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Districts are administrative subdivisions of special municipalities and provincial cities of
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
. There are two types of district in the administrative scheme. Ordinary districts are governed directly by the municipality/city government with district administrators appointed by the mayors to four-year terms. The mountain indigenous district is a
local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration Public administration is the implementation of government policy Public policy is a course of action created and/or enacted, typically by a government ...
body with elected district chiefs as well as district council serving four-year terms.


History

The first administrative divisions entitled "districts" were established in the 1900s when Taiwan was under Japanese rule. After the
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, nine (9) out of eleven (11)
prefectural cities A prefecture (from the Latin ''Praefectura'') is an administrative jurisdiction traditionally governed by an appointed prefect. This can be a regional or local government subdivision in various countries, or a subdivision in certain international ...
established by the Japanese government were reform into provincial cities. These cities are
Changhua Changhua (Hokkien Hokkien (; , Pe̍h-ōe-jī: ''Hok-kiàn-ōe'', ) or Minnan (閩南語/闽南语), known as Quanzhang or Tsuan-Tsiang (泉漳) in linguistics, is a Southern Min Southern Min (), Minnan (Standard Chinese, Mandarin pronunc ...
,
Chiayi Chiayi (Taiwanese Hokkien, Taigi Pe̍h-ōe-jī, POJ: ''Ka-gī''; ), officially known as Chiayi City, is a Provincial city (Taiwan), city located in the plains of southwestern Taiwan. Formerly called ''Kagee'' during the late Qing dynasty and ''K ...

Chiayi
,
Hsinchu Hsinchu (Chinese: 新竹, Pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin Chinese in mainland China, Taiwan (ROC), and Singapore. It is often used to t ...
,
Kaohsiung Kaohsiung City (; : ; : ''Kao¹-hsiung²'') is a in southern . It ranges from the coastal urban centre to the rural with an area of . Kaohsiung city has a population of approximately 2.77 million people and is Taiwan's third most popu ...

Kaohsiung
,
Keelung Keelung (; Hokkien Hokkien () is a Southern Min Southern Min (), Minnan (Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government ...
, Pingtung,
Taichung Taichung (, Wade–Giles: ''Tʻai²-chung¹''), officially Taichung City, is a special municipality (Taiwan), special municipality located in central Taiwan. Taichung has a population of approximately 2.82 million people and is Taiwan's second ...

Taichung
,
Tainan Tainan, officially Tainan City, is a special municipality in southern Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the ...

Tainan
and
Taipei Taipei (), officially Taipei City, is the Capital city, capital and a Special municipality (Taiwan), special municipality of the Taiwan, Republic of China (Taiwan). Located in Regions of Taiwan, Northern Taiwan, Taipei City is an enclave of t ...

Taipei
. The wards ( ''ku'') and towns ( ''machi'') under those cities were merged into larger districts. At the same time, the
districts A district is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic na ...
( ''kun'') under
prefectures A prefecture (from the Latin ''Praefectura'') is an administrative jurisdiction traditionally governed by an appointed prefect. This can be a regional or local government subdivision in various countries, or a subdivision in certain international ...

prefectures
also reformed as county-controlled districts. In August 1950, another administrative division reform was performed in
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
, the size of
counties A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French ...
shrink and all
townships ''Township'' refers to various kinds of settlements or administrative subdivisions in different countries. While a ''township'' may be associated with an urban area, this tends to be an exception to the rule. In Australia, Canada, Scotland and pa ...
are all directly administered by the county. County-controlled districts were all defunct in this reform. At the same time provincial cities including
Changhua Changhua (Hokkien Hokkien (; , Pe̍h-ōe-jī: ''Hok-kiàn-ōe'', ) or Minnan (閩南語/闽南语), known as Quanzhang or Tsuan-Tsiang (泉漳) in linguistics, is a Southern Min Southern Min (), Minnan (Standard Chinese, Mandarin pronunc ...
,
Chiayi Chiayi (Taiwanese Hokkien, Taigi Pe̍h-ōe-jī, POJ: ''Ka-gī''; ), officially known as Chiayi City, is a Provincial city (Taiwan), city located in the plains of southwestern Taiwan. Formerly called ''Kagee'' during the late Qing dynasty and ''K ...

Chiayi
,
Hsinchu Hsinchu (Chinese: 新竹, Pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin Chinese in mainland China, Taiwan (ROC), and Singapore. It is often used to t ...
, Pingtung were downgraded to county-administered cities, districts of these cities were also defunct. This makes district the type of division exclusively under the five remaining provincial cities:
Kaohsiung Kaohsiung City (; : ; : ''Kao¹-hsiung²'') is a in southern . It ranges from the coastal urban centre to the rural with an area of . Kaohsiung city has a population of approximately 2.77 million people and is Taiwan's third most popu ...

Kaohsiung
,
Keelung Keelung (; Hokkien Hokkien () is a Southern Min Southern Min (), Minnan (Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government ...
,
Taichung Taichung (, Wade–Giles: ''Tʻai²-chung¹''), officially Taichung City, is a special municipality (Taiwan), special municipality located in central Taiwan. Taichung has a population of approximately 2.82 million people and is Taiwan's second ...

Taichung
,
Tainan Tainan, officially Tainan City, is a special municipality in southern Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the ...

Tainan
and
Taipei Taipei (), officially Taipei City, is the Capital city, capital and a Special municipality (Taiwan), special municipality of the Taiwan, Republic of China (Taiwan). Located in Regions of Taiwan, Northern Taiwan, Taipei City is an enclave of t ...

Taipei
. When Taipei was promoted as a special municipality by the
central government A central government is the government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthl ...
in 1967, several
townships ''Township'' refers to various kinds of settlements or administrative subdivisions in different countries. While a ''township'' may be associated with an urban area, this tends to be an exception to the rule. In Australia, Canada, Scotland and pa ...
surrounding the city were merged into Taipei City and were reorganized as its districts. Afterwards, through another reorganization in 1990, the 12 current districts were formed. In addition, Kaohsiung, the largest city in southern Taiwan, was promoted as a special municipality in 1979. Siaogang Township was also merged to
Siaogang District Siaogang District, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency () is the southernmost district of Kaohsiung City in southern Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries ...
. In December 2010, the four new special municipalities were established namely Kaohsiung,
New Taipei New Taipei City is a special municipality and the most populous city in Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the ...
, Taichung, and Tainan. Subsequently, all the county-administered cities and townships in Kaohsiung, Taichung, Tainan, and Taipei Counties were reformed as districts of the new Kaohsiung, Taichung, Tainan and New Taipei cities respectively. Their names, nevertheless, remained the same. The same thing happened to Taoyuan on 25 December 2014 where there are additional new 13 districts from the former county. These municipalities and provincial cities use district administrative centers for public affairs services to serve the residents of these districts. Also, the directors of these districts and administrative centers are appointed by the mayors, with four years per term. On 4 February 2014, six districts were reclassified as Special Municipal Mountain Indigenous District (; or shortened as Mountain Indigenous District ()):
Wulai Wulai District ( Atayal: Ulay; ) is a mountain indigenous district in southern New Taipei City New Taipei City is a special municipality and the most populous city in Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a count ...
in New Taipei, Fuxing in Taoyuan, Heping in Taichung, along with Namasia, Maolin, and Taoyuan in Kaohsiung.


Districts in Taiwan


Districts by cities

In
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
, districts are the only subdivisions of special municipalities and provincial cities. Currently, there are 164 districts and 6 mountain indigenous districts located in the special municipalities and the provincial cities.


List of Districts in Taiwan

Colors indicate the common language status of
Hakka The Hakka (), sometimes also referred to as Hakka Han, or Hakka Chinese, are a Han Chinese The Han Chinese (), or the Han people (), is an East Asian East Asia is the east East is one of the four cardinal direction The fou ...
and
Formosan languages The Formosan languages are the languages of the indigenous peoples of Taiwan, all of which are Austronesian. The Taiwanese indigenous peoples recognized by the government are about 2.3% of the island's population. However, only 35% speak their ...

Formosan languages
within each division.


Former districts


District changes between 1945 and 1950


District reforms in Taipei


See also

*
Administrative divisions of Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The ...
*
List of administrative divisions of Taiwan The following is a list of 22 primary Administrative divisions of Taiwan, administrative divisions of the Taiwan, Republic of China, commonly known as Taiwan, including 6 Special municipality (Taiwan), special municipalities, 13 County (Taiwan), cou ...


Notes


References

{{Administrative divisions of Taiwan navbar