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Dante Alighieri (), probably baptized Durante di Alighiero degli Alighieri and often referred to simply as Dante (, also ; – 14 September 1321), was an Italian
poet A poet is a person who creates poetry Poetry (derived from the Greek language, Greek ''poiesis'', "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetics, aesthetic and often rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, soun ...

poet
, writer and philosopher. His ''
Divine Comedy The ''Divine Comedy'' ( it, Divina Commedia ) is a long Italian narrative poem by Dante Alighieri Dante Alighieri (), probably baptized Durante di Alighiero degli Alighieri and often referred to simply as Dante (, also ; – 1321), w ...

Divine Comedy
'', originally called (modern Italian: ''Commedia'') and later christened by
Giovanni Boccaccio Giovanni Boccaccio (, , ; 16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch Francesco Petrarca (; 20 July 1304 – 18/19 July 1374), commonly anglicized Linguistic anglicisation (or angliciza ...

Giovanni Boccaccio
, is widely considered one of the most important poems of the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
and the greatest literary work in the Italian language. Dante is known for establishing the use of the
vernacular A vernacular or vernacular language refers to the language or dialect that is spoken by people that are inhabiting a particular country or region. The vernacular is typically the native language, normally Spoken language, spoken informally rath ...
in literature at a time when most poetry was written in
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
, which was accessible only to the most educated readers. His ''
De vulgari eloquentia ''De vulgari eloquentia'' () "on vernacular A vernacular or vernacular language refers to the language or dialect that is spoken by people that are inhabiting a particular country or region. The vernacular is typically the native language ...
'' (''On Eloquence in the Vernacular'') was one of the first scholarly defenses of the vernacular. His use of the
Tuscan dialect Tuscan ( it, dialetto toscano ; it, vernacolo, label=locally) is a set of Italo-Dalmatian The Italo-Dalmatian languages, or Central Romance languages, are a group of Romance languages The Romance languages (less commonly Latin languages ...
for works such as '' The New Life'' (1295) and ''Divine Comedy'' helped establish the modern-day standardized Italian language. His work set a precedent that important Italian writers such as
Petrarch Francesco Petrarca (; 20 July 1304 – 18/19 July 1374), commonly as Petrarch (), was a scholar and poet of early , and one of the earliest . Petrarch's rediscovery of 's letters is often credited with initiating the 14th-century Italian a ...

Petrarch
and
Boccaccio Giovanni Boccaccio (, , ; 16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and an important Renaissance humanist. He was known par excellence as the Certaldese, and one of the most important figur ...

Boccaccio
would later follow. Dante was instrumental in establishing the literature of Italy. His depictions of
Hell In and , hell is a location in the in which s are subjected to punitive , most often through , as after death. s with a history often depict hells as eternal destinations, the biggest examples of which are and , whereas religions with ...

Hell
,
Purgatory Purgatory (, via Anglo-Norman language, Anglo-Norman and Old French) is, according to the belief of some Christianity, Christians (mostly Catholics), an intermediate state after physical death for expiatory purification. There is disagreement amo ...

Purgatory
and
Heaven Heaven or the heavens, is a common religious cosmological or transcendent supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena or entities that are not subject to the . This term is attributed to , such as s, s, , and . It also ...

Heaven
provided inspiration for the larger body of
Western art ''; by Johannes Vermeer Johannes Vermeer ( , , #Pronunciation of name, see below; October 1632 – December 1675) was a Dutch Baroque Period Painting, painter who specialized in domestic interior scenes of middle class life. During his lifetime, ...
and literature. He is cited as an influence on such English writers as
Geoffrey Chaucer Geoffrey Chaucer (; – 25 October 1400) was an English poet and author. Widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th ...

Geoffrey Chaucer
,
John Milton John Milton (9 December 16088 November 1674) was an English poet and intellectual who served as a civil servant for the under its Council of State and later under . He wrote at a time of religious flux and political upheaval, and is best kno ...

John Milton
and
Alfred Tennyson Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (6 August 1809 – 6 October 1892) was a British poet. He was the Poet Laureate during much of Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the Unite ...
, among many others. In addition, the first use of the interlocking three-line rhyme scheme, or the ''
terza rima ''Terza rima'' (, also , ) is a rhyming verse stanza In poetry, a stanza (; from Italian ''stanza'' , "room") is a grouped set of lines within a poem, usually set off from others by a blank line or indentation. Stanzas can have regular rhyme a ...
'', is attributed to him. He is described as the "father" of the Italian language, and in Italy he is often referred to as ' ("the Supreme Poet"). Dante, Petrarch, and Boccaccio are also called the ("three crowns") of Italian literature.


Early life

Dante was born in
Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central-Northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsula delimited by the Al ...

Florence
,
Republic of Florence The Republic of Florence, officially the Florentine Republic ( it, Repubblica Fiorentina, , or ), was a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organizati ...
, in what is now Italy. The exact date of his birth is unknown, although it is generally believed to be around 1265. This can be deduced from autobiographic
allusion Allusion is a figure of speech A figure of speech or rhetorical figure is a word or phrase that entails an intentional deviation from ordinary language use in order to produce a rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of persua ...
s in the ''
Divine Comedy The ''Divine Comedy'' ( it, Divina Commedia ) is a long Italian narrative poem by Dante Alighieri Dante Alighieri (), probably baptized Durante di Alighiero degli Alighieri and often referred to simply as Dante (, also ; – 1321), w ...

Divine Comedy
.'' Its first section, the ''
Inferno Inferno may refer to: * Hell, an afterlife place of suffering * Conflagration, a large uncontrolled fire Film * ''L'Inferno'', a 1911 Italian film * Inferno (1953 film), ''Inferno'' (1953 film), a film noir by Roy Ward Baker * Inferno (1973 fi ...
,'' begins, ''"Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita"'' ("Midway upon the journey of our life"), implying that Dante was around 35 years old, since the average lifespan according to the Bible (Psalm 89:10, Vulgate) is 70 years; and since his imaginary travel to the netherworld took place in 1300, he was most probably born around 1265. Some verses of the ''Paradiso'' section of the ''Divine Comedy'' also provide a possible clue that he was born under the sign of
Gemini Gemini may refer to: Space * Gemini (constellation), one of the constellations of the zodiac ** Gemini in Chinese astronomy * Project Gemini, the second U.S. crewed spaceflight program * Gemini Observatory, consisting of telescopes in the Northern ...
: "As I revolved with the eternal twins, I saw revealed, from hills to river outlets, the threshing-floor that makes us so ferocious" (XXII  151–154). In 1265, the sun was in Gemini between approximately 11 May and 11 June (
Julian calendar The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century B ...
). Dante claimed that his family descended from the ancient Romans (''Inferno'', XV, 76), but the earliest relative he could mention by name was Cacciaguida degli Elisei (''Paradiso'', XV, 135), born no earlier than about 1100. Dante's father,
Alighiero di Bellincione Alighiero di Bellincione (c. 1210–1283) was the father of Dante Alighieri. Life Alighiero was born around 1210, the son of Bellincione di Alighiero. He was a member of the Guelphs and Ghibellines, Guelph party and was probably a moneylender. Ali ...
, was a White
Guelph Guelph ( ; 2016 Canadian Census The 2016 Canadian Census is the most recent detailed enumeration of Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, histor ...
who suffered no reprisals after the
Ghibellines The Guelphs and Ghibellines (, also ; it, guelfi e ghibellini ) were factions supporting the Pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is ...
won the
Battle of Montaperti The Battle of Montaperti was fought on 4 September 1260 between Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central Italy and the capital city of the Tuscany Regions of Italy, region. It is the most populated city in Tuscany, with 38 ...

Battle of Montaperti
in the middle of the 13th century. This suggests that Alighiero or his family may have enjoyed some protective prestige and status, although some suggest that the politically inactive Alighiero was of such low standing that he was not considered worth exiling. Dante's family was loyal to the Guelphs, a political alliance that supported the
Papacy The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state o ...
and that was involved in complex opposition to the Ghibellines, who were backed by the
Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as ...
. The poet's mother was Bella, probably a member of the Abati family. She died when Dante was not yet ten years old. His father Alighiero soon married again, to Lapa di Chiarissimo Cialuffi. It is uncertain whether he really married her, since widowers were socially limited in such matters, but she definitely bore him two children, Dante's half-brother Francesco and half-sister Tana (Gaetana). Dante said he first met
Beatrice Portinari Beatrice "Bice" di Folco Portinari (; 1265 – 8 June 1290) was an Italian woman who has been commonly identified as the principal inspiration for Dante Alighieri Dante Alighieri (), probably baptized Durante di Alighiero degli Alighieri a ...
, daughter of
Folco Portinari at first sight", apparently without even talking with her. When he was 12, however, he was promised in marriage to Gemma di Manetto Donati, daughter of Manetto Donati, member of the powerful Donati family. Contracting marriages for children at such an early age was quite common and involved a formal ceremony, including contracts signed before a
notary A notary is a person authorised to perform acts in legal affairs, in particular witnessing signatures on documents. The form that the notarial profession takes varies with local legal systems. A notary, while a legal professional, is distinc ...
. Dante claimed to have seen Beatrice again frequently after he turned 18, exchanging greetings with her in the streets of Florence, though he never knew her well. Years after his marriage to Gemma, he claims to have met Beatrice again; he wrote several sonnets to Beatrice but never mentioned Gemma in any of his poems. He refers to other Donati relations, notably Forese and Piccarda, in his ''Divine Comedy.'' The exact date of his marriage is not known: the only certain information is that, before his exile in 1301, he had fathered three children with Gemma (Pietro, Jacopo and Antonia). Dante fought with the Guelph cavalry at the
Battle of Campaldino The Battle of Campaldino was a battle between the Guelphs and Ghibellines on 11 June 1289. Mixed bands of pro-papal Guelf forces of Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central Italy and the capital city of the Tuscany Regions o ...
(11 June, 1289). This victory brought about a reformation of the
Florentine Florentine most commonly refers to: * a person or thing from Florence, a city in Italy * the Florentine dialect Florentine may also refer to: Places * Florentin, Tel Aviv, a neighborhood in the southern part of Tel Aviv, Israel * Leone, Floren ...
constitution. To take part in public life, one had to enroll in one of the city's many commercial or artisan guilds, so Dante entered the Physicians' and Apothecaries' Guild. In the following years, his name is occasionally recorded as speaking or voting in the various councils of the republic. A substantial portion of minutes from such meetings in the years 1298–1300 was lost, however, so the true extent of Dante's participation in the city's councils is uncertain.


Education and poetry

Not much is known about Dante's education; he presumably studied at home or in a chapter school attached to a church or monastery in Florence. It is known that he studied
Tuscan Tuscan may refer to: Places * A person from, or something of, from, or related to Tuscany, a region of Italy * Tuscan Archipelago Currency * Tuscan pound * Tuscan florin Linguistics * Etruscan language, an extinct language which gives its name t ...
poetry and that he admired the compositions of the Bolognese poet Guido Guinizelli—in ''Purgatorio'' XXVI he characterized him as his "father"—at a time when the Sicilian School (''Scuola poetica Siciliana''), a cultural group from
Sicily (man) it, Siciliana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Ethnicity , demographics1_footnotes = , demographi ...

Sicily
, was becoming known in Tuscany. He also discovered the Provençal poetry of the
troubadours A troubadour (, ; oc, trobador ) was a composer and performer of Old Occitan Old Occitan ( Modern Occitan: ', ca, occità antic), also called Old Provençal, was the earliest form of the Occitano-Romance languages The Occitano-Romance or ...

troubadours
, such as
Arnaut Daniel Arnaut Daniel (; fl. ''Floruit'' (), abbreviated fl. (or occasionally flor.), Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the a ...

Arnaut Daniel
, and the Latin writers of
classical antiquity Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, ...
, including
Cicero Marcus Tullius Cicero ( ; ; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Ancient Rome, Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, philosopher and Academic skepticism, Academic Skeptic, who tried to uphold optimate principles during crisis of ...

Cicero
,
Ovid Pūblius Ovidius Nāsō (; 20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known in English as Ovid ( ), was a Augustan literature (ancient Rome), Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus. He was a contemporary of the older Virgil and Horace, with whom ...

Ovid
and especially
Virgil Publius Vergilius Maro (; traditional dates 15 October 7021 September 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil ( ) in English, was an ancient Rome, ancient Roman poet of the Augustan literature (ancient Rome), Augustan period. He composed three ...

Virgil
. Dante's interactions with Beatrice set an example of so-called
courtly love Courtly love ( oc, fin'amor ; french: amour courtois ) was a medieval Europe In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted from the 5th to the late 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire ...
, a phenomenon developed in French and Provençal poetry of prior centuries. Dante's experience of such love was typical, but his expression of it was unique. It was in the name of this love that Dante left his imprint on the '' dolce stil novo'' (''sweet new style,'' a term which Dante himself coined), and he would join other contemporary poets and writers in exploring never-before-emphasized aspects of love (''Amore''). Love for Beatrice (as
Petrarch Francesco Petrarca (; 20 July 1304 – 18/19 July 1374), commonly as Petrarch (), was a scholar and poet of early , and one of the earliest . Petrarch's rediscovery of 's letters is often credited with initiating the 14th-century Italian a ...

Petrarch
would express for Laura somewhat differently) would be his reason for poetry and for living, together with political passions. In many of his poems, she is depicted as semi-divine, watching over him constantly and providing spiritual instruction, sometimes harshly. When Beatrice died in 1290, Dante sought refuge in Latin literature. The '''' chronicles his having read
Boethius Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius, commonly called Boethius (; also Boetius ; 477 – 524 AD), was a Roman Roman Senate, senator, Roman consul, consul, ''magister officiorum'', and philosopher of the early 6th century. He was born about a ye ...

Boethius
's ''
De consolatione philosophiae ''The Consolation of Philosophy'' ( la, De consolatione philosophiae) is a philosophy, philosophical work by the Roman statesman Boethius, written around the year 524. It has been described as the single most important and influential work in th ...
'' and Cicero's ''
De Amicitia ''Laelius de Amicitia'' (or simply ''De Amicitia'') is a treatise on friendship (''amicitia'') by the Roman statesman and author Marcus Tullius Cicero, written in 44 BC. Background The work is written as a dialogue between prominent figures of the ...
.'' He next dedicated himself to philosophical studies at religious schools like the Dominican one in
Santa Maria Novella Santa Maria Novella is a church in Florence, Italy, situated opposite, and lending its name to, the city's Firenze Santa Maria Novella railway station, main railway station. Chronologically, it is the first great basilica in Florence, and is the c ...

Santa Maria Novella
. He took part in the disputes that the two principal
mendicant A mendicant (from la, mendicans, "begging") is one who practices mendicancy, relying chiefly or exclusively on alms to survive. In principle, Mendicant orders, mendicant religious orders own little property, either individually or collectively, ...
orders (
Franciscan , image = FrancescoCoA PioM.svg , image_size = 250px , caption = A cross, Christ's arm and Saint Francis's arm, a universal symbol of the Franciscans , abbreviation = OFM , predecessor = , m ...
and
Dominican Dominican may refer to: * Someone or something from or related to the Dominican Republic The Dominican Republic ( ; es, República Dominicana, ) is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the C ...
) publicly or indirectly held in Florence, the former explaining the doctrines of the mystics and of St.
Bonaventure Bonaventure ( ; it, Bonaventura ; 1221 – 15 July 1274), born Giovanni di Fidanza, was an Italian medieval Franciscan, Scholasticism, scholastic theologian and philosopher. The seventh Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor, he w ...

Bonaventure
, the latter expounding on the theories of St.
Thomas Aquinas Thomas Aquinas (; it, Tommaso d'Aquino, lit=Thomas of Aquino, Italy, Aquino; 1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican Order, Dominican friar, Philosophy, philosopher, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church. An immensely influential ...

Thomas Aquinas
. At 18, Dante met
Guido Cavalcanti Guido Cavalcanti (between 1250 and 1259 – August 1300) was an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian ...
,
Lapo GianniLapo Gianni (died after 1328) was an Italian poet who lived in Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central Italy and the capital city of the Tuscany Regions of Italy, region. It is the most populated city in Tuscany, with 383,084 ...
,
Cino da Pistoia Cino da Pistoia (1270 – 1336/37) was an Italian jurist and poet. He was born in Pistoia Pistoia (, ) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent t ...

Cino da Pistoia
and, soon after,
Brunetto Latini 300px, Dante and Virgil interview Brunetto among the sodomites, from Guido da Pisa's commentary on the ''Commedia'', Brunetto Latini (who signed his name ''Burnectus Latinus'' in Latin and ''Burnecto Latino'' in Italian language, Italian; –1294) ...
; together they became the leaders of the ''dolce stil novo.'' Brunetto later received special mention in the ''Divine Comedy'' (''Inferno'', XV, 28) for what he had taught Dante: ''Nor speaking less on that account I go With Ser Brunetto, and I ask who are his most known and most eminent companions.'' Some fifty poetical commentaries by Dante are known (the so-called ''
Rime Rime may refer to: *Rime ice Rime ice forms when supercooled water liquid droplets freeze onto surfaces. Meteorology, Meteorologists distinguish between three basic types of ice forming on vertical and horizontal surfaces by deposition of superco ...
,'' rhymes), others being included in the later ''Vita Nuova'' and ''Convivio.'' Other studies are reported, or deduced from ''Vita Nuova'' or the ''Comedy,'' regarding painting and music.


Florence and politics

Dante, like most Florentines of his day, was embroiled in the Guelph–Ghibelline conflict. He fought in the
Battle of Campaldino The Battle of Campaldino was a battle between the Guelphs and Ghibellines on 11 June 1289. Mixed bands of pro-papal Guelf forces of Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central Italy and the capital city of the Tuscany Regions o ...
(11 June, 1289), with the Florentine Guelphs against
Arezzo Arezzo ( , , ; lat, Arretium) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides essent ...

Arezzo
Ghibellines; then in 1294 he was among the escorts of
Charles Martel of Anjou Charles Martel ( hu, Martell Károly; 8 September 1271 – 12 August 1295) of the Angevin dynasty was the eldest son of king Charles II of Naples Charles II, also known as Charles the Lame (french: Charles le Boiteux; it, Carlo lo Zoppo; 1254 ...

Charles Martel of Anjou
(grandson of Charles I of Anjou) while he was in Florence. To further his political career, he became a pharmacist. He did not intend to practice as one, but a law issued in 1295 required nobles aspiring to public office to be enrolled in one of the Corporazioni delle Arti e dei Mestieri, so Dante obtained admission to the Apothecaries' Guild. This profession was not inappropriate, since at that time books were sold from apothecaries' shops. As a politician, he accomplished little but held various offices over some years in a city rife with political unrest. After defeating the Ghibellines, the Guelphs divided into two factions: the White Guelphs (''Guelfi Bianchi'')—Dante's party, led by Vieri dei Cerchi—and the Black Guelphs (''Guelfi Neri''), led by
Corso DonatiCorso Donati was a leader of the Black Guelph faction in 13th- and early 14th- century Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central Italy and the capital city of the Tuscany Regions of Italy, region. It is the most populated city ...

Corso Donati
. Although the split was along family lines at first, ideological differences arose based on opposing views of the papal role in Florentine affairs. The Blacks supported the Pope and the Whites wanted more freedom from Rome. The Whites took power first and expelled the Blacks. In response,
Pope Boniface VIII Pope Boniface VIII ( la, Bonifatius PP. VIII; born Benedetto Caetani, c. 1230 – 11 October 1303) was the head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations ...

Pope Boniface VIII
planned a military occupation of Florence. In 1301,
Charles of Valois Charles of Valois (12 March 1270 – 16 December 1325), the third son of Philip III of France Philip III (1 May 1245 – 5 October 1285), called the Bold (french: le Hardi), was king of France from 1270 until his death in 1285. His ...

Charles of Valois
, brother of King
Philip IV of France Philip IV (April–June 1268 – 29 November 1314), called Philip the Fair (french: Philippe le Bel), was King of France The monarchs of the Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France, frm, Royaulme de France, french ...

Philip IV of France
, was expected to visit Florence because the Pope had appointed him as peacemaker for
Tuscany it, Toscano (man) it, Toscana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Citizenship , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = Italian , demogra ...
. But the city's government had treated the Pope's ambassadors badly a few weeks before, seeking independence from papal influence. It was believed that Charles had received other unofficial instructions, so the council sent a delegation that included Dante to Rome to ascertain the Pope's intentions.


Exile from Florence

Pope Boniface quickly dismissed the other delegates and asked Dante alone to remain in Rome. At the same time (1 November, 1301), Charles of Valois entered Florence with the Black Guelphs, who in the next six days destroyed much of the city and killed many of their enemies. A new Black Guelph government was installed, and Cante dei Gabrielli da
Gubbio Gubbio () is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides essential public services: Ci ...

Gubbio
was appointed ''
podestà 235px, The Palace of the Podestà in Florence, now the Bargello museum Podestà (, English: Potestate, Podesta) was the name given to the holder of the highest civil office in the government of the cities of Central Italy, Central and Northern Ita ...
'' of the city. In March 1302, Dante, a White Guelph by affiliation, along with the
Gherardini family The Gherardinis of Montagliari (or Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central Italy and the capital city of the Tuscany Regions of Italy, region. It is the most populated city in Tuscany, with 383,084 inhabitants in 2013, an ...
, was condemned to exile for two years and ordered to pay a large fine. Dante was accused of corruption and financial wrongdoing by the Black Guelphs for the time that Dante was serving as city prior (Florence's highest position) for two months in 1300. The poet was still in Rome in 1302, as the Pope, who had backed the Black Guelphs, had "suggested" that Dante stay there. Florence under the Black Guelphs, therefore, considered Dante an absconder. Dante did not pay the fine, in part because he believed he was not guilty and in part because all his assets in Florence had been seized by the Black Guelphs. He was condemned to perpetual exile; if he had returned to Florence without paying the fine, he could have been burned at the stake. (In June 2008, nearly seven centuries after his death, the city council of Florence passed a motion rescinding Dante's sentence.) In 1306–07, Dante was a guest of in the region of
Lunigiana The Lunigiana () is a historical territory of Italy, which today falls within the provinces of Massa Carrara, Tuscany, and Province of La Spezia, La Spezia, Liguria. Its borders derive from the ancient Roman settlement, later the medieval diocese ...
. Dante took part in several attempts by the White Guelphs to regain power, but these failed due to treachery. Bitter at the treatment he received from his enemies, he grew disgusted with the infighting and ineffectiveness of his erstwhile allies and vowed to become a party of one. He went to
Verona Verona ( , ; vec, Verona or ''Veròna'') is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia' ...
as a guest of
Bartolomeo I della ScalaBartolomeo I della Scala (died March 7 or March 8, 1304) was lord of Verona from 1301, a member of the Scaliger family and protector of Dante Alighieri, Dante during his exile from Florence. The son of Alberto I della Scala, Bartolomeo succeeded him ...
, then moved to
Sarzana Sarzana (, ; lij, Sarzann-a) is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the ...

Sarzana
in Liguria. Later he is supposed to have lived in
Lucca Lucca ( , ) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a of , roughly equivalent to a or . Importance and function The provides essential public services: of births and deaths, , and maintenance of local roads and public works. ...

Lucca
with a woman named Gentucca. She apparently made his stay comfortable (and he later gratefully mentioned her in ''Purgatorio'', XXIV, 37). Some speculative sources claim he visited
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...

Paris
between 1308 and 1310, and other sources even less trustworthy say he went to
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...

Oxford
: these claims, first made in
Boccaccio Giovanni Boccaccio (, , ; 16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and an important Renaissance humanist. He was known par excellence as the Certaldese, and one of the most important figur ...

Boccaccio
's book on Dante several decades after his death, seem inspired by readers who were impressed with the poet's wide learning and erudition. Evidently, Dante's command of philosophy and his literary interests deepened in exile and when he was no longer busy with the day-to-day business of Florentine domestic politics, and this is evidenced in his prose writings in this period. There is no real evidence that he ever left Italy. Dante's ''Immensa Dei dilectione testante'' to Henry VII of Luxembourg confirms his residence "beneath the springs of Arno, near Tuscany" in March 1311. In 1310, Holy Roman Emperor
Henry VIIHenry VII may refer to: * Henry VII of England (1457–1509), King of England and Lord of Ireland from 1485 until his death in 1509; the founder of the House of Tudor * Henry VII, Duke of Bavaria (died 1047), count of Luxembourg (as Henry II) from 1 ...

Henry VII
of
Luxembourg Luxembourg ( ; lb, Lëtzebuerg ; french: link=no, Luxembourg; german: link=no, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, ; french: link=no, Grand-Duché de Luxembourg ; german: link=no, Großherzogtum Luxemburg is a landlocked ...

Luxembourg
marched into Italy at the head of 5,000 troops. Dante saw in him a new
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; 2 April 748 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks The Franks—Germanic-speaking peoples that invaded the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century—were first led by i ...

Charlemagne
who would restore the office of the Holy Roman Emperor to its former glory and also retake Florence from the Black Guelphs. He wrote to Henry and several Italian princes, demanding that they destroy the Black Guelphs. Mixing religion and private concerns in his writings, he invoked the worst anger of God against his city and suggested several particular targets, who were also his personal enemies. It was during this time that he wrote ''
De Monarchia ''De Monarchia'' (, ) is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of ...
'', proposing a
universal monarchy A universal monarchy is a concept and political situation where one monarchy is deemed to have either sole rule over everywhere (or at least the predominant part of a geopolitical Geopolitics (from Greek γῆ ''gê'' "earth, land" and πολ ...
under Henry VII. At some point during his exile, he conceived of the ''Comedy'', but the date is uncertain. The work is much more assured and on a larger scale than anything he had written in Florence; it is likely he would have undertaken such a work only after he realized his political ambitions, which had been central to him up to his banishment, had been halted for some time, possibly forever. It is also noticeable that Beatrice has returned to his imagination with renewed force and with a wider meaning than in the ''Vita Nuova''; in ''Convivio'' (written c. 1304–07) he had declared that the memory of this youthful romance belonged to the past. An early indication that the poem was underway is a notice by Francesco da Barberino, tucked into his ''Documenti d'Amore'' (''Lessons of Love''), probably written in 1314 or early 1315. Francesco notes that Dante followed the ''
Aeneid The ''Aeneid'' ( ; la, Aenē̆is ) is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the p ...
'' in a poem called "Comedy" and that the setting of this poem (or part of it) was the underworld; i.e., hell. The brief note gives no incontestable indication that Barberino had seen or read even the ''Inferno'', or that this part had been published at the time, but it indicates composition was well underway and that the sketching of the poem might have begun some years before. (It has been suggested that a knowledge of Dante's work also underlies some of the illuminations in Francesco da Barberino's earlier ''Officiolum'' . 1305–08 a manuscript that came to light in 2003.) It is known that the ''Inferno'' had been published by 1317; this is established by quoted lines interspersed in the margins of contemporary dated records from
Bologna Bologna (, , ; egl, label=Bolognese Bologna (, , ; egl, label=Bolognese dialect, Bolognese, Bulåggna ; lat, Bonōnia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna region in Northern Italy. It is the seventh most populous ...

Bologna
, but there is no certainty as to whether the three parts of the poem were each published in full or, rather, a few cantos at a time. ''Paradiso'' seems to have been published posthumously. In 1312 Henry assaulted Florence and defeated the Black Guelphs, but there is no evidence that Dante was involved. Some say he refused to participate in the attack on his city by a foreigner; others suggest that he had become unpopular with the White Guelphs, too, and that any trace of his passage had carefully been removed. Henry VII died (from a fever) in 1313 and with him any hope for Dante to see Florence again. He returned to Verona, where
Cangrande I della Scala Cangrande (christened Can Francesco) della Scala (9 March 1291 – 22 July 1329) was an Italian nobleman, belonging to the della Scala family which ruled Verona Verona ( , ; vec, Verona or ''Veròna'') is a city on the Adige River in Veneto, ...
allowed him to live in certain security and, presumably, in a fair degree of prosperity. Cangrande was admitted to Dante's Paradise (''Paradiso'', XVII, 76). During the period of his exile, Dante corresponded with Dominican theologian Fr. Nicholas Brunacci OP 240–1322 who had been a student of
Thomas Aquinas Thomas Aquinas (; it, Tommaso d'Aquino, lit=Thomas of Aquino, Italy, Aquino; 1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican Order, Dominican friar, Philosophy, philosopher, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church. An immensely influential ...

Thomas Aquinas
at the Santa Sabina ''studium'' in Rome, later at Paris, and of
Albert the Great Albertus Magnus (c. 1200 – November 15, 1280), also known as Saint Albert the Great or Albert of Cologne, was a German Catholic The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominat ...
at the Cologne ''studium''. Brunacci became lector at the Santa Sabina ''studium'', forerunner of the
Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas The Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas (PUST), also known as the ''Angelicum'' in honor of its patron the ''Doctor Angelicus'' Thomas Aquinas, is a pontifical university located in the historic center of Rome, Italy. The ''Angelicum'' ...
, and later served in the
papal curia The Roman Curia ( la, Romana Curia ministerium suum implent) comprises the administrative institutions of the Holy See The Holy See ( lat, Sancta Sedes, ; it, Santa Sede ), also called the See of Rome or Apostolic See, is the jurisdict ...
. In 1315, Florence was forced by
Uguccione della Faggiuola Uguccione della Faggiuola (c. 1250 – 1 November 1319) was an Italian condottiero ''Condottieri'' (; singular ''condottiero'' or ''condottiere'') were Italy, Italian captains in command of mercenary companies during the Middle Ages and of multin ...

Uguccione della Faggiuola
(the military officer controlling the town) to grant an amnesty to those in exile, including Dante. But for this, Florence required public penance in addition to payment of a high fine. Dante refused, preferring to remain in exile. When Uguccione defeated Florence, Dante's death sentence was commuted to house arrest, on condition that he go to Florence to swear he would never enter the town again. He refused to go, and his death sentence was confirmed and extended to his sons. He still hoped late in life that he might be invited back to Florence on honorable terms.


Death and burial

Dante's final days were spent in
Ravenna Ravenna ( , , also ; rgn, Ravèna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna The province of Ravenna ( it, provincia di Ravenna; ) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, admin ...

Ravenna
, where he had been invited to stay in the city in 1318 by its prince, Guido II da Polenta. Dante died in Ravenna on 14 September 1321, aged about 56, of quartan malaria contracted while returning from a diplomatic mission to the
Republic of Venice The Republic of Venice ( it, Repubblica di Venezia; vec, Repùblega de Venèsia) or Venetian Republic ( it, Repubblica Veneta; vec, Repùblega Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima ( en, Most Serene Republic Most Serene Republic ( ...
. He was attended by his three children, and possibly by Gemma Donati, and by friends and admirers he had in the city. He was buried in Ravenna at the Church of San Pier Maggiore (later called Basilica di San Francesco).
Bernardo BemboBernardo Bembo (19 October 1433 – 28 May 1519) was a Republic of Venice, Venetian Renaissance humanism, humanist, diplomat and statesman.Angelo Ventura and Marco Pecoraro"Bembo, Bernardo" in ''Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani'', Volume 8 (Rome: ...
,
praetor Praetor ( , ), also pretor, was the granted by the government of to a man acting in one of two official capacities: (i) the commander of an , and (ii) as an elected ' (magistrate), assigned to discharge various duties. The functions of the magi ...
of
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding ...

Venice
, erected a tomb for him in 1483. On the grave, a verse of Bernardo Canaccio, a friend of Dante, is dedicated to Florence: In 1329, Bertrand du Pouget, Cardinal and nephew of Pope John XXII, classified Dante's ''Monarchia'' as heretical and sought to have his bones burned at the stake. Ostasio I da Polenta and Pino della Tosa, allies of Pouget, interceded to prevent the destruction of Dante's remains. Florence eventually came to regret having exiled Dante. The city made repeated requests for the return of his remains. The custodians of the body in Ravenna refused, at one point going so far as to conceal the bones in a false wall of the monastery. Florence built a tomb for Dante in 1829, in the Basilica di Santa Croce di Firenze, Basilica of Santa Croce. That cenotaph, tomb has been empty ever since, with Dante's body remaining in Ravenna. The front of his tomb in Florence reads ''Onorate l'altissimo poeta'' — which roughly translates as "Honor the most exalted poet" and is a quote from the fourth canto of the ''Inferno''. In 1945, the Italian Social Republic, fascist government discussed bringing Dante’s remains to the Valtellina Redoubt, the Alpine valley in which the regime intended to make its last stand against the Allies of World War II, Allies. The case was made that "the greatest symbol of Italianness" should be present at fascism's "heroic" end. A copy of Dante's so-called death mask has been displayed since 1911 in the Palazzo Vecchio; scholars today believe it is not a true death mask and was probably carved in 1483, perhaps by Pietro Lombardo, Pietro and Tullio Lombardo.


Legacy

The first formal biography of Dante was the ''Vita di Dante'' (also known as ''Trattatello in laude di Dante''), written after 1348 by
Giovanni Boccaccio Giovanni Boccaccio (, , ; 16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch Francesco Petrarca (; 20 July 1304 – 18/19 July 1374), commonly anglicized Linguistic anglicisation (or angliciza ...

Giovanni Boccaccio
. Although several statements and episodes of it have been deemed unreliable on the basis of modern research, an earlier account of Dante's life and works had been included in the ''Nuova Cronica'' of the Florentine chronicler Giovanni Villani. Italy's first dreadnought battleship was completed in 1913 and named ''Italian battleship Dante Alighieri, Dante Alighieri'' in honor of him. On 30 April 1921, in honor of the 600th anniversary of Dante's death, Pope Benedict XV promulgated an encyclical named ''In praeclara summorum'', naming Dante as one "of the many celebrated geniuses of whom the Catholic faith can boast" and the "pride and glory of humanity". On 7 December 1965, Pope Paul VI promulgated the Latin ''motu proprio'' titled ''Altissimi cantus'', which was dedicated to Dante's figure and poetry. In that year, the pope also donated a golden iron Crosses in heraldry#History, Greek Cross to Dante's burial site in
Ravenna Ravenna ( , , also ; rgn, Ravèna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna The province of Ravenna ( it, provincia di Ravenna; ) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, admin ...

Ravenna
, in occasion of the 700th anniversary of his birth. The same cross was blessed by Pope Francis in October 2020. In 2007, a reconstruction of Dante's face was undertaken in a collaborative project. Artists from Pisa University and forensic engineers at the University of Bologna at Forlì constructed the model, portraying Dante's features as somewhat different from what was once thought. In 2008, the Municipality of Florence officially apologized for expelling Dante 700 years earlier. A celebration was held in 2015 at Italy's Senate of the Republic (Italy), Senate of the Republic for the 750th anniversary of Dante's birth. It included a commemoration from Pope Francis, who also issued the apostolic letter ''Cando lucis aeternae'' in honor of the anniversary. In May 2021, a symbolic re-trial of Dante Alighieri was held virtually in Florence to posthumously clear his name.


Works


Overview

Most of Dante's literary work was composed after his exile in 1301. ''La Vita Nuova'' ("The New Life") is the only major work that predates it; it is a collection of lyric poems (sonnets and songs) with commentary in prose, ostensibly intended to be circulated in manuscript form, as was customary for such poems. It also contains, or constructs, the story of his love for
Beatrice Portinari Beatrice "Bice" di Folco Portinari (; 1265 – 8 June 1290) was an Italian woman who has been commonly identified as the principal inspiration for Dante Alighieri Dante Alighieri (), probably baptized Durante di Alighiero degli Alighieri a ...
, who later served as the ultimate symbol of salvation in the ''Comedy'', a function already indicated in the final pages of the ''Vita Nuova''. The work contains many of Dante's love poems in Tuscan, which was not unprecedented; the vernacular had been regularly used for lyric works before, during all the thirteenth century. However, Dante's commentary on his own work is also in the vernacular—both in the ''Vita Nuova'' and in the ''Convivio''—instead of the Latin that was almost universally used. The ''
Divine Comedy The ''Divine Comedy'' ( it, Divina Commedia ) is a long Italian narrative poem by Dante Alighieri Dante Alighieri (), probably baptized Durante di Alighiero degli Alighieri and often referred to simply as Dante (, also ; – 1321), w ...

Divine Comedy
'' describes Dante's journey through Divine Comedy#Inferno, Hell (''Inferno''), Divine Comedy#Purgatorio, Purgatory (''Purgatorio''), and 9 spheres of heaven, Paradise (''Paradiso''); he is first guided by the Roman poet
Virgil Publius Vergilius Maro (; traditional dates 15 October 7021 September 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil ( ) in English, was an ancient Rome, ancient Roman poet of the Augustan literature (ancient Rome), Augustan period. He composed three ...

Virgil
and then by Beatrice Portinari, Beatrice. Of the books, ''Purgatorio'' is arguably the most lyrical of the three, referring to more contemporary poets and artists than ''Inferno''; ''Paradiso'' is the most heavily theological, and the one in which, many scholars have argued, the ''Divine Comedys most beautiful and mystic passages appear (e.g., when Dante looks into the face of God: "all'alta fantasia qui mancò possa"—"at this high moment, ability failed my capacity to describe," ''Paradiso,'' XXXIII, 142). With its seriousness of purpose, its literary stature and the range—both stylistic and thematic—of its content, the ''Comedy'' soon became a cornerstone in the evolution of Italian as an established literary language. Dante was more aware than most early Italian writers of the variety of Italian dialects and of the need to create a literature and a unified literary language beyond the limits of Latin writing at the time; in that sense, he is a forerunner of the Renaissance, with its effort to create vernacular literature in competition with earlier classical writers. Dante's in-depth knowledge (within the limits of his time) of Roman antiquity, and his evident admiration for some aspects of pagan Rome, also point forward to the 15th century. Ironically, while he was widely honored in the centuries after his death, the ''Comedy'' slipped out of fashion among men of letters: too medieval, too rough and tragic, and not stylistically refined in the respects that the high and late Renaissance came to demand of literature. He wrote the ''Comedy'' in a language he called "Italian", in some sense an amalgamated literary language mostly based on the regional dialect of Tuscany, but with some elements of Latin and other regional dialects. He deliberately aimed to reach a readership throughout Italy including laymen, clergymen and other poets. By creating a poem of epic structure and philosophic purpose, he established that the Italian language was suitable for the highest sort of expression. In French, Italian is sometimes nicknamed ''la langue de Dante''. Publishing in the vernacular language marked Dante as one of the first in Roman Catholic Western Europe (among others such as
Geoffrey Chaucer Geoffrey Chaucer (; – 25 October 1400) was an English poet and author. Widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th ...

Geoffrey Chaucer
and
Giovanni Boccaccio Giovanni Boccaccio (, , ; 16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch Francesco Petrarca (; 20 July 1304 – 18/19 July 1374), commonly anglicized Linguistic anglicisation (or angliciza ...

Giovanni Boccaccio
) to break free from standards of publishing in only Latin (the language of liturgy, history and scholarship in general, but often also of lyric poetry). This break set a precedent and allowed more literature to be published for a wider audience, setting the stage for greater levels of literacy in the future. However, unlike Boccaccio, John Milton, Milton or Ludovico Ariosto, Ariosto, Dante did not really become an author read across Europe until the Romantic era. To the Romantics, Dante, like Homer and William Shakespeare, Shakespeare, was a prime example of the "original genius" who set his own rules, created persons of overpowering stature and depth, and went far beyond any imitation of the patterns of earlier masters; and who, in turn, could not truly be imitated. Throughout the 19th century, Dante's reputation grew and solidified; and by 1865, the 600th anniversary of his birth, he had become established as one of the greatest literary icons of the Western world. New readers often wonder how such a serious work may be called a "comedy". Comedy#Etymology, In the classical sense the word ''comedy'' refers to works that reflect belief in an ordered universe, in which events tend toward not only a happy or amusing ending but one influenced by a Providential will that orders all things to an ultimate good. By this meaning of the word, as Dante himself allegedly wrote in a letter to
Cangrande I della Scala Cangrande (christened Can Francesco) della Scala (9 March 1291 – 22 July 1329) was an Italian nobleman, belonging to the della Scala family which ruled Verona Verona ( , ; vec, Verona or ''Veròna'') is a city on the Adige River in Veneto, ...
, the progression of the pilgrimage from Hell to Paradise is the paradigmatic expression of comedy, since the work begins with the pilgrim's moral confusion and ends with the vision of God. Dante's other works include '''' ("The Banquet"), a collection of his longest poems with an (unfinished) allegorical commentary; ''
De Monarchia ''De Monarchia'' (, ) is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of ...
'', a summary treatise of political philosophy in Latin which was condemned and burned after Dante's death by the Papal Legate Bertrando del Poggetto, which argues for the necessity of a universal or global monarchy to establish universal peace in this life, and this monarchy's relationship to the Roman Catholic Church as guide to eternal peace; and ''
De vulgari eloquentia ''De vulgari eloquentia'' () "on vernacular A vernacular or vernacular language refers to the language or dialect that is spoken by people that are inhabiting a particular country or region. The vernacular is typically the native language ...
'' ("On the Eloquence in the Vernacular"), on vernacular literature, partly inspired by the ''Razos de trobar'' of Raimon Vidal de Bezaudun.


List of works

The major works of Dante's are the following.Bibliothèque nationale de France .
Dante Alighieri (1265-1321)
.
* ''Il Fiore'' and ''Detto d'Amore'' (1283–7) * ''La Vita Nuova'' ("The New Life", 1294) * ''
De vulgari eloquentia ''De vulgari eloquentia'' () "on vernacular A vernacular or vernacular language refers to the language or dialect that is spoken by people that are inhabiting a particular country or region. The vernacular is typically the native language ...
'' ("On the Eloquence in the Vernacular", 1302–5; Latin essay) * '''' ("The Banquet", 1307) * ''
De Monarchia ''De Monarchia'' (, ) is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of ...
'' (1313; Latin treatise on secular and religious power) * ''
Divine Comedy The ''Divine Comedy'' ( it, Divina Commedia ) is a long Italian narrative poem by Dante Alighieri Dante Alighieri (), probably baptized Durante di Alighiero degli Alighieri and often referred to simply as Dante (, also ; – 1321), w ...

Divine Comedy
'' (1320) * ''Eclogues (Dante), Eclogues'' (1320) * ''Quaestio de aqua et terra'' ("A Question of the Water and of the Land", 1320; Latin discussion of a problem in medieval cosmology) * ''Le Rime'' (collected and ordered by modern critics) File:Purgatory (Purgatorio).jpg, Illustration for ''Purgatorio'' (of ''The Divine Comedy'') by Gustave Doré File:Gustave Dore XIV.jpg, Illustration for ''Paradiso'' (of ''The Divine Comedy'') by Gustave Doré File:Paradise (Paradiso) II.jpg, Illustration for ''Paradiso'' (of ''The Divine Comedy'') by Gustave Doré


Notes


Citations


References

* * Teodolinda Barolini (ed.). ''Dante's Lyric Poetry: Poems of Youth and of the 'Vita Nuova. University of Toronto Press, 2014. * * * * * * * * * * * * Guénon, René (1925). ''The Esoterism of Dante'', trans. by C.B. Berhill, in the ''Perennial Wisdom Series''. Ghent, NY: Sophia Perennis et Universalis, 1996. viii, 72 p. ''N.B''.: Originally published in French, entitled L'Esoterisme de Danté, in 1925.


External links

* * * * *
Works by Dante Alighieri
a
One More Library
(Works in English, Italian, Latin, Arabic, German, French and Spanish) * * Th
Dante Museum in Florence
his life, his books and a history & literature blog about Dante * Th
World of Dante
multimedia, texts, maps, gallery, searchable database, music, teacher resources, timeline * Th

texts and multimedia * Th
Dartmouth Dante Project
searchable database of commentary
Dante Online
manuscripts of works, images and text transcripts by Società Dantesca Italiana
Digital Dante
– ''Divine Comedy'' with commentary, other works, scholars on Dante
Open Yale Course on Dante
by Yale University
DanteSources
project about Dante's primary sources developed by Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologie dell'Informazione, ISTI-National Research Council (Italy), CNR and the University of Pisa
Works
Italian and Latin texts, concordances and frequency lists by IntraText
Dante Today
citings and sightings of Dante in contemporary culture
Bibliotheca Dantesca
journal dedicated to all tendencies in Dante studies *Edmund Garratt Gardner (1908). "wikisource:Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Dante Alighieri, Dante Alighieri". In ''Catholic Encyclopedia''. 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company. *Arthur John Butler (1911). "wikisource:1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Dante, Dante". In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). ''Encyclopædia Britannica''. 7. (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 810–817. {{Authority control Dante Alighieri, 1265 births 1321 deaths 14th-century Italian poets 14th-century Italian writers 14th-century Latin writers 14th-century people of the Republic of Florence Apothecaries Catholic poets Christian writers Culture in Florence Demonologists Epic poets Italian exiles Italian-language poets Italian male poets Italian political philosophers Italian Roman Catholics Medieval Latin poets Politicians from Florence Roman Catholic writers Sonneteers Writers from Florence