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The City University of New York (CUNY ) is the
public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth Engli ...
university system A university system is a set of multiple affiliated universities and colleges that are usually geographically distributed. Typically, all member universities in a university system share a common component among all of their various names. Usually, ...
of
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...
. It is the largest urban university system in the United States, comprising 25 campuses: eleven senior colleges, seven community colleges and seven professional institutions. While its constituent colleges date back as far as 1847, CUNY was established in 1961. The university enrolls more than 275,000 students, and counts thirteen Nobel Prize winners and twenty-four
MacArthur Fellows The MacArthur Fellows Program, also known as the MacArthur Fellowship and commonly but unofficially known as the "Genius Grant", is a prize awarded annually by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation typically to between 20 and 30 indiv ...
among its alumni.


History


Founding

In 1960 John R. Everett became the first Chancellor of the Municipal College System of the City of New York, later renamed CUNY, for a salary of $25,000 ($ in current dollar terms). CUNY was created in 1961, by
New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Colu ...
legislation, signed into law by Governor
Nelson Rockefeller Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979), sometimes referred to by his nickname, Rocky, was an American businessman and politician who served as the 41st vice president of the United States from December 1974 to January ...

Nelson Rockefeller
. The legislation integrated existing institutions and a new graduate school into a coordinated system of higher education for the city, under the control of the "Board of Higher Education of the City of New York", which had been created by New York State legislation in 1926. By 1979, the Board of Higher Education had become the "Board of Trustees of the CUNY". The institutions that were merged to create CUNY were: * The Free Academy – Founded in 1847 by
Townsend Harris Townsend Harris (October 4, 1804 – February 25, 1878) was an American merchant and minor politician, and the first United States Consul General to Japan. He negotiated the " Harris Treaty" between the US and Japan and is credited as the diplo ...

Townsend Harris
, it was fashioned as "a Free Academy for the purpose of extending the benefits of education gratuitously to persons who have been pupils in the common schools of the city and county of New York." The Free Academy later became the
City College of New York The City College of the City University of New York (City College of New York, or simply City College, CCNY, or City) is a public college#REDIRECT Public university#REDIRECT Public university A public university or public college is a univers ...

City College of New York
. * The Female Normal and High School – Founded in 1870, and later renamed the Normal College. It would be renamed again in 1914 to
Hunter College Hunter College is one of the constituent colleges of the City University of New York, a public university A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ownership or receives significant Government spending, ...

Hunter College
. During the early 20th century, Hunter College expanded into the Bronx, with what became Herbert Lehman College.Fitzpatrick, John
"City University of New York"
''U.S. History Encyclopedia''
*
Brooklyn College , mottoeng = Nothing without great effort , established = , parent = CUNY , mottoeng = The education of free people is the hope of Mankind , budget = $3.6 billion , established = 1961 , type = Public university system , chancello ...
– Founded in 1930. *
Queens College Queens College (QC) is a public college A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ownership or receives significant Government spending, public funds through a national or subnational government, as oppo ...
– Founded in 1937.


Accessible education

CUNY has served a diverse student body, especially those excluded from or unable to afford private universities. Its four-year colleges offered a high quality, tuition-free education to the poor, the working class and the immigrants of New York City who met the grade requirements for matriculated status. During the post-
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
era, when some
Ivy League The Ivy League (also known as The Ancient Eight) is an American collegiate athletic conference An athletic conference is a collection of sports team A sports team is a group of individuals who play sport Sport pertains to any form ...
universities, such as
Yale University Yale University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...
, discriminated against Jews, many Jewish academics and intellectuals studied and taught at CUNY. The City College of New York developed a reputation of being "the
Harvard Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly tw ...

Harvard
of the proletariat." As New York City's population—and public college enrollment—grew during the early 20th century and the city struggled for resources, the municipal colleges slowly began adopting selective tuition, also known as instructional fees, for a handful of courses and programs. During the
Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression An economic depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe economic downturn than a economic recession, recess ...
, with funding for the public colleges severely constrained, limits were imposed on the size of the colleges' free Day Session, and tuition was imposed upon students deemed "competent" but not academically qualified for the day program. Most of these "limited matriculation" students enrolled in the Evening Session, and paid tuition. Additionally, as the population of New York grew, CUNY was not able to accommodate the demand for higher education. Higher and higher requirements for admission were imposed; in 1965, a student seeking admission to CUNY needed an average of 92, or A-. This helped to ensure that the student population of CUNY remained largely white and middle-class. Demand in the United States for higher education rapidly grew after
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, and during the mid-1940s a movement began to create
community college A community college is a type of educational institution An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, ...
s to provide accessible education and training. In New York City, however, the community-college movement was constrained by many factors including "financial problems, narrow perceptions of responsibility, organizational weaknesses, adverse political factors, and other competing priorities." Community colleges would have drawn from the same city coffers that were funding the senior colleges, and city higher education officials were of the view that the state should finance them. It was not until 1955, under a shared-funding arrangement with New York State, that New York City established its first community college, on Staten Island. Unlike the day college students attending the city's public baccalaureate colleges for free, the community college students had to pay tuition fees under the state-city funding formula. Community college students paid tuition fees for approximately 10 years. Over time, tuition fees for limited-matriculated students became an important source of system revenues. In fall 1957, for example, nearly 36,000 attended Hunter, Brooklyn, Queens and City Colleges for free, but another 24,000 paid tuition fees of up to $300 a year ($ in current dollar terms). Undergraduate tuition and other student fees in 1957 comprised 17 percent of the colleges' $46.8 million in revenues, about $7.74 million ($ in current dollar terms). Three community colleges had been established by early 1961, when New York City's public colleges were codified by the state as a single university with a chancellor at the helm and an infusion of state funds. But the city's slowness in creating the community colleges as demand for college seats was intensifying and had resulted in mounting frustration, particularly on the part of minorities, that college opportunities were not available to them. In 1964, as New York City's Board of Higher Education moved to take full responsibility for the community colleges, city officials extended the senior colleges' free tuition policy to them, a change that was included by Mayor Robert F. Wagner Jr. in his budget plans and took effect with the 1964–65 academic year. Calls for greater access to public higher education from the Black and Puerto Rican communities in New York, especially in Brooklyn, led to the founding of "Community College Number 7," later Medgar Evers College, in 1966–1967. In 1969, a group of
Black Black is a color which results from the absence or complete absorption of visible light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be visual perception, perceived by t ...
and Puerto Rican students occupied City College and demanded the
racial integration Racial integration, or simply integration, includes desegregation Desegregation is the process of ending the separation of two groups, usually referring to races. Desegregation is typically measured by the index of dissimilarity, allowing resear ...
of CUNY, which at the time had an overwhelmingly
white White is the lightest color and is achromatic (having no hue). It is the color of snow, chalk, and milk, and is the opposite of black. White objects fully diffuse reflection, reflect and scattering, scatter all the visible spectrum, visible wa ...
student body.


Student protests

Students at some campuses became increasingly frustrated with the university's and Board of Higher Education's handling of university administration. At
Baruch College Baruch College (officially the Bernard M. Baruch College) is a public college#REDIRECT Public university#REDIRECT Public university A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ownership or receives significa ...
in 1967, over a thousand students protested the plan to make the college an upper-division school limited to junior, senior, and graduate students. At
Brooklyn College , mottoeng = Nothing without great effort , established = , parent = CUNY , mottoeng = The education of free people is the hope of Mankind , budget = $3.6 billion , established = 1961 , type = Public university system , chancello ...
in 1968, students attempted a sit-in to demand the admission of more
black Black is a color which results from the absence or complete absorption of visible light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be visual perception, perceived by t ...
and Puerto Rican students and additional black studies curriculum. Students at
Hunter College Hunter College is one of the constituent colleges of the City University of New York, a public university A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ownership or receives significant Government spending, ...

Hunter College
also demanded a
Black studies Africana studies, black studies or Africology, in US education, is the multidisciplinary study of the histories, politics and cultures of peoples of African origin in both Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous ...
program. Members of the SEEK program, which provided academic support for underprepared and underprivileged students, staged a building takeover at
Queens College Queens College (QC) is a public college A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ownership or receives significant Government spending, public funds through a national or subnational government, as oppo ...
in 1969 to protest the decisions of the program's director, who would later be replaced by a black professor. Puerto Rican students at
Bronx Community College The Bronx Community College of the City University of New York (BCC) is a public community college in the Bronx, New York City. It is part of the City University of New York system. History The college was established in 1957 through the eff ...
filed a report with the
New York State Division of Human RightsThe New York State Division of Human Rights is a New York (state), New York State agency created to enforce the state's New York Human Rights Law, Human Rights Law. The Division is a unit of the New York State Executive Department under New York Exe ...
in 1970, contending that the intellectual level of the college was inferior and discriminatory.
Hunter College Hunter College is one of the constituent colleges of the City University of New York, a public university A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ownership or receives significant Government spending, ...

Hunter College
was crippled for several days by a protest of 2,000 students who had a list of demands focusing on more student representation in college administration. Across CUNY, students boycotted their campuses in 1970 to protest a rise in student fees and other issues, including the proposed (and later implemented) open admissions plan. Like many college campuses in 1970, CUNY faced a number of
protests and demonstrations File:Demonstration in front of the headquarters of the Spanish National Police in Barcelona.png, Demonstration in front of the headquarters of the Spanish National Police in Barcelona during the 2017 Catalan general strike against 2017 Ca ...
after the
Kent State massacre The Kent State shootings, also known as the May 4 massacre and the Kent State massacre,"These would be the first of many probes into what soon became known as the Kent State Massacre. Like the Boston Massacre almost exactly two hundred years befo ...
and
Cambodian Campaign The Cambodian campaign (also known as the Cambodian incursion and the Cambodian invasion) was a brief series of military operations conducted in eastern Cambodia Cambodia (; also Kampuchea ; km, កម្ពុជា, ), officially the King ...
. The Administrative Council of the City University of New York sent U.S. President
Richard Nixon Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913April 22, 1994) was the 37th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of the and is the of the . The power o ...

Richard Nixon
a telegram in 1970 stating, "No nation can long endure the alienation of the best of its young people." Some colleges, including
John Jay College of Criminal Justice The John Jay College of Criminal Justice (John Jay) is a public college focused on criminal justice 350px, United States criminal justice system flowchart. Criminal justice is the delivery of justice Justice, one of the four cardinal vir ...

John Jay College of Criminal Justice
, historically the "college for cops," held teach-ins in addition to student and faculty protests.


Open admissions

Under pressure from community activists and CUNY Chancellor Albert Bowker, the Board of Higher Education (BHE) approved an Open Admissions plan in 1966, but it was not scheduled to be fully implemented until 1975. However, in 1969, students and faculty across CUNY participated in rallies, student strikes, and class boycotts demanding an end to CUNY's restrictive admissions policies. CUNY administrators and Mayor
John Lindsay John Vliet Lindsay (; November 24, 1921 – December 19, 2000) was an American politician and lawyer. During his political career, Lindsay was a U.S. congressman, mayor of New York City, and candidate for U.S. president. He was also a regular gue ...

John Lindsay
expressed support for these demands, and the BHE voted to implement the plan immediately in the fall of 1970. The doors to CUNY were opened wide to all those demanding entrance, assuring all high school graduates entrance to the university without having to fulfill traditional requirements such as exams or grades. This policy was known as
open admissions Open admissions, or open enrollment, is a type of unselective and noncompetitive college admissions process in the United States in which the only criterion for entrance is a high school diplomaA high school diploma is a North American academic sc ...
and nearly doubled the number of students enrolling in the CUNY system to 35,000 (compared to 20,000 the year before). With greater numbers came more diversity: Black and Hispanic student enrollment increased threefold.
Remedial education Remedial education (also known as developmental education, basic skills education, compensatory education, preparatory education, and academic upgrading) is assigned to assist students in order to achieve expected competencies in core academic ski ...
, to supplement the training of under-prepared students, became a significant part of CUNY's offerings. Additionally, ethnic and Black Studies programs and centers were instituted on many CUNY campuses, contributing to the growth of similar programs nationwide. However, retention of students in CUNY during this period was low, with two-thirds of students enrolled in the early 1970s leaving within four years without graduating.
Robert Kibbee Robert Joseph Kibbee (August 19, 1921 – June 16, 1982) was an American university administrator who was Chancellor of the City University of New York. Biography Kibbee was born on Staten Island Staten Island () is a borough A borough is ...
was Chancellor of the City University of New York, the third-largest university in the United States, from 1971 to 1982.


Financial crisis of 1976

In fall 1976, during New York City's fiscal crisis, the free tuition policy was discontinued under pressure from the federal government, the financial community that had a role in rescuing the city from bankruptcy, and New York State, which would take over the funding of CUNY's senior colleges. Tuition, which had been in place in the State University of New York system since 1963, was instituted at all CUNY colleges. Meanwhile, CUNY students were added to the state's need-based Tuition Assistance Program (TAP), which had been created to help private colleges. Full-time students who met the income eligibility criteria were permitted to receive TAP, ensuring for the first time that financial hardship would deprive no CUNY student of a college education. Within a few years, the federal government would create its own need-based program, known as
Pell Grant A Pell Grant is a subsidy A subsidy or government incentive is a form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector (business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy. Although commonly extende ...
s, providing the neediest students with a tuition-free college education. Joseph S. Murphy was Chancellor of the City University of New York from 1982 to 1990, when he resigned. CUNY at the time was the third-largest university in the United States, with over 180,000 students. By 2011, nearly six of ten full- time undergraduates qualified for a tuition-free education at CUNY due in large measure to state, federal and CUNY financial aid programs. CUNY's enrollment dipped after tuition was re-established, and there were further enrollment declines through the 1980s and into the 1990s.


Financial crisis of 1995

In 1995, CUNY suffered another fiscal crisis when Governor
George Pataki George Elmer Pataki (; born June 24, 1945) is an American attorney and politician who served as the 53rd governor of New York (1995–2006). An attorney by profession, Pataki was elected mayor of his hometown of Peekskill, New York, and went ...

George Pataki
proposed a drastic cut in state financing. Faculty cancelled classes and students staged protests. By May, CUNY adopted deep cuts to college budgets and class offerings. By June, to save money spent on remedial programs, CUNY adopted a stricter admissions policy for its senior colleges: students deemed unprepared for college would not be admitted, this a departure from the 1970
Open Admissions Open admissions, or open enrollment, is a type of unselective and noncompetitive college admissions process in the United States in which the only criterion for entrance is a high school diplomaA high school diploma is a North American academic sc ...
program. That year's final state budget cut funding by $102 million, which CUNY absorbed by increasing tuition by $750 and offering a retirement incentive plan for faculty. In 1999, a task force appointed by Mayor
Rudolph Giuliani Rudolph William Louis Giuliani (, ; born May 28, 1944) is an American attorney and politician who served as the 107th Mayor of New York City The mayor of New York City, officially Mayor of the City of New York, is head of the executive bran ...
issued a report that described CUNY as "an institution adrift" and called for an improved, more cohesive university structure and management, as well as more consistent academic standards. Following the report,
Matthew GoldsteinMatthew Goldstein (born November 10, 1941) is formerly the chancellor of The City University of New York , mottoeng = The education of free people is the hope of Mankind , budget = $3.6 billion , established = 1961 , type = Public universi ...
, a mathematician and City College graduate who had led CUNY's Baruch College and briefly,
Adelphi University Adelphi University is a private university Private universities and private colleges are usually not operated by governments, although many receive tax breaks, public student loans, and grant (money), grants. Depending on their location, pr ...
, was appointed chancellor. CUNY ended its policy of open admissions to its four-year colleges, raised its admissions standards at its most selective four-year colleges (Baruch, Brooklyn, City, Hunter and Queens), and required new enrollees who needed remediation, to begin their studies at a CUNY open-admissions community college.


2010 onwards

CUNY's enrollment of degree-credit students reached 220,727 in 2005 and 262,321 in 2010 as the university broadened its academic offerings. The university added more than 2,000 full-time faculty positions, opened new schools and programs, and expanded the university's fundraising efforts to help pay for them. Fundraising increased from $35 million in 2000 to more than $200 million in 2012. As of Autumn 2013, all CUNY undergraduates are required to take an administration-dictated common core of courses which have been claimed to meet specific "learning outcomes" or standards. Since the courses are accepted university-wide, the administration claims it will be easier for students to transfer course credits between CUNY colleges. It also reduced the number of core courses some CUNY colleges had required, to a level below national norms, particularly in the sciences. The program is the target of several lawsuits by students and faculty, and was the subject of a "no confidence" vote by the faculty, who rejected it by an overwhelming 92% margin. Chancellor Goldstein retired on July 1, 2013, and was replaced on June 1, 2014, by James Milliken, president of the
University of Nebraska A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various Discipline (academia), academic d ...
, and a graduate of the University of Nebraska and
New York University School of Law New York University School of Law (NYU Law) is the professional graduate law school A law school (also known as a law centre or college of law) is an institution specializing in legal education, usually involved as part of a process for be ...
. Milliken retired at the end of the 2018 academic year and moved on to become the Chancellor for the University of Texas system. In 2018, CUNY opened its 25th campus, the CUNY School of Labor and Urban Studies, named after former president Joseph S. Murphy and combining some forms and functions of the Murphy Institute that were housed at the
CUNY School of Professional Studies The CUNY School of Professional Studies (CUNY SPS) is a school of the City University of New York , mottoeng = The education of free people is the hope of Mankind , budget = $3.6 billion , established = 1961 , type = Public university, P ...
. On February 13, 2019, the Board of Trustees voted to appoint Queens College President Felix V. Matos Rodriguez as the chancellor of the City University of New York. Matos became both the first Latino and minority educator to head the University. He assumed the post May 1.


Enrollment and demographics

CUNY is the fourth-largest university system in the United States by enrollment, behind the
California State University The California State University (Cal State or CSU) is a public university #REDIRECT Public university #REDIRECT Public university#REDIRECT Public university A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ow ...
system, the
State University of New York The State University of New York (SUNY ) is a system of public colleges and universities in New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publishe ...
(SUNY) system, and the
University of California The University of California (UC) is a public university, public Land-grant university, land-grant research university, research university system in the U.S. state of California. The system is composed of the campuses at University of Califor ...
system. More than 271,000-degree-credit students, continuing, and professional education students are enrolled at campuses located in all five New York City boroughs. The university has one of the most diverse student bodies in the United States, with students hailing from around the world, but mostly from New York City. The black, white and Hispanic undergraduate populations each comprise more than a quarter of the student body, and Asian undergraduates make up 18 percent. Fifty-eight percent are female, and 28 percent are 25 or older. In the 2017–2018 award year, 144,380 CUNY students received the Federal Pell Grant.


Academics


Component institutions


Management structure

The forerunner of today's City University of New York was governed by the Board of Education of New York City. Members of the Board of Education, chaired by the President of the board, served as ''ex officio'' trustees. For the next four decades, the board members continued to serve as ''ex officio'' trustees of the College of the City of New York and the city's other municipal college, the Normal College of the City of New York. In 1900, the New York State Legislature created separate boards of trustees for the College of the City of New York and the Normal College, which became Hunter College in 1914. In 1926, the Legislature established the Board of Higher Education of the City of New York, which assumed supervision of both municipal colleges. In 1961, the New York State Legislature established the City University of New York, uniting what had become seven municipal colleges at the time: the City College of New York, Hunter College, Brooklyn College, Queens College, Staten Island Community College, Bronx Community College and Queensborough Community College. In 1979, the CUNY Financing and Governance Act was adopted by the State and the Board of Higher Education became the City University of New York Board of Trustees. Today, the City University is governed by the Board of Trustees composed of 17 members, ten of whom are appointed by the
Governor of New York The governor of the State of New York is the head of government of the U.S. state of New York (state), New York. The governor is the head of the Executive (government), executive branch of New York's state government and the commander-in-ch ...
"with the advice and consent of the senate," and five by the
Mayor of New York City The mayor of New York City, officially Mayor of the City of New York, is head of the executive branch of the Government of New York City. The Mayoralty in the United States, mayor's office administers all city services, public property, police ...
"with the advice and consent of the senate." The final two trustees are ''ex officio'' members. One is the chair of the university's student senate, and the other is non-voting and is the chair of the university's faculty senate. Both the mayoral and gubernatorial appointments to the CUNY Board are required to include at least one resident of each of New York City's five boroughs. Trustees serve seven-year terms, which are renewable for another seven years. The Chancellor is elected by the Board of Trustees, and is the "chief educational and administrative officer" of the City University. The administrative offices are in
Midtown Manhattan Midtown Manhattan is the central portion of the New York City borough New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United States. With a ...

Midtown Manhattan
.


Chairs of the board

* 1847
Townsend Harris Townsend Harris (October 4, 1804 – February 25, 1878) was an American merchant and minor politician, and the first United States Consul General to Japan. He negotiated the " Harris Treaty" between the US and Japan and is credited as the diplo ...

Townsend Harris
* 1848 Robert Kelly * 1850 Erastus C. Benedict * 1855 William H. Neilson * 1856 Andrew H. Green * 1858 William H. Neilson * 1859 Richard Warren * 1860 William E. Curtis * 1864 James M. McLean * 1868 Richard L. Larremore * 1870 Bernard Smyth * 1873
Josiah Gilbert Holland Josiah Gilbert Holland (July 24, 1819 – October 12, 1881) was an American novelist and poet who also wrote under the pseudonym Timothy Titcomb. He helped to found and edit ''Scribner's Monthly'' (afterwards the ''Century Magazine''), in which a ...
* 1874 William H. Neilson * 1876 William Wood * 1880 Stephen A. Walker * 1886 * 1890 John L.N. Hunt * 1893 Adolph Sanger * 1894 Charles H. Knox * 1895
Robert Maclay (merchant) Robert Maclay (1834–1898) was an American merchant, business executive, and civic activist. He engaged in real estate and banking in New York City and was appointed to various posts having to do with urban development. Biography Robert Maclay ...
* 1897 Charles Bulkley Hubbell * 1899 J. Edward Swanstrom / Joseph J. Little * 1901 Miles M. O'Brien * 1902 Edward Lauterback / Charles C. Burlingham * 1903 Henry A. Rogers * 1904 Edward M. Shepard * 1905 Henry N. Tifft * 1906 Egerton L. Winthrop Jr. * 1911 Theodore F. Miller * 1913 Frederick P. Bellamy / Thomas Winston Churchill * 1914 Charles Edward Lydecker * 1915 Paul Fuller * 1916 George McAneny / Edward J. McGuire * 1919 William G. Willcox * 1921 Thomas Winston Churchill * 1923 Edward Swann / Edward C. McParlan * 1924 Harry P. Swift * 1926 Moses J. Strook * 1931 Charles H. Tuttle * 1932 Mark Eisner * 1938 Ordway Tead * 1953 Joseph Cavallaro * 1957 Gustave G. Rosenberg * 1966 Porter R. Chandler * 1971 Luis Quero-Chiesa * 1974 Alfred A. Giardino * 1976 Harold M. Jacobs * 1980 James Murphy * 1997 Ann Paolucci * 1999
Herman Badillo Herman Badillo (pronounced ''bah-DEE-yoh''; August 21, 1929 – December 3, 2014) was a Puerto Rican politician who served as borough president of The Bronx The Bronx () is a borough A borough is an administrative division in various Englis ...
* 2001 Benno C. Schmidt Jr. * 2016 Bill Thompson


Faculty

CUNY employs 6,700 full-time faculty members and over 10,000 adjunct faculty members. Faculty and staff are represented by the Professional Staff Congress (PSC), a labor union and chapter of the
American Federation of Teachers The American Federation of Teachers (AFT) is the second largest teacher's labor union A trade union (or a labor union in American English), often simply called a union, is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many comm ...
.


Notable faculty

*
André Aciman André Aciman (; born 2 January 1951) is an Italian-American writer. Born and raised in Alexandria, Egypt, he is currently distinguished professor at the Graduate Center, CUNY, Graduate Center of City University of New York, where he teaches the ...
, writer, Graduate Center * Ali Jimale Ahmed, poet and professor of Comparative Literature, Queens College and Graduate Center * F. Murray Abraham, actor of stage and screen; professor of theater, winner of the
Academy Award for Best Actor The Academy Award for Best Actor is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS, often pronounced ; also known as simply the Academy or the Motion Pictu ...
, Brooklyn College *
Chantal Akerman Chantal Anne Akerman (; 6 June 19505 October 2015) was a Belgian film director A film director controls a film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art used to simulate experiences that ...
, film director, City College of New York * Meena Alexander, poet and writer, Graduate Center and Hunter College *
Hannah Arendt Hannah Arendt (, also , ; 14 October 1906 – 4 December 1975) was a German-born American political theorist. Her many books and articles have had a lasting influence on political theory and philosophy. Arendt is widely considered one of ...
, philosopher and political theorist; author of ''
The Origins of Totalitarianism ''The Origins of Totalitarianism'', published in 1951, was Hannah Arendt's first major work, wherein she describes and analyzes Nazism and Stalinism as the major totalitarian political movements of the first half of the 20th century. History ' ...
'' (1951) and '' The Human Condition'' (1958), Brooklyn College *
Talal Asad Talal Asad (born 1932) is a Saudi-born British cultural anthropologist at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York. Asad has made important theoretical contributions to postcolonialism, Christianity, Islam, and ritual studies and ...
, anthropologist, Graduate Center *
John Ashbery John Lawrence Ashbery (July 28, 1927 – September 3, 2017) was an American poet and art critic. Ashbery is considered the most influential American poet of his time. Oxford University literary critic John Bayley wrote that Ashbery "sounded, in p ...

John Ashbery
, poet,
Pulitzer Prize for Poetry The Pulitzer Prize for Poetry is one of the seven American Pulitzer Prize#REDIRECT Pulitzer Prize The Pulitzer Prize () is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature and musical composition within the U ...
winner, Brooklyn College * William Bialek, biophysicist, Graduate Center *
Edwin G. BurrowsEdwin G. "Ted" Burrows (May 15, 1943 – May 4, 2018) was a Distinguished Professor of History History (from Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. Events occurring before the inv ...
, historian and writer,
Pulitzer Prize for History The Pulitzer Prize for History, administered by Columbia University Columbia University (also known as Columbia, and officially as Columbia University in the City of New York) is a Private university, private Ivy League research university in ...
winner for co-writing '' Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898'' with
Mike Wallace Myron Leon "Mike" Wallace (May 9, 1918 – April 7, 2012) was an American journalist, game show host, actor, and media personality. He interviewed a wide range of prominent newsmakers during his seven-decade career. He was one of the original co ...
, Brooklyn College * Dee L. Clayman, classicist, Graduate Center *
Margaret ClappMargaret Antoinette Clapp (April 10, 1910 – May 3, 1974) was an American scholar, educator and Pulitzer Prize The Pulitzer Prize () is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature and musical composition wi ...
, scholar, winner of the
Pulitzer Prize for Biography or Autobiography The Pulitzer Prize for Biography is one of the seven American Pulitzer Prizes The Pulitzer Prize () is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature and musical composition within the United States. It was e ...
, President of
Wellesley College Wellesley College is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...

Wellesley College
, Brooklyn College *
Ta-Nehisi Coates Ta-Nehisi Paul Coates ( ; born September 30, 1975) is an American author and journalist. Coates gained a wide readership during his time as national correspondent at ''The Atlantic ''The Atlantic'' is an American magazine and multi-platform ...

Ta-Nehisi Coates
, writer, journalist, and activist, CUNY Graduate School of Journalism *
Billy Collins William James Collins (born March 22, 1941) is an American poet, appointed as Poet Laureate of the United States from 2001 to 2003. He is a Distinguished Professor at Lehman College of the City University of New York , mottoeng = The educat ...

Billy Collins
, poet, U.S. Poet Laureate, Lehman College (retired) *
Blanche Wiesen Cook Blanche Wiesen Cook (born April 20, 1941, in New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2019 population of 8, ...
, historian, John Jay College of Criminal Justice and Graduate Center *
John Corigliano John Paul Corigliano (born February 16, 1938) is an American composer of classical music. His scores, now numbering over one hundred, have won him the Pulitzer Prize The Pulitzer Prize () is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and ...
, composer, Graduate Center *
Michael Cunningham Michael Cunningham (born November 6, 1952) is an American novelist and screenwriter. He is best known for his 1998 novel '' The Hours'', which won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction The Pulitzer Prize for Fiction is one of the seven American Pulitz ...
, writer, winner of
Pulitzer Prize for Fiction The Pulitzer Prize for Fiction is one of the seven American Pulitzer Prizes that are annually awarded for Letters, Drama, and Music. It recognizes distinguished fiction by an American author, preferably dealing with American life, published during ...
and PEN/Faulkner Award for '' The Hours'', Brooklyn College * Roy DeCarava, artist and photographer, Hunter College * Carolyn Eisele, mathematician, Hunter College *
Nancy Fraser Nancy Fraser (; born May 20, 1947) is an American philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , translit=philosophos, meaning 'lover of wisdom'. The coining ...
, philosopher and political scientist, Graduate Center * Ruth Wilson Gilmore, geographer, Graduate Center *
Allen Ginsberg Irwin Allen Ginsberg (; June 3, 1926 – April 5, 1997) was an American poet and writer. As a student at Columbia University Columbia University (also known as Columbia, and officially as Columbia University in the City of New York) is ...

Allen Ginsberg
,
beat Beat, beats or beating may refer to: Common meanings Assigned activity or area * Patrol, an area (usually geographic) that one is responsible to monitor, including: ** Beat (police), the territory and time that a police officer patrols ** Beat ...
poet, Brooklyn College * Aaron Goodelman, sculptor * Joel Glucksman, Olympic saber fencer, Brooklyn College * Ralph Goldstein, Olympic épée fencer, Brooklyn College *
Michael Grossman Michael N. Grossman is an American film director, film and television director. He has directed a number of episodes from dozens of different television series, including ''Grey's Anatomy'' and the Television pilot#Backdoor pilots, backdoor p ...
, economist, Graduate Center * Kimiko Hahn, poet, winner of PEN/Voelcker Award for Poetry, Queens College *
David Harvey David W. Harvey (born 31 October 1935) is a British-born Marxist Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that uses a materialist interpretation of historical development, better known as historical materialism, to understand Social ...
, geographer, Graduate Center *
bell hooks Gloria Jean Watkins (born September 25, 1952), better known by her pen name bell hooks, is an American author, professor, Feminism, feminist, and Activism, social activist. The name "bell hooks" is borrowed from her maternal great-grandmother, B ...
, educator, writer and critic, City College of New York"bell hooks." Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2010. Gale Literary Sources. Retrieved June 12, 2018. * Karen Brooks Hopkins, President of the
Brooklyn Academy of Music The Brooklyn Academy of Music (BAM) is a performing arts venue in Brooklyn, New York City, known as a center for progressive and avant-garde performance. It presented its first performance in 1861 and began operations in its present location in 19 ...
, Brooklyn College *
John Hospers John Hospers (June 9, 1918 – June 12, 2011) was an American philosopher and political activist. Hospers was interested in Objectivism, and was once a friend of the philosopher Ayn Rand, though she later broke with him. In 1972 United States pre ...

John Hospers
, first presidential candidate of the US Libertarian Party, Brooklyn College *
Tyehimba Jess Tyehimba Jess (born 1965 in Detroit) is an American poet. His book ''Olio (book), Olio'' received the 2017 Pulitzer Prize for Poetry. Biography Early life Tyehimba Jess was born Jesse S. Goodwin. He grew up in Detroit, where his father worked in ...
, poet, winner of Pulitzer Prize for Poetry, College of Staten Island * KC Johnson born (1967), Brooklyn College and Graduate Center *
Michio Kaku Michio Kaku (, ; born January 24, 1947) is an American theoretical physics, theoretical physicist, futurist, and popular science, popularizer of science (science communicator). He is a professor of theoretical physics in the City College of New ...

Michio Kaku
, physicist, City College * Jane Katz, Olympian swimmer, John Jay College of Criminal Justice *
Alfred Kazin Alfred Kazin (June 5, 1915 – June 5, 1998) was an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA) ...
, writer and critic, Hunter College and Graduate Center *
Saul Kripke Saul Aaron Kripke (; born November 13, 1940) is an American philosopher American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States ** Americans, citizens and nationa ...

Saul Kripke
, philosopher, Graduate Center *
Irving Kristol Irving Kristol (; January 22, 1920 – September 18, 2009) was an American journalist who was dubbed the "godfather of neoconservatism". As a founder, editor, and contributor to various magazines, he played an influential role in the intellect ...
, journalist, City College *
Paul Krugman Paul Robin Krugman ( ; born February 28, 1953) is an American economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories and concepts f ...
, economist, Graduate Center * Peter Kwong, journalist, filmmaker, activist, Hunter College and Graduate Center * Nathan H. Lents, scientist, author, and science communicator, John Jay College of Criminal Justice *
Ben Lerner Benjamin S. Lerner (born February 4, 1979) is an American poet A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may describe themselves as such or be described as such by others. A poet may simply be a writer of poetry, or may perform their art ...
, writer, MacArthur Fellow, Brooklyn College *
Audre Lorde Audre Lorde (; born Audrey Geraldine Lorde; February 18, 1934 – November 17, 1992) was an American writer, feminist, Womanism, womanist, librarian, and civil rights activist. She was a self-described "Black, lesbian, mother, warrior, poet," who ...

Audre Lorde
, poet and activist, City College, John Jay College of Criminal Justice * Cate Marvin, poet, Guggenheim Fellowship winner, College of Staten Island *
Abraham Maslow Abraham Harold Maslow (; April 1, 1908 – June 8, 1970) was an American psychologist who was best known for creating , a theory of psychological health predicated on fulfilling innate human needs in priority, culminating in self-actualizat ...
, psychologist in the school of
humanistic psychology Humanistic Psychology is a psychological perspective that arose in the mid-20th century in answer to two theories: Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory and B. F. Skinner's behaviorism. Thus it was referred to as the "third force" in psychology. T ...
, best known for his theory of human motivation which led to a therapeutic technique known as
self-actualization Self-actualization, in Maslow's hierarchy of needs Maslow's hierarchy of needs is an idea in psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of consciousness, conscious and Unconscious mind, unconsc ...
, Brooklyn College *
John Matteson John Matteson (born March 3, 1961) is an American professor of English and legal writing at John Jay College of Criminal Justice The John Jay College of Criminal Justice (John Jay) is a public college focused on criminal justice 350px, Uni ...
, historian and writer, Pulitzer Prize winner, John Jay College of Criminal Justice *
Maeve Kennedy McKean Maeve Fahey Kennedy McKean (née Townsend; November 1, 1979 – April 2, 2020) was an American public health official, human rights attorney, and academic. A member of the Kennedy family The Kennedy family is an American political family ...
, attorney and public health official *
Stanley Milgram Stanley Milgram (August 15, 1933 – December 20, 1984) was an American social psychologist, best known for his controversial Milgram experiment, experiments on obedience conducted in the 1960s during his professorship at Yale University, Yale.Bla ...
, social psychologist, Graduate Center *
Charles W. Mills Charles Wade Mills is a Caribbean philosopher from Jamaica. He is known for his work in social and political philosophy Political philosophy is the philosophical study of government, addressing questions about the nature, scope, and legitimacy o ...
, philosopher, Graduate Center * June Nash, anthropologist, Graduate Center * Denise O'Connor, Olympic foil fencer, Brooklyn College *
Itzhak Perlman Itzhak Perlman ( he, יצחק פרלמן; born August 31, 1945) is an Israeli-American violin The violin, sometimes known as a '' fiddle'', is a wooden chordophone ( string instrument) in the violin family. Most violins have a hollow wo ...

Itzhak Perlman
, violinist, Brooklyn College *
Frances Fox Piven Frances Fox Piven (born October 10, 1932) is an American professor of political science Political science is the scientific study of politics. It is a social science dealing with systems of governance and power, and the analysis of politics, ...
, political scientist, activist, and educator, Graduate Center *, US Ambassador to Ukraine, Brooklyn College *
Graham Priest Graham Priest (born 1948) is Distinguished Professor of Philosophy at the CUNY Graduate Center, as well as a regular visitor at the University of Melbourne where he was Boyce Gibson Professor of Philosophy and also at the University of St And ...

Graham Priest
, philosopher, Graduate Center * Inez Smith Reid,
Senior Judge Senior status is a form of semi-retirement Retirement is the withdrawal from one's position or occupation or from one's active working life. A person may also semi-retire by reducing work hours or workload. Many people choose to retire when t ...
of the
District of Columbia Court of Appeals The District of Columbia Court of Appeals is the highest court of the District of Columbia ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument and Lincoln Memorial ...
, Brooklyn College *
Adrienne Rich Adrienne Cecile Rich (; May 16, 1929 – March 27, 2012) was an American poet, essayist and feminist. She was called "one of the most widely read and influential poets of the second half of the 20th century", and was credited with bringing "the o ...
, poet and activist, City College of New York * David M. Rosenthal, philosopher, Graduate Center *
Mark Rothko Mark Rothko (), born Markus Yakovlevich Rothkowitz (russian: Ма́ркус Я́ковлевич Ротко́вич, link=no, lv, Markuss Rotkovičs, link=no; name not Anglicized Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally angli ...

Mark Rothko
(born Markus Yakovlevich Rothkowitz), influential
abstract expressionist Abstract expressionism is a post–World War II art movement in American painting, developed in New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the ...
painter, Brooklyn College * Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., historian and social critic, Graduate Center *
Flora Rheta Schreiber Flora Rheta Schreiber (April 24, 1918 – November 3, 1988)Special Collections, database. 2020.The Papers of Flora Rheta Schreiber 1916–1988" ''Lloyd Sealy Library''. New York: John Jay College of Criminal Justice. Retrieved 13 May 2020. was an Un ...
, journalist, John Jay College of Criminal Justice *
Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick (; May 2, 1950 – April 12, 2009) was an American academic scholar in the fields of gender studies Gender studies is an interdisciplinary Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination o ...
, literary critic, Graduate Center *
Betty Shabazz Betty Shabazz (born Betty Dean Sanders; May 28, 1934 – June 23, 1997), also known as Betty X, was an American educator and civil rights advocate. She was married to Malcolm X. Shabazz grew up in Detroit (strait) , nicknam ...

Betty Shabazz
, educator and activist, Medgar Evers College *
Mark Strand Mark Strand (April 11, 1934 – November 29, 2014) was a Canadian-born American poet A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may describe themselves as such or be described as such by others. A poet may simply be a writer of poetry, or ...
,
United States Poet Laureate The Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress—commonly referred to as the United States Poet Laureate—serves as the official poet of the United States. During their term, the Poet Laureate seeks to raise the national conscio ...
,
Pulitzer Prize for Poetry The Pulitzer Prize for Poetry is one of the seven American Pulitzer Prize#REDIRECT Pulitzer Prize The Pulitzer Prize () is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature and musical composition within the U ...
-winning poet, essayist, and translator, Brooklyn College *
Dennis Sullivan Dennis Parnell Sullivan (born February 12, 1941) is an American mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quant ...
, mathematician, Graduate Center * Harold Syrett (1913–1984), President of
Brooklyn College , mottoeng = Nothing without great effort , established = , parent = CUNY , mottoeng = The education of free people is the hope of Mankind , budget = $3.6 billion , established = 1961 , type = Public university system , chancello ...
* Katherine Verdery, anthropologist, Graduate Center * Michele Wallace, women's studies and film studies, City College and Graduate Center *
Mike Wallace Myron Leon "Mike" Wallace (May 9, 1918 – April 7, 2012) was an American journalist, game show host, actor, and media personality. He interviewed a wide range of prominent newsmakers during his seven-decade career. He was one of the original co ...
, historian and writer, John Jay College of Criminal Justice and Graduate Center *
Ruth Westheimer Karola Ruth Westheimer (''née__NOTOC__ A birth name is the name of the person given upon their birth. The term may be applied to the surname, the given name or to the entire name. Where births are required to be officially registered, the ent ...
(better known as Dr. Ruth; born Karola Ruth Siegel),
sex therapist Sex therapy is a strategy for the improvement of sexual function and treatment of sexual dysfunction. This includes sexual dysfunctions such as premature ejaculation Premature ejaculation (PE) occurs when a man experiences orgasm Orgasm (from ...
, media personality, author, radio, television talk show host, and
Holocaust survivor Holocaust survivors are people who survived the Holocaust The Holocaust, also known as the Shoah, was the genocide of History of the Jews in Europe, European Jews during World War II. Between 1941 and 1945, Nazi Germany and #Collaboration, i ...
, Brooklyn College *
Elie Wiesel Elie Wiesel (, born Eliezer Wiesel ''ʾÉlīʿezer Vīzel''; September 30, 1928 – July 2, 2016) was a Romanian-born American writer, professor, political activist, Nobel laureate Nobel laureates of 2012 Alvin E. Roth, Brian Kobilka, Robe ...

Elie Wiesel
, novelist, political activist, winner of the
Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prize The Nobel Prizes ( ; sv, Nobelpriset ; no, Nobelprisen ) are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel's Will and testament, will of 1895, are awarded to "those who, during t ...
,
Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is an award bestowed by the to recognize people who have made "an especially meritorious contribution to the security or national interests of the United States, world peace, cultural or other significant publi ...

Presidential Medal of Freedom
, and
Congressional Gold Medal The Congressional Gold Medal is an award bestowed by the United States Congress. It is Congress's highest expression of national appreciation for distinguished achievements and contributions by individuals or institutions. The congressional pra ...
, City College * C. K. Williams, poet, won
Pulitzer Prize for Poetry The Pulitzer Prize for Poetry is one of the seven American Pulitzer Prize#REDIRECT Pulitzer Prize The Pulitzer Prize () is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature and musical composition within the U ...
, Brooklyn College * , engineer and physicist, Graduate Center * Robert Alfano, physicist, discovered the
supercontinuum while the red line shows the resulting supercontinuum spectrum generated after propagating through the fiber. In optics Optics is the branch of physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowle ...
, City College * Branko Milanović, economist most known for his work on
income distributionIn economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods and ...
and
inequality Inequality may refer to: Economics * Attention inequality Attention inequality is a term used to target the inequality of distribution of attention across users on social networks, people in general, and for scientific papers. Yun Family Foundat ...
; a visiting presidential professor at the
Graduate Center The Graduate School and University Center of the City University of New York (The Graduate Center) is a public university, public research institution and post-graduate university in New York City. It is the principal doctoral-granting institution ...
of the City University of New York, an affiliated senior scholar at the
Luxembourg Income Study LIS Cross-National Data Center, formerly known as the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS), is a non-profit organization registered in Luxembourg which produces a cross-national database of micro-economic income data for social science research. The projec ...
and former lead economist in the
World Bank The World Bank is an international financial institution An international financial institution (IFI) is a financial institution that has been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and hence is subject to international law. Its o ...
's research department.


Public Safety Department

CUNY has its own public safety Department whose duties are to protect and serve all students and faculty members, and to enforce all state and city laws at the 26 CUNY campuses. The Public Safety Department came under heavy criticism from student groups, after several students protesting tuition increases tried to occupy the lobby of the Baruch College. The occupiers were forcibly removed from the area and several were arrested on November 21, 2011.


City University Television (CUNY TV)

CUNY also has a broadcast TV service,
CUNY TV Image:CUNY Graduate Center by David Shankbone.jpg, CUNY Television Studios located at the Graduate Center. CUNY TV is a non-commercial educational television station in New York City, part of the City University of New York's university system ...
(channel 75 on
Spectrum A spectrum (plural ''spectra'' or ''spectrums'') is a condition that is not limited to a specific set of values but can vary, without gaps, across a continuum Continuum may refer to: * Continuum (measurement) Continuum theories or models expla ...
, digital HD broadcast channel 25.3), which airs telecourses, classic and foreign films, magazine shows, and panel discussions in foreign languages.


City University Film Festival (CUNYFF)

The City University Film Festival is CUNY's official film festival. The festival was founded in 2009.


Notable alumni

CUNY graduates include List of Nobel laureates affiliated with the City University of New York, 13 Nobel laureates, 2 Fields Medalists, a U.S. Secretary of State, a Supreme Court Justice, several New York City mayors, members of Congress, state legislators, scientists, artists, and Olympians.


See also

* City University of New York Athletic Conference * CUNY Academic Commons * Education in New York City * Guide Association *
State University of New York The State University of New York (SUNY ) is a system of public colleges and universities in New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publishe ...
(SUNY) system. * The William E. Macaualay Honors College


References


External links

*
City University of New York
in Open NY (https://data.ny.gov/) * * {{DEFAULTSORT:City University Of New York City University of New York, Educational institutions established in 1961 1961 establishments in New York City Public universities and colleges in New York (state) Public university systems in the United States