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, native_name_lang = syc , image = Assyrian Church.png , imagewidth = 200px , alt = , caption =
Cathedral of Our Lady of Sorrows The Cathedral of our Lady of Sorrows, also called ''Cathedral of Mary Mother of Sorrows'', is a Chaldean Catholic cathedral located in Baghdad, Iraq, dedicated to Our Lady of Sorrows. Consecrated in 1898, it is the seat of the Chaldean Catholic Pat ...

Cathedral of Our Lady of Sorrows

Baghdad Baghdad (; ar, بَغْدَاد ) is the capital of Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, ...

Baghdad
,
Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق, translit=Komarî Êraq), is a country i ...

Iraq
, abbreviation = , type = , main_classification =
Eastern Catholic The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, Eastern Rite Catholicism, or simply the Eastern Churches and in some historical cases referred to as ''Uniates'', are twenty-three East ...
, orientation =
Syriac Christianity Syriac Christianity ( syr, ܡܫܝܚܝܘܬܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ / ''Mšiḥāyuṯā Suryāyṯā''; ar, مسيحية سريانية, ''masīḥiyyat suryāniyya'') represents a distinctive branch of Eastern Christianity Eastern Christianity compris ...

Syriac Christianity
(Eastern) , scripture =
Peshitta The Peshitta ( syc, ܦܫܺܝܛܬܳܐ ''or'' ') is the standard version of the Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hel ...

Peshitta
, theology =
Catholic theology Catholic theology is the understanding of Catholic doctrine or teachings, and results from the studies of theologians. It is based on Biblical canon, canonical Catholic Bible, scripture, and sacred tradition, as interpreted authoritatively by t ...
, polity = , governance = Holy Synod of the Chaldean Church , structure = , leader_title =
Pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state o ...

Pope
, leader_name =
Francis Francis may refer to: People *Pope Francis Pope Francis ( la, Franciscus; it, Francesco; es, link=no, Francisco; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio, 17 December 1936) is the head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to ...

Francis
, leader_title1 =
Patriarch The highest-ranking bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Or ...
, leader_name1 =
Louis Raphaël I Sako
Louis Raphaël I Sako
, leader_title2 = , leader_name2 = , leader_title3 = , leader_name3 = , fellowships_type = , fellowships = , fellowships_type1 = , fellowships1 = , division_type = , division = , division_type1 = , division1 = , division_type2 = , division2 = , division_type3 = , division3 = , associations = , area =
Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق, translit=Komarî Êraq), is a country i ...

Iraq
,
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
,
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
,
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...

Syria
, with
diaspora A diaspora ( ) is a scattered population whose origin Origin(s) or The Origin may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Comics and manga * , a Wolverine comic book mini-series published by Marvel Comics in 2002 * , a 1999 ''Buffy th ...

diaspora
, language = Liturgical:
SyriacSyriac may refer to: *Syriac language, a dialect of Middle Aramaic * Syriac alphabet ** Syriac (Unicode block) ** Syriac Supplement * Neo-Aramaic languages also known as Syriac in most native vernaculars * Syriac Christianity, the churches using Syr ...

Syriac
, liturgy =
East Syriac Rite The East Syriac Rite or East Syrian Rite, also called the Edessan Rite, Assyrian Rite, Persian Rite, Chaldean Rite, Nestorian Rite, Babylonian Rite or Syro-Oriental Rite, is an Eastern Christian liturgical rite that employs the Liturgy of Addai ...
, headquarters =
Cathedral of Mary Mother of Sorrows The Cathedral of our Lady of Sorrows, also called ''Cathedral of Mary Mother of Sorrows'', is a Chaldean Catholic cathedral A cathedral is a church that contains the '' cathedra'' () of a bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or a ...
,
Baghdad Baghdad (; ar, بَغْدَاد ) is the capital of Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, ...

Baghdad
,
Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق, translit=Komarî Êraq), is a country i ...

Iraq
, founder = Traces ultimate origins to
Thomas the Apostle Thomas the Apostle ( hbo, תוֹמָאס הקדוש; grc, Θωμᾶς; cop, ⲑⲱⲙⲁⲥ; syc, ܬܐܘܡܐ ܫܠܝܚܐ ''Tʾōmā šliḥā''; Hindi: सेंट थॉमस ''Seṇṭ thômas''; Tamil language, Tamil: புனித த ...
and the
Apostolic Era Christianity in the 1st century covers the formative history of Christianity from the start of the ministry of Jesus ( 27–29 AD) to the death of the last of the Apostles in Christianity, Twelve Apostles ( 100) and is thus also known as the Apo ...
through
Addai According to Eastern Christian Eastern Christianity comprises Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus C ...
and
Mari Mari may refer to: Places *Mari, Paraíba, Brazil, a city *Mari, Cyprus, a village *Mari, Greece, a village, site of ancient town of Marius (Laconia), Marius *Mari, Iran (disambiguation), places in Iran *Mari, Punjab, a village and a union counci ...
, founded_date =
1552 __NOTOC__ Year 1552 ( MDLII) was a leap year starting on FridayA leap year starting on Friday is any year with 366 days (i.e. it includes 29 February) that begins on Friday 1 January and ends on Saturday 31 December. Its dominical letters hence ...
, founded_place = , separated_from = , parent = , merger = , absorbed = , separations =
Assyrian Church of the East The Assyrian Church of the East ( syc, ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܖ̈ܝܐ, ʿĒḏtā ḏ-Maḏnḥā ḏ-ʾĀṯūrāyē, ar, كنيسة المشرق الآشورية), officially the Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East ( sy ...
(1692)
Syro-Malabar Church lat, Ecclesia Syrorum-Malabarensium , native_name_lang=, image = St. Thomas' Cross (Chennai, St. Thomas Mount).jpg , caption = The ''Mar Thoma Sliva'' or ''Saint Thomas Cross Saint Thomas Christian crosses are a ...
(1599) , merged_into = , defunct = , congregations_type = , congregations = , members = 616,639 (2018)Eastern Catholic Churches Worldwide 2018
/ref> , ministers_type = , ministers = , missionaries = , churches = , hospitals = , nursing_homes = , aid = , primary_schools = , secondary_schools = , tax_status = , tertiary = , other_names = Chaldean Patriarchate , publications = , website = , slogan = , logo = , footnotes = The Chaldean Catholic Church ( syc, ܥܕܬܐ ܟܠܕܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝܬܐ, ''ʿīdtha kaldetha qāthuliqetha''; ar, الكنيسة الكلدانية ''al-Kanīsa al-kaldāniyya''; la, Ecclesia Chaldaeorum Catholica, translation=Catholic Church of the Chaldeans) is an
Eastern Catholic The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, Eastern Rite Catholicism, or simply the Eastern Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian Eastern Christianity comprises Chris ...
particular church A particular church ( la, ecclesia particularis) is an ecclesiastical community of faithful headed by a Bishop (Catholic Church), bishop (or Hierarchy of the Catholic Church#Equivalents of diocesan bishops in law, equivalent), as defined by Catho ...
(''
sui juris ''Sui iuris'', also spelled as ''sui juris'' ( or ), is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, know ...
'') in
full communion Full communion is a communion or relationship of full understanding among different Christian denomination A Christian denomination is a distinct Religion, religious body within Christianity that comprises all Church (congregation), church cong ...
with the
Holy See The Holy See ( lat, Sancta Sedes, ; it, Santa Sede ), also called the See of Rome or Apostolic See, is the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian ...
and the rest of the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic Church
, and is headed by the Chaldean Patriarchate. Employing in its
liturgy Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group. As a religious phenomenon, liturgy represents a community, communal response to and participation in the sacred through activities reflecting praise, thanksgiving, remembrance ...
the
East Syriac Rite The East Syriac Rite or East Syrian Rite, also called the Edessan Rite, Assyrian Rite, Persian Rite, Chaldean Rite, Nestorian Rite, Babylonian Rite or Syro-Oriental Rite, is an Eastern Christian liturgical rite that employs the Liturgy of Addai ...
in the
Syriac language The Syriac language (; syc, / '), also known as Syriac Aramaic (''Syrian Aramaic'', ''Syro-Aramaic'') and Classical Syriac (in its literary and liturgical form), is an Aramaic Aramaic (: ''Arāmāyā''; : ; : ; ) is a language that ...

Syriac language
, it is part of
Syriac Christianity Syriac Christianity ( syr, ܡܫܝܚܝܘܬܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ / ''Mšiḥāyuṯā Suryāyṯā''; ar, مسيحية سريانية, ''masīḥiyyat suryāniyya'') represents a distinctive branch of Eastern Christianity Eastern Christianity compris ...

Syriac Christianity
. Headquartered in the
Cathedral of Mary Mother of Sorrows The Cathedral of our Lady of Sorrows, also called ''Cathedral of Mary Mother of Sorrows'', is a Chaldean Catholic cathedral A cathedral is a church that contains the '' cathedra'' () of a bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or a ...
,
Baghdad Baghdad (; ar, بَغْدَاد ) is the capital of Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, ...

Baghdad
,
Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق, translit=Komarî Êraq), is a country i ...

Iraq
, since 1950, it is headed by the
CatholicosCatholicos, plural Catholicoi, is a title used for the head of certain churches in some Eastern Christian traditions. The title implies autocephaly and in some cases it is the title of the head of an autonomous church. The word comes from ancient ...
-
Patriarch The highest-ranking bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Or ...
. In 2010, it had a membership of 490,371, of whom 310,235 (63.27%) lived in the
Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task whi ...

Middle East
(mainly in
Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق, translit=Komarî Êraq), is a country i ...

Iraq
). The
United States Commission on International Religious Freedom The United States Commission on International Religious Freedom (USCIRF) is a U.S. federal government commission created by the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998, International Religious Freedom Act (IRFA) of 1998. USCIRF Commissioners ...
, reports that, according to the Iraqi Christian Foundation, an agency of the Chaldean Catholic Church, approximately 80% of
Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق, translit=Komarî Êraq), is a country i ...

Iraq
i Christians are of that Church. In its own 2018 Report on Religious Freedom, the U.S. Department of State put the Chaldean Catholics at approximately 67% of the Christians in Iraq. The 2019 Country Guidance on Iraq of the European Asylum Support Office gives the same information as the U.S. Department of State.


Origin

The Chaldean Catholic Church arose following a
schism A schism ( , , or, less commonly, ) is a division between people, usually belonging to an organization, movement, or religious denomination. The word is most frequently applied to a split in what had previously been a single religious body, s ...
within the
Church of the East The Church of the East ( syc, , ''ʿĒḏtā d-Maḏenḥā''), also called the Persian Church, East Syrian Church, Babylonian Church, Seleucian Church, Edessan Church, Chaldean Church, or the Nestorian Church, was an church of the , based ...
. In 1552, the established "Eliya line" of patriarchs was opposed by a rival patriarch, Sulaqa, who initiated what is called the "Shimun line". He, and his early successors, entered into communion with the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic Church
, but in the course of over a century loosened their link with Rome and under Shimun XIII Dinkha, openly renounced it in 1672, by adopting a profession of faith that contradicted that of Rome, while they maintained their independence from the "Eliya line". Leadership of those who wished to be in communion with Rome then passed to the Archbishop of Amid
Joseph IJoseph I may refer to: *Joseph I of Constantinople, Ecumenical Patriarch in 1266–1275 and 1282–1283 *Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor (1678–1711) *Joseph I (Chaldean Patriarch) (reigned 1681–1696) *Joseph I of Portugal (1750–1777) *Joseph Bona ...
, recognized as Catholic patriarch, first by the Turkish civil authorities (1677), and then by Rome itself (1681). A century and a half later, in 1830, Rome conferred headship of the Catholics on
Yohannan Hormizd Yohannan VIII Hormizd (often referred to by European missionaries as ''John Hormez'' or ''Hanna Hormizd'') (1760–1838) was the last hereditary patriarch The highest-ranking bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed memb ...
. A member of the "Eliya line" family: he opposed
Eliya XII Eliya XII ( syr, ܐܠܝܐ / ''Elīyā'', d. 1804) was Patriarch of the Church of the East, Patriarch of the Church of the East, from 1778 to 1804, with formal residence in Rabban Hormizd Monastery, near Alqosh, in modern Iraq. His birth name was I ...
(1778–1804), the last of that line to be elected in the normal way as patriarch, was himself irregularly elected in 1780, as Sulaqa had been in 1552, and won over to communion with Rome most of the followers of the ''Eliya line''. The "Shimun line" that in 1553 entered communion with Rome and broke it off in 1672, is now that of the church that in 1976 officially adopted the name "
Assyrian Church of the East The Assyrian Church of the East ( syc, ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܖ̈ܝܐ, ʿĒḏtā ḏ-Maḏnḥā ḏ-ʾĀṯūrāyē, ar, كنيسة المشرق الآشورية), officially the Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East ( sy ...
", while a member of the "Eliya line" family is part of the series of patriarchs of the Chaldean Catholic Church.


The description "Chaldean"

For many centuries, from at least the time of
Jerome Jerome (; la, Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; – 30 September 420), also known as Jerome of Stridon, was a Christian priest A priest is a religious leader authoriz ...

Jerome
(c. 347 – 420), the term "Chaldean" indicated the Chaldean (Neo-Aramaic) language and was still the normal name in the nineteenth century. Only in 1445 did it begin to be used to mean Aramaic speakers in
communion Communion may refer to: Religion * The Eucharist (also called the Holy Communion or Lord's Supper), the Christian rite involving the eating of bread and drinking of wine, reenacting the Last Supper **Communion (chant), the Gregorian chant that acc ...
with the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic Church
, on the basis of a decree of the
Council of Florence The Council of Florence is the seventeenth ecumenical council An ecumenical council (or oecumenical council; also general council) is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological experts convened to discuss and settle matt ...
, which accepted the profession of faith that Timothy,
metropolitan Metropolitan may refer to: * Metropolitan area, a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories * Metropolitan borough, a form of local government district in England * Metropolitan county, a type ...
of the Aramaic speakers in
Cyprus Cyprus ; tr, Kıbrıs (), officially called the Republic of Cyprus,, , lit: Republic of Cyprus is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or poli ...

Cyprus
, made in Aramaic, and which decreed that "nobody shall in future dare to call ..Chaldeans, Nestorians". Previously, when there were as yet no Catholic Aramaic speakers of Mesopotamian origin, the term "Chaldean" was applied with explicit reference to their "
Nestorian Nestorianism is a polysemic Polysemy ( or ; from grc-gre, πολύ-, , "many" and , , "sign") is the capacity for a word or phrase to have multiple meanings, usually related by contiguity of meaning within a semantic field. Polysemy is thus ...

Nestorian
" religion. Thus Jacques de Vitry wrote of them in 1220/1 that "they denied that Mary was the Mother of God and claimed that Christ existed in two persons. They consecrated leavened bread and used the 'Chaldean' (Syriac) language". The decree of the Council of Florence was directed against use of "Chaldean" to signify "non-Catholic." Outside of Catholic Church usage, the term "Chaldean" continued to apply to all associated with the Church of the East tradition, whether they were in communion with Rome or not. It indicated not race or nationality, but only language or religion. Throughout the 19th century, it continued to be used of East Syriac Christians, whether "Nestorian" or Catholic, and this usage continued into the 20th century. In 1852 George Percy Badger distinguished those whom he called Chaldeans from those whom he called Nestorians, but by religion alone, never by language, race or nationality. Patriarch
Raphael I Bidawid Mar Raphael I Bidawid † ( syr, ܪܘܦܐܝܠ ܩܕܡܝܐ ܒܝܬ ܕܘܝܕ, Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan ...

Raphael I Bidawid
of the Chaldean Catholic Church (1989–2003), who accepted the term Assyrian as descriptive of his nationality, commented: "When a portion of the Church of the East became Catholic in the 17th Century, the name given to the church was 'Chaldean' based on the Magi kings who were believed by some to have come from what once had been the land of the Chaldean, to Bethlehem. The name 'Chaldean' does not represent an ethnicity, just a church ..We have to separate what is ethnicity and what is religion ..I myself, my sect is Chaldean, but ethnically, I am Assyrian." Earlier, he said: "Before I became a priest I was an Assyrian, before I became a bishop I was an Assyrian, I am an Assyrian today, tomorrow, forever, and I am proud of it."


History


The Church of the East

The Chaldean Catholic Church traces its beginnings to the
Church of the East The Church of the East ( syc, , ''ʿĒḏtā d-Maḏenḥā''), also called the Persian Church, East Syrian Church, Babylonian Church, Seleucian Church, Edessan Church, Chaldean Church, or the Nestorian Church, was an church of the , based ...
, which was founded in the
Parthian Empire The Parthian Empire (), also known as the Arsacid Empire (), was a major political and cultural power in from 247 BC to 224 AD. Its latter name comes from its founder, , who led the tribe in conquering the region of in 's northeast, ...

Parthian Empire
. The Acts of the Apostles mentions Parthians as among those to whom the apostles preached on the day of Pentecost (Acts 2:9).
Thomas the Apostle Thomas the Apostle ( hbo, תוֹמָאס הקדוש; grc, Θωμᾶς; cop, ⲑⲱⲙⲁⲥ; syc, ܬܐܘܡܐ ܫܠܝܚܐ ''Tʾōmā šliḥā''; Hindi: सेंट थॉमस ''Seṇṭ thômas''; Tamil language, Tamil: புனித த ...
,
Thaddeus of Edessa According to Eastern Christian tradition, Thaddeus of Edessa ( Syriac: ܡܪܝ ܐܕܝ, Mar Addai or Mor Aday, sometimes Latinized Addeus) was one of the seventy disciples of Jesus Jesus; he, יֵשׁוּעַ, '' Yēšū́aʿ''; ar, ...
, and
Bartholomew the Apostle Bartholomew (Aramaic: ; grc, Βαρθολομαῖος, translit=Bartholomaîos; la, Bartholomaeus; arm, Բարթողիմէոս; cop, ⲃⲁⲣⲑⲟⲗⲟⲙⲉⲟⲥ; he, בר-תולמי, translit=bar-Tôlmay; ar, بَرثُولَماوُ ...
are reputed to be its founders. One of the modern Churches that boast descent from it says it is "the Church in Babylon" spoken of in 1 Peter 5:13 and that he visited it. Under the rule of the
Sasanian Empire The Sasanian () or Sassanid Empire, officially known as the Empire of Iranians (, ''Ērānshahr The Sasanian () or Sassanid Empire, officially known as the Empire of Iranians (Middle Persian Middle Persian or Pahlavi, also known by its ...

Sasanian Empire
, which overthrew the Parthians in 224, the Church of the East continued to develop its distinctive identity by use of the
Syriac language The Syriac language (; syc, / '), also known as Syriac Aramaic (''Syrian Aramaic'', ''Syro-Aramaic'') and Classical Syriac (in its literary and liturgical form), is an Aramaic Aramaic (: ''Arāmāyā''; : ; : ; ) is a language that ...

Syriac language
and
Syriac script The Syriac alphabet ( ) is a writing system primarily used to write the Syriac language since the 1st century AD. It is one of the Semitic languages, Semitic abjads descending from the Aramaic alphabet through the Palmyrene alphabet, and shares ...
. One "Persian" bishop was at the
First Council of Nicaea The First Council of Nicaea (; grc, Νίκαια ) was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynia Bithynia (; Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialec ...
(325). There is no mention of Persian participation in the
First Council of Constantinople The First Council of Constantinople ( la, Concilium Constantinopolitanum; grc-gre, Σύνοδος τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως) was a council of Christian bishops convened in Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قس ...
(381), in which also the Western part of the Roman Empire was not involved. The
Council of Seleucia-Ctesiphon The Council of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, also called the Council of Mar Isaac, met in AD 410 in Seleucia-Ctesiphon, the capital of the Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جم ...
of 410, held in the Sasanian capital, recognized the city's bishop
Isaac Isaac, ''Isaák''; ar, إسحٰق/إسحاق, ; am, ይስሐቅ is one of the three patriarchs The highest-ranking bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is gene ...
as
CatholicosCatholicos, plural Catholicoi, is a title used for the head of certain churches in some Eastern Christian traditions. The title implies autocephaly and in some cases it is the title of the head of an autonomous church. The word comes from ancient ...
, with authority throughout the Church of the East. The persistent military conflicts between the Sasanians and the by then Christianized
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
made the Persians suspect the Church of the East of sympathizing with the enemy. This in turn induced the Church of the East to distance itself increasingly from that in the Roman Empire. Although in a time of peace their 420 council explicitly accepted the decrees of some "western" councils, including that of Nicaea, in 424 they determined that thenceforth they would refer disciplinary or theological problems to no external power, especially not to any "western" bishop or council.Cross, F.L. & Livingstone E.A. (eds), Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 351 The theological controversy that followed the
Council of Ephesus The Council of Ephesus was a council of Christian bishops convened in Ephesus (near present-day Selçuk in Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western ...
in 431 was a turning point in the history of the Church of the East. The Council condemned as heretical the Christology of
Nestorius Nestorius (; in grc, Νεστόριος; 386 – 450) was the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, Archbishop of Constantinople from 10 April 428 to August 431. A Christian theologian, several of his teachings in the fields of Christo ...
, whose reluctance to accord the Virgin Mary the title ''
Theotokos ''Theotokos'' (Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 mi ...

Theotokos
'' "God-bearer, Mother of God" was taken as evidence that he believed two separate persons (as opposed to two united natures) to be present within Christ. The Sasanian Emperor provided refuge for those who in the
Nestorian Schism The Nestorian Schism (431), in church history, involved a split between the Christian churches of Sassanid Persia, which affiliated with Nestorius, and churches that rejected him. The schism rose out of a Christological dispute, notably involvi ...
rejected the decrees of the Council of Ephesus enforced in the Byzantine Empire. In 484 he executed the pro-Roman Catholicos
Babowai Babowai (also Babaeus or Mar Babwahi) (died 484) was Catholicos of Seleucia-Ctesiphon and Patriarch of the Church of the East , native_name_lang = , image = File:Saint Elijah's Monastery 1.JPG , imagewidth = 325p ...
. Under the influence of
Barsauma Barsauma ( syr, ܒܪܨܘܡܐ, ''Barṣaumâ''), nicknamed ''Bar Sula'', "son of the shoe" in Syriac, was Metropolitan of Nisibis Nusaybin (; '; ar, نصيبين; syr, ܢܨܝܒܝܢ, translit=Nṣībīn;), historically known as Nisibis (), is a ...
, Bishop of
Nisibis Nusaybin (; '; ar, نُصَيْبِيْن, translit=Nuṣaybīn; syr, ܢܨܝܒܝܢ, translit=Nṣībīn), historically known as Nisibis () or Nesbin, is a city in Mardin Province Mardin Province ( tr, Mardin ili, ku, Parêzgeha Mêrdînê, ...
, the Church of the East officially accepted as normative the teaching not of Nestorius himself, but of his teacher
Theodore of Mopsuestia Theodore of Mopsuestia (c. 350 – 428) was a Christian theologian #REDIRECT Christian theology #REDIRECT Christian theology Christian theology is the theology of Christianity, Christian belief and practice. * help them better underst ...
, whose writings the 553
Second Council of Constantinople The Second Council of Constantinople is the fifth of the first seven ecumenical councils #REDIRECT First seven ecumenical councils#REDIRECT First seven ecumenical councils In the history of Christianity The history of Christianity concern ...
condemned as Nestorian but some modern scholars view them as orthodox. The position thus assigned to Theodore in the Church of the East was reinforced in several subsequent synods in spite of the opposing teaching of Henana of Adiabeme. After its split with the West and its adoption of a theology that some called Nestorianism, the Church of the East expanded rapidly in the medieval period due to missionary work. Between 500 and 1400, its geographical horizon extended well beyond its heartland in present-day northern
Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق, translit=Komarî Êraq), is a country i ...

Iraq
, northeastern
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...

Syria
and southeastern
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
, setting up communities throughout
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia in the north, including the former Soviet Union, Soviet republics of the Sov ...

Central Asia
and as far as
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

China
as witnessed by the
Nestorian Stele The Xi'an Stele also known as the Nestorian Stele, Nestorian Stone, Nestorian Monument, or Nestorian Tablet, is a Tang Chinese stele A stele ( ),Anglicized plural steles ( ); Greek plural stelai ( ), from Greek , ''stēlē''. The Greek p ...
, a
Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organiza ...
tablet in Chinese script dating to 781 that documented 150 years of Christian history in China. Their most lasting addition was of the
Saint Thomas Christians The St Thomas Christians, also called Syriac language, Syrian Christians of India, ''Marthoma Nasrani'', ''Malankara Nasrani'', or ''Nasrani Mappila'', are an Ethnoreligious group, ethno-religious community of Indian Christians in the state o ...
of the
Malabar Coast The Malabar Coast is a region of the southwestern shoreline of the mainland Indian subcontinent. Geographically, it comprises the wettest regions of South India, southern India, as the Western Ghats intercept the moisture-laden monsoon rains, e ...

Malabar Coast
in
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
, where they had around 10 million followers. However, a decline had already set in at the time of
Yahballaha III Yahballaha III ( 1245–13 November 1317), known in earlier years as Rabban Marcos or Markos, was Patriarch of the Church of the East from 1281 to 1317. As Patriarch, Yahballaha headed the Church of the East during the severe persecutions u ...
(1281–1317), when the Church of the East reached its greatest geographical extent, it had in south and central Iraq and in south, central and east Persia only four dioceses, where at the end of the ninth century it had at least 54, and Yahballaha himself died at the hands of a Muslim mob. Around 1400, the
Turco-Mongol The Turko-Mongol tradition was an ethnocultural An ethnoreligious group (or ethno-religious group) is an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that dis ...
nomadic conqueror
Timur Timur ; chg, ''Aqsaq Temür'', 'Timur the Lame') or as ''Sahib-i-Qiran'' ( 'Lord of the Auspicious Conjunction'), his epithet. ( chg, ''Temür'', 'Iron'; 9 April 133617–19 February 1405), later Timūr Gurkānī ( chg, ''Temür Kür ...

Timur
arose out of the
Eurasian Steppe The Eurasian Steppe, also simply called the Great Steppe or the steppes, is the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia in the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome. It stretches through Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Moldova, Ukraine, Europ ...
to lead military campaigns across
Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western world, countries that ide ...

Western
,
Southern The name Southern may refer to: * South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west. Etymology The word ''south'' comes from Old English ''sūþ'', from earl ...

Southern
and
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia in the north, including the former Soviet Union, Soviet republics of the Sov ...

Central Asia
, ultimately seizing much of the
Muslim world The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the Islamic Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodne ...

Muslim world
after defeating the Mamluks of Egypt and Syria, the emerging
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
, and the declining
Delhi Sultanate The Delhi Sultanate was an Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see int ...
. Timur's conquests devastated most Assyrian bishoprics and destroyed the 4000-year-old cultural and religious capital of
Assur Aššur (; Sumerian language, Sumerian: AN.ŠAR2KI, Assyrian cuneiform: ''Aš-šurKI'', "City of God Ashur (god), Aššur"; syr, ܐܫܘܪ ''Āšūr''; Old Persian ''Aθur'', fa, آشور: ''Āšūr''; he, אַשּׁוּר: ', ar, اشور) ...

Assur
. After the destruction brought on by Timur, the massive and organized
Nestorian Church , native_name_lang = , image = File:Saint Elijah's Monastery 1.JPG , imagewidth = 325px , alt = , caption = Ruins of the monastery of Mar Eliya (Iraq) in 2005. In 2014 it was destroye ...
structure was largely reduced to its region of origin, with the exception of the
Saint Thomas Christians The St Thomas Christians, also called Syriac language, Syrian Christians of India, ''Marthoma Nasrani'', ''Malankara Nasrani'', or ''Nasrani Mappila'', are an Ethnoreligious group, ethno-religious community of Indian Christians in the state o ...
in India.


1552 schism

The Church of the East has seen many disputes about the position of Catholicos. A synod in 539 decided that neither of the two claimants,
Elisha Elisha (; , Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxim ...
and
Narsai Narsai (sometimes spelt ''Narsay'', ''Narseh'' or ''Narses''; syc, ܢܪܣܝ, ''Narsai'', name derived from Zoroastrian Middle Persian, Pahlavi ''Narsēh'' from Avestan ''Nairyō.saȵhō'', meaning 'potent utterance', the name of a yazata; ) was o ...
, who had been elected by rival groups of bishops in 524, was legitimate. Similar conflicts occurred between
Barsauma Barsauma ( syr, ܒܪܨܘܡܐ, ''Barṣaumâ''), nicknamed ''Bar Sula'', "son of the shoe" in Syriac, was Metropolitan of Nisibis Nusaybin (; '; ar, نصيبين; syr, ܢܨܝܒܝܢ, translit=Nṣībīn;), historically known as Nisibis (), is a ...
and
Acacius of Seleucia-Ctesiphon Acacius was Catholicos of Seleucia-Ctesiphon and Patriarch of the Church of the East from 485 to 496. His tenure was marked by internal christological and ecclesiological disputes. He struggled to prevent the Church of the East from aligning itself ...
and between Hnanisho I and Yohannan the Leper. The 1552 conflict was not merely between two individuals but extended to two rival lines of patriarchs, like the 1964 schism between what are now called the Assyrian and the
Ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsWordNet Search – 3.0
"History"
from ...

Ancient
Church of the East. Dissent over the practice of hereditary succession to the Patriarchate (usually from uncle to nephew) led to the action in 1552 by a group of bishops from the northern regions of Amid and
Salmas Salmas ( fa, سلماس, , , , syr, ܣܵܠܵܡܵܣ, Salamas) is the capital of Salmas County Salmas County ( fa, شهرستان سلماس) is a counties of Iran, county in West Azarbaijan Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Salmas. ...
who elected as a rival Patriarch the abbot of
Rabban Hormizd Monastery Rabban Hormizd Monastery ( syr , ܪܒܢ ܗܘܪܡܝܙܕ ܥܓ̰ܡܝܐ) is an important monastery A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in ...
(which was the Patriarch's residence)
Yohannan Sulaqa ''Mar'' Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa ( syc, ܫܡܥܘܢ ܬܡܝܢܝܐ ܝܘܚܢܢ ܣܘܠܩܐ; la, Simeon Sulacha; also John Soulaqa, Sulaka or Sulacha; circa 1510–1555) was the first List of Chaldean Catholic Patriarchs of Babylon, Patriarch of wha ...
. "To strengthen the position of their candidate the bishops sent him to Rome to negotiate a new union". By tradition, a patriarch could be ordained only by someone of archiepiscopal (metropolitan) rank, a rank to which only members of that one family were promoted. So Sulaqa travelled to Rome, where, presented as the new patriarch elect, he entered communion with the Catholic Church and was ordained by the Pope and recognized as patriarch. The title or description under which he was recognized as patriarch is given variously as "Patriarch of
Mosul Mosul ( ar, الموصل, al-Mawṣil, ku, مووسڵ, translit=Mûsil, Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe a ...

Mosul
in Eastern Syria"; "Patriarch of the Church of the Chaldeans of Mosul"; "Patriarch of the Chaldeans"; "patriarch of Mosul"; or "patriarch of the Eastern Assyrians", this last being the version given by Pietro Strozzi on the second-last unnumbered page before page 1 of his ''De Dogmatibus Chaldaeorum'', of which an English translation is given in Adrian Fortescue's ''Lesser Eastern Churches''. The "Eastern Assyrians", who, if not Catholic, were presumed to be Nestorians, were distinguished from the "Western Assyrians" (those west of the Tigris River), who were looked on as
Jacobites Jacobite may refer to: Religion * Jacobites, Jacob Baradaeus (died 578). Churches in the Jacobite tradition and sometimes called Jacobite include: ** Jacobite Syrian Christian Church, autonomous branch of the Syriac Orthodox Church in Kerala, Ind ...
. It was as Patriarch of the "Eastern Assyrians" that Sulaqa's successor,
Abdisho IV Maron Mar Abdisho IV Maron ( syc, ܥܒܕܝܫܘܥ ܪܒܝܥܝܐ ܡܪܘܢ) was the second Patriarch of the Chaldean Catholic Church, from 1555 to 1570. Abdisho, whose name is spelled in many different ways (''Abdisu'', ''Abd-Jesu'', ''Hebed-Jesu'', ''Abdis ...
, was accredited for participation in the
Council of Trent The Council of Trent ( la, Concilium Tridentinum), held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent (or Trento, in northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of ...

Council of Trent
. The names already in use (except that of "Nestorian") were thus applied to the existing church (not a new one) for which the request to consecrate its patriarch was made by emissaries who gave the impression that the patriarchal see was vacant. Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa returned home in the same year and, unable to take possession of the traditional patriarchal seat near
Alqosh Alqosh ( syr, ܐܲܠܩܘܿܫ, Judeo-Aramaic: אלקוש, ar, ألقوش, alternatively spelled Alkosh or Alqush) is a village in the Nineveh plains Nineveh Plains ( syc, ܦܩܥܬܐ ܕܢܝܢܘܐ, Pqaʿtā ḏ-Nīnwē, Modern syr, ܕܫܬܐ ܕܢ ...

Alqosh
, resided in Amid. Before being put to death at the instigation of the partisans of the Patriarch from whom he had broken away, he ordained two metropolitans and three other bishops, thus initiating a new ecclesiastical hierarchy under what is known as the "Shimun line" of patriarchs, who soon moved from Amid eastward, settling, after many intervening places, in the isolated village of
Qochanis Qudshanis or Kochanes ( syr, ܩܘܕܫܢܝܣ , ; ku, Qoçanis, script=Latn, tr, Konak or Koçanis), is a small village in Hakkâri Province, Turkey. The village is situated about 20 km northeast of the provincial capital Hakkâri in the sout ...
under
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Tu ...

Persia
n rule.


Successive leaders of those in communion with Rome

Sulaqa's earliest successors entered into communion with the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic Church
, but in the course of over a century, their link with Rome grew weak. The last to request and obtain formal papal recognition died in 1600. They adopted hereditary succession to the patriarchate, opposition to which had caused the 1552 schism. In 1672, Shimun XIII Dinkha formally broke communion with Rome, adopting a profession of faith that contradicted that of Rome, while he maintained his independence from the Alqosh-based "Eliya line" of patriarchs. The "Shimun line" eventually became the patriarchal line of what since 1976 is officially called the
Assyrian Church of the East The Assyrian Church of the East ( syc, ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܖ̈ܝܐ, ʿĒḏtā ḏ-Maḏnḥā ḏ-ʾĀṯūrāyē, ar, كنيسة المشرق الآشورية), officially the Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East ( sy ...
. Leadership of those who wished to be in communion with Rome then passed to Archbishop
Joseph Joseph is a common masculine given name, derived from the Hebrew Yosef (יוֹסֵף). The form "Joseph" is used mostly in English, French and partially German-speaking (alongside "Josef") countries. This spelling is also found as a variant in th ...
of Amid. In 1677 his leadership was recognized first by the Turkish civil authorities, and then in 1681 by Rome. (Until then, the authority of the Alqosh patriarch over Amid, which had been Sulaqa's residence but which his successors abandoned on having to move eastward into
Safavid Iran Safavid Iran or Safavid Persia (), also referred to as the Safavid Empire, '. was one of the greatest Iranian empires after the 7th-century Muslim conquest of Persia The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran, le ...

Safavid Iran
, had been accepted by the Turkish authorities.) All the (non-hereditary) successors in Amid of Joseph I, who in 1696 resigned for health reasons and lived on in Rome until 1707, took the name Joseph:
Joseph II Joseph II (German: ''Josef Benedikt Anton Michel Adam''; English: ''Joseph Benedict Anthony Michael Adam''; 13 March 1741 – 20 February 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from August 1765 and sole ruler of the Habsburg Monarchy, Habsburg lands from N ...
(1696–1713), Joseph III (1713–1757), Joseph IV (1757–1781). For that reason, they are known as the "Josephite line". Joseph IV presented his resignation in 1780 and it was accepted in 1781, after which he handed over the administration of the patriarchate to his nephew, not yet a bishop, and retired to Rome, where he lived until 1791. Appointment of the nephew as patriarch would look like acceptance of the principle of hereditary succession. Besides, the Alqosh "Eliya line" was drawing closer to Rome, and the pro-Catholic faction within its followers was becoming predominant. For various reasons, including the ecclesiastical as well as political turbulence in Europe after the
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its ...

French Revolution
, Rome was long unable to choose between two rival claimants to headship of the Chaldean Catholics. The 1672 adoption by the "Shimun line" of patriarchs of Nestorian doctrine had been followed in some areas by widespread adoption of the opposing Christology upheld in Rome. This occurred not only in the Amid-Mardin area for which by Turkish decree Joseph I was patriarch, but also in the city of
Mosul Mosul ( ar, الموصل, al-Mawṣil, ku, مووسڵ, translit=Mûsil, Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe a ...

Mosul
, where by 1700 nearly all the East Syrians were Catholics. The
Rabban Hormizd Monastery Rabban Hormizd Monastery ( syr , ܪܒܢ ܗܘܪܡܝܙܕ ܥܓ̰ܡܝܐ) is an important monastery A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in ...
, which was the seat of the "Eliya line" of patriarchs is 2 km from the village of Alqosh and about 45 km north of the city of Mosul In view of this situation, Patriarch
Eliya XI Eliya XI ( syr, ܐܠܝܐ / ''Elīyā'', 1700 - April 1778) was Patriarch The highest-ranking bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a posi ...
wrote to the Pope in 1735, 1749 and 1756, asking for union. Then, in 1771, both he and his designated successor Ishoyabb made a profession of faith that Rome accepted, thus establishing communion in principle. When
Eliya XI Eliya XI ( syr, ܐܠܝܐ / ''Elīyā'', 1700 - April 1778) was Patriarch The highest-ranking bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a posi ...
died in 1778, the metropolitans recognized as his successor Ishoyabb, who accordingly took the Eliya name (
Eliya XII Eliya XII ( syr, ܐܠܝܐ / ''Elīyā'', d. 1804) was Patriarch of the Church of the East, Patriarch of the Church of the East, from 1778 to 1804, with formal residence in Rabban Hormizd Monastery, near Alqosh, in modern Iraq. His birth name was I ...
). To win support, Eliya made profession of the Catholic faith, but almost immediately renounced it and declared his support of the traditionalist (Nestorian) view.
Yohannan Hormizd Yohannan VIII Hormizd (often referred to by European missionaries as ''John Hormez'' or ''Hanna Hormizd'') (1760–1838) was the last hereditary patriarch The highest-ranking bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed memb ...
, a member of the "Eliya line" family, opposed
Eliya XII Eliya XII ( syr, ܐܠܝܐ / ''Elīyā'', d. 1804) was Patriarch of the Church of the East, Patriarch of the Church of the East, from 1778 to 1804, with formal residence in Rabban Hormizd Monastery, near Alqosh, in modern Iraq. His birth name was I ...
(1778–1804), the last of that line to be elected in the normal way as patriarch. In 1780 Yohannan was irregularly elected patriarch, as Sulaqa had been in 1552. He won over to communion with Rome most followers of the "Eliyya line". The
Holy See The Holy See ( lat, Sancta Sedes, ; it, Santa Sede ), also called the See of Rome or Apostolic See, is the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian ...
did not recognize him as patriarch, but in 1791 appointed him archbishop of Amid and administrator of the Catholic patriarchate. The violent protests of Joseph IV's nephew, who was then in Rome, and suspicions raised by others about the sincerity of Yohannan's conversion prevented this being put into effect. In 1793 it was agreed that Yohannan should withdraw from Amid to
Mosul Mosul ( ar, الموصل, al-Mawṣil, ku, مووسڵ, translit=Mûsil, Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe a ...

Mosul
, the metropolitan see that he already held, but that the post of patriarch would not be conferred on his rival, Joseph IV's nephew. In 1802 the latter was appointed metropolitan of Amid and administrator of the patriarchate, but not patriarch. Nonetheless, he became commonly known as
Joseph VPatriarch Joseph V may refer to: * Joseph Dergham El Khazen, Maronite Patriarch of Antioch in 1733–1742 * Joseph V Augustine Hindi, Patriarch of the Chaldeans for the Chaldean Catholic Church in 1780–1827 {{hndis ...
. He died in 1828. Yohannan's rival for the Alqosh title of patriarch had died in 1804, with his followers so reduced in number that they did not elect any successor for him, thus bringing the Alqosh or Eliya line to an end. Finally then, in 1830, a century and a half after the Holy See had conferred headship of the Chaldeans on Joseph I of Amid, it granted recognition as Patriarch to Yohannan, whose (non-hereditary) patriarchal succession has since then lasted unbroken in the Chaldean Catholic Church.


Later history of the Chaldean Church

In 1838, the
Kurds Kurds ( ku, کورد ,Kurd, italic=yes, rtl=yes) or Kurdish people are an Iranian Iranian may refer to: * Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ...
of Soran attacked the
Rabban Hormizd Monastery Rabban Hormizd Monastery ( syr , ܪܒܢ ܗܘܪܡܝܙܕ ܥܓ̰ܡܝܐ) is an important monastery A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in ...
and Alqosh, apparently thinking the villagers were
Yazidis Yazidis, also written as Yezidis (, ku, ئێزیدی, ), are an endogamous Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a specific social group, caste Caste is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary tr ...
responsible for the murder of a Kurdish chieftain, and killed over 300 Chaldeans, including Gabriel Dambo, the refounder of the monastery, and other monks. In 1846, the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
, which had previously classified as Nestorians those who called themselves Chaldeans, granted them recognition as a distinct ''
millet Millets () are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food. Millets are important crops in the semiarid tropics of Asia and Africa (especially in Indi ...
''. The most famous patriarch of the Chaldean Church in the 19th century was who is remembered also for his clashes with
Pope Pius IX Pope Pius IX ( it, Pio IX, ''Pio Nono''; born Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti; 13 May 1792 – 7 February 1878) was head of the Catholic Church from 1846 to 1878, the List of popes by length of reign, longest verified papal reign. He was notable ...

Pope Pius IX
mainly about his attempts to extend the Chaldean jurisdiction over the Malabar Catholics. This was a period of expansion for the Chaldean Catholic Church. The activity of the Turkish army and their and
Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, : , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, : , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an mainly inhabiting the . In modern usage the term refers to those who originate from an Arab co ...

Arab
allies, partly in response to armed support for Russia in the territory of the Qochanis patriarchate, brought ruin also to the Chaldean dioceses of Amid,
Siirt Siirt ( ar, سِعِرْد ''Siʿird'',', syr, ܣܥܪܬ, Siirt, ku, Sêrt, ota, سعرد el, Σύρτη) is a city in southeastern Turkey and the seat of Siirt Province. The population of the city according to the 2009 census was 129,188. The m ...
and
Gazarta Cizre (; ar, جزيرة ابن عمر, Jazirat Ibn ʿUmar, or ''Madinat al-Jazira'', he, גזירא, Gzira, ku, Cizîr, ''Cizîra Botan'', or ''Cizîre'', syr, ܓܙܪܬܐ ܕܒܪ ܥܘܡܪ, Gāzartā,) is a city and district in Şırnak Provinc ...
and the metropolitans
Addai Scher Addai Sher ( syr, ܐܕܝ ܫܝܪ, ) Also spelled Addaï Scher and Addai Sheir (3 March 1867 – 21 June 1915), was the Chaldean Catholic Church, Chaldean Catholic archbishop of Siirt in Upper Mesopotamia. He was killed by the Ottomans during the Ass ...

Addai Scher
of
Siirt Siirt ( ar, سِعِرْد ''Siʿird'',', syr, ܣܥܪܬ, Siirt, ku, Sêrt, ota, سعرد el, Σύρτη) is a city in southeastern Turkey and the seat of Siirt Province. The population of the city according to the 2009 census was 129,188. The m ...
and Philippe-Jacques Abraham of
Gazarta Cizre (; ar, جزيرة ابن عمر, Jazirat Ibn ʿUmar, or ''Madinat al-Jazira'', he, גזירא, Gzira, ku, Cizîr, ''Cizîra Botan'', or ''Cizîre'', syr, ܓܙܪܬܐ ܕܒܪ ܥܘܡܪ, Gāzartā,) is a city and district in Şırnak Provinc ...
were killed in 1915). In the 21st century, Father Ragheed Aziz Ganni, the pastor of the Chaldean Church of the Holy Spirit in
Mosul Mosul ( ar, الموصل, al-Mawṣil, ku, مووسڵ, translit=Mûsil, Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe a ...

Mosul
, who graduated from the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, ''Angelicum'' in Rome in 2003 with a licentiate in ecumenical theology, was killed on 3 June 2007 in
Mosul Mosul ( ar, الموصل, al-Mawṣil, ku, مووسڵ, translit=Mûsil, Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe a ...

Mosul
alongside the subdeacons Basman Yousef Daud, Wahid Hanna Isho, and Gassan Isam Bidawed, after he celebrated mass. Ganni has since been declared a
Servant of God "Servant of God" is a title used in the Catholic Church to indicate that an individual is on the first step toward possible canonization as a saint. Terminology The expression "servant of God" appears nine times in the Bible, the first five in ...
. Chaldean Archbishop Paulos Faraj Rahho and three companions were abducted on 29 February 2008, in Mosul, and murdered a few days later.


21st century: international diaspora

There are many Chaldeans in
diaspora A diaspora ( ) is a scattered population whose origin Origin(s) or The Origin may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Comics and manga * , a Wolverine comic book mini-series published by Marvel Comics in 2002 * , a 1999 ''Buffy th ...

diaspora
in the Western world, primarily in the American states of Michigan, Illinois and California. In 2006 the Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Saint Thomas the Apostle, Eparchy of Oceania, with the title of 'St Thomas the Apostle of Sydney of the Chaldeans' was set up with jurisdiction including the Chaldean Catholic communities of Australia and New Zealand. Its first Bishop, named by Pope Benedict XVI on 21 October 2006, was Archbishop Jibrail Kassab, Djibrail (Jibrail) Kassab, until this date, Archbishop of Bassorah in Iraq. There has been a large immigration to the United States particularly to West Bloomfield in southeast Michigan. Although the largest population resides in southeast Michigan, there are populations in parts of California and Arizona as well, which all fall under the Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Saint Thomas the Apostle of Detroit, Eparchy of Saint Thomas the Apostle of Detroit. In addition, Canada in recent years has shown growing communities in provinces such as Ontario. In 2008, Bawai Soro of the
Assyrian Church of the East The Assyrian Church of the East ( syc, ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܖ̈ܝܐ, ʿĒḏtā ḏ-Maḏnḥā ḏ-ʾĀṯūrāyē, ar, كنيسة المشرق الآشورية), officially the Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East ( sy ...
and 1,000 Assyrian families were received into full communion with the Chaldean Catholic Church. On Friday, June 10, 2011, Pope Benedict XVI erected a new Chaldean Catholic eparchy in Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada and named Archbishop Yohannan Zora, who has worked alongside four priests with Catholics in Toronto (the largest community of Chaldeans) for nearly 20 years and who was previously an ad personam Archbishop (he will retain this rank as head of the eparchy) and the Archbishop of the Archdiocese (Archeparchy) of Ahwaz, Iran (since 1974). The new eparchy, or diocese, will be known as the Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Mar Addai. There are 38,000 Chaldean Catholics in Canada. Archbishop Zora was born in Batnaia, Iraq, on March 15, 1939. He was ordained in 1962 and worked in Iraqi parishes before being transferred to Iran in 1969. The 2006 Australian census counted a total of 4,498 Chaldean Catholics in that country.


Historic membership censuses

Despite the internal discords of the reigns of Yohannan Hormizd (1830–1838), Nicholas I Zaya (1839–1847) and Joseph VI Audo (1847–1878), the 19th century was a period of considerable growth for the Chaldean church, in which its territorial jurisdiction was extended, its hierarchy strengthened and its membership nearly doubled. In 1850 the Anglican missionary George Percy Badger recorded the population of the Chaldean church as 2,743 Chaldean families, or just under 20,000 persons. Badger's figures cannot be squared with the figure of just over 4,000 Chaldean families recorded by Fulgence de Sainte Marie in 1796 nor with slightly later figures provided by Paulin Martin in 1867. Badger is known to have classified as Nestorian a considerable number of villages in the Aqra district which were Chaldean at this period, and he also failed to include several important Chaldean villages in other dioceses. His estimate is almost certainly far too low.Badger, ''Nestorians'', i. 174–5 Paulin Martin's statistical survey in 1867, after the creation of the dioceses of Aqra (Chaldean Diocese), Aqra, Zakho (Chaldean Diocese), Zakho, Basra and Sehna by Joseph Audo, recorded a total church membership of 70,268, more than three times higher than Badger's estimate. Most of the population figures in these statistics have been rounded up to the nearest thousand, and they may also have been exaggerated slightly, but the membership of the Chaldean church at this period was certainly closer to 70,000 than to Badger's 20,000. A statistical survey of the Chaldean church made in 1896 by J. B. Chabot included, for the first time, details of several patriarchal vicariates established in the second half of the 19th century for the small Chaldean communities in Adana, Aleppo, Beirut, Cairo, Damascus, Edessa, Kermanshah and Teheran; for the mission stations established in the 1890s in several towns and villages in the Qudshanis patriarchate; and for the newly created Chaldean diocese of Urmi. According to Chabot, there were mission stations in the town of Serai d’Mahmideh in Taimar and in the Hakkari villages of Mar Behısho, Sat, Zarne and 'Salamakka' (Ragula d'Salabakkan). The last survey of the Chaldean Church before the First World War was made in 1913 by the Chaldean priest Joseph Tfinkdji, after a period of steady growth since 1896. It then consisted of the patriarchal archdiocese of Mosul and Baghdad, four other archdioceses (Amid (Chaldean Diocese), Amid, Kirkuk (Chaldean Archdiocese), Kirkuk, Seert (Chaldean Diocese), Seert and Urmi), and eight dioceses (Aqra (Chaldean Diocese), Aqra, Amadiya (Chaldean Diocese), Amadiya, Gazarta (Chaldean Diocese), Gazarta, Mardin (Chaldean Diocese), Mardin, Salmas (Chaldean Archdiocese), Salmas, Sehna, Zakho (Chaldean Diocese), Zakho and the newly created diocese of Van). Five more patriarchal vicariates had been established since 1896 (Ahwaz, Constantinople, Basra, Ashshar and Deir al-Zor), giving a total of twelve vicariates. Tfinkdji's grand total of 101,610 Catholics in 199 villages is slightly exaggerated, as his figures included 2,310 nominal Catholics in twenty-one 'newly converted' or 'semi-Nestorian' villages in the dioceses of Amid, Seert and Aqra, but it is clear that the Chaldean church had grown significantly since 1896. With around 100,000 believers in 1913, the membership of the Chaldean church was only slightly smaller than that of the Qudshanis patriarchate (probably 120,000 East Syriac Christians at most, including the population of the nominally Russian Orthodox villages in the Urmi district). Its congregations were concentrated in far fewer villages than those of the Qudshanis patriarchate, and with 296 priests, a ratio of roughly three priests for every thousand believers, it was rather more effectively served by its clergy. Only about a dozen Chaldean villages, mainly in the Seert and Aqra districts, did not have their own priests in 1913. Tfinkdji's statistics also highlight the effect on the Chaldean church of the educational reforms of the patriarch Joseph VI Audo. The Chaldean church on the eve of the First World War was becoming less dependent on the monastery of Rabban Hormizd and the College of the Propaganda for the education of its bishops. Seventeen Chaldean bishops were consecrated between 1879 and 1913, of whom only one (Stephen Yohannan Qaynaya) was entirely educated in the monastery of Rabban Hormizd. Six bishops were educated at the College of the Propaganda (Joseph Gabriel Adamo, Thomas Audo, Jeremy Timothy Maqdasi, Isaac Khudabakhash, Theodore Msayeh and Peter Aziz), and the future patriarch Joseph Emmanuel Thomas was trained in the seminary of Ghazir near Beirut. Of the other nine bishops, two (Addaï Scher and Francis David) were trained in the Syro-Chaldean seminary in Mosul, and seven (Philip Yaqob Abraham, Yaqob Yohannan Sahhar, Eliya Joseph Khayyat, Shlemun Sabbagh, Yaqob Awgin Manna, Hormisdas Djibri, Hormizd Stephen Jibri and ) in the patriarchal seminary in Mosul.


Organisation

The Chaldean Catholic Church has the following dioceses: * Patriarchate of Chaldean Catholic Patriarchate of Babylon, Babylon * Metropolitan Archdioceses of Chaldean Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of Baghdad, Baghdad, Chaldean Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of Kirkuk, Kirkuk, Chaldean Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of Tehran, Tehran, Chaldean Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of Urmya, Urmya * Archdioceses of Chaldean Catholic Archdiocese of Ahwaz, Ahwaz, Chaldean Catholic Archdiocese of Basra, Basra, Chaldean Catholic Archdiocese of Diyarbakir, Diyarbakir, Chaldean Catholic Archdiocese of Erbil, Erbil, Chaldean Catholic Archeparchy of Mosul, Mosul * Eparchies of Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Aleppe, Aleppe, Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Alquoch, Alquoch, Amadiya (Chaldean Diocese), Amadia, Aqra, Akra, Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Beirut, Beirut, Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Cairo, Cairo, Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Saint Peter The Apostle, St Peter the Apostle of San Diego, Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Saint Thomas the Apostle of Detroit, St Thomas the Apostle of Detroit, Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Mar Addai of Toronto, Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Saint Thomas the Apostle, St Thomas the Apostle of Sydney, Salmas (Chaldean Archdiocese), Salmas, Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Sulaimaniya, Sulaimaniya, Zakho (Chaldean Diocese), Zaku * Territories dependent on the Patriarch: Chaldean Catholic Territory Dependent on the Patriarch of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Chaldean Catholic Territory Dependent on the Patriarch of Jordan, Jordan The Latin name of the church is Ecclesia Chaldaeorum Catholica.


Hierarchy

The current Patriarch is Louis Sako, elected in January 2013. In October 2007, his predecessor, Emmanuel III Delly became the first Chaldean Catholic patriarch to be elevated to the rank of Cardinal (Catholicism), Cardinal within the Catholic Church. The present Chaldean episcopate (January 2014) is as follows: *, Patriarch of Babylon (since February 2013) *Emil Shimoun Nona, Bishop of St.Thomas the Apostle Chaldean and Assyrian Catholic Diocese of Australia and New Zealand (since 2015) *Bashar Warda, Archbishop of Erbil (since July 2010) *Ramzi Garmou, Archbishop of Tehran (since February 1999) *Thomas Meram, Archbishop of Urmia and Salmas (since 1984) *Jibrail Kassab, Bishop Emeritus, former Bishop of Sydney (2006–2015) *Jacques Ishaq, Titular Archbishop of Nisibis and curial Bishop of Babylon (since December 2005) *Habib Al-Naufali, Archbishop of Basra (since 2014) *Yousif Mirkis, Archbishop of Kirkuk and Suleimanya (since 2014) *Mikha Pola Maqdassi, Bishop of Alqosh (since December 2001) *Shlemon Warduni, curial Bishop of Babylon (since 2001) *Saad Sirop, auxiliary Bishop of Babylon (since 2014) and Apostolic Visitor of Chaldean Catholic in Europe (since 2017) *Antony Audo, Bishop of Aleppo (since January 1992) *Michael Kassarji, Bishop of Lebanon (since 2001) *Rabban Al-Qas, Bishop of Amadiya (Chaldean Diocese), Amadiya (since December 2001) *Ibrahim Namo Ibrahim, Ibrahim Ibrahim, Bishop Emeritus, former Bishop of Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Saint Thomas the Apostle of Detroit, Saint Thomas the Apostle of Detroit (April 1982 – 2014) *Francis Y. Kalabat, Francis Kalabat, Bishop of Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Saint Thomas the Apostle of Detroit, Saint Thomas the Apostle of Detroit (since June 2014) *Sarhad Yawsip Jammo, Bishop Emeritus of Saint Peter the Apostle of San Diego (2002–2016) *Bawai Soro, Bishop of Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Mar Addai of Toronto, St. Addai Chaldean Eparchy of Canada (since 2017) *Saad Felix Shabi, Bishop of Zakho (Chaldean Diocese), Zakho (since 2020) *Robert Jarjis, Auxiliary Bishop of Baghdad (since 2018) and Titular Bishop of Arsamosata (since 2019) *Emanuel Hana Shaleta, Emmanuel Shalita, Bishop of St. Peter the Apostle Chaldean Catholic (San Diego, USA, since 2016) *Basel Yaldo, Curial Bishop of Babylon and Titular Bishop of BethZabda (since 2015) Several sees are vacant: Archeparchy of Diyarbakir, Archeparchy of Ahwaz, Eparchy of 'Aqra, Eparchy of Cairo.


Liturgy

The Chaldean Catholic Church uses the
East Syriac Rite The East Syriac Rite or East Syrian Rite, also called the Edessan Rite, Assyrian Rite, Persian Rite, Chaldean Rite, Nestorian Rite, Babylonian Rite or Syro-Oriental Rite, is an Eastern Christian liturgical rite that employs the Liturgy of Addai ...
. A slight reform of the liturgy was effective since 6 January 2007, and it aimed to unify the many different uses of each parish, to remove centuries-old additions that merely imitated the Roman Rite, and for pastoral reasons. The main elements of variations are: the Anaphora (liturgy), Anaphora said aloud by the priest, the return to the ancient architecture of the churches, the restoration of the ancient use where the bread and wine are readied before a service begins, and the removal from the Credo, Creed of the ''Filioque'' clause.


Ecumenical relations

The Church's relations with its fellow Assyrians in the
Assyrian Church of the East The Assyrian Church of the East ( syc, ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܖ̈ܝܐ, ʿĒḏtā ḏ-Maḏnḥā ḏ-ʾĀṯūrāyē, ar, كنيسة المشرق الآشورية), officially the Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East ( sy ...
have improved in recent years. In 1994 Pope John Paul II and Patriarch Dinkha IV of the Assyrian Church of the East signed a ''Common Christological Declaration Between the Catholic Church and the Assyrian Church of the East, Common Christological Declaration''. On the 20 July 2001, the
Holy See The Holy See ( lat, Sancta Sedes, ; it, Santa Sede ), also called the See of Rome or Apostolic See, is the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian ...
issued a document, in agreement with the Assyrian Church of the East, named ''Guidelines for admission to the Eucharist between the Chaldean Church and the Assyrian Church of the East'', which confirmed also the validity of the Holy Qurbana of Addai and Mari, Anaphora of Addai and Mari. In 2015, while the patriarchate of the Assyrian Church of the East was vacant following the death of Dinkha IV, the Chaldean Patriarch proposed unifying the three modern patriarchates into a re-established Church of the East with a single Patriarch in full communion with the Pope. The Assyrian Church of the East respectfully declined this proposal citing "ecclesiological divergences still remaining" and proceeded with its election of a new Patriarch.


See also

*List of Chaldean Catholic Patriarchs of Babylon *Eastern Catholicism *Liturgies:
East Syriac Rite The East Syriac Rite or East Syrian Rite, also called the Edessan Rite, Assyrian Rite, Persian Rite, Chaldean Rite, Nestorian Rite, Babylonian Rite or Syro-Oriental Rite, is an Eastern Christian liturgical rite that employs the Liturgy of Addai ...
, Holy Qurbana of Addai and Mari *Film about Chaldean Christians: The Last Assyrians *Assyrian People *List of Assyrians *Names of Syriac Christians *Syro-Malabar Catholic Church


References


Sources

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


Further reading

Yakoub, Afram (2020). ''The Path to Assyria: A call for national revival.'' Sweden: Tigris Press. ISBN 978-91-981541-6-0 Lundgren, Svante (2016). ''The Assyrians - From Nineveh to Södertälje.'' Enschede, The Netherlands: Nineveh Press. ISBN 978-9198344127


External links


Chaldean Catholic Church Mass TimesArticle on the Chaldean Catholic Church by Ronald Roberson on the CNEWA web site
(Catholic Encyclopedia)
Daughters of the Immaculate Conception, a congregation located in Michigan
*[https://web.archive.org/web/20080123160815/http://christiansofiraq.com/reply.html History of the Chaldean Church]
Qambel Maran- Syriac chants from South India- a review and liturgical music tradition of Syriac Christians revisitedHomepage of Fr. Damian Hungs (in German)
{{Assyrian topics Chaldean Catholic Church, 1552 establishments in Asia Apostolic sees Eastern Catholicism in Iraq Eastern Catholicism in Iran