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In
library and information science Library and information science (LIS) (sometimes given as the plural library and information sciences) is a branch of academic disciplines that deal generally with organization, access, and collection of information, whether in physical (for example ...
, cataloging ( US) or cataloguing ( UK) is the process of creating
metadata Metadata is "data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sense, data are a set of values of qualitative property, qualitative or quantity, quantitative variable (research), v ...

metadata
representing information
resource Resource refers to all the materials available in our environment which help us to satisfy our needs and wants. Resources can broadly be classified upon their availability — they are classified into renewable A renewable resource, also know ...

resource
s, such as books, sound recordings, moving images, etc. Cataloging provides information such as creator names, titles, and subject terms that describe resources, typically through the creation of
bibliographic recordA bibliographic record is an entry in a bibliographic index (or a library catalog) which represents and describes a specific resource. A bibliographic record contains the data elements necessary to help users identify and retrieve that resource, as w ...
s. The records serve as surrogates for the stored information resources. Since the 1970s these metadata are in machine-readable form and are indexed by information retrieval tools, such as
bibliographic database A bibliographic database is a database In , a database is an organized collection of stored and accessed electronically from a . Where databases are more complex they are often developed using formal techniques. The (DBMS) is the that int ...
s or
search engine A search engine is a software system A software system is a system of intercommunicating software component, components based on forming part of a computer system (a combination of Computer hardware, hardware and software). It "consists of a n ...
s. While typically the cataloging process results in the production of
library catalog A library catalog (or library catalogue in British English) is a register of all bibliography, bibliographic items found in a library or group of libraries, such as a network of libraries at several locations. A catalog for a group of libra ...
s, it also produces other types of discovery tools for
document A document is a writing, written, drawing, drawn, presented, or memorialized representation of thought, often the manifestation of nonfiction, non-fictional, as well as fictional, content. The word originates from the Latin ''Documentum'', whic ...

document
s and collections. Bibliographic control provides the philosophical basis of cataloging, defining the rules for sufficiently describing information resources to enable users to find and select the most appropriate resource. A cataloger is an individual responsible for the processes of description, subject analysis, classification, and
authority control In library and information science, library science, authority control is a process that organizes bibliographic information, for example in library catalogs by using a single, distinct spelling of a name (heading) or a numeric identifier for ea ...
of library materials. Catalogers serve as the "foundation of all library service, as they are the ones who organize information in such a way as to make it easily accessible".


Cataloging different kinds of materials

Cataloging is a process made in different kinds of institutions (e.g.
libraries A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information in order to meet the user's needs on a daily basis. A library provi ...

libraries
and
museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is a building or institution that cares for and displays a collection Collection or Collections may refer to: * Cash collection, the function of an accounts receivable department * Collec ...

museum
s) and about different kinds of materials, such as books, pictures, museum objects etc. The literature of library and information science is dominated by library cataloging, but it is important to consider other forms of cataloging. For example, there special systems for cataloging museum objects have been developed, e.g., ''Nomenclature for Museum Cataloging''. Also, some formats have been developed in some opposition to library cataloging formats, for example, ''the common communication format'' for bibliographical databases. About cataloging different kinds of cultural objects, see O’Keefe and Oldal (2017).


Six functions of bibliographic control

Ronald Hagler identified six functions of bibliographic control. *"Identifying the existence of all types of information resources as they are made available."Taylor, Arlene G., & Daniel N. Joudrey (2009). ''The organization of information''. 3rd ed. Englewood: Libraries Unlimited, p. 5 The existence and identity of an information resource must be known before it can be found. *"Identifying the works contained within those information resources or as parts of them." Depending on the level of granularity required, multiple works may be contained in a single package, or one work may span multiple packages. For example, is a single photo considered an information resource? Or can a collection of photos be considered an information resource? *"Systematically pulling together these information resources into collections in libraries,
archive An archive is an accumulation of historical records – in any media – or the physical facility in which they are located. Archives contain primary source In the study of history History (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece An ...

archive
s,
museums A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is a building or institution that Preservation (library and archival science), cares for and displays a collection (artwork), collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, culture, c ...
, and Internet communication files, and other such depositories." Essentially, acquiring these items into collections so that they can be of use to the user. *"Producing lists of these information resources prepared according to standard rules for citation."Taylor and Joudrey, p. 6 Examples of such retrieval aids include library catalogs, indexes, archival finding aids, etc. *"Providing name, title, subject, and other useful access to these information resources." Ideally, there should be many ways to find an item so there should be multiple access points. There must be enough
metadata Metadata is "data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sense, data are a set of values of qualitative property, qualitative or quantity, quantitative variable (research), v ...

metadata
in the surrogate record so users can successfully find the information resource they are looking for. These access points should be consistent, which can be achieved through
authority control In library and information science, library science, authority control is a process that organizes bibliographic information, for example in library catalogs by using a single, distinct spelling of a name (heading) or a numeric identifier for ea ...
. *"Providing the means of locating each information resource or a copy of it." In libraries, the online public access catalog (OPAC) can give the user location information (a
call number A library classification is a system of knowledge organization by which library resources are arranged and ordered systematically. Library classifications a notational system that represents the order of topics in the classification and allows i ...
for example) and indicate whether the item is available.


History of bibliographic control

While the organization of information has been going on since antiquity, bibliographic control as we know it today is a more recent invention. Ancient civilizations recorded lists of books onto tablets and libraries in the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
kept records of their holdings. With the invention of the printing press in the 15th century, multiple copies of a single book could be produced quickly. Johann Tritheim, a German librarian, was the first to create a bibliography in chronological order with an alphabetical author index.
Konrad Gesner Conrad Gessner (; la, Conradus Gesnerus 26 March 1516 – 13 December 1565) was a Swiss Swiss may refer to: * the adjectival form of Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type ...
followed in his footsteps in the next century as he published an author bibliography and subject index. He added to his bibliography an alphabetical list of authors with inverted names, which was a new practice. He also included references to variant spellings of author's names, a precursor to authority control. Andrew Maunsell further revolutionized bibliographic control by suggesting that a book should be findable based on the author's last name, the subject of the book, and the translator. In the 17th century
Sir Thomas Bodley Sir Thomas Bodley (2 March 1545 – 28 January 1613) was an England, English diplomat and Scholarly method, scholar who founded the Bodleian Library in Oxford. Origins Thomas Bodley was born on 2 March 1545, in the second-to-last year of the ...

Sir Thomas Bodley
was interested in a catalog arranged alphabetically by author's last name as well as subject entries. In 1697, Frederic Rostgaard called for subject arrangement that was subdivided by both chronology and by size (whereas in the past titles were arranged by their size only), as well as an index of subjects and authors by last name and for word order in titles to be preserved based on the title page. After the
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its ...

French Revolution
, France's government was the first to put out a national code containing instructions for cataloging library collections. At the British Museum Library
Anthony Panizzi Sir Antonio Genesio Maria Panizzi (16 September 1797 – 8 April 1879), better known as Anthony Panizzi, was a naturalised British citizen of Italian birth, and an Italian patriot. He was a librarian, becoming the List of directors of the British ...

Anthony Panizzi
created his "Ninety-One Cataloging Rules" (1841), which essentially served as the basis for cataloging rules of the 19th and 20th centuries. Charles C. Jewett applied Panizzi's "91 Rules" at the
Smithsonian Institution The Smithsonian Institution ( ), or simply, the Smithsonian, is a group of museums and education and research centers, the largest such complex in the world, created by the U.S. government "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge". Founded ...

Smithsonian Institution
.


Types of cataloging


Descriptive cataloging

"Descriptive cataloging" is a well-established concept in the tradition of library cataloging in which a distinction is made between descriptive cataloging and subject cataloging, each applying a set of standards, different qualifications and often also different kinds of professionals. In the tradition of documentation and information science (e.g., by commercial bibliographical databases) the concept document representation (also as verb: document representing) have mostly been used to cover both "descriptive" and "subject" representation. Descriptive cataloging has been defined as "the part of cataloging concerned with describing the physical details of a book, such as the form and choice of entries and the title page transcription."


Subject cataloging

Subject cataloginghttps://www.perseus.tufts.edu/publications/Berti-Costa_Alexandria_Kentucky.pdf may take the form of classification or (subject) indexing.
Classification Classification is a process related to categorization Categorization is the human ability and activity of recognizing shared features or similarities between the elements of the experience Experience refers to conscious , an English Paracels ...
involves the assignment of a given document to a class in a classification system (such as
Dewey Decimal Classification The Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC), colloquially the Dewey Decimal System, is a proprietary library classification A library book shelf in Hong Kong arranged using the Dewey classification A library classification is a system of knowledge ...
or the
Library of Congress Subject HeadingsThe Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) comprise a thesaurus A thesaurus (plural ''thesauri'' or ''thesauruses'') or synonym dictionary is a reference work for finding synonyms and sometimes antonyms of words. They are often used by wr ...
). Indexing is the assignment of characterizing labels to the documents represented in a record. Classification typically uses a
controlled vocabulary Controlled vocabularies provide a way to organize knowledge for subsequent retrieval. They are used in subject indexing Subject indexing is the act of describing or classifying a document A document is a written Writing is a medium of ...
, while indexing may use a controlled vocabulary, free terms, or both.


History

Libraries have made use of catalogs in some form since ancient times. The library of Ninevah had the first classification system. It is located in present-day Iraq. The first known cataloging occurred with ancient clay tablets. They had marks on each side of the tablet. There is evidence of catalogs dating back to approximately 310/05-240 B.C. in
Sumer Sumer ()The name is from Akkadian language, Akkadian '; Sumerian language, Sumerian ''kig̃ir'', written and ,approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land". means "native, local", iĝir NATIVE (7x: Old Babylonian)from ''The ...

Sumer
. The
Library of Alexandria The Great Library of Alexandria in Alexandria, Egypt, was one of the largest and most significant libraries of the ancient world. The Library was part of a larger research institution called the Musaeum, Mouseion, which was dedicated to the ...

Library of Alexandria
is reported to have had at least a partial catalog consisting of a listing by
Callimachus Callimachus (; grc-gre, Καλλίμαχος, ''Kallimakhos''; 310/305– 240 BC) was a native of the Greek colony of Cyrene, Libya, Cyrene, Ancient Libya, Libya. He was a poet, critic and scholar at the Library of Alexandria and enjoyed the p ...
of the Greek literature called “Pinakes”, however was have very little and poor evidence about “Pinakes.” Pinakes means list. There were originally 825 fragments of Callimachus’ “Pinakes,” but only 25 of them have survived. The Chinese Imperial Library of the
Han Dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...

Han Dynasty
of the 3rd century A.D. had a catalog listing nearly 30,000 items, each item similar in extent of its content to a Western scroll. The first catalogs in the
Islamic world The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the Islamic Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodne ...

Islamic world
, around the 11th century, were lists of books donated to libraries by persons in the community. These lists were ordered by donor, not by bibliographic information, but they provided a record of the library's inventory. Many early and
medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...

medieval
libraries in Europe were associated with religious institutions and orders, including the Papal library in Rome. The first
Vatican Library The Vatican Apostolic Library ( la, Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana, it, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana), more commonly known as the Vatican Library or informally as the Vat, is the library A library is a curated collection of sources of ...
catalog is from the late 14th century. These catalogs generally used a topical arrangement that reflected the topical arrangement of the books themselves. The Vatican Library published 'rules for the catalog of printed books' in 1939. These rules were then translated to English and published in the United States in 1949. Meanwhile, the
Sorbonne The Sorbonne ( , , ) is a building in the Latin Quarter The Latin Quarter of Paris (french: Quartier latin, ) is an area in the 5th and the 6th arrondissements of Paris The city of Paris is divided into twenty ''municipal arrondissem ...

Sorbonne
library in Paris had accumulated more than one thousand books, and in 1290 their catalog pioneered the use of the alphabet as an organizing tool. It was the growth in libraries after the invention of moveable-type printing and the widespread availability of paper that created the necessity for a catalog that organized the library's materials so that they could be found through the catalog rather than "by walking around." By the 17th century libraries became seen as collections of universal knowledge. Two 17th century authors,
Gabriel Naudé Gabriel Naudé (2 February 1600 – 10 July 1653) was a French people, French librarian and scholar. He was a prolific writer who produced works on many subjects including politics, religion, history and the supernatural. An influential work on lib ...
, in France, and
John Dury John Dury (1596 in Edinburgh Edinburgh (; sco, Edinburgh; gd, Dùn Èideann ) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 Council areas of Scotland, council areas. Historically part of the county of Midlothian (interchangeably Edinbur ...
, in Scotland, both developed theories of systematic organization of libraries. The development of principles and rules that would guide the librarian in the creation of catalogs followed. The history of cataloging begins at this point. In ancient times in the orient the title was used to identify the work. Since the renaissance the author has been the main source of identification.


Cataloging standards

Cataloging rules have been defined to allow for consistent cataloging of various library materials across several persons of a cataloging team and across time.


Anglo-American cataloging standards

The English-speaking libraries have shared cataloging standards since the early 1800s. The first such standard is attributed to
Anthony Panizzi Sir Antonio Genesio Maria Panizzi (16 September 1797 – 8 April 1879), better known as Anthony Panizzi, was a naturalised British citizen of Italian birth, and an Italian patriot. He was a librarian, becoming the List of directors of the British ...

Anthony Panizzi
, the Keeper of the Printed Books of the British Museum Library. His 91 rules, published in 1841, formed the basis for cataloging standards for over 150 years. Subsequent work in the 19th century was done by
Charles Coffin Jewett Charles Coffin Jewett (August 12, 1816 – January 9, 1868) was an American librarian, in 1848 becoming the Librarian and Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution before being appointed Superintendent of the Boston Public Library in 18 ...
, head of the Smithsonian library, which at the time was positioned to become the national library of the United States. Jewett used stereotype plates to produce the library's catalog in book form, and proposed the sharing of cataloging among libraries. His rules were published in 1853. A disagreement with the head Smithsonian secretary caused Jewett to be dismissed from his position but soon after he accepted a position with the Boston Public Library. He was tasked with purchasing books as well as arranging them. Jewett earned the role of director of the Boston Public Library in 1858; during this time the ''Index to the Catalogue of a Portion of the Public Library of the City of Boston Arranged in its Lower Hall'' was published. The article included new cataloging information alongside many of the Smithsonian cataloging rules that Jewett created. His systems became a model for other libraries as he pushed for alphabetical card catalogs. Jewett was followed by
Charles Ammi Cutter Charles Ammi Cutter (March 14, 1837 – September 6, 1903) was an American librarian A librarian is a person who works professionally in a library A library is a curated collection of sources of information and similar resources, made acce ...
, an American librarian whose ''Rules for a Dictionary Catalog'' were published in 1876. Cutter championed the concept of "ease of use" for library patrons. In the 20th century, library cataloging was forced to address new formats for materials, including sound recordings, movies, and photographs. , once an employee of the
Library of Congress The Library of Congress (LC) is the research library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information in order ...

Library of Congress
and later a professor at
UCLA The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organ ...
, wrote a critique of the 1949 ALA rules for entry, ''Cataloging Rules and Principles: A Critique of the ALA Rules for Entry and a Proposed Design for the Revision''. Lubetzky's writings revealed the weaknesses in the existing rules, and spoke to the need for preparing a set of standards for a more complete and succinct code. As changes in culture over time would necessitate an ever-increasing/changing list of rules, Lubetzky "helped remedy the situation by advocating the concept of cataloging according to 'basic principles,' in place of a rule for each case that might arise." He was tasked to do extensive studies of the current cataloging rules over the time period from 1946-1969. His analyses shaped the subsequent cataloging rules. The published American and Anglo-American cataloging rules in the 20th century were: * Anglo-American rules: * American Library Association rules: * Library of Congress rules: * AACR: * AACR2: * AACR2-R: The 21st century brought renewed thinking about library cataloging, in great part based on the increase in the number of digital formats, but also because of a new consciousness of the nature of the "Work" in the bibliographic context, often attributed to the principles developed by Lubetzky. This was also supported by the work of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions on the
Functional Requirements for Bibliographic RecordsFunctional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR ) is a conceptual entity–relationship model developed by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) that relates user tasks of retrieval and access in onlin ...
(FRBR), which emphasized the role of the work in the bibliographic context. FRBR created a tiered view of the bibliographic entity from Item, Manifestation, Expression, to Work. Item refers to the physical form of the book. Manifestation refers to the publication. Expression meaning the translation of the book from other languages. Work refers to the content and ideas of the book. This view was incorporated into the cataloging rules subsequent to AACR2-R, known as
Resource Description and AccessResource Description and Access (RDA) is a standard for descriptive cataloging initially released in June 2010, providing instructions and guidelines on formulating bibliographic data. Intended for use by libraries A library is a curated col ...
(RDA).


England

The
Bodleian Library The Bodleian Library () is the main research library A research library is a library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housi ...

Bodleian Library
at
Oxford University Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. In 2017, its population was estimated at 152,450. It is northwest of London, southeast of Birmingham, and northeast of Bristol. The city is home to the Unive ...

Oxford University
developed its cataloging code in 1674. The code emphasized authorship, and books by the same author were listed together in the catalog. We can trace the origins of modern library cataloging practice back to the 1830s and Anthony Panizzi's 91 rules. Panizzi's singular insight was that a large catalog needed consistency in its entries if it was to serve the user. The first major English-language cataloging code was that developed by Sir Anthony Panizzi for the British Museum catalog. Panizzi's 91 rules were approved by the British Museum in 1839, and published in 1841. The British Museum rules were revised up until 1936. The library departments of the British Museum became part of the new British Library in 1973.


Germany and Prussia

The Prussian government set standard rules for all of its libraries in 1899. The rules were based on those of the University Library at Breslau by Karl Franz Otto Dziatzko. These were adopted throughout Germany, Prussia and Austria. The Prussian Instructions was a standardized system of cataloging authorized in 1908. In the Prussian Instructions, titles in literature are arranged grammatically not mechanically and literature is entered under its title. After the adoption of the Paris Principles (cataloging) in 1961, Germany developed the (RAK) in 1977.Wiegand, Wayne A, and Donald G. Davis. ''Encyclopedia of Library History''. New York: Garland Pub, 1994. The goal of the Paris Principles was to serve as a basis for international standardization in cataloging. Most of the cataloging codes that were developed worldwide since that time have followed the Principles.


Cataloging codes

Cataloging codes prescribe which information about a bibliographic item is included in the entry and how this information is presented for the user; It may also aid to sort the entries in printing (parts of) the catalog. Currently, most cataloging codes are similar to, or even based on, the
International Standard Bibliographic DescriptionThe International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD) is a set of rules produced by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) to create a bibliographic description in a standard, human-readable form, especiall ...
(ISBD), a set of rules produced by the
International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) is the leading international body representing the interests of people who rely on Library, libraries and information professionals. An independent, non-governmental, not ...
(IFLA) to describe a wide range of library materials. These rules organize the bibliographic description of an item in the following eight areas: title and statement of responsibility (author or editor), edition, material specific details (for example, the scale of a map), publication and distribution, physical description (for example, number of pages), series, notes, and standard number (). There is an initiative called the Bibliographic Framework (Bibframe) that is "an initiative to evolve bibliographic description standards to a linked data model, in order to make bibliographic information more useful both within and outside the library community." The most commonly used cataloging code in the English-speaking world was the ''
Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules ''Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules'' (AACR) were an international library cataloging Technical standard, standard. First published in 1967 and edited by C. Sumner Spalding, a second edition (AACR2) edited by Michael Gorman (librarian), Michael Go ...
, 2nd edition'' (AACR2). AACR2 provides rules for ''descriptive cataloging'' only and does not touch upon ''subject cataloging''. AACR2 has been translated into many languages, for use around the world. The German-speaking world uses the ''Regeln für die alphabetische Katalogisierung'' (RAK), also based on ISBD. The Library of Congress implemented the transition to RDA from AACR2 in March 2013. In subject databases such as Chemical Abstracts, MEDLINE and PsycINFO, the Common Communication Format (CCF) is meant to serve as a baseline standard. Different standards prevail in archives and museums, such as CIDOC-CRM.
Resource Description and AccessResource Description and Access (RDA) is a standard for descriptive cataloging initially released in June 2010, providing instructions and guidelines on formulating bibliographic data. Intended for use by libraries A library is a curated col ...
(RDA) is a recent attempt to make a standard that crosses the domains of
cultural heritage Cultural heritage is the legacy of tangible and intangible heritage assetA heritage asset is an item that has value because of its contribution to a nation’s society, knowledge and/or culture. They are usually physical assets, but some countries ...
institutions.


Digital formats

Most libraries currently use the
MARC standards MARC (machine-readable cataloging) standards are a set of digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of electro ...
—first piloted from January 1966 to June 1968 —to encode and transport bibliographic data. These standards have seen critiques in recent years for being old, unique to the library community, and difficult to work with computationally. The Library of Congress is currently developing BIBFRAME, an RDA schema for expressing bibliographic data. BIBFRAME is being revised and piloted currently by the Library of Congress, but still is not available to the public. It will first be available to vendors to try out, but afterwards there will be a hybrid form of the system (MARC and BIBFRAME) until the data can be fully translated. Library digital collections often use simpler digital formats to store their metadata. XML-based schemata, particularly
Dublin Core file:DCMI-logo.svg, 220px, Logo image of DCMI, which formulates Dublin Core The Dublin Core, also known as the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set, is a set of fifteen "core" elements (properties) for describing resources. This fifteen-element Dublin ...
and MODS, are typical for bibliographic data about these collections.


Transliteration

Library items that are written in a foreign script are, in some cases,
transliterated Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elements or symbols, or that repertoire * Script (styles of ha ...

transliterated
to the script of the catalog. In the United States and some other countries, catalogers typically use the
ALA-LC romanization ALA-LC (American Library Association The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a leg ...
tables for this work. If this is not done, there would need to be separate catalogs for each script.


Ethical issues

Ferris maintains that catalogers, in using their judgment and specialized viewpoint, uphold the integrity of the catalog and also provide "added value" to the process of bibliographic control, resulting in added findability for a library's user community. This added value also has the power to harm, resulting in the denial of access to information. Mistakes and biases in cataloging records can "stigmatize groups of people with inaccurate or demeaning labels, and create the impression that certain points of view are more normal than others". Social responsibility in cataloging is the "fair and equitable access to relevant, appropriate, accurate, and uncensored information in a timely manner and free of bias". In order to act ethically and in a socially responsible manner, catalogers should be aware of how their judgments benefit or harm findability. They should be careful to not misuse or misrepresent information through inaccurate or minimal-level cataloging and to not purposely or inadvertently censor information. Bair states that it is the professional obligation of catalogers to supply thorough, accurate, high-quality surrogate records for databases and that catalogers also have an ethical obligation to "contribute to the fair and equitable access to information." Bair recommends that catalogers "actively participate in the development, reform, and fair application of cataloging rules, standards, and classifications, as well as information-storage and retrieval systems". As stated by Knowlton, access points "should be what a particular type of library patron would be most likely to search under -- regardless of the notion of universal bibliographic control." A formal code of ethics for catalogers does not exist, and thus catalogers often follow library or departmental policy to resolve conflicts in cataloging. While the American Library Association created a "Code of Ethics", Ferris notes that it has been criticized for being too general to encompass the special skills that set catalogers apart from other library and information professionals. As stated by Tavani, a code of ethics for catalogers can "inspire, guide, educate, and discipline" (as cited in Bair, 2005, p. 22). Bair suggests that an effective code of ethics for catalogers should be aspirational and also "discuss specific conduct and actions in order to serve as a guide in actual situations". Bair has also laid out the beginnings for a formal code of cataloging ethics in "Toward a Code of Ethics for Cataloging."


Criticism

Sanford Berman Sanford Berman (born October 6, 1933) is a librarian (specifically, a Cataloging, cataloger). He is known for radicalism, promoting alternative viewpoints in librarianship, and acting as a proactive information conduit to other librarians around ...
, former Head Cataloger of the
Hennepin County Library File:Ridgedale_Library.jpg, Ridgedale Library, the location of the Hennepin County Library headquarters Hennepin County Library is a public library system serving Hennepin County, Minnesota, US. The current iteration of Hennepin County Library w ...
in Minnetonka, Minnesota, has been a leading critic of biased headings in the
Library of Congress Subject HeadingsThe Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) comprise a thesaurus A thesaurus (plural ''thesauri'' or ''thesauruses'') or synonym dictionary is a reference work for finding synonyms and sometimes antonyms of words. They are often used by wr ...
. Berman's 1971 publication ''Prejudices and Antipathies: A Tract on the LC Subject Heads Concerning People'' (''P&A'') has sparked the movement to correct biased subject headings. In ''P&A'', Berman listed 225 headings with proposed alterations, additions, or deletions and cross-references to "more accurately reflect the language used in addressing these topics, to rectify errors of bias, and to better guide librarians and readers to material of interest". Berman is well known for his "care packages," mailings containing clippings and other materials in support of changes to subject headings and against racism, sexism, homophobia, and governmental secrecy, among other areas for concern. In "Three Decades Since ''Prejudices and Antipathies'': A Study of Changes in the Library of Congress Subject Headings," Knowlton examines ways in which the Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) has changed by compiling a table of changes described in ''P&A'', followed by the current status of headings in question. Knowlton states that his intent for this table is to "show how many of Berman’s proposed changes have been implemented" and "which areas of bias are still prevalent in LCSH." In the discussion of Knowlton's findings, it is revealed that of the 225 headings suggested for change by Berman, only 88 (39%) have been changed exactly or very closely to his suggestions (p. 127). Another 54 (24%) of headings have been changed but only partially resolve Berman's objections, and "which may leave other objectionable wording intact or introduce a different shade of bias." 80 (36%) headings were not changed at all according to Berman's suggestions.


Queer theory and cataloging

Building on Berman's critique of cataloging practices,
queer theorists ''Queer'' is an umbrella term In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every ...
in library and information science such as Emily Drabinski, Amber Billey and K.R. Roberto have written about the implications of creating stable categorizations for gender identities. Utilizing queer theory in conjunction with library classification and cataloging requires perspectives that can present both ethically and politically sound viewpoints that support marginalized persons such as women, people of color, or members of the LGBTQ+ community. This work has resulted in the modification of RDA Rule 9.7, governing how gender is represented in record creation. At the ALA Midwinter meeting in January 2016, the
controlled vocabulary Controlled vocabularies provide a way to organize knowledge for subsequent retrieval. They are used in subject indexing Subject indexing is the act of describing or classifying a document A document is a written Writing is a medium of ...
for gender in RDA was abolished, allowing catalogers and libraries to describe a person's gender in whatever terms best represent that person.


Cataloging terms

* Main entry or access point generally refers to the first author named on the item. Additional authors are added as "added entries." In cases where no clear author is named, the
title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academic qualification. In some languages, titles may be inserted between the firs ...
of the work is considered the main entry. *
Authority control In library and information science, library science, authority control is a process that organizes bibliographic information, for example in library catalogs by using a single, distinct spelling of a name (heading) or a numeric identifier for ea ...
is a process of using a single, specific term for a person, place, or title to maintain consistency between access points within a catalog. Effective authority control prevents a user from having to search for multiple variations of a title, author, or term. * Cooperative cataloging refers to an approach in which libraries collaborate in the creation of bibliographic and authority records, establishing cataloging practices and utilizing systems that facilitate the use of shared records.


See also

*
Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules ''Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules'' (AACR) were an international library cataloging Technical standard, standard. First published in 1967 and edited by C. Sumner Spalding, a second edition (AACR2) edited by Michael Gorman (librarian), Michael Go ...
(AACR) *
Archival processingArchival processing is the act of surveying, arranging, describing, and performing basic Preservation (library and archival science), preservation activities on the recorded material of an individual, family, or organization after they are permanentl ...
*
Authority control In library and information science, library science, authority control is a process that organizes bibliographic information, for example in library catalogs by using a single, distinct spelling of a name (heading) or a numeric identifier for ea ...
*
Bibliographer Bibliography (from and ), as a discipline, is traditionally the academic study of books as physical, cultural objects; in this sense, it is also known as bibliology (from ). English author and bibliographer John Carter describes bibliography a ...
*
Bibliographic recordA bibliographic record is an entry in a bibliographic index (or a library catalog) which represents and describes a specific resource. A bibliographic record contains the data elements necessary to help users identify and retrieve that resource, as w ...
*
Cataloging in Publication In publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works, such as books, news ...
* Collaborative Cataloging (shared cataloging) *
FindabilityFindability is the ease with which information contained on a website A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web pages and related content that is identified by a common domain name and published on at least one web server. No ...
*
Functional Requirements for Bibliographic RecordsFunctional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR ) is a conceptual entity–relationship model developed by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) that relates user tasks of retrieval and access in onlin ...
(FRBR) *
Information architecture Information architecture (IA) is the structural design of shared information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a st ...

Information architecture
*
Information retrieval Information retrieval (IR) in computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer h ...
*
International Standard Bibliographic DescriptionThe International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD) is a set of rules produced by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) to create a bibliographic description in a standard, human-readable form, especiall ...
(ISBD) *
ISO 690 ISO 690 is an ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeata ...
*
Knowledge organization Knowledge organization (KO), organization of knowledge, organization of information, or information organization is an intellectual discipline concerned with activities such as document description, indexing, and classification that serve to p ...
*
Library catalog A library catalog (or library catalogue in British English) is a register of all bibliography, bibliographic items found in a library or group of libraries, such as a network of libraries at several locations. A catalog for a group of libra ...
*
Metadata Metadata is "data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sense, data are a set of values of qualitative property, qualitative or quantity, quantitative variable (research), v ...

Metadata
* Subject access point


References


Further reading

* * * * * *


External links

{{Authority control Library cataloging and classification