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Cochinchina or Cochin-China (; vi, miền Nam; km, កូសាំងស៊ីន, ; french: Cochinchine; zh, 交趾支那, ''Jiāozhǐ zhīnà'') is a historical
exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 milli ...
for part of
Vietnam Vietnam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,, group="n" is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the ...

Vietnam
, depending on the contexts. Sometimes it referred to the whole of Vietnam, but it was commonly used to refer to the region south of the
Gianh River The Gianh River ( vi, Sông Gianh) is a river in the Quảng Bình Province Quảng Bình (), formerly Tiên Bình under the reign of Lê Trung Hưng of the Lê dynasty (this province was renamed Quảng Bình in 1604), is a Provinces of Vietnam, ...

Gianh River
. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Vietnam was divided between the
Trịnh lords Trịnh is a Vietnamese Vietnamese may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Vietnam, a country in Southeast Asia ** A citizen of Vietnam. See Demographics of Vietnam. * Vietnamese people, or Kinh people, a Southeast Asian ethnic group na ...
to the north and the
Nguyễn lords The Nguyễn lords (, 主阮; 1558–1777), also known as the Nguyễn clan or House of Nguyễn, were rulers of Đàng Trong (Inner Realm) in Central Vietnam, Central and Southern Vietnam, as opposed to Đàng Ngoài or Outer Realm, ruled by t ...
to the south. The two domains bordered each other on the
Son A son is a male Male (symbol: ♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete (sex cell) known as sperm, which fuses with the larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of fertilization. A male organism cannot sexual reproduction ...
–Gianh River. The northern section was called
Tonkin Tonkin, also spelled ''Tongkin'', ''Tonquin'' or ''Tongking'', is an exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a ...

Tonkin
by Europeans, and the southern part, , was called Cochinchina by most Europeans and Quinam by the
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...

Dutch
. Lower Cochinchina (), whose principal city is
Saigon Ho Chi Minh City ( vi, Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh; or ), commonly and formerly officially known as Saigon ( vi, Sài Gòn; or ), is the largest city in , situated in the . In the southeastern region, the city surrounds the and covers about . P ...

Saigon
, is the newest territory of the Vietnamese people in the movement of (Southward expansion). This region was also the first part of Vietnam to be colonized by the French. Inaugurated as the
French Cochinchina French Cochinchina (sometimes spelled ''Cochin-China''; french: Cochinchine française, vi, Nam Kỳ, Hán tự Spoken and written Vietnamese Vietnamese may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Vietnam, a country in Southeast Asia * ...
in 1862, this colonial administrative unit reached its full extent from 1867 and was a constituent territory of
French Indochina French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China; french: Indochine française; vi, Đông Dương thuộc Pháp, , lit. 'East Ocean under French Control; km, សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន), officially known as the Indochi ...
from 1887 until early 1945. So during the French colonial period, the label ''Cochinchina'' moved further south, and came to refer exclusively to the southernmost part of Vietnam. Beside the French colony of Cochinchina, the two other parts of Vietnam at the time were the French protectorates of Annam (Central Vietnam) and
Tonkin Tonkin, also spelled ''Tongkin'', ''Tonquin'' or ''Tongking'', is an exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a ...
(Northern Vietnam).
South Vietnam South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam (RVN; vi, Việt Nam Cộng Hòa; french: République du Viêt Nam), was a country that existed from 1955 to 1975, the period when the southern portion of Vietnam , image_map ...
(also called ) was reorganized from the
State of Vietnam The State of Vietnam ( vi, Quốc gia Việt Nam; Chữ Nôm: 國家越南; french: État du Viêt-Nam) was a member of the French Union and a country (from 21 July 1954 to 26 October 1955) that claimed authority over all of Vietnam during the F ...
after the Geneva Conference in 1954 by combining Lower Cochinchina with the southern part of Annam, the former protectorate.


Background

The conquest of the south of present-day Vietnam was a long process of territorial acquisition by the Vietnamese. It is called ''
Nam tiến Image:Nam Tien.PNG, 220px, Map of Vietnam showing the conquest of the south (''nam tiến'', 1069–1834). (; vi-hantu, 南進; lit. "southward advance" or "march to the south") was the southward expansion of the territory of Vietnam from the 11t ...
'' (Chinese characters: , English meaning "South
rn
rn
Advance") by Vietnamese historians. Vietnam (then known as
Đại Việt Đại Việt (, ; literally Great Viet), often known as Annam, was a Vietnamese people, Vietnamese kingdom and sovereign state on Eastern Mainland Southeast Asia from the 10th century AD to the early 19th century. Its early name, Đại C ...
) greatly expanded its territory in 1470 under the great king
Lê Thánh Tông Lê Thánh Tông (25 August 1442 – 3 March 1497), personal name Lê Hạo, temple name Thánh Tông, courtesy name Tư Thành, was the emperor of Đại Việt from 1460 to 1497, the fifth monarch of the Later Lê dynasty, House of Lê and ...

Lê Thánh Tông
, at the expense of
Champa Champa (Cham Cham or CHAM may refer to: Ethnicities and languages *Chams The Chams or Cham people ( Cham: ''Urang Campa'' / ꨂꨣꩃ ꨌꩌꨛꨩ, vi, người Chăm or người Chàm, km, ជនជាតិចាម), are an ethni ...

Champa
. The next two hundred years was a time of territorial consolidation and civil war with only gradual expansion southwards. In 1516, Portuguese traders sailing from
Malacca Malacca, officially the State of Malacca, is a Federated state, state in Malaysia located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Strait of Malacca. Its capital is Malacca City, dubbed the Historic City, which has been liste ...
landed in
Da Nang Da Nang (also written as Đà Nẵng, Danang,See also Danang Dragons The Danang Dragons are a Vietnamese professional basketball Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most commonly of five players each, opposing one another on ...

Da Nang
, Đại Việt, and established a presence there. They named the area "Cochin-China", borrowing the first part from the Malay ''Kuchi'', which referred to all of
Vietnam Vietnam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,, group="n" is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the ...

Vietnam
, and which in turn derived from the Chinese '' Jiāozhǐ'', pronounced ''Giao Chỉ'' in Vietnam. They appended the "China" specifier to distinguish the area from the
city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a ...

city
and the
princely state of Cochin
princely state of Cochin
in India, their first headquarters in the
Malabar Coast The Malabar Coast is a region of the southwestern shoreline of the mainland Indian subcontinent. Geographically, it comprises the wettest regions of South India, southern India, as the Western Ghats intercept the moisture-laden monsoon rains, e ...

Malabar Coast
. As a result of a civil war that started in 1520, the Emperor of China sent a commission to study the political status of Annam in 1536. As a consequence of the delivered report, he declared war against the
Mạc dynasty The Mạc dynasty ( vi, Nhà Mạc / ''Mạc triều'' / ''Nhà Bắc Mạc''; Hán Nôm: 家莫 / 莫wikt:朝, 朝 / 家北莫), as known as Northern Mạc or House of Mạc ruled the whole of Names of Vietnam, Đại Việt between 1527 and 15 ...
. The nominal ruler of the Mạc died at the very time that the Chinese armies passed the frontiers of the kingdom in 1537, and his father,
Mạc Đăng Dung Mạc Đăng Dung (chữ Hán; wikt:莫, 莫wikt:登, 登wikt:庸, 庸; 23 November 1483 – 22 August 1541), also known by his temple name Mạc Thái Tổ (), was an emperor of Vietnam and the founder of the Mạc Dynasty. Previously a captain of ...
(the real power in any case), hurried to submit to the Imperial will, and declared himself to be a vassal of China. The Chinese declared that both the
Lê dynastyLe is a romanization of several rare East Asian surnames and a common Vietnamese surname. It is a fairly common surname in the United States, ranked 975th during the 1990 US Census, 1990 census and 368th during the year 2000 US Census, 2000 one. In ...
and the Mạc had a right to part of the lands and so they recognised the Lê rule in the southern part of Vietnam while at the same time recognising the Mạc rule in the northern part, which was called Tunquin (i.e. Tonkin). This was to be a feudatory state of China under the government of the Mạc. However, this arrangement did not last long. In 1592,
Trịnh Tùng Trịnh Tùng (19 December 1550 – 17 July 1623), also known as Trịnh Tòng and later given the title ''Bình An Vương'' (平安王), was the de facto ruler of Đại Việt from 1572 to 1623. Trịnh Tùng is the first official Trịnh Lord, ...

Trịnh Tùng
, leading the Royal (Trịnh) army, conquered nearly all of the Mạc territory and moved the Lê kings back to the original capital of
Hanoi , population_total = 8,053,663 ( 2nd) , population_as_of = 2019 , population_demonym = Hanoian , population_density_km2 = auto , population_urban = 3,962,310 , population_density_urban_km2 = 14708.8 , popula ...

Hanoi
. The Mạc only held on to a tiny part of north Vietnam until 1667, when
Trịnh Tạc
Trịnh Tạc
conquered the last Mạc lands.


Cochinchina Kingdom of the Nguyen lords (1600–1774)

In 1600 after returning from Tonkin, lord
Nguyễn Hoàng Nguyễn Hoàng (28 August 1525 – 20 July 1613) was the first of the Nguyễn lords who ruled the southern provinces of Vietnam between 1558 and 1613, from a series of cities: Ai Tu (1558–70), Tra Bat (1570–1600), and Dinh Cat (modern-day Hu ...
built his own government in the two southern provinces of Thuận Hóa and Quảng Nam, today in central Vietnam. In 1623, lord
Nguyễn Phúc Nguyên Nguyễn Phúc Nguyên (阮福源; 16 August 1563 – 19 November 1635) was an early Nguyễn lords, Nguyễn lord who ruled the southern Vietnam from the city of Phú Xuân (modern-day Huế) from 1613 to 1635. During his rule, the Nguyễn est ...
established a trading community at
Saigon Ho Chi Minh City ( vi, Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh; or ), commonly and formerly officially known as Saigon ( vi, Sài Gòn; or ), is the largest city in , situated in the . In the southeastern region, the city surrounds the and covers about . P ...

Saigon
, then called Prey Nakor, with the consent of the king of Cambodia,
Chey Chettha II th:พระไชยเชษฐาที่ 2 Chey Chettha II ( km, ជ័យជេដ្ឋាទី២ , 1576–1628) was a Ruler of Cambodia, king of Cambodia who reigned from Oudong, about 40 km northwest of modern-day Phnom Penh, from ...
. Over the next 50 years, Vietnamese control slowly expanded in this area but only gradually as the Nguyễn were fighting a protracted civil war with the Trịnh lords in the north. With the end of the war with the Trịnh, the Nguyễn were able to devote more effort (and military force) to conquest of the south. First, the remaining Champa territories were taken; next, the areas around the
Mekong The Mekong or Mekong River is a trans-boundary river in East Asia and Southeast Asia. It is the world's twelfth List of rivers by length, longest river and the sixth longest in Asia. Its estimated length is , and it drains an area of , disch ...

Mekong
river were placed under Vietnamese control. At least three wars were fought between the
Nguyễn lords The Nguyễn lords (, 主阮; 1558–1777), also known as the Nguyễn clan or House of Nguyễn, were rulers of Đàng Trong (Inner Realm) in Central Vietnam, Central and Southern Vietnam, as opposed to Đàng Ngoài or Outer Realm, ruled by t ...
and the Cambodian kings in the period 1715 to 1770 with the Vietnamese gaining more territory with each war. The wars all involved the much more powerful Siamese kings who fought on behalf of their vassals, the Cambodians. During the late 18th century emerged the Tây Sơn Rebellion, coming out from the Nguyễn domain. In 1774, the Trịnh army captured the capital
Phú Xuân Phú Xuân (富春) was the historic capital of the Nguyễn lords, the Tây Sơn dynasty, and later became the Nguyễn dynasty's capital (renamed Huế). History In 1306, the King of Champa Chế Mân offered Vietnam two Chăm prefectures, Ô an ...
of the Nguyễn realm, whose leaders then had to flee to Lower Cochinchina. The three brothers of Tây Sơn, former peasants, however, soon succeeded in conquering first the lands of the Nguyễn and then the lands of the Trịnh, briefly unifying Vietnam. ;Cochinchina Empire of the Nguyễn (1802–1862) Final unification of Vietnam came under Nguyễn Phúc Ánh, a tenacious member of the Nguyễn noble family who fought for 25 years against the Tây Sơn and ultimately conquered the entire country in 1802. He ruled all of Vietnam under the name Gia Long. His son
Minh Mạng Minh Mạng (, vi-hantu, wikt:明, 明wikt:命, 命, lit. "the bright Mandate of Heaven, favour of Heaven"; 25 May 1791 – 20 January 1841; born Nguyễn Phúc Đảm, also known as Nguyễn Phúc Kiểu) was the second List of monarchs of ...
reigned from 14 February 1820 until 20 January 1841 what was known to the British as Cochin China and to the Americans as hyphenated Cochin-China. In hopes of negotiating commercial treaties, the British in 1822 sent
East India Company The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC), East India Trading Company (EITC), the English East India Company or (after 1707) the British East India Company, and informally known as John Company, Com ...
agent
John Crawfurd John Crawfurd (13 August 1783 – 11 May 1868) was a Scottish physician, colonial administrator and diplomat, and author. He is now best known for his work on Asian languages, his ''History of the Indian Archipelago'', and his role in founding ...
, and the Americans in 1833 sent diplomatist Edmund Roberts, who returned in 1836. Neither envoy was fully cognizant of conditions within the country, and neither succeeded. Gia Long's successors (see the
Nguyễn dynasty Nguyễn is the most common Vietnamese surname / family name. Outside of Vietnam, the surname is commonly rendered without diacritic A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph The term gl ...
for details) repelled the Siamese from Cambodia and even annexed
Phnom Penh Phnom Penh (; km, ភ្នំពេញ, ; lit. "Penh's Hill") is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals ...

Phnom Penh
and surrounding territory in the war between 1831 and 1834, but were forced to relinquish these conquests in the war between 1841 and 1845.


Colonial Cochinchina: 1862–1945


French conquest

For a series of complex reasons, the
Second French Empire The Second French Empire (; officially the French Empire, ), was the 18-year Imperial Imperial is that which relates to an empire, emperor, or imperialism. Imperial or The Imperial may also refer to: Places United States * Imperial, Cali ...

Second French Empire
of
Napoleon III Napoleon III (Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 18089 January 1873) was the first President of France The president of France, officially the President of the French Republic (french: Président de la République française), is t ...

Napoleon III
, with the help of
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...
troops arriving from the
Spanish East Indies Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_an ...
, attacked
Đà Nẵng Da Nang ( ; vi, Đà Nẵng, ) is a municipalities of Vietnam, class-1 municipality and the list of cities in Vietnam, fifth-largest city in Vietnam by municipal population. It is the third largest city in Vietnam by urban population, and it is ...

Đà Nẵng
(Tourane) of Nguyen Dynasty Vietnam in September 1858. Unable to occupy Đà Nẵng, the alliance moved to Lower Cochinchina in the South. On 17 February 1859, they captured
Saigon Ho Chi Minh City ( vi, Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh; or ), commonly and formerly officially known as Saigon ( vi, Sài Gòn; or ), is the largest city in , situated in the . In the southeastern region, the city surrounds the and covers about . P ...

Saigon
. Later on, the French defeated the Nguyễn army at the Battle of Ky Hoa in 1861. The
Vietnamese government The Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam is the executive branch The executive (short for executive branch or executive power) is the part of government A government is the system or group of people governing an or ...
was forced to cede the three southern Vietnamese provinces of
Biên Hòa Biên Hòa (Northern accent: , Southern accent: ) is the capital city of Đồng Nai Province, Vietnam and part of the Ho Chi Minh City metropolitan area and located about east of Ho Chi Minh City, Hồ Chí Minh City (formerly Saigon), to which ...
, Gia Định and Định Tường to France in June 1862
Treaty of Saigon Treaty of Saigon may refer to: *Treaty of Saigon (1862)The Treaty of Saigon was signed on 5 June 1862 between representatives of the French Empire and the last precolonial emperor of the House of Nguyen, Emperor Tự Đức. Based on the terms o ...
. In 1867, French Admiral Pierre de la Grandière forced the Vietnamese to surrender three additional provinces,
Châu Đốc Châu Đốc is a city in An Giang Province, bordering Cambodia, in the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam. As of 2013, the city had a population of 157,298, and cover an area of . The city is located by the Bassac River, Hậu River (a branch of the ...
,
Hà Tiên Hà Tiên is a Provincial city (Vietnam), Provincial city in Kiên Giang Province, Mekong Delta in Vietnam. Its area is 10,049 ha and the population as of 2019 is 81,576. The city borders Cambodia to the west. Hà Tiên is a tourist site of the reg ...
and
Vĩnh Long Vĩnh Long () is a city and the capital of Vĩnh Long Province in Vietnam's Mekong Delta. Vĩnh Long covers and has a population of 147,039 (as of 2009). The name was spelled wikt:永, 永wikt:隆, 隆 ("eternal prosperity") in the former Hán N ...
. With these three additions all of southern Vietnam and the Mekong Delta fell under French control.


French colony

In 1871 all the territories ceded to the French in southern Vietnam were incorporated as colony of Cochinchina, with Admiral
Dupré
Dupré
as its first governor. As a result, the name "Cochinchina" came to refer exclusively to the southern third of Vietnam. (In Catholic ecclesiastical contexts Cochinchina still related to the older meaning of ''Đàng Trong'' until 1924 when the three
Apostolic Vicariates An apostolic vicariate is a territorial jurisdiction of the Catholic Church under a titular bishop centered in missionary regions and countries where dioceses or parishes have not yet been established. It is essentially provisional, though it may ...
of Northern, Eastern, and Western Cochinchina were renamed to Apostolic Vicariates of
Huế Huế () is the capital of Thừa Thiên Huế Province in central Vietnam that was the capital of Đàng Trong from 1738 to 1775 and of the Nguyen Dynasty from 1802 to 1945. The city served as the administrative capital for the Nguyen dynasty, ...
,
Qui Nhơn Quy Nhơn () is a coastal city in Bình Định Province in central Vietnam. It is composed of 16 ward (Vietnam), wards and five communes with a total of . Quy Nhơn is the capital of Bình Định Province. As of 2009 its population was 280,535. H ...
, and Saïgon). In 1887, the colony became a confederal member of the Union of French Indochina. Unlike the protectorates of Annam (central Vietnam) and
Tonkin Tonkin, also spelled ''Tongkin'', ''Tonquin'' or ''Tongking'', is an exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a ...
(northern Vietnam), Cochinchina was ruled directly by the French, both ''de jure'' and ''de facto'', and was represented by a deputy in the
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media L ...
in Paris. Within Indochina, Cochinchina was the territory with the greatest European presence. At its height, in 1940, it was estimated at 16,550 people, the vast majority living in Saigon. The French authorities dispossessed Vietnamese landowners and peasants to ensure European control of the expansion of rice and rubber production. As they expanded in response to the increased rubber demand after the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainmen ...

First World War
, the European plantations recruited, as indentured labour, workers from "the overcrowded villages of the
Red River Delta The Red River Delta or Hong River Delta ( vi, Châu thổ sông Hồng) is the flat low-lying plain formed by the Red River and its distributaries merging with the Thái Bình River in northern Vietnam , image_map = , m ...
in
Tonkin Tonkin, also spelled ''Tongkin'', ''Tonquin'' or ''Tongking'', is an exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a ...

Tonkin
and the coastal lowlands of Annam". These migrants brought south the influence of the
Communist Party A communist party is a political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about politics, and part ...
of Nguyen Ai Quoc (
Ho Chi Minh (; , ; : ; 19 May 1890 – 2 September 1969), born , also known as , , , Người cha dân tộc or simply ('Uncle', ), was a Vietnamese Vietnamese may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Vietnam, a country in Southeas ...

Ho Chi Minh
), and of other underground nationalist parties (the ''Tan Viet'' and ''
Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng The Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng (; chữ Hán: ; Nationalist Party of Vietnam), abbreviated VNQDĐ or Việt Quốc, was a Vietnamese nationalism, nationalist and Democratic socialism, democratic socialist political party that sought independ ...
''—VNQDD). At the same time, the local peasantry were driven into debt servitude, and into plantation labour, by land and poll taxes. Such conditions contributed to the 1916 Cochinchina uprising, and to widespread agrarian and labor unrest in 1930-32. In 1936 the formation in France of the
Popular Front A popular front is "any coalition of working-class and middle-class parties", including liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberalism by country *an adherent ...
government led by Leon Blum was accompanied by promises of colonial reform. Failure to deliver, helped generate further unrest culminating in the summer of 1937 in general dock and transport strikes. The left anti-colonial forces split between the Moscow-oriented
Communist Party A communist party is a political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about politics, and part ...
and their Trotskyist left opposition and, following the French declaration of war against Germany in September 1939 was suppressed. Under the slogan "Land to the Tillers, Freedom for the workers and independence for Vietnam", in November 1940 the Communist Party in Cochinchina instigated a widespread
insurrection Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order. It refers to the open resistance against the orders of an established authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behavio ...
. fighting in the Mekong Delta fighting continued until the end of the year.


Southern Resistance War and incorporation into South Vietnam, 1945-1955

Cochinchina was occupied by Japan during World War II (1941–45). After the Japanese surrender in August 1945, the Communist-front Viet Minh had declared a provisional government (a Southern Administrative Committee) in Saigon. In Saigon, the violence of a French restoration assisted by British and surrendered Japanese troops, triggered a general uprising on September 23. In the course of what became known as the Southern Resistance War (Nam Bộ kháng chiến) the Viet Minh defeated rival resistance forces but, by the end of 1945, had been pushed out of Saigon and major urban centres into the countryside. After 1945, the status of Cochinchina was a subject of discord between France and
Ho Chi Minh (; , ; : ; 19 May 1890 – 2 September 1969), born , also known as , , , Người cha dân tộc or simply ('Uncle', ), was a Vietnamese Vietnamese may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Vietnam, a country in Southeas ...

Ho Chi Minh
's
Viet Minh , leader= Ho Chi Minh, successor=Viet Cong The Viet Cong ( vi, Việt Cộng; ), officially known as the National Liberation Front of Southern Vietnam ( vi, Mặt trận Dân tộc Giải phóng miền Nam Việt Nam), was an armed communist ...
. In 1946, the French proclaimed Cochinchina an "autonomous republic", which was one of the causes of the
First Indochina War The First Indochina War (generally known as the Indochina War in France, and as the Anti-French Resistance War in Vietnam) began in French Indochina on December 19, 1946, and lasted until July 20, 1954. Fighting between French forces and their V ...
. In 1948, Cochinchina was renamed as the ''Provisional Government of Southern Vietnam''. It was merged the next year with the
Provisional Central Government of Vietnam The Provisional Central Government of Vietnam was an entity proclaimed in Vietnam during the First Indochina War. It was created as a transitional government replacing the protectorates of Tonkin (French protectorate), Tonkin (Northern Vietnam) and ...
, and the
State of Vietnam The State of Vietnam ( vi, Quốc gia Việt Nam; Chữ Nôm: 國家越南; french: État du Viêt-Nam) was a member of the French Union and a country (from 21 July 1954 to 26 October 1955) that claimed authority over all of Vietnam during the F ...
, with former emperor
Bảo Đại Bảo Đại (, vi-hantu, , lit. "keeper of greatness", 22 October 191330 July 1997), born Nguyễn Phúc Vĩnh Thụy, was the 13th and final Emperor of Vietnam, Emperor of the Nguyễn dynasty, the last ruling family of Vietnam. From 1926 to ...
as head of state, was then officially established.Philippe Franchini, ''Les Guerres d'Indochine'', vol. I, Pygmalion - Gérard Watelet, Paris, 1988, pp. 399-406 After the
First Indochina War The First Indochina War (generally known as the Indochina War in France, and as the Anti-French Resistance War in Vietnam) began in French Indochina on December 19, 1946, and lasted until July 20, 1954. Fighting between French forces and their V ...
and temporary partition of Vietnam agreed at Geneva, with French and American patronage Cochinchina was merged in 1955 with Annam south of the 17th parallel to form the Republic of Vietnam, "
South Vietnam South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam (RVN; vi, Việt Nam Cộng Hòa; french: République du Viêt Nam), was a country that existed from 1955 to 1975, the period when the southern portion of Vietnam , image_map ...
", under the presidency of
Ngo Dinh Diem Ngô Đình Diệm ( or ; ; 3 January 1901 – 2 November 1963) was a Vietnam , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Hanoi , coordinates = , largest_city ...
.


Gallery

File:NamKy1829.jpg, Cochinchina in 1829 under Nguyễn Dynasty File:NamKy1863.jpg, The six provinces of Lower Cochinchina in 1863 File:Cochinchine-map-03.jpg, Cochinchina in 1876 File:NamKy1878.jpg, Cochinchina in 1878 File:Cochinchine 1882.jpg, Cochinchina in 1882 File:NamKy1906.png, Cochinchina in 1906 File:Atlas colonial français Colonies Protectorats (...)Pollacchi Paul bpt6k1100182m (1).jpg, Cochinchina in 1929


See also


References


Further reading

* * {{Authority control Geography of Vietnam Former countries in Vietnamese history History of South Vietnam