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The Drava or Drave''Utrata Fachwörterbuch: Geographie - Englisch-Deutsch/Deutsch-Englisch''
by Jürgen Utrata (2014). Retrieved 10 Apr 2014.
(german: Drau, ; sl, Drava ; hr, Drava ; hu, Dráva ; it, Drava ) is a river in southern Central Europe. With a length of ,Joint Drava River Corridor Analysis Report
27 November 2014
including the Sextner Bach source, it is the fifth or sixth longest tributary of the Danube, after the Tisza, Sava, Prut, Mureș (river), Mureș and perhaps Siret (river), Siret. Its source is near the market town of Innichen (San Candido), in the Puster Valley of South Tyrol, Italy. The river flows eastwards through East Tirol and Carinthia in Austria into the Styria (Slovenia), Styria region of Slovenia. It then turns southeast, passing through Croatia and, after merging with its main tributary Mur (river), Mur, forms most of the border between Croatia and Hungary, before it joins the Danube near Osijek.


Name

In ancient times the river was known as ''Dravus'' or ''Draus'' in Latin, and in Greek language, Greek as Δράος and Δράβος. Medieval attestations of the name include ''Dravis'' ( AD 670), ''Drauva'' (in 799), ''Drauus'' (in 811), ''Trauum'' (in 1091), and ''Trah'' (in 1136). The name is pre-Roman and pre-Celtic, but probably of Indo-European origin, from the root ''*dreu̯-'' 'flow'. The river gives its name to the dravite species of tourmaline.


Geography

The Drava (along with one of its tributaries, the Slizza) and the Spöl are the only two rivers originating in Italy that belong to the Danube drainage basin. Its main left tributaries (from the north) are the Isel (river), Isel (contributes 39 m³/s), the Möll (25 m³/s), the (22 m³/s), the Gurk (river), Gurk (30 m³/s) and the Lavant (river), Lavant (12 m³/s) in Austria, and the Mur (river), Mur (166 m³/s) near Legrad at the Croatian–Hungarian border. Its main right tributaries (from the south) are the Gail (river), Gail (45 m³/s) in Austria, the Meža (12 m³/s) and Dravinja (11 m³/s) in Slovenia, and the Bednja (river), Bednja (? m³/s) in Croatia. Mean discharge is for the last station in the country mentioned in the source.


Course

The Drava sources are located at the drainage divide between the market town of Innichen and neighbouring Toblach (Dobbiaco) in the west, where the Rienz River rises, a tributary of the Adige (Etsch). At Innichen itself the 16+ km , originating near the Sextener Rotwand, joins the ~2 km long source creek. The river than flows eastwards and after 8 kilometres crosses into East Tyrol in Austria. At Lienz it flows into the Isel (river), Isel, sourced from the glaciers of the Venediger Group, Venediger and Glockner Groups. The Isel (average discharge 39 m³/s) is almost three times larger than the Drava (14 m³/s) where they meet and, starting from the source of its tributary under the Rötspitze, the Isel (ca. 64 km) is also longer than the combined Drava and Sextner Bach (ca. 60 km) to that point. The river then flows east into Carinthia at Oberdrauburg. The river separates the Kreuzeck group, Kreuzeck range of the High Tauern in the north and the Gailtal Alps in the south, passes the Sachsenburg narrows and the site of the ancient city of Teurnia, before it reaches the town of Spittal an der Drau. Downstream of Villach, it runs along the northern slopes of the Karawanks to Ferlach and Lavamünd. The Drava passes into Slovenia at Gorče near Dravograd, from where it runs for via Vuzenica, Muta, Slovenia, Muta, Ruse, Slovenia, Ruše, and Maribor to Ptuj and the border with Croatia at Ormož. The river then passes Varaždin, Belišće and Osijek in Croatia, and Barcs in Hungary. It is navigable for about from Čađavica, Croatia, Čađavica in Croatia to its mouth. The hydrological parameters of Drava are regularly monitored in Croatia at Botovo, Croatia, Botovo, Terezino Polje, Donji Miholjac and Osijek.


Hydroelectric power plants

Currently, there are 22 Hydroelectricity, hydroelectric power plants on the Drava. The power plants are listed beginning at the headwaters: The Drava River is one of the most exploited rivers in the world in terms of hydropower, with almost 100% of its water potential energy being exploited. As the region of the river is a place of exceptional biodiversity, this raises several ecological concerns, together with other forms of exploitation such as use of river deposits.


References


Bibliography

*


External links


DrauDrava - old river and new sounds
* Condition of Drava in various locations in Slovenia:
Črneče
- graphs, in the following order, of water level, flow and temperature data for the past 30 days (taken in Črneče by Slovenian Environment Agency, ARSO)
Ptuj
- graphs, in the following order, of water level, flow and temperature data for the past 30 days (taken in Ptuj by Slovenian Environment Agency, ARSO)
Borl
- graphs, in the following order, of water level, flow and temperature data for the past 30 days (taken in Borl by Slovenian Environment Agency, ARSO) {{Authority control Drava, Drava basin, Rivers of Croatia Border rivers Rivers of Styria (Slovenia) Rivers of Hungary Rivers of Italy Rivers of South Tyrol Rivers of Tyrol (state) Rivers of Carinthia (state) Tributaries of the Danube International rivers of Europe Croatia–Hungary border Croatia–Slovenia border Austria–Slovenia border Natura 2000 in Slovenia Rivers of Austria