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Dorothy Mary Crowfoot Hodgkin (née Crowfoot; 12 May 1910 – 29 July 1994) was a Nobel Prize-winning British who advanced the technique of to determine the structure of biomolecules, which became essential for structural biology. Among her most influential discoveries are the confirmation of the structure of as previously surmised by Edward Abraham and Ernst Boris Chain; and the structure of vitamin B12, for which in 1964 she became the third woman to win the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Hodgkin also elucidated the structure of in 1969 after 35 years of work. Hodgkin used the name "Dorothy Crowfoot" until twelve years after marrying Thomas Lionel Hodgkin, when she began using "Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin". Hodgkin is referred to as "Dorothy Hodgkin" by the Royal Society (when referring to its sponsorship of the Dorothy Hodgkin fellowship), and by Somerville College. The National Archives of the United Kingdom refer to her as "Dorothy Mary Crowfoot Hodgkin".


Early life

Dorothy Mary Crowfoot was born in , , the oldest of the four daughters whose parent's worked in North Africa and the middle East in the colonial administration and later as archaeologists. Her parents were John Winter Crowfoot (1873–1959), working for the country's Ministry of Education, and his wife Grace Mary (née Hood) (1877–1957), known to friends and family as Molly. The family lived in Cairo during the winter months, returning to England each year to avoid the hotter part of the season in Egypt. In 1910, Hodgkins was raised in England and in the Colonial North America. In 1914, Hodgkin's mother left Hodgkin (age 4) and her two younger sisters Joan (age 2) and Elisabeth (age 7 months) with their Crowfoot grandparents near , and returned to her husband in Egypt. They spend much of their childhood apart from their parents. Yet, they were supportive from a far, her mother would encourage Dorothy to peruse the passion interest in crystals when she was first displayed at the age of 10. In 1923, Dorothy and her sister would study pebbles that they've found nearby streams using portable mineral analysis kit. Her Hodgkin's parents then moved south to Sudan where, until 1926, her father was in charge of education and archaeology. Her mother's four brothers were killed in World War I and as a result she became an ardent supporter of the new League of Nations. In 1921 Hodgkin's father entered her in the Sir John Leman Grammar School in Beccles,
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. It is separa ...

England
, where she was one of two girls allowed to study chemistry. Only once, when she was 13, did she make an extended visit to her parents, then living in , the capital of Sudan, where her father was Principal of Gordon College. When she was 14, her distant cousin, the chemist Charles Harington (later Sir Charles), recommended D. S. Parsons' ''Fundamentals of Biochemistry''. Resuming the pre-war pattern, her parents lived and worked abroad for part of the year, returning to England and their children for several months every summer. In 1926, on his retirement from the Sudan Civil Service, her father took the post of Director of the British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem, where he and her mother remained until 1935. In 1928, Hodgkin joined her parents at the archaeological site of Jerash, in present-day Jordan, where she documented the patterns of mosaics from multiple Byzantine-era Churches dated to the 5th-6th centuries. She finished the drawings as she started her studies in Oxford, while also conducting chemical analyses of glass tesserae from the same site. Her attention to detail through the creation of precise scale drawings of these mosaics mirrors her subsequent work in recognising and documenting patterns in chemistry. Hodgkin developed a passion for chemistry from a young age, and her mother, a proficient botanist, fostered her interest in the sciences. On her 16th birthday her mother gave her a book on which helped her decide her future. She was further encouraged by the chemist A.F. Joseph, a family friend who also worked in Sudan. Her state school education did not include
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally a dialect spoken in the lower Tiber area (then known as Latium) around present-day Rome, but through ...

Latin
, then required for entrance to Oxbridge. Her Leman School headmaster gave her personal tuition in the subject, enabling her to pass the University of Oxford entrance examination. When Hodgkin was asked in later life to name her childhood heroes, she named three women: first and foremost, her mother, Molly; the medical missionary ; and Margery Fry, the Principal of Somerville College.


Higher education

Dorothy was always interested in chemistry since she was 10 years old. In 1928 at age 18 she entered Somerville College, Oxford, where she studied chemistry. She graduated in 1932 with a first-class honours degree, the third woman at this institution to achieve this distinction. In the autumn of that year, she began studying for a at , under the supervision of John Desmond Bernal. It was then that she became aware of the potential of X-ray crystallography to determine the structure of
protein Proteins are large biomolecules and macromolecules that comprise one or more long chains of amino acid residue (biochemistry), residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including Enzyme catalysis, catalysing metabo ...

protein
s. She was working with Bernal on the technique's first application to the analysis of a biological substance,
pepsin Pepsin is an endopeptidase that breaks down protein Proteins are large biomolecules and macromolecules that comprise one or more long chains of amino acid residue (biochemistry), residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions with ...

pepsin
. The pepsin experiment is largely credited to Hodgkin, however she always made it clear that it was Bernal who initially took the photographs and gave her additional key insights. Her PhD was awarded in 1937 for research on X-ray crystallography and the chemistry of sterols. When her schooling ended, she decided that chemistry is what she wanted to pursue.


Career and discoveries

In 1933 Hodgkin was awarded a research fellowship by Somerville College, and in 1934, she moved back to Oxford. She started teaching chemistry with her own lab equipment. The college appointed her its first fellow and tutor in chemistry in 1936, a post which she held until 1977. In the 1940s, one of her students was Margaret Roberts (later ) who, while Prime Minister, hung a portrait of Hodgkin in her office at out of respect for her former teacher. Hodgkin was, however a life-long Labour Party supporter. In April 1953, together with Sydney Brenner, Jack Dunitz, Leslie Orgel, and Beryl M. Oughton, Hodgkin was one of the first people to travel from Oxford to Cambridge to see the model of the double helix structure of , constructed by and James Watson, which was based on data and technique acquired by Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin. According to the late Dr Beryl Oughton (married name, Rimmer), they drove to Cambridge in two cars after Hodgkin announced that they were off to see the model of the structure of DNA. Hodgkin became a reader at Oxford in 1957 and she was given a fully modern laboratory the following year. In 1960, Hodgkin was appointed the Royal Society's Wolfson Research Professor, a position she held until 1970. This provided her salary, research expenses and research assistance to continue her work at the University of Oxford. She was a fellow of Wolfson College, Oxford, from 1977 to 1983. Crowfoot has established X-ray laboratory in a corner of the oxford university museum of Natural History which the museum is known for it's dinosaur skeletons and mineral collections which made her interested on working on taking X-ray photographs of insulin.


Steroid structure

Hodgkin was particularly noted for discovering three-dimensional biomolecular structures. In 1945, working with C.H. (Harry) Carlisle, she published the first such structure of a
steroid A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration. Steroids have two principal biological functions: as important components of cell membranes that alter membrane fluidity; and a ...

steroid
, cholesteryl iodide (having worked with cholesteryls since the days of her doctoral studies).


Penicillin structure

In 1945, Hodgkin and her colleagues, including biochemist Barbara Low, solved the structure of , demonstrating, contrary to scientific opinion at the time, that it contains a
β-lactam A beta-lactam (β-lactam) ring is a four-membered lactam. A ''lactam'' is a cyclic amide, and ''beta''-lactams are named so because the nitrogen atom is attached to the Β carbon, β-carbon atom relative to the carbonyl. The simplest β-lactam p ...

β-lactam
ring. The work was not published until 1949.


Vitamin B12 structure

In 1948, Hodgkin first encountered , and created new crystals. Vitamin B12 had first been discovered at Merck earlier that year. It had a structure at the time that was almost completely unknown, and when Hodgkin discovered it contained cobalt, she realized the structure actualization could be determined by X-ray crystallography analysis. The large size of the molecule, and the fact that the atoms were largely unaccounted for—aside from cobalt—posed a challenge in structure analysis that had not been previously explored. From these crystals, she deduced the presence of a ring structure because the crystals were
pleochroic Pleochroism (from Greek wikt:πλείων#Ancient Greek, πλέων, ''pléōn'', "more" and wikt:χρώμα#Ancient Greek, χρῶμα, ''khrôma'', "color") is an optical phenomenon in which a substance has different colors when observed at d ...
, a finding which she later confirmed using X-ray crystallography. The B12 study published by Hodgkin was described by
Lawrence Bragg Sir William Lawrence Bragg, (31 March 1890 – 1 July 1971) was an Australian-born British physicist and X-ray crystallography, X-ray crystallographer, discoverer (1912) of Bragg's law, Bragg's law of X-ray diffraction, which is basic for t ...
as being as significant "as breaking the sound barrier". Scientists from Merck had previously crystallised B12, but had published only refractive indices of the substance. The final structure of B12, for which Hodgkin was later awarded the Nobel Prize, was published in 1955.


Insulin structure

Insulin Insulin (, from Latin ''insula'', 'island') is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets encoded in humans by the ''INS'' gene. It is considered to be the main Anabolism, anabolic hormone of the body. It regulates the m ...

Insulin
was one of Hodgkin's most extraordinary research projects. It began in 1934 when she was offered a small sample of crystalline insulin by Robert Robinson. The
hormone A hormone (from the Ancient Greek, Greek participle , "setting in motion") is a class of cell signaling, signaling molecules in multicellular organisms that are sent to distant organs by complex biological processes to regulate physiology and beh ...

hormone
captured her imagination because of the intricate and wide-ranging effect it has in the body. However, at this stage X-ray crystallography had not been developed far enough to cope with the complexity of the insulin molecule. She and others spent many years improving the technique. It took 35 years after taking her first photograph of an insulin crystal for X-ray crystallography and computing techniques to be able to tackle larger and more complex molecules like insulin. Hodgkin's dream of unlocking the structure of insulin was put on hold until 1969 when she was finally able to work with her team of young, international scientists to uncover the structure for the first time. Hodgkin's work with insulin was instrumental in paving the way for insulin to be mass-produced and used on a large scale for treatment of both type one and type two diabetes. She went on to cooperate with other laboratories active in insulin research, giving advice, and traveling the world giving talks about insulin and its importance for the future of
diabetes Diabetes, also known as diabetes mellitus, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by a high blood sugar level ( hyperglycemia) over a prolonged period of time. Symptoms often include frequent urination, increased thirst and increase ...

diabetes
. Solving the structure of insulin had two important implications for the treatment of diabetes, both making mass production of insulin possible and allowing scientists to alter the structure of insulin to create even better drug options for patients going forward.


Personal life


Personality

Hodgkins' soft-spoken, gentle and modest demeanor hid a steely determination to achieve her ends, whatever obstacles might stand in her way. She inspired devotion in her students and colleagues, even the most junior of whom knew her simply as Dorothy. Her structural studies of biologically important
molecule A molecule is a group of two or more atoms held together by attractive forces known as chemical bonds; depending on context, the term may or may not include ions which satisfy this criterion. In quantum physics, organic chemistry, and bioche ...

molecule
s set standards for a field that was very much in development during her work life. She made fundamental contributions to the understanding of how these molecules carry out their tasks in living system.


Mentor

Hodgkin's mentor
Professor Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an Academy, academic rank at university, universities and other post-secondary education and research institutions in most countries. Literally, ''professor'' derives from Latin as a "person who pr ...

Professor
John Desmond Bernal greatly influenced her life: scientifically, politically, and personally. Bernal was a key scientific adviser to the UK government during the Second World War. He was also an open and vocal member of the
Communist Party A communist party is a political party that seeks to realize the Socioeconomics, socio-economic goals of communism. The term ''communist party'' was popularized by the title of ''The Communist Manifesto, The Manifesto of the Communist Party'' (1 ...
and a faithful supporter of the
Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a List of former transcontinental countries#Since 1700, transcontinental country that spanned much of Eurasia from 1922 to 1991. A flagship communist state, ...
regime until its invasion of Hungary in 1956. He is a chemist who believed in equal opportunity for women. He was able to find physical sciences on hiring women at the time. In his laborarty, Hodgkins extended work that he began on biological molecules including sterols. She helped him to make the first X-ray diffraction studies of pepsin and crystalline protein. Hodgkin always referred to him as "Sage"; they were lovers before she met Thomas Hodgkin. The marriages of both Dorothy and Bernal were unconventional by the standards of the present and of those days.


Health

In 1934, at the age of 24, Dorothy began experiencing pain in her hands causing them to be swollen and distorted. After an infection after the birth of her first child, a visit from the doctor broke the news on how she developed a diagnosis of chronic
rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects synovial joint, joints. It typically results in warm, swollen, and painful joints. Pain and stiffness often worsen following rest. Most commonly, the wrist and ...

rheumatoid arthritis
which would become progressively worse and crippling over time, with deformities in both her hands and feet experiencing pain for a period of time. In her last years, Hodgkin spent a great deal of time in a wheelchair and remained scientifically active in her career.


Marriage and family

In 1937, Dorothy Crowfoot married Thomas Lionel Hodgkin, an historian's son, who was then teaching an adult-education class in mining and industrial communities in the north of England after he resigned from the
Colonial Office The Colonial Office was a Ministry (government department), government department of the Kingdom of Great Britain and later of the Departments of the United Kingdom Government, United Kingdom, first created to deal with the colonial affairs of ...
. He was an intermittent member of the
Communist Party A communist party is a political party that seeks to realize the Socioeconomics, socio-economic goals of communism. The term ''communist party'' was popularized by the title of ''The Communist Manifesto, The Manifesto of the Communist Party'' (1 ...
and later wrote several major works on African politics and history, becoming a well-known lecturer at
Balliol College Balliol College () is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. One of University of Oxford, Oxford's oldest colleges, it was founded around 1263 by John I de Balliol, a landowner from Barnard Castle in County Durh ...
in Oxford.Michael Wolfers
‘Hodgkin, Thomas Lionel (1910–1982)’
, ''
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography The ''Dictionary of National Biography'' (''DNB'') is a standard work of reference on notable figures from History of the British Isles, British history, published since 1885. The updated ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'' (''ODNB'') ...
'', Oxford University Press, September 2004; online edn, January 2008, accessed 15 January 2010
As his health was too poor for active military service, he continued working throughout World war 2, returning to Oxford on the weekends, where his wife remained working on . The couple had three children: Luke (b. 1938. d. Oct. 2020), Elizabeth (b. 1941) and Toby (b. 1946). Their children were talented and smart, just like their parents. The oldest son, Luke, became a mathematician. Their daughter, Elizabeth, followed her father's career, while the younger son, Toby, studied botany and agriculture. Overall, Thomas Hodgkin spent extended periods of time in West Africa, where he was enthusiastic supporter and chronicler of the emerging postcolonial states.


Aliases

Hodgkin published as "Dorothy Crowfoot" until 1949, when she was persuaded by Hans Clarke's secretary to use her married name on a chapter she contributed to ''The Chemistry of Penicillin''. By then she had been married for 12 years, given birth to three children and been elected a
Fellow of the Royal Society Fellowship of the Royal Society (FRS, ForMemRS and HonFRS) is an award granted by the judges of the Royal Society of London to individuals who have made a "substantial contribution to the improvement of natural science, natural knowledge, incl ...
(FRS). Thereafter she would publish as "Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin", and this was the name used by the
Nobel Foundation The Nobel Foundation ( sv, Nobelstiftelsen) is a private institution founded on 29 June 1900 to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes. The foundation is based on the last will of Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite. It ...
in its award to her and the biography it included among other Nobel Prize recipients; it is also what the
Science History Institute The Science History Institute is an institution that preserves and promotes understanding of the history of science. Located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, it includes a library, museum, archive, research center and conference center. It was fo ...
calls her. For simplicity's sake, Hodgkin is referred to as "Dorothy Hodgkin" by the Royal Society, when referring to its sponsorship of the Dorothy Hodgkin fellowship, and by Somerville College, after it inaugurated the annual lectures in her honour. The National Archives of the United Kingdom refer to her as "Dorothy Mary Crowfoot Hodgkin"; on a variety of plaques commemorating places where she worked or lived, e.g. 94 Woodstock Road, Oxford, she is "Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin".


Contacts with scientists abroad

Between the 1950s and the 1970s Hodgkin established and maintained lasting contacts with scientists in her field abroad—at the Institute of Crystallography in
Moscow Moscow ( , US chiefly ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p=mɐskˈva, a=Москва.ogg) is the capital and largest city of Russia Russia (, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a List of transcontinental countries, transco ...
; in India; and with the Chinese group working in
Beijing } Beijing ( ; ; ), alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the capital of the People's Republic of China. It is the center of power and development of the country. Beijing is the world's most populous national capital city, with over 21 ...
and
Shanghai Shanghai (; , , Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ) is one of the four direct-administered municipalities of the People's Republic of China (PRC). The city is located on the southern estuary of the Yangtze River, with the Huangpu River flow ...
on the structure of insulin. Her first visit to China was in 1959. Over the next quarter century she travelled there seven more times, the last visit a year before her death. Particularly memorable was the visit in 1971 after the Chinese group themselves independently solved the structure of insulin, later than Hodgkin's team but to a higher resolution. During the subsequent three years, 1972–1975, when she was President of the
International Union of Crystallography The International Union of Crystallography (IUCr) is an organisation devoted to the international promotion and coordination of the science of crystallography Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atom ...
she was unable to persuade the Chinese authorities, however, to permit the country's scientists to become members of the Union and attend its meetings. Her relations with a supposed scientist in another "People's Democracy" had less happy results. At the age of 73, Hodgkin wrote a foreword to the English edition of ''Stereospecific Polymerization of Isoprene'', published by
Robert Maxwell Ian Robert Maxwell (born Ján Ludvík Hyman Binyamin Hoch; 10 June 1923 – 5 November 1991) was a Czechoslovak-born British media proprietor, Parliament of the United Kingdom, member of parliament (MP), suspected spy, and fraudster. Early i ...
as the work of Elena Ceausescu, wife of Romania's communist dictator. Hodgkin wrote of the author's "outstanding achievements" and "impressive" career. Following the overthrow of Ceausescu during the
Romanian Revolution of 1989 The Romanian Revolution ( ro, Revoluția Română), also known as the Christmas Revolution ( ro, Revoluția de Crăciun), was a period of violent civil unrest in Romania during December 1989 as a part of the Revolutions of 1989 that occurred i ...
, it was revealed that Elena Ceausescu had neither finished secondary school nor attended university. Her scientific credentials were a
hoax A hoax is a widely publicized falsehood so fashioned as to invite reflexive, unthinking acceptance by the greatest number of people of the most varied social identities and of the highest possible social pretensions to gull its victims into pu ...
, and the publication in question was written for her by a team of scientists to obtain a fraudulent doctorate.


Political views and activities

Because of Hodgkin's political activities, and her husband's association with the Communist Party, she was banned from entering the US in 1953 and subsequently not allowed to visit the country except by
CIA The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA ), known informally as the Agency and historically as the Company, is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the federal government of the United States The federal government of the United ...
waiver. In 1961 Thomas became an advisor to
Kwame Nkrumah Kwame Nkrumah (born 21 September 190927 April 1972) was a Ghana, Ghanaian politician, political theorist, and revolutionary. He was the first Prime Minister of Ghana, Prime Minister and President of Ghana, having led the Gold Coast (British co ...
,
President of Ghana The president of the Republic of Ghana is the elected head of state and head of government of Ghana, as well as commander-in-chief of the Ghana Armed Forces. The current president of Ghana is Nana Akufo-Addo, who won the 2020 Ghanaian general e ...
, a country he visited for extended periods before Nkrumah's ouster in 1966. Hodgkin was in Ghana with her husband when they received the news that she had been awarded the Nobel Prize. She acquired from her mother, Molly, a concern about
social inequalities Social inequality occurs when resources in a given society are distributed unevenly, typically through Norm (social), norms of allocation, that engender specific patterns along lines of socially defined categories of persons. It posses and cr ...
and a determination to do what she could to prevent armed conflict. Dorothy became particularly concerned about the threat of nuclear war. In 1976, she became president of the Pugwash Conference and served longer than any who preceded or succeeded her in this post. She stepped down in 1988, the year after the
Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF Treaty, formally the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Elimination of Their Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles; / ДРСМ ...
imposed "a global ban on short- and long-range nuclear weapons systems, as well as an intrusive verification regime". She accepted the
Lenin Peace Prize The International Lenin Peace Prize (russian: международная Ленинская премия мира, ''mezhdunarodnaya Leninskaya premiya mira)'' was a Soviet Union award named in honor of Vladimir Lenin. It was awarded by a pane ...
from the Soviet government in 1987 in recognition of her work for peace and disarmament.


Disability and death

Due to distance, Hodgkin decided not to attend the 1987 Congress of the International Union of Crystallography in Australia. However, despite increasing frailty, she astounded close friends and family by going to Beijing for the 1993 Congress, where she was welcomed by all. She died in July 1994 after a stroke, at her husband's home in the village of Ilmington, near
Shipston-on-Stour Shipston-on-Stour is a town and civil parish in the Stratford-on-Avon District in Warwickshire, England. It is located on the banks of the River Stour, Warwickshire, River Stour, points of the compass, south-southeast of Stratford-upon-Avon, 10 ...
,
Warwickshire Warwickshire (; abbreviated Warks) is a Counties of England, county in the West Midlands (region), West Midlands region of England. The county town is Warwick, and the largest town is Nuneaton. The county is famous for being the birthplace of W ...
.


Portraits

The
National Portrait Gallery, London The National Portrait Gallery (NPG) is an art gallery An art gallery is a room or a building in which visual art is displayed. In Western cultures from the mid-15th century, a gallery was any long, narrow covered passage along a wall, first ...
lists 17 portraits of Dorothy Hodgkin including an oil painting of her at her desk by
Maggi Hambling Margaret ("Maggi") J. Hambling (born 23 October 1945) is a British artist. Though principally a painter her best-known public works are the sculptures '' A Conversation with Oscar Wilde'' and '' A Sculpture for Mary Wollstonecraft'' in London, ...
and a photograph portrait by David Montgomery.
Graham Sutherland Graham Vivian Sutherland (24 August 1903 – 17 February 1980) was a prolific English artist. Notable for his paintings of abstract landscapes and for his portraits of public figures, Sutherland also worked in other media, including printmaking ...
made preliminary sketches for a portrait of Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin in 1978. One sketch is in the collection of the
Science History Institute The Science History Institute is an institution that preserves and promotes understanding of the history of science. Located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, it includes a library, museum, archive, research center and conference center. It was fo ...
and another at the Royal Society in London. The portrait was never finished. A portrait of Dorothy Hodgkin by Bryan Organ was commissioned by private subscription to become part of the collection of the Royal Society. Accepted by the president of the society on 25 March 1982, it was the first portrait of a woman Fellow to be included in the Society's collection.


Honours and awards


While Living

* By 1945 she had succeeded, describing the arrangement of its
atom Every atom is composed of a atomic nucleus, nucleus and one or more electrons bound to the nucleus. The nucleus is made of one or more protons and a number of neutrons. Only the most common variety of hydrogen has no neutrons. Every solid, l ...
in three dimensions. *Hodgkin won the 1964 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, and is the only British woman scientist to have been awarded a Nobel Prize in any of the three sciences it recognizes. *In 1965 she was appointed to the
Order of Merit The Order of Merit (french: link=no, Ordre du Mérite) is an order of merit for the Commonwealth realms, recognising distinguished service in the armed forces, science, art, literature, or for the promotion of culture. Established in 1902 by Ki ...
. She was the second woman to receive the
order of Merit The Order of Merit (french: link=no, Ordre du Mérite) is an order of merit for the Commonwealth realms, recognising distinguished service in the armed forces, science, art, literature, or for the promotion of culture. Established in 1902 by Ki ...
out of all other women in the science industry life. *She was the first woman to receive the prestigious
Copley Medal The Copley Medal is an award given by the Royal Society, for "outstanding achievements in research in any branch of science". It alternates between the physical sciences or mathematics and the biological sciences. Given every year, the medal is t ...
. *In 1947, she was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 1947 and
EMBO Membership Membership of the European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) is an award granted by the European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) in recognition of "research excellence and the outstanding achievements made by a life scientist". , 88 EMB ...
in 1970., Hodgkin was
Chancellor Chancellor ( la, cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations. The original chancellors were the of Roman courts of justice—ushers, who sat at the or lattice work screens of a basilica or law cou ...
of the
University of Bristol The University of Bristol is a Red brick university, red brick Russell Group research university in Bristol, England. It received its royal charter in 1909, although it can trace its roots to a Society of Merchant Venturers, Merchant Venturers' sc ...
from 1970 to 1988 which she was given an honorary Degree of Science from University of Bath in 1978. *In 1958, she was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the
American Academy of Arts and Sciences The American Academy of Arts and Sciences (abbreviation: AAA&S) is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is ...
. *In 1966, she was awarded the Iota Sigma Pi National Honorary Member for her significant contribution. *She became a foreign member of the
USSR Academy of Sciences The Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union was the highest scientific institution of the Soviet Union from 1925 to 1991, uniting the country's leading scientists, subordinated directly to the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union (until 1946 ...
in the 1970s. *In 1982 she received the Lomonosov Medal of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. *In 1987 she accepted the
Lenin Peace Prize The International Lenin Peace Prize (russian: международная Ленинская премия мира, ''mezhdunarodnaya Leninskaya premiya mira)'' was a Soviet Union award named in honor of Vladimir Lenin. It was awarded by a pane ...
from the government of
Mikhail Gorbachev Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (2 March 1931 – 30 August 2022) was a Soviet politician who served as the 8th and final leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 to dissolution of the Soviet Union, the country's dissolution in 1991. He served a ...
and the first woman to receive the copley medal from winning from
Lenin Peace Prize The International Lenin Peace Prize (russian: международная Ленинская премия мира, ''mezhdunarodnaya Leninskaya premiya mira)'' was a Soviet Union award named in honor of Vladimir Lenin. It was awarded by a pane ...
. *An asteroid (5422) discovered on 23 December 1982 by L.G. Karachkina (at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, M.P.C. 22509, in the USSR) in 1993 was named "Hodgkin" in her honour. *In 1983, Hodgkin received the
Austrian Decoration for Science and Art The Austrian Decoration for Science and Art (german: Österreichisches Ehrenzeichen für Wissenschaft und Kunst) is a state decoration of the Republic of Austria and forms part of the Orders, decorations, and medals of Austria, Austrian national ...
.


Legacy

*British commemorative stamps - Hodgkin was one of five 'Women of Achievement' selected for a set issued in August 1996. The others were Marea Hartman (sports administrator),
Margot Fonteyn Dame Margaret Evelyn de Arias DBE (''née'' Hookham; 18 May 191921 February 1991), known by the stage name Margot Fonteyn, was an English ballerina A ballet dancer ( it, ballerina fem.; ''ballerino'' masc.) is a person who practices ...
(ballerina/choreographer),
Elisabeth Frink Dame Elisabeth Jean Frink (14 November 1930 – 18 April 1993) was an English sculptor and printmaker. Her The Times, ''Times'' obituary noted the three essential themes in her work as "the nature of Man; the 'horseness' of horses; and the ...
(sculptor) &
Daphne du Maurier Dame Daphne du Maurier, Lady Browning, (; 13 May 1907 – 19 April 1989) was an English novelist, biographer and playwright. Her parents were actor-manager Gerald du Maurier, Sir Gerald du Maurier and his wife, actress Muriel Beaumont. Her gra ...
(writer). All except Hodgkin were Dames Commander of the Order of the British Empire (DBEs). In 2010, during the 350th anniversary of the founding of the Royal Society, Hodgkin was the only woman in a set of stamps celebrating ten of the Society's most illustrious members, taking her place alongside
Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, physicist, astronomer, alchemist, Theology, theologian, and author (described in his time as a "natural philosophy, natural philosopher"), widely ...
,
Edward Jenner Edward Jenner, (17 May 1749 – 26 January 1823) was a British physician and scientist who pioneered the concept of vaccines, and created the smallpox vaccine, the world's first vaccine. The terms ''vaccine'' and ''vaccination'' are derived f ...
,
Joseph Lister Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister, (5 April 182710 February 1912) was a British surgeon In modern medicine, a surgeon is a medical professional who performs surgery. Although there are different traditions in different times and places, ...
,
Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin ( April 17, 1790) was an American polymath who was active as a writer, scientist, Invention, inventor, Statesman (politician), statesman, diplomat, printer (publishing), printer, publisher, and Political philosophy, politi ...
,
Charles Babbage Charles Babbage (; 26 December 1791 – 18 October 1871) was an English polymath. A mathematician, philosopher, inventor and mechanical engineer, Babbage originated the concept of a digital programmable computer. Babbage is considered ...
,
Robert Boyle Robert Boyle (; 25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, Alchemy, alchemist and inventor. Boyle is largely regarded today as the first modern chemist, and therefore one of the foun ...
,
Ernest Rutherford Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937) was a New Zealand physicist who came to be known as the father of nuclear physics. ''Encyclopædia Britannica'' considers him to be the greatest ...
, Nicholas Shackleton and
Alfred Russel Wallace Alfred Russel Wallace (8 January 1823 – 7 November 1913) was a British natural history, naturalist, explorer, geographer, anthropologist, biologist and illustrator. He is best known for independently conceiving the theory of evolution thro ...
. *The Royal Society awards the Dorothy Hodgkin
Fellow A fellow is a concept whose exact meaning depends on context. In learned or professional A professional is a member of a profession or any person who works in a specified professional activity. The term also describes the standards of educ ...
ship (named in her honour) "for outstanding scientists at an early stage of their research career who require a flexible working pattern due to personal circumstances, such as parenting or caring responsibilities or health-related reasons." *The Council offices in the
London Borough of Hackney London is the capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom, with a population of just under 9 million. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a estuary dow ...
and buildings at
University of York The University of York (abbreviated as or ''York'' for Post-nominal letters, post-nominals) is a Collegiate university, collegiate research university, located in the city of York, England. Established in 1963, the university has expanded to mor ...
,
Bristol University The University of Bristol is a Red brick university, red brick Russell Group research university in Bristol, England. It received its royal charter in 1909, although it can trace its roots to a Society of Merchant Venturers, Merchant Venturers' sc ...
and
Keele University Keele University, officially known as the University of Keele, is a Public university#United Kingdom, public research university in Keele, approximately from Newcastle-under-Lyme, Staffordshire, England. Founded in 1949 as the University Coll ...
are named after her, as is the science block at
Sir John Leman High School Sir John Leman High School is a coeducational 11–18 secondary school with Academy (English school), academy status serving part of the Waveney District, Waveney region in north Suffolk, England. The school is located on the western edge of the t ...
, her former school. *In 2012, Hodgkin was featured in the
BBC Radio 4 BBC Radio 4 is a British national radio station owned and operated by the BBC #REDIRECT BBC Here i going to introduce about the best teacher of my life b BALAJI sir. He is the precious gift that I got befor 2yrs . How has helped and thought al ...
series '' The New Elizabethans'' to mark the diamond Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II. In this series a panel of seven academics, journalists and historians named her among the group of people in the UK "whose actions during the reign of Elizabeth II have had a significant impact on lives in these islands and given the age its character". *In 2015 Hodgkin's 1949 paper ''The X-ray Crystallographic Investigation of the Structure of Penicillin'' was honoured by a Citation for Chemical Breakthrough Award from the Division of History of Chemistry of the American Chemical Society presented to the University of Oxford (England). This research is notable for its groundbreaking use of X-ray crystallography to determine the structure of complex natural products, in this instance, of penicillin. *Since 1999, the Oxford International Women's Festival has presented the annual Dorothy Hodgkin Memorial Lecture, usually in March, in honour of Hodgkin's work. The Lecture is a collaboration between Oxford AWiSE (Association for Women in Science & Engineering), Somerville College and the Oxford University Museum of Natural History. *As part of her legacy a quote has been said from her " I believe in perfecting the world and trying to do everything to improve things, but not because I know what's to come of it." Which is a famous quote from Dorothy Hodgkins.


See also

*
Timeline of women in science This is a timeline of women in science, spanning from ancient history up to the 21st century. While the timeline primarily focuses on women involved with natural sciences such as astronomy, biology, chemistry and physics, it also includes women f ...


References


Further reading

* Papers of Dorothy Hodgkin at the Bodleian Library. Catalogues a
Catalogue of the papers and correspondence of Dorothy Mary Crowfoot Hodgkin, 1828–1993
an

* * Dodson, Guy; Glusker, Jenny P.; Sayre, David (eds.) (1981). ''Structural Studies on Molecules of Biological Interest: A Volume in Honour of Professor Dorothy Hodgkin''. Oxford: Clarendon Press. * Hudson, Gill (1991). "Unfathering the Thinkable: Gender, Science and Pacificism in the 1930s". ''Science and Sensibility: Gender and Scientific Enquiry, 1780–1945'', ed. Marina Benjamin, 264–86. Oxford: Blackwell.
Royal Society of Edinburgh obituary (author: William Cochran)
* Ferry, Georgina (1998). ''Dorothy Hodgkin A Life''. London: Granta Books.
Dorothy Hodgkin tells her life story at Web of Stories
(video)

– Dorothy Hodgkin in a study of contributions of women to physics

* Glusker, Jenny P. i
Out of the Shadows (2006)
– Contributions of 20th Century Women to Physics.
Encyclopædia Britannica, "Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin" (author: Georgina Ferry, 2014)
* Wolfers, Michael (2007). ''Thomas Hodgkin – Wandering Scholar: A Biography''. Monmouth: Merlin Press. * * * * *


External links

* * including the Nobel Lecture, December 11, 1964 ''The X-ray Analysis of Complicated Molecules'' * * * Four interviews with Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin recorded between 1987 and 1989 in partnership with the
Royal College of Physicians The Royal College of Physicians (RCP) is a British professional membership body dedicated to improving the practice of medicine, chiefly through the accreditation of physicians by examination. Founded by royal charter from King Henry VIII in 1 ...
are held in the Medical Sciences Video Archive in the Special Collections at
Oxford Brookes University Oxford Brookes University (formerly known as Oxford Polytechnic (United Kingdom), Polytechnic) is a public university, public university in Oxford, England. It is a new university, having received university status through the Further and High ...
: *
Professor Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin OM FRS in interview with Sir Gordon Wolstenholme: Interview 1 (1987).
*
Professor Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin OM FRS in interview with Max Blythe: Interview 2 (1988).
*
Professor Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin OM FRS in interview with Max Blythe: Interview 3 (1989).
*
Professor Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin OM FRS at home talking with Max Blythe: Interview 4 (1989).Watch a lecture of Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin (1910-1994) at the 1988 Nobel Laureates Symposium at the annual meeting of the American Crystallographic Association, PhiladelphiaDorothy Hodgkin featured on the BBC Radio 4 program In Our Time on October 3, 2019."The exceptional life of Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin", BBC "Ideas" video, 27 September 2021
{{DEFAULTSORT:Hodgkin, Dorothy 1910 births 1994 deaths 20th-century British biologists 20th-century British chemists 20th-century American women scientists Alumni of Somerville College, Oxford Alumni of Newnham College, Cambridge British biochemists British biophysicists British Nobel laureates British women biologists British women chemists Chancellors of the University of Bristol British crystallographers English biochemists English biophysicists English Nobel laureates Fellows of Somerville College, Oxford Fellows of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences Fellows of the Royal Institute of Chemistry Fellows of the Royal Society Fellows of Wolfson College, Oxford Female Fellows of the Royal Society Foreign associates of the National Academy of Sciences Foreign Members of the Russian Academy of Sciences Foreign Members of the USSR Academy of Sciences Dorothy Lenin Peace Prize recipients Members of the Order of Merit Members of the European Molecular Biology Organization Nobel laureates in Chemistry People from Beccles People from Warwickshire Presidents of the British Science Association Recipients of the Austrian Decoration for Science and Art Recipients of the Copley Medal Royal Medal winners Recipients of the Lomonosov Gold Medal X-ray crystallography Women Nobel laureates Recipients of the Dalton Medal Vitamin researchers 20th-century Quakers Presidents of the International Union of Crystallography Scientists with disabilities