed an advanced
forest management Forest management is a branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A ...
policy. Increased demand for timber resources for construction, shipbuilding and fuel had led to widespread deforestation, which resulted in forest fires, floods and soil erosion. In response the ''shōgun'', beginning around 1666, instituted a policy to reduce logging and increase the planting of trees. The policy mandated that only the ''shōgun'' and ''daimyo'' could authorize the use of wood. By the 18th century, Japan had developed detailed scientific knowledge about
silviculture Silviculture is the practice of controlling the growth, composition/structure, and quality of forest A forest is an area of land dominated by tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk ...
and plantation
forestry Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, planting, using, conserving and repairing forest A forest is an area of land dominated by tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, ste ...
.


Artistic and intellectual development


Education

The first shogun Ieyasu set up Confucian academies in his ''
shinpan was a class of ''daimyō were powerful Japanese magnate A magnate, from the late Latin ''magnas'', a great man, itself from Latin ''magnus'', "great", is a noble or a man in a high social position, by birth, wealth or other qualities. In re ...
'' domains and other ''daimyos'' followed suit in their own domains, establishing what's known as ''han'' schools (藩校, ''hankō'').Hane, Mikiso. ''Premodern Japan: A historical survey''. Routledge, 2018. Within a generation, almost all samurai were literate, as their careers often required knowledge of literary arts. These academies were staffed mostly with other samurai, along with some buddhist and shinto clergymen who were also learned in Neo-Confucianism and the works of
Zhu Xi Zhu Xi (; ; October 18, 1130 – April 23, 1200), Wade-Giles, W-G Chu Hsi, also known by his courtesy name Yuanhui (or Zhonghui), and self-titled Hui'an, was a Chinese Confucianism, Confucian scholar philosopher and government official of Son ...

Zhu Xi
. Beyond
kanji are a set of logographic In a written language A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gest ...

kanji
(Chinese characters), the Confucian classics, calligraphy, basic arithmetics, and etiquette, the samurai also learned various martial arts and military skills in schools. The '' chōnin'' (urban merchants and artisans) patronized neighborhood schools called ''
terakoya were private educational institutions that taught writing and reading to the children of Japanese commoners during the Edo period The or is between 1603 and 1867 in the history of Japan, history of Japan, when Japan was under the rule of the T ...
'' (寺子屋, "temple schools"). Despite being located in temples, the ''terakoya'' curriculum consisted of basic literacy and arithmetic, instead of literary arts or philosophy. High rates of urban literacy in Edo contributed to the prevalence of novels and other literary forms. In urban areas, children are often taught by masterless samurai, while in rural areas priests from Buddhist temples or Shinto shrines often did the teaching. Unlike in the cities, in rural Japan, only children of prominent farmers would receive education. In Edo, the shogunate set up several schools under its direct patronage, the most important being the neo-Confucian acting as a de facto elite school for its bureaucracy but also creating a network of alumni from the whole country. Besides Shoheikō, other important directly-run schools at the end of the shogunate included the , specialized in Japanese domestic history and literature, influencing the rise of
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, and the , focusing on Chinese medicine. One estimate of literacy in Edo suggest that up to a third of males could read, along with a sixth of women. Another estimate states that 40% of men and 10% of women by the end of the Edo period were literate. According to another estimate, around 1800, almost 100% of the samurai class and about 50% to 60% of the '' chōnin'' (craftsmen and merchants) class and ''nōmin'' (peasants) class were literate. Some historians partially credited Japan's relatively high literacy rates for its fast development after the Meiji Restoration. As the literacy rate was so high that many ordinary people could read books, books in various genres such as cooking, gardening, travel guides, art books, scripts of ''
bunraku , also known as ''Ningyō jōruri'' (), is a form of traditional Japanese puppet theatre, founded in Osaka in the beginning of the 17th century. Three kinds of performers take part in a ''bunraku'' performance: the ''Ningyōtsukai'' or ''Ningyō ...
'' (puppet theatre), '' kibyōshi'' (satirical novels), '' sharebon'' (books on urban culture), ''
kokkeibon The was a genre and type of early modern Japanese novel. It came into being late in the Edo period during the 19th century. As a genre, it depicted the comical behavior occurring in commoners' daily lives. The ''kokkeibon'' genre is the successor ...
'' (comical books), '' ninjōbon'' (romance novel), ''
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'' and '' kusazōshi'' were published. There were 600 to 800 rental bookstores in Edo, and people borrowed or bought these
woodblock print Woodblock printing or block printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns used widely throughout East Asia and originating in China in antiquity as a method of textile printing, printing on textiles and later paper. As a Woodbl ...
books. The best-selling books in this period were ''Kōshoku Ichidai Otoko'' (''Life of an Amorous Man'') by
Ihara Saikaku was a Japanese poet A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may describe themselves as such or be described as such by others. A poet may simply be a writer of poetry, or may perform their art to an audience. Image:Janko Kral.jpg, 200 ...
, '' Nansō Satomi Hakkenden'' by
Takizawa Bakin (国貞) Image:The well at Takizawa Bakin's house.jpg, The well at Takizawa Bakin's house , a.k.a. , was a late Japanese people, Japanese Edo period gesaku author best known for works such as ''Nansō Satomi Hakkenden'' (The Chronicles of the Eight ...
and '' Tōkaidōchū Hizakurige'' by
Jippensha Ikku was the pen name A pen name, also called a ''nom de plume'' () or a literary double, is a pseudonym (or, in some cases, a variant form of a real name) adopted by an author and printed on the title page or by-line of their works in place of their ...
and these books were reprinted many times.Edo Picture Books and the Edo Period.
National Diet Library.
''第6回 和本の楽しみ方4 江戸の草紙'' p.3.
Konosuke Hashiguchi. (2013) Seikei University.


Philosophy and religion

The flourishing of Neo-Confucianism was the major intellectual development of the Tokugawa period. Confucian studies had long been kept active in Japan by
Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, an ...

Buddhist
clerics, but during the Tokugawa period, Confucianism emerged from Buddhist religious control. This system of thought increased attention to a secular view of man and society. The ethical
humanism Humanism is a philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of an entity to interact with physical or mental reality Reality is the ...

humanism
,
rationalism In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, la ...
, and historical perspective of neo-Confucian doctrine appealed to the official class. By the mid-17th century, neo-Confucianism was Japan's dominant legal philosophy and contributed directly to the development of the ''
kokugaku ''Kokugaku'' ( ja, 國學, label=Kyūjitai are the traditional forms of kanji are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the Japanese writing system. They are used alongside the Japanese language, Japanese syllabic scri ...
'' (national learning) school of thought. Advanced studies and growing applications of neo-Confucianism contributed to the transition of the social and political order from feudal norms to class- and large-group-oriented practices. The rule of the people or Confucian man was gradually replaced by the
rule of law The rule of law is defined in the ''Oxford English Dictionary The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED'') is the principal of the , published by (OUP). It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a compreh ...

rule of law
. New laws were developed, and new administrative devices were instituted. A new theory of government and a new vision of society emerged as a means of justifying more comprehensive governance by the bakufu. Each person had a distinct place in society and was expected to work to fulfill his or her mission in life. The people were to be ruled with benevolence by those whose assigned duty it was to rule. Government was all-powerful but responsible and humane. Although the class system was influenced by neo-Confucianism, it was not identical to it. Whereas soldiers and clergy were at the bottom of the hierarchy in the Chinese model, in Japan, some members of these classes constituted the ruling elite. Members of the samurai class adhered to bushi traditions with a renewed interest in Japanese history and cultivation of the ways of Confucian scholar-administrators. A distinct culture known as '' chōnindō'' ("the way of the townspeople") emerged in cities such as Osaka, Kyoto, and Edo. It encouraged aspiration to bushido qualities—diligence, honesty, honor, loyalty, and frugality—while blending Shinto, neo-Confucian, and Buddhist beliefs. Study of mathematics, astronomy, cartography, engineering, and medicine were also encouraged. Emphasis was placed on quality of workmanship, especially in the arts. Buddhism and Shinto were both still important in Tokugawa Japan. Buddhism, together with neo-Confucianism, provided standards of social behavior. Although Buddhism was not as politically powerful as it had been in the past, Buddhism continued to be espoused by the upper classes. Proscriptions against Christianity benefited Buddhism in 1640 when the bakufu ordered everyone to register at a temple. The rigid separation of Tokugawa society into han, villages, wards, and households helped reaffirm local Shinto attachments. Shinto provided spiritual support to the political order and was an important tie between the individual and the community. Shinto also helped preserve a sense of national identity. Shinto eventually assumed an intellectual form as shaped by neo-Confucian rationalism and materialism. The kokugaku movement emerged from the interactions of these two belief systems. Kokugaku contributed to the emperor-centered nationalism of modern Japan and the revival of Shinto as a national creed in the 18th and 19th centuries. The Kojiki, Nihon Shoki, and Man'yōshū were all studied anew in the search for the Japanese spirit. Some purists in the kokugaku movement, such as Motoori Norinaga, even criticized the Confucian and Buddhist influences—in effect, foreign influences—for contaminating Japan's ancient ways. Japan was the land of the kami and, as such, had a special destiny. During the period, Japan studied Western sciences and techniques (called ''rangaku'', "Dutch studies") through the information and books received through the Dutch traders in Dejima. The main areas that were studied included geography, medicine, natural sciences, astronomy, art, languages, physical sciences such as the study of electrical phenomena, and mechanical sciences as exemplified by the development of Japanese clockwatches, or wadokei, inspired by Western techniques. Among those who studied mechanical science at that time, Tanaka Hisashige, the founder of Toshiba, is worthy of special mention. Because of the technical originality and sophistication of his Myriad year clock and Karakuri puppet, ''karakuri'' puppet, they are difficult to restore even today, and are considered to be a highly mechanical heritage prior to Japan's modernization.


Art, culture and entertainment

In the field of art, the Rinpa school became popular. The paintings and crafts of the Rinpa school are characterized by highly decorative and showy designs using Gold ground, gold and silver leaves, bold compositions with simplified objects to be drawn, repeated patterns, and a playful spirit. Important figures in the Rinpa school include Hon'ami Kōetsu, Tawaraya Sōtatsu, Ogata Kōrin, Sakai Hōitsu and Suzuki Kiitsu. Other than the Rinpa school, Maruyama Ōkyo and Itō Jakuchū are famous for their realistic painting techniques. They produced their works under the patronage of wealthy merchants newly emerging from the economic development of this period. Following the Azuchi-Momoyama period, the painters of the Kano school drew pictures on the walls and fusumas of
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and temples with the support of powerful people. Due to the end of the period of civil war and the development of the economy, many crafts with high artistic value were produced. Among the samurai class, arms came to be treated like works of art, and Japanese sword mountings and Japanese armour beautifully decorated with Japanese lacquerware, lacquer of ''maki-e'' technique and metal carvings became popular. Each ''
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. Huayuqiao.org. Retrieved on ...
'' (
daimyo were powerful Japanese magnate A magnate, from the late Latin ''magnas'', a great man, itself from Latin ''magnus'', "great", is a noble or a man in a high social position, by birth, wealth or other qualities. In reference to the Middle Age ...
domain) encouraged the production of crafts to improve their finances, and crafts such as furnishings and ''inro'' beautifully decorated with lacquer, metal or ivory became popular among rich people. The Kaga Domain, which was ruled by the Maeda clan, was especially enthusiastic about promoting crafts, and the area still boasts a reputation that surpasses
Kyoto Kyoto (; Japanese language, Japanese: , ''Kyōto'' ), officially , is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture in Japan. Located in the Kansai region on the island of Honshu, Kyoto forms a part of the Keihanshin, Keihanshin metropolitan area along w ...

Kyoto
in crafts even today.Masayuki Murata. ''明治工芸入門'' p.104. p.120. Me no Me, 2017 For the first time, urban populations had the means and leisure time to support a new mass culture. Their search for enjoyment became known as ''ukiyo'' (the floating world), an ideal world of fashion, popular entertainment, and the discovery of aesthetic qualities in objects and actions of everyday life. This increasing interest in pursuing recreational activities helped to develop an array of new industries, many of which could be found in an area known as Yoshiwara. The district was known for being the center of Edo's developing sense of elegance and refinement. Established in 1617 as the city's shogunate-sanctioned prostitution district, it kept this designation about 250 years. Yoshiwara was home to mostly women who, due to unfortunate circumstances, found themselves working in this secluded environment. Professional female entertainers (''geisha''), music, popular stories, ''Kabuki'' (theater) and ''
bunraku , also known as ''Ningyō jōruri'' (), is a form of traditional Japanese puppet theatre, founded in Osaka in the beginning of the 17th century. Three kinds of performers take part in a ''bunraku'' performance: the ''Ningyōtsukai'' or ''Ningyō ...
'' (puppet theater), poetry, a rich literature, and art, exemplified by beautiful woodblock prints (known as ''ukiyo-e''), were all part of this flowering of culture. Literature also flourished with the talented examples of the playwright Chikamatsu Monzaemon (1653–1724) and the poet, essayist, and travel writer Matsuo Bashō (1644–94). Ukiyo-e is a genre of painting and printmaking that developed in the late 17th century, at first depicting the entertainments of the Yūkaku, pleasure districts of Edo, such as courtesans and kabuki actors. Suzuki Harunobu, Harunobu produced the first full-colour ''nishiki-e'' prints in 1765, a form that has become synonymous to most with ukiyo-e. The genre reached a peak in technique towards the end of the century with the works of such artists as Torii Kiyonaga, Kiyonaga and Utamaro. As the Edo period came to an end a great diversity of genres proliferated: warriors, nature, folklore, and the landscapes of Hokusai and Hiroshige. The genre declined throughout the rest of the century in the face of modernization that saw ukiyo-e as both old-fashioned and laborious to produce compared to Western technologies. Ukiyo-e was a primary part of the wave of Japonisme that swept Western art in the late 19th century. The Edo period was characterized by an unprecedented series of economic developments (despite termination of contact with the outside world) and cultural maturation, especially in terms of theater, music, and other entertainment. For example, a poetic meter for music called kinsei kouta-chō was invented during this time and is still used today in folk songs. Music and theater were influenced by the social gap between the noble and commoner classes, and different arts became more defined as this gap widened. Several different types of kabuki emerged. Some, such as shibaraku, were only available at a certain time of year, while some companies only performed for nobles. Fashion trends, satirization of local news stories, and advertisements were often part of kabuki theater, as well. The most popular sport was sumo. Eating out became popular due to urbanization. Particularly popular among ordinary people were Yatai (food cart), stalls serving fast food such as soba, sushi, tempura, and unagi, tofu restaurants, teahouses and izakaya (Japanese-style pubs). A number of ryotei also opened to serve high-class food. People enjoyed eating at restaurants by buying books that listed restaurant ratings that imitated sumo rankings. Gardening were also popular pastimes for the people of the time. Especially in Edo, residences of daimyo (feudal lords) of each domain were gathered, and many gardeners existed to manage these gardens, which led to the development of horticultural techniques. Among people, cherry blossoms, morning glories, Japanese irises and chrysanthemums were especially popular, and bonsai using deep pots became popular. Not only did people buy plants and appreciate flowers, but they were also enthusiastic about improving the varieties of flowers, so specialized books were published one after another. For example, Matsudaira Sadatomo produced 300 varieties of iris and published a technical book. Traveling became popular among people because of the improvement of roads and post towns. The main destinations were famous temples and Shinto shrines around the country, and eating and drinking at the inns and prostitution were one of the main attractions. And what people admired most was the visit to Ise Grand Shrine and the summit of Mount Fuji, which are considered the most sacred places in Japan. The Ise Grand Shrine in particular has been visited by an enormous number of visitors, and historical documents record that 3.62 million people visited the shrine in 50 days in 1625 and 1.18 million people visited it in three days in 1829 when the grand festival held every 20 years (''Shikinen Sengu'') was held. It was a once-in-a-lifetime event for people living in remote areas, so they set up a joint fund for each village, saved their travel expenses, and went on a group trip. Local residents of Ise Grand Shrine and Mount Fuji used to send specialized advertising personnel to various parts of Japan to solicit trips to local areas to make money from tourism. File:Reading Stand with Mount Yoshino.jpg, Reading stand with Mt. Yoshino, decorated with lacquer of ''maki-e'' technique. 18th century File:Kunimasa - taikan, The actor Ichikawa Ebizo in a shibaraku role, 1796.jpg, Ukiyo-e based on kabuki actors became popular. Ichikawa Danjūrō V in the popular kabuki play ''Shibaraku'', by Utagawa Kunimasa, 1796 File:Hiroshige Bowl of Sushi.jpg, Ukiyo-e depicting ''Sushi'', by Hiroshige File:Ando hirosige miyakawanowatasi.jpg, A boarding place for a ferry on the Miya River (Mie), Miya River, which is crowded with people visiting Ise Grand Shrine. by Hiroshige


Fashion

Clothing acquired a wide variety of designs and decorative techniques, especially for kimono worn by women. The main consumers of kimono were the samurai who used lavish clothing and other material luxuries to signal their place at the top of the social order. Driven by this demand, the textile industry grew and used increasingly sophisticated methods of weaving, dyeing, and embroidery. Over this period, women adopted brighter colours and bolder designs, whereas women's and men's kimono had been very similar. The rise of a Bourgeoisie, merchant class fuelled more demand for elaborate costumes. While ordinary kimono would usually be created by women at home, luxurious silk kimono were designed and created by specialist artists who were usually men. A kind of kimono specific to the military elite is the or "palace court style", which would be worn in the residence of a military leader (a or ). These would have landscape scenes, among which there are other motifs usually referencing classic literature. Samurai men would dress with a more understated design with geometrical designs concentrated around the waist. The , or sleeping kimono, is a thickly wadded form of wearable bedding, usually with simple designs. A style called had rich decoration from the waist down only, and family emblems on the neck and shoulders. These would be worn by women of the merchant class. The kimono of merchant-class women were more subdued than those of the samurai, but still with bold colours and designs representing nature. Red was a popular colour for wealthy women, partly because of its cultural association with youth and passion, and partly because the dyederived from safflowerwas very expensive, so a bright red garment was an ostentatious display of wealth. Indian fabrics, brought to Japan by Netherlands, Dutch importers, were received with enthusiasm and found many uses. Japanese designers started printing designs that were influenced by the Indian patterns. Some garments used fabric imported from Britain or France. Ownership of these exotic textiles signified wealth and taste, but they were worn as undergarments where the designs would not be seen. Inro and netsuke became popular as accessories among men. Originally, inro was a portable case to put a seal or medicine, and netsuke was a fastener attached to the case, and both were practical tools. However, from the middle of the Edo period, products with high artistic value appeared and became popular as male accessories. Especially samurai and wealthy merchants competed to buy inro of high artistic value. At the end of the Edo period, the artistic value of inro further increased and it came to be regarded as an art collection.Masayuki Murata. ''明治工芸入門'' pp.104-106. Me no Me, 2017 Yūji Yamashita. ''明治の細密工芸'' p.80-81. Heibonsha, 2014 File:壽字吉祥文蒔絵印籠 - Inrō with the Characters for Longevity and Good Fortune and the “Seven Lucky Treasures” on Checkerboard Ground.jpg, and , 18th century File:The Four Seasons in the South, by Utagawa Toyokuni, Japan, Edo period, 1700s AD, woodblock print on paper - Tokyo National Museum - Tokyo, Japan - DSC09277.jpg, Ladies fashion in 1700s by Utagawa Toyokuni


End of the shogunate


Decline of the Tokugawa

The end of this period is specifically called the bakumatsu, late Tokugawa shogunate. The cause for the end of this period is controversial but is recounted as the forcing of Japan's opening to the world by Matthew Perry (naval officer), Commodore Matthew Perry of the United States Navy, US Navy, whose Naval fleet, armada (known by Japanese as "Black Ships, the black ships") fired weapons from Edo Bay. Several artificial island, artificial land masses were created to block the range of the armada, and this land remains in what is presently called the Odaiba district. The Tokugawa did not eventually collapse simply because of intrinsic failures. Foreign intrusions helped to precipitate a complex political struggle between the ''Tokugawa shogunate, bakufu'' and a coalition of its critics. The continuity of the anti-''bakufu'' movement in the mid-19th century would finally bring down the Tokugawa. Historians consider that a major contributing factor to the decline of the Tokugawa was "poor management of the central government by the ''shōgun'', which caused the social classes in Japan to fall apart". From the outset, the Tokugawa attempted to restrict families' accumulation of wealth and fostered a "back to the soil" policy, in which the farmer, the ultimate producer, was the ideal person in society. The standard of living for urban and rural dwellers alike grew significantly during the Tokugawa period. Better means of crop production, transport, housing, food, and entertainment were all available, as was more leisure time, at least for urban dwellers. The literacy rate was high for a preindustrial society (by some estimates the literacy rate in the city of Edo was 80 percent), and cultural values were redefined and widely imparted throughout the samurai and '' chōnin'' classes. Despite the reappearance of guilds, economic activities went well beyond the restrictive nature of the guilds, and commerce spread and a money economy developed. Although government heavily restricted the merchants and viewed them as unproductive and usurious members of society, the samurai, who gradually became separated from their rural ties, depended greatly on the merchants and artisans for consumer goods, artistic interests, and loans. In this way, a subtle subversion of the warrior class by the ''chōnin'' took place. A struggle arose in the face of political limitations that the ''shōgun'' imposed on the entrepreneurial class. The government ideal of an agrarian society failed to square with the reality of commercial distribution. A huge government bureaucracy had evolved, which now stagnated because of its discrepancy with a new and evolving social order. Compounding the situation, the population increased significantly during the first half of the Tokugawa period. Although the magnitude and growth rates are uncertain, there were at least 26 million commoners and about four million members of samurai families and their attendants when the first nationwide census was taken in 1721. Drought, followed by crop shortages and starvation, resulted in twenty great famines between 1675 and 1837. During the Tokugawa period, there were 154 famines, of which 21 were widespread and serious. Peasant unrest grew, and by the late 18th century, mass protests over taxes and food shortages had become commonplace. Newly landless families became tenant farmers, while the displaced rural poor moved into the cities. As the fortunes of previously well-to-do families declined, others moved in to accumulate land, and a new, wealthy farming class emerged. Those people who benefited were able to diversify production and to hire laborers, while others were left discontented. Many samurai fell on hard times and were forced into handicraft production and wage jobs for merchants. Although Japan was able to acquire and refine a wide variety of scientific knowledge, the rapid industrialization of the West during the 18th century created a material gap in terms of technologies and armament between Japan and the West, forcing it to abandon its policy of seclusion, which contributed to the end of the Tokugawa regime. Western intrusions were on the increase in the early 19th century. Russian warships and traders encroached on Karafuto (called Sakhalin under Russian and Soviet control) and on the Kuril Islands, the southernmost of which are considered by the Japanese as the northern islands of Hokkaidō. A British warship entered Nagasaki harbour searching for enemy Dutch ships in 1808, and other warships and whalers were seen in Japanese waters with increasing frequency in the 1810s and 1820s. Whalers and trading ships from the United States also arrived on Japan's shores. Although the Japanese made some minor concessions and allowed some landings, they largely attempted to keep all foreigners out, sometimes using force. ''Rangaku'' became crucial not only in understanding the foreign "barbarians" but also in using the knowledge gained from the West to fend them off. By the 1830s, there was a general sense of crisis. Famines and natural disasters hit hard, and unrest led to a peasant uprising against officials and merchants in Osaka in 1837. Although it lasted only a day, the uprising made a dramatic impression. Remedies came in the form of traditional solutions that sought to reform moral decay rather than address institutional problems. The ''shōgun''s advisers pushed for a return to the martial spirit, more restrictions on foreign trade and contacts, suppression of ''rangaku'', censorship of literature, and elimination of "luxury" in the government and samurai class. Others sought the overthrow of the Tokugawa and espoused the political doctrine of ''sonnō jōi'' (revere the emperor, expel the barbarians), which called for unity under imperial rule and opposed foreign intrusions. The ''bakufu'' persevered for the time being amidst growing concerns over Western successes in establishing colonial enclaves in China following the First Opium War of 1839–1842. More reforms were ordered, especially in the economic sector, to strengthen Japan against the Western threat. Japan turned down a demand from the United States, which was greatly expanding its own presence in the Asia-Pacific region, to establish diplomacy, diplomatic relations when James Biddle (commodore), Commodore James Biddle appeared in Edo Bay with two warships in July 1846.


End of seclusion

When Commodore Matthew C. Perry's four-ship squadron appeared in Edo Bay in July 1853, the bakufu was thrown into turmoil. The chairman of the senior councillors, Abe Masahiro (1819–1857), was responsible for dealing with the Americans. Having no precedent to manage this threat to national security, Abe tried to balance the desires of the senior councillors to compromise with the foreigners, of the emperor who wanted to keep the foreigners out, and of the ''daimyo'' who wanted to go to war. Lacking consensus, Abe decided to compromise by accepting Perry's demands for opening Japan to foreign trade while also making military preparations. In March 1854, the Treaty of Peace and Amity (or Treaty of Kanagawa) opened two ports to American ships seeking provisions, guaranteed good treatment to shipwrecked American sailors, and allowed a United States consul to take up residence in Shimoda, Shizuoka, Shimoda, a seaport on the Izu Peninsula, southwest of Edo. The Treaty of Amity and Commerce Between the U.S. and Japan (Harris Treaty), opening still more areas to American trade, was forced on the ''bakufu'' five years later. The resulting damage to the ''bakufu'' was significant. The devalued price for gold in Japan was one immediate, enormous effect. The European and American traders purchased gold for its original price on the world market and then sold it to the Chinese for triple the price. Along with this, cheap goods from these developed nations, like finished cotton, flooded the market forcing many Japanese out of business. Debate over government policy was unusual and had engendered public criticism of the ''bakufu''. In the hope of enlisting the support of new allies, Abe, to the consternation of the ''fudai'', had consulted with the ''shinpan'' and ''tozama daimyo'', further undermining the already weakened ''bakufu''. In the Ansei Reform (1854–1856), Abe then tried to strengthen the regime by ordering Dutch warships and armaments from the Netherlands and building new port defenses. In 1855, a naval training school with Dutch instructors was set up at Nagasaki, and a Western-style military school was established at Edo; by the next year, the government was translating Western books. Opposition to Abe increased within '' fudai'' circles, which opposed opening ''bakufu'' councils to ''tozama daimyo'', and he was replaced in 1855 as chairman of the senior councilors by Hotta Masayoshi (1810–1864). At the head of the dissident faction was Tokugawa Nariaki, who had long embraced a militant loyalty to the emperor along with anti-foreign sentiments, and who had been put in charge of national defense in 1854. The Mito school—based on neo-Confucian and Shinto principles—had as its goal the restoration of the imperial institution, the turning back of the West, and the founding of a world empire under the divine Yamato dynasty. In the final years of the Tokugawas, foreign contacts increased as more concessions were granted. The new treaty with the United States in 1859 allowed more ports to be opened to diplomatic representatives, unsupervised trade at four additional ports, and foreign residences in Osaka and Edo. It also embodied the concept of extraterritoriality (foreigners were subject to the laws of their own countries but not to Japanese law). Hotta lost the support of key ''daimyo'', and when Tokugawa Nariaki opposed the new treaty, Hotta sought imperial sanction. The court officials, perceiving the weakness of the ''bakufu'', rejected Hotta's request and thus suddenly embroiled Kyoto and the emperor in Japan's internal politics for the first time in many centuries. When the ''shōgun'' died without an heir, Nariaki appealed to the court for support of his own son, Tokugawa Yoshinobu (or Keiki), for ''shōgun'', a candidate favored by the ''shinpan'' and ''tozama daimyo''. The ''fudai'' won the power struggle, however, installing Tokugawa Yoshitomi, arresting Nariaki and Keiki, executing Yoshida Shōin (1830–1859), a leading ''sonnō-jōi'' intellectual who had opposed the American treaty and plotted a revolution against the bakufu), and signing treaties with the United States and five other nations, thus ending more than 200 years of exclusion. Recently some scholars have suggested that there were more events that spurred this opening of Japan. Yoshimune, eighth Tokugawa ''shōgun'' from 1716 to 1745, started the first Kyōhō reforms in an attempt to gain more revenue for the government. In 1767, to 1786 Tanuma Okitsugu also initiated some unorthodox economic reforms to expand government income. This led his conservative opponents to attack him and take his position as he was forced from government in disgrace. Similarly, Matsudaira Sadanobu launched the Kansei Reforms in 1787–1793 to stabilize rice prices, cut government costs, and increase revenues. The final economic reform of the Tenpō era of 1841–1843 had similar objectives. Most were ineffective and only worked in some areas. These economic failings would also have been a force in the opening of Japan, as Japanese businessmen desired larger markets. Some scholars also point to internal activism for political change. The Mito school had long been an active force in demanding political changes, such as restoring the powers of the Emperor. This anger can also be seen in the poetry of Matsuo Taseko (a woman who farmed silkworms in the Ina Valley) from Hirata Atsutane's School of National Learning: This inspired many anti-Tokugawa activists as they blamed the bakufu for impoverishing the people and dishonoring the emperor.


Bakumatsu modernization and conflicts

During the last years of the ''Tokugawa shogunate, bakufu'', or ''bakumatsu'', the ''bakufu'' took strong measures to try to reassert its dominance, although its involvement with modernization and foreign powers was to make it a target of anti-Western sentiment throughout the country. The army and the navy were modernized. A naval training school was established in Nagasaki in 1855. Naval students were sent to study in Western naval schools for several years, starting a tradition of foreign-educated future leaders, such as Admiral Enomoto Takeaki, Enomoto. French naval engineers were hired to build naval arsenals, such as Yokosuka and Nagasaki. By the end of the Tokugawa shogunate in 1867, the Japanese navy of the ''shōgun'' already possessed eight Western-style steam warships around the flagship Japanese battleship Kaiyo Maru, ''Kaiyō Maru'', which were used against pro-imperial forces during the Boshin War under the command of Admiral Enomoto Takeaki, Enomoto. A Jules Brunet, French military mission was established to help modernize the armies of the ''bakufu''. Revering the emperor as a symbol of unity, extremists wrought violence and death against the Bakufu and Han authorities and foreigners. Foreign naval retaliation in the Anglo-Satsuma War led to still another concessionary commercial treaty in 1865, but Yoshitomi was unable to enforce the Western treaties. A ''bakufu'' army was defeated when it was sent to crush dissent in the Satsuma Domain, Satsuma and Chōshū Domains in 1866. Finally, in 1867, Emperor Kōmei died and was succeeded by his underaged son Emperor Meiji. Tokugawa Yoshinobu reluctantly became head of the Tokugawa house and ''shōgun''. He tried to reorganize the government under the emperor while preserving the ''shōgun''s leadership role. Fearing the growing power of the Satsuma and Chōshū ''daimyo'', other ''daimyo'' called for returning the ''shōgun''s political power to the emperor and a council of ''daimyo'' chaired by the former Tokugawa ''shōgun''. Yoshinobu accepted the plan in late 1867 and resigned, announcing an "imperial restoration". The Satsuma, Chōshū, and other ''han'' leaders and radical courtiers, however, rebellion, rebelled, seized the Japanese imperial palace, imperial palace, and announced their own restoration on January 3, 1868. Following the Boshin War (1868–1869), the ''bakufu'' was abolished, and Yoshinobu was reduced to the ranks of the common ''daimyo''. Resistance continued in the North throughout 1868, and the ''bakufu'' navy, naval forces under Admiral Enomoto Takeaki continued to hold out for another six months in Hokkaidō, where they founded the short-lived Republic of Ezo.


Events

* 1600:
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.
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Tokugawa Ieyasu
defeats a coalition of ''daimyo'' and establishes hegemony over most of Japan. * 1603: The emperor appoints Tokugawa Ieyasu as ''shōgun'', who moves his government to Edo (Tokyo) and founds the Tokugawa dynasty of ''shōguns''. * 1605: Tokugawa Ieyasu resigns as ''shōgun'' and is succeeded by his son Tokugawa Hidetada. * 1607: Korean Joseon dynasty sends an embassy to
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Tokugawa shogunate
. * 1611: Ryūkyū Islands become a vassal state of Satsuma Domain. * 1614: Tokugawa Ieyasu bans Christianity from Japan. * 1615: Battle of Osaka. Tokugawa Ieyasu besieges Osaka Castle, all opposition from forces loyal to the Toyotomi family. Tokugawa authority becomes paramount throughout Japan. * 1616: Tokugawa Ieyasu dies. * 1620: After Ieyasu dies the peasants and ''chōnins'' increase in population * 1623: Tokugawa Iemitsu becomes the third ''shōgun''. * 1633: Iemitsu forbids travelling abroad and reading foreign books. * 1635: Iemitsu formalizes the system of mandatory alternative residence ('' sankin-kōtai'') in Edo. * 1637:
Shimabara Rebellion The , also known as the or , was an uprising Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order. It refers to the open resistance against the orders of an established authority. A rebellion originates from a sentiment ...
(1637–38) mounted by overtaxed peasants. * 1638: Iemitsu forbids ship building. * 1639: Edicts establishing National Seclusion (Sakoku Rei) are completed. All Westerners except the Dutch people, Dutch are prohibited from entering Japan. * 1641: Iemitsu bans all foreigners, except Chinese and Dutch, from Japan. * 1657: The Great Fire of Meireki destroys most of the city of Edo. * 1700: Kabuki and ukiyo-e become popular. * 1707: Hōei eruption of Mount Fuji, Mount Fuji erupts. * 1774: The anatomical text ''Kaitai Shinsho'', the first complete Japanese translation of a Western medical work, is published by Sugita Genpaku and Maeno Ryotaku. * 1787:
Matsudaira Sadanobu was a Japanese ''daimyō were powerful Japanese magnates, feudal lords who, from the 10th century to the early Meiji period in the middle 19th century, ruled most of Japan from their vast, hereditary land holdings. They were subordinate to th ...

Matsudaira Sadanobu
becomes senior shogunal councillor and institutes the Kansei Reforms. * 1792: Russian envoy Adam Laxman arrives at Nemuro in eastern Ezo (now Hokkaidō). * 1804: Russian envoy Nikolai Rezanov reaches
Nagasaki is the capital and the largest city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. ...

Nagasaki
and unsuccessfully seeks the establishment of trade relations with Japan. * 1837: Rebellion of Ōshio Heihachirō. * 1841: Tenpō Reforms. * 1853: US Navy Matthew C. Perry, Commodore Matthew C. Perry's four-ship squadron appeared in Edo Bay (Tokyo Bay). * 1854: The US forces Japan to sign a trade agreement ("Convention of Kanagawa, Treaty of Kanagawa") which reopens Japan to foreigners after two centuries. * 1855: Russia and Japan establish diplomatic relations. * 1860: Sakuradamon Incident (1860), Sakuradamon Incident. * 1864: British, French, Dutch and American warships bombard Shimonoseki and open more Japanese ports for foreigners. * 1868: Tokugawa Yoshinobu resigns, the Tokugawa dynasty ends, and the emperor (or "mikado") Meiji Emperor, Meiji is restored, but with capital in Edo/Tokyo and divine attributes.


Era names

The Japanese era name, imperial eras proclaimed during the Edo period were:


In popular culture

The Edo period is the setting of many works of popular culture. These include novels, comics, stageplays, films, television shows, animated works, and manga. There is a cultural theme park called Edo Wonderland Nikko Edomura in the Kinugawa Onsen area of Nikkō, Tochigi, north of Tokyo.


See also

* Criminal punishment in Edo-period Japan * Edomoji, Japanese lettering styles invented in the Edo period * ''Ee ja nai ka'', an outbreak of mass hysteria at the end of the Edo period * Gonin Gumi, groups of five households that were held collectively responsible during the Edo period * Jidaigeki, Japanese period dramas which are usually set in the Edo period * Jitte (weapon), law enforcement weapon unique to the period * Karakuri puppet, Karakuri ningyō, Japanese automatons


References


Sources


Japan
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Further reading

* * * *


External links


Japanese Maps of the Tokugawa Era
– A rich selection of rare Japanese maps from the UBC Library Digital Collections

– Japan: Memoirs of a Secret Empire {{DEFAULTSORT:Edo Period Edo period, 1603 establishments in Japan 17th century in Japan 1868 disestablishments in Japan 18th century in Japan 19th century in Japan Feudal Japan Japanese eras States and territories disestablished in 1868 States and territories established in 1603