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Caldas da Rainha () is a medium-sized
city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a ...

city
in the district of Leiria of
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who ...

Portugal
. The city serves as the
seat SEAT S.A. (, ; ''Sociedad Española de Automóviles de Turismo'') is a Spanish car manufacturer, which sells its vehicles under the SEAT and Cupra brands. It was founded on 9 May 1950, by the Instituto Nacional de Industria Instituto Nacional d ...
of the larger
municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, ...
of the same name and of the Comunidade Intermunicipal do Oeste (OesteCIM, Intermunicipal Community of the West). At the 2011 census, the municipality had a population of 51,729 in an area of , with 30,343 residing in the city. Although the city itself lies about inland, three of the municipality's civil parishes lie on the
Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
. Caldas da Rainha is best known for its sulphurous
hot spring A hot spring, hydrothermal spring, or geothermal spring is a spring Spring(s) may refer to: Common uses * Spring (season), a season of the year * Spring (device), a mechanical device that stores energy * Spring (hydrology), a natural source of w ...

hot spring
s and
ceramic A ceramic is any of the various hard, brittle, heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant Corrosion is a Erosion, natural process that converts a refined metal into a more chemically stable form such as oxide, hydroxide, carbonate or sulfide. ...
pottery Pottery is the process and the products of forming vessels and other objects with clay Clay is a type of fine-grained natural soil Surface-water- gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland.">Northern_Ireland.html" ;"title="g ...

pottery
. The settlement was founded in the 15th century by Queen Leonor (Rainha Dona Leonor), who established a hospital and a church at the site of some therapeutic hot springs. The Hospital Termal Rainha D. Leonor (Queen Leonor Spring Water Hospital, or Thermal Hospital) is the oldest purpose-built institution of its kind in the world, with five centuries of history. The city's name, often shortened to simply "Caldas", can be translated as "Queen's Hot Springs", "Queen's Spa", or "Queen's Baths". Caldas da Rainha is a UNESCO Creative City. It is home to many cultural institutions. The city's nine
museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is a building or institution that cares for and displays a collection Collection or Collections may refer to: * Cash collection, the function of an accounts receivable department * Collec ...

museum
s cover art, history, and cycling. Cultural and sports venues include Centro Cultural e de Congressos (CCC, Cultural and Conference Centre), a centre for performing arts, exhibitions, and conferences; Expoeste – Centro de Exposições do Oeste (Exhibition Centre of the West), which hosts exhibitions and festivals; a
bullring A bullring is an arena An arena is a large enclosed platform, often circular or oval-shaped, designed to showcase theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually acto ...
; several
football Football is a family of s that involve, to varying degrees, a to score a . Unqualified, normally means the form of football that is the most popular where the word is used. Sports commonly called ''football'' include (known as ''soccer'' ...
(soccer) pitches; and a multi-sport municipal complex. Caldas hosts six professional and higher-educational institutions, including a major arts and design school and a school devoted to ceramics. In 2014 Caldas da Rainha had the best public secondary school in Portugal based on national test scores.


History


Early years

Caldas da Rainha was part of the ancient region
Lusitania Lusitania (; ) or Hispania Lusitana was an ancient Iberian Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin: ''provincia'', pl. ''provinciae'') were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Roman Italy that were controlled by the Roma ...

Lusitania
, inhabited by
ancient Romans In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A historian is a person who studi ...
who took advantage of sulphurous waters sprouting in the region.
Barbarian A barbarian is a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Bioc ...

Barbarian
invasions destroyed most of the Roman-built baths. By the 13th century, the springs were known as "caldas de Óbidos", after the nearby town. At this time, a
Benedictine The Benedictines, officially the Order of Saint Benedict ( la, Ordo Sancti Benedicti, abbreviated as OSB), are a Christian monasticism, monastic Religious order (Catholic), religious order of the Catholic Church following the Rule of Saint Be ...
order looked after the needs of the poor and cared for the
lepers Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease (HD), is a long-term infection by the bacteria Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) are a type of Cell (biology), biological cell. They constitute a large domain (biology), domain ...

lepers
and rheumatics, who sought the healing waters. With the disbandment of the order by the 15th century, the area fell into disrepair. Queen Leonor (Rainha Dona Leonor, in Portuguese), the wife of
King João II
King João II
, is credited as the founder of Caldas da Rainha. One day in 1484, while traveling from Óbidos to Batalha, she happened upon a group of peasants bathing in foul-smelling waters by the roadside. The queen stopped to inquire about this oddity, and the bathers told her that the waters possessed curative powers. She decided to try them and was pleased to find that she was quickly relieved of an unknown affliction that she had been suffering. On that site, the queen ordered a hospital built so that others could enjoy the same relief. Construction began the following year, and although the first patients were admitted in 1488, the works were not completed until about 1496 or 1497. To finance the hospital and its adjoining church, the queen sold her jewels and used income from her landholdings. The name of the settlement that grew around the site and became Caldas da Rainha refers to both its founder and the reason for its existence. The city's name can be translated as "Queen's Hot Springs", "Queen's Spa", or "Queen's Baths". The settlement's waters remain its major claim to fame. On 21 March 1511, , brother of Queen Leonor, conferred the status of town ('' vila'') upon Caldas da Rainha. In 1821, it was made a
municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, ...
( ''concelho'' or ''município'').


Twentieth century

In 1901 and 1902, Caldas da Rainha welcomed 350
Boer Boers () ( af , Boere) refers to the descendants of the proto-Afrikaans-speaking colonist A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established a permanent residence there, often to colonize Colonization, or colonisation ...

Boer
men, women, and children who sought refuge from the ravages of the
Second Boer War The Second Boer War ( af, Tweede Vryheidsoorlog, lit. "Second Freedom War", 11 October 189931 May 1902), also known as the Boer War, the Anglo–Boer War, or the South African War, was a conflict fought between the British Empire and the two B ...
in their South African homeland. Initially housed in the thermal hospital, the refugees were transferred to the park pavilions at the onset of the bathing season. Some rented rooms in town, marveling at the low rates. During
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
, in which Portugal joined the
Allies An alliance is a relationship among people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason Reason is the capacity of consciously applying ...
, Caldas had one of three
internment Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges. The term is especially used for the confinement "of enemy citizens in war War is an intense armed conflict between states ...

internment
camps in the country. In 1916, most Germans in Portugal were deported, but men aged 15–45 were imprisoned to prevent their joining the German military. Originally, all of the approximately 700 prisoners were shipped to
Angra do Heroísmo Angra do Heroísmo (), or simply Angra, is a city and municipality on Terceira Island Terceira () is a volcanic island in the Azores The Azores ( , also ; pt, Açores ), officially the Autonomous Region of the Azores (), is one of the two ...

Angra do Heroísmo
, on
Terceira Island Terceira () is a volcanic island in the Azores archipelago, in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean. It is one of the larger islands of the archipelago, with a population of 53,311 inhabitants in an area of approximately . It is the location ...
in the
Azores The Azores ( , also ; pt, Açores ), officially the Autonomous Region of the Azores (), is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal The two Autonomous Regions of Portugal ( pt, Regiões Autónomas de Portugal) are the Azores (''Região ...

Azores
, where they were held at the Fortress of São João Baptista. In 1918, to reduce overcrowding at the fortress, 168 internees were moved to Caldas, where they stayed in military barracks located at the Parque D. Carlos I (Pavilhões do Parque). The prisoners were released the following year, after the end of the war. On 26 April 1919,
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a chief executive officer ...
João do Canto e Castro granted the town the title of Dame of the
Military Order of the Tower and of the Sword, of Valour, Loyalty and Merit The Ancient and Very Noble Military Order of the Tower and of the Sword, of the Valour, Loyalty and Merit ( pt, Antiga e Muito Nobre Ordem Militar da Torre e Espada, do Valor, Lealdade e Mérito), before 1910 Royal Military Order of the Tower and ...
(Ordem Militar da Torre e Espada do Valor, Lealdade e Mérito). Unlike other places similarly honoured, Caldas did not add the honour's collar to its coat of arms. The town was elevated to the status of
city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a ...

city
('' cidade'') in August 1927. During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, in which Portugal remained neutral, hundreds of
Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is ...

Jewish
refugee A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person Forced displacement (also forced migration) is an involuntary or coerced movement of a person or people away from their home or home region In geography, regions are areas that are broa ...

refugee
s came to Caldas da Rainha to escape
Nazism Nazism ( ), officially National Socialism (german: Nationalsozialismus, ), is the ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about th ...

Nazism
. Caldas also served as home to British and American
airmen An airman is a member of an air force or air arm of a nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense ar ...
who landed or crashed in Portugal or off its coast. In January 1943, 230 Britons resident in Axis power
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...

Italy
were evacuated to Caldas, where they were expected to stay until the end of the war. Most of these evacuees were over 65 years of age and had resided in Italy for a long time. In a prelude to the
Carnation Revolution The Carnation Revolution ( pt, Revolução dos Cravos), also known as the 25 April ( pt, 25 de Abril, links=no), was initially a 25 April 1974 military coup A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly ...
, in the early morning of 16 March 1974, the Fifth Infantry Regiment (Regimento de Infantaria 5), based in Caldas da Rainha in what is now the School of Army Sergeants (Escola de Sargentos do Exército), attempted to stage a
coup d'état A coup d'état (; French for "blow of state"), often shortened to coup in English, (also known as an overthrow) is a seizure and removal of a government and its powers. Typically, it is an illegal, unconstitutional seizure of power by a politic ...
against the country's
authoritarian Authoritarianism is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a mo ...
Estado Novo regime. Thirty officers and about 300 sergeants and enlisted men from the regiment left their quarters at 4:00 a.m., heading for
Lisbon Lisbon (; pt, Lisboa ) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 544,851 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2. Grande Lisboa, Lisbon's urban area extends beyond the city's admin ...

Lisbon
, where they planned to occupy the airport. On approaching the capital, the Caldas regiment found themselves alone, realizing that the other units supposed to participate in the coup had not joined the upheaval. The regiment turned back and reached their Caldas quarters at around 10:00 a.m., locking themselves in and awaiting a siege. The compound was surrounded by various forces, which penetrated the base at about 5:00 p.m. The revolters were arrested and sent to various military prisons, where they were held until the Carnation Revolution on 25 April 1974, 40 days later.


Symbols

Caldas da Rainha's
coat of arms#REDIRECT coat of arms A coat of arms is a heraldry, heraldic communication design, visual design on an escutcheon (heraldry), escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the fu ...

coat of arms
was granted by Queen Leonor, before municipal coats of arms were typically used in Portugal. The centre of the city's arms consist of the queen's personal arms, flanked on the right by a
shrimping The shrimp fishery is a major global industry, with more than 3.4 million tons caught per year, chiefly in Asia. Rates of bycatch are unusually high for shrimp fishing, with the capture of sea turtles being especially contentious. A shrimper is a f ...
net, to commemorate the fishermen who rescued her drowning son Prince Afonso, and on the left a
pelican Pelicans (genus ''Pelecanus'') are a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscriptio ...

pelican
feeding its young, a symbol of her husband, King João II. Because of its early introduction, several elements of the arms violate Portuguese
heraldic Heraldry () is a broad term, encompassing the design, display and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology Vexillology () is the study of the history, symbolism and usage of flag A f ...
standards. The municipal flag consists of the coat of arms on a purple and yellow
gyronny In heraldry Heraldry () is a broad term, encompassing the design, display and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, rank and genealogy, pedigree. Arm ...
. The municipality adopted a logo for marketing purposes, to project an image of "relevant historical tradition", "current dynamism", and "enormous potential in culture, economy, commerce, and tourism". The logo shows a stylised outline of Queen Leonor's crowned head in blue tones, representing the city's historical connection with water. Below the queen's image, the municipality's name appears in
all caps In typography Typography is the art and technique of arranging type to make written language A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language A language is a structured system of communication used by ...
in Light. Below this "
Câmara Municipal A ''câmara municipal'' (, meaning literally municipal chamber and often referred to simply as ''câmara'') is a type of municipal governing body, existing in several countries of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries The Communit ...

Câmara Municipal
" is written in
Gill Sans Gill Sans is a designed by and released by the British branch of from 1928 onwards. Gill Sans is based on 's 1916 , the corporate font of . As a young artist, Gill had assisted Johnston in its early development stages. In 1926, , a young p ...
.


Geography

Caldas da Rainha, often shortened to just "Caldas", is located in western central
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who ...

Portugal
at . The city lies approximately
as the crow flies ''As the crow flies'', similar to ''in a beeline'', is an idiom An idiom is a phrase In syntax and grammar, a phrase is a group of words which act together as a grammatical unit. For instance, the English language, English expression "the ver ...
, or by the A8 motorway, north of the Portuguese capital,
Lisbon Lisbon (; pt, Lisboa ) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 544,851 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2. Grande Lisboa, Lisbon's urban area extends beyond the city's admin ...

Lisbon
. Although three of the municipality's civil parishes—
Foz do Arelho Foz do Arelho is one of twelve civil parishes ('' freguesias'') in the municipality of Caldas da Rainha Caldas da Rainha () is a medium-sized city in the Leiria District, district of Leiria of Portugal. The city serves as the Administrative centr ...

Foz do Arelho
,
Salir do Porto Salir do Porto is a former civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government. It is a territorial designation which is the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or ...
, and Serra do Bouro—lie on the , the city proper lies about from the ocean via the N360 road to Foz do Arelho. The municipality of Caldas da Rainha comprises an area of . The municipality extends north to south and east to west. The perimeter measures . At its lowest point, the municipality lies at
sea level Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average In colloquial, ordinary language, an average is a single number taken as representative of a list of numbers, usually the sum of the numbers divided by how many numbers are in th ...

sea level
, and its highest point reaches . The municipality is bordered to the north by Alcobaça, to the east by
Rio Maior Rio Maior () is a municipality in the Santarém District The District of Santarém ( pt, Distrito de Santarém ) is a Districts of Portugal, district of Portugal, located in Portugal's Centro Region, Portugal, ''Centro Region''. The district capi ...

Rio Maior
, and to the south by ,
Cadaval Cadaval () is a municipality in the Oeste region and Lisbon District of Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a sovereign state, country whose mainland is located on the Iberian ...

Cadaval
, and Óbidos. Caldas da Rainha is the
seat SEAT S.A. (, ; ''Sociedad Española de Automóviles de Turismo'') is a Spanish car manufacturer, which sells its vehicles under the SEAT and Cupra brands. It was founded on 9 May 1950, by the Instituto Nacional de Industria Instituto Nacional d ...
of the Comunidade Intermunicipal do Oeste (OesteCIM, Intermunicipal Community of the West). For statistical purposes, Caldas is in the
NUTS Nut often refers to: * Nut (fruit) A nut is a fruit composed of an inedible hard shell and a seed, which is generally edible. In general usage and in a Culinary nut, culinary sense, a wide variety of dried seeds are called nuts, but in a botan ...
III Oeste (West) subregion— coterminous with OesteCIM—within the NUTS II Centro (Centre) region, which is part of the NUTS I division called
Continente Continente is a Chain store, retail chain that belongs to Sonae, Sonae Distribuição, the largest retailer in Portugal. The hypermarket Continente chain is in spread all over continental Portugal as well on Madeira and in Azores, the Azores. The ...
(Continental, or Mainland, Portugal). The municipality is part of the Comissão de Coordenação e Desenvolvimento Regional de Lisboa e Vale do Tejo (CCDR LVT, Regional Commission for Coordination and Development of Lisbon and
Tagus The Tagus ( ; es, Tajo ; pt, Tejo ; see below) is the longest river in the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese and Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl, Península Eib ...

Tagus
Valley). Caldas da Rainha belongs to the historical province of
EstremaduraEstremadura may refer to: *Estremadura Province (historical), Portugal *Estremadura Province (1936–1976), Portugal * Lisboa VR, a Portuguese wine region called Estremadura until 2009 See also

*Extremadura, an autonomous community of western S ...
and to the district of Leiria. In the
Roman Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Roman Catholic Church
, the
parish A parish is a territorial entity in many Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ ( ...
of Caldas da Rainha belongs to the Caldas da Rainha - Peniche
vicariate A vicar (; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...
of the
Patriarchate of Lisbon The Patriarchate of Lisbon ( la, Patriarchatus Olisiponensis) is a metropolitan archdiocese of the Roman Rite The Roman Rite ( la, Ritus Romanus) is the main liturgical rite of the Latin or Western Church, the largest of the sui iuris particul ...
. Along with the rest of Continental Portugal, Caldas da Rainha is in the
Western European Western Europe is the western region of Europe. The region's countries and territories vary depending on context. Beginning with foreign exploration during the Age of Discovery, roughly from the 15th century, the concept of ''Europe'' as "the W ...
time zone A time zone is an area that observes a uniform standard time Standard time is the synchronization of clock A clock or a timepiece is a device used to Measurement, measure and indicate time. The clock is one of the oldest Invent ...
( UTC±00:00), observing
Western European Summer Time Western European Summer Time (WEST, UTC+01:00) is a summer daylight saving time#REDIRECT Daylight saving time Daylight saving time (DST), also daylight savings time or daylight time (the United States and Canada) and summer time (United King ...
( UTC+01:00) from late March to late October. The
postal code A postal code (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a postcode, post code, PIN or ZIP Code) is a series of letters or digits or both, sometimes including spaces or punctuation, included in a postal ...
for Caldas da Rainha is 2500, and its telephone
area code A telephone numbering plan is a type of numbering schemeThere are many different numbering schemes for assigning nominal numbers to entities. These generally require an agreed set of rules, or a central coordinator. The schemes can be considered ...
is 262.


''Freguesias'' (Civil Parishes)

Caldas da Rainha has 12 ''
freguesias ''Freguesia'' (), usually translated as "Parish (administrative division), parish" or "civil parish", is the third-level Administrative divisions of Portugal, administrative subdivision of Portugal, as defined by the Constitution of Portugal, 197 ...
'' (
civil parishes In England, a civil parish is a type of Parish (administrative division), administrative parish used for Local government in England, local government. It is a territorial designation which is the lowest tier of local government below district ...
). Before 29 January 2013, Caldas had 16 civil parishes. On that date, a law came into effect causing the number of civil parishes throughout the country to be reduced. Seven of the municipality's civil parishes were combined into three new "unions of civil parishes" (''uniões de freguesias'', singular: ''união de freguesias''). Nine civil parishes remained unchanged, except for minor border adjustments to ensure the
contiguity Contiguity or contiguous may refer to: *Contiguous data storage In computer storage File:Maxell DVD-RW 4.7GB crop 20051120.jpg, A spindle of DVD-RWs Computer data storage is a technology consisting of computer components and Data storage ...
of the new unions. Before the 2013 administrative reorganisation, the seven aggregated civil parishes had the following populations and areas, based on the 2011 census: According to the Instituto Nacional de Estatística (National Institute of Statistics, or Statistics Portugal), the city of Caldas da Rainha contains the entirety of Santo Onofre, most of Nossa Senhora do Pópulo (excluding the settlements of Lagoa Parceira, Imaginário, and Casal do Tanqueirão) and the southernmost portion of Tornada, but the municipal assembly does not accept any portion of Tornada as part of the city. Nossa Senhora do Pópulo and Santo Onofre are separated by the
Linha do Oeste Linha do Oeste (Western Line) is a railway line serving the central western coast ...
(Western Line)
railway Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine that transports people or cargo. Vehicles include wagons, bicycles, motor veh ...

railway
line, as specified in the 1984 law (effective 1 January 1985) that carved Santo Onofre out of the civil parish that was called Caldas da Rainha at that time.


Neighbourhoods

The city of Caldas da Rainha has several named neighbourhoods (''
bairro A ''bairro'' () is a Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants ...
s''). Centro (City Centre), in the middle of Nossa Senhora do Pópulo, is the heart of the city. Most of Caldas da Rainha's shops, eateries, businesses, services, government, and transportation are concentrated here. Public squares in the city centre include Praça da República (Republic Square) and Praça 5 de Outubro (5 October Square). Zona Histórica (Historic Zone), in Nossa Senhora do Pópulo adjacent to the city centre, is the oldest part of the city. The neighbourhood includes the thermal hospital, Igreja de Nossa Senhora do Pópulo (Church of Our Lady of the Populace), and Parque D. Carlos I (King Charles I Park). Bairro Azul (Blue Neighbourhood), west of the city centre in Nossa Senhora do Pópulo, was named for its many blue-tiled buildings. The neighbourhood is home the city's
silo A silo (from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is ap ...

silo
s, formerly used for storing grain, now a centre for innovative start-ups. Bairro Azul has several shops, restaurants, drinking establishments, and services. Bairro Avenal, south of Parque D. Carlos I in Nossa Senhora do Pópulo, is a residential area that includes some
mansion A mansion is a large dwelling house. The word itself derives through Old French from the Latin word ''mansio'' "dwelling", an abstract noun derived from the verb ''manere'' "to dwell". The English word ''manse'' originally defined a property la ...

mansion
s. The neighbourhood is home to the ceramics museum and the multi-museum arts centre. Avenal contains some eating and drinking establishments. Bairro da Encosta do Sol (Sun Hill Neighbourhood), east of the city centre in Nossa Senhora do Pópulo, is a residential area with a few businesses. The hospital lies at the edge of the neighbourhood. Bairro Além da Ponte (Beyond the Bridge Neighbourhood; commonly called Bairro da Ponte, or Bridge's Neighbourhood), in the centre of Santo Onofre, lies west of the railroad tracks that divide the city's two civil parishes. The neighbourhood developed during the late 19th century and was home to many of the city's ceramics workers. Bairro Cidade Nova (New City Neighbourhood), in the northern area of Santo Onofre, while mostly residential, is home to Expoeste, the largest exhibition centre in Caldas da Rainha. The neighbourhood is home to a few businesses. Bairro das Morenas (Morenas Neighbourhood, literally "brunettes" or "dark-skinned"), in the southern area of Santo Onofre, was originally built for
social housing Public housing is a form of housing tenure Housing tenure refers to the financial arrangements under which someone has the right to live in a house or apartment An apartment (American English American English (AmE, AE, ...
, but now includes other homes. Bairro dos Arneiros (Arneiros Neighbourhood, literally "sandy area"), in the western part of Santo Onofre, started out as a social
housing estate A housing estate (or sometimes housing complex or housing development) is a group of homes and other buildings built together as a single development. The exact form may vary from country to country. Popular throughout the United States an ...
comprising 96
flats Flat or flats may refer to: Architecture * Flat (housing), an apartment in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Australia and other Commonwealth countries Arts and entertainment * Flat (music), a symbol () which denotes a lower pitch * Flat (soldier), a ...

flats
, spread among six four-storey buildings, with four flats per floor. The edifices, built in two phases in 1998 and 1990, are predominantly white, each with a different colour trim. The neighbourhood has grown beyond the initial development and now has numerous businesses.


Climate

Caldas da Rainha has a
warm-summer Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by dry summers and mild, wet winters. The climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the gre ...
(
Köppen climate classification The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification Climate classification is a way of categorizing the world's s. A climate classification may correlate closely with a category, as climate is a major infl ...
Csb), with warm dry summers and mild rainy winters.


Demographics

Between the 2001 and the 2011
census A census is the procedure of systematically calculating, acquiring and recording information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In ...

census
es, the population of the municipality increased 5.90% from 48,846 residents to 51,729. Females made up 52.63% of the population, and males accounted for 47.37%. The population density was . The 2011 census found that the municipality contained 20,598 families, with an average of 2.5 people per family. The municipality had 19,202 buildings and 31,063 dwellings. The population of the statistical city grew from 25,316 residents in 2001 to 27,378 in 2011, an increase of 8.1%. A resident of Caldas da Rainha is a ''caldense'' (plural: ''caldenses'').


Government

The
Câmara Municipal A ''câmara municipal'' (, meaning literally municipal chamber and often referred to simply as ''câmara'') is a type of municipal governing body, existing in several countries of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries The Communit ...

Câmara Municipal
(city council, literally "municipal chamber") is the
executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government) The executive (short for executive branch or executive power) is the part of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organiz ...
body of municipal government. The council is led by a
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a chief executive officer ...
(''presidente da câmara municipal'', the
mayor In many countries, a mayor is the highest-ranking official An official is someone who holds an office (function or , regardless whether it carries an actual with it) in an or government and participates in the exercise of , (either their ow ...

mayor
) and has six other members (''vereadores'', or councilors), as required by Portuguese law based on the number of registered
voters Voting is a method for a group, such as a meeting or an electorate Electorate may refer to: * The people who are eligible to vote in an Election#Electorate, election, especially their number e.g. the term ''size of (the) electorate'' * The dom ...

voters
in the municipality. Fernando Manuel Tinta Ferreira ( PSD) serves as president of the council, and Hugo Patrício Martinho de Oliveira (PSD) serves as vice president. The other members are: Maria da Conceição Jardim Pereira (PSD), Alberto Pereira (PSD), Jorge Sobral ( PS), Rui Correia (PS), and Manuel Isaac ( CDS–PP). Fernando José da Costa, the prior mayor, now serves as a member of the city council of
Loures Loures () is a city and a municipality in the central Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** ...
, a suburb of
Lisbon Lisbon (; pt, Lisboa ) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 544,851 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2. Grande Lisboa, Lisbon's urban area extends beyond the city's admin ...

Lisbon
. The
Assembleia Municipal An ''Assembleia Municipal'' (; "municipal assembly"; plural: ''assembleias municipais'') is the legislature that governs a Municipalities of Portugal, municipality in Portugal. Part of the assembly's members are elected every four years among candid ...
(municipal assembly) is the deliberative body of municipal government. The assembly has 33 members. The presidents of each of the 12 '' juntas de freguesia'' (civil parish councils) serve on the assembly. Directly elected members of the assembly number 21, triple the number of members on the city council, the minimum required by Portuguese law. Luís Manuel Pereira Monteiro Ribeiro is president of the assembly. Vasco da Cruz Antunes de Oliveira serves as the first secretary, and Maria João dos Santos Ribeiro Querido serves as the second secretary. In addition to the ''junta de freguesia'' as its executive body, each civil parish has an ''
assembleia de freguesiaThe ''assembleia de freguesia'' (parish assembly) is the legislature of a freguesia (Portugal), freguesia (civil parish), the local administrative unit LAU 2 of Portugal. The laws regulating the ''assembleias de freguesia'' are the ''Lei n.o 169/99, ...
'' (civil parish assembly) as its deliberative body. Each body is led by a president, the ''presidente da junta de freguesia'' and the ''presidente da assembleia de freguesia'', respectively. Caldas da Rainha is twinned with the following places: *
Poços de Caldas Poços de Caldas is a Municipalities of Brazil, municipality in the south of Minas Gerais state, Brazil, in the microregion of the same name. Its estimated population in 2020 was 168,641 inhabitants. The city has hot springs. History Poços was ...

Poços de Caldas
,
Minas Gerais Minas Gerais () is a state in Southeastern Brazil. It ranks as the second most populous, the third by Gross Domestic Product, gross domestic product (GDP), and the fourth largest by area in the country. The state's capital and largest city, Belo ...

Minas Gerais
, Brazil, since 2001 *
Huambo Huambo, formerly Nova Lisboa (English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventual ...

Huambo
,
Angola , national_anthem = "Angola Avante "Angola Avante" (, ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that officially symbolizes a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often r ...

Angola
, since 1 May 2007 The municipality has intentions of twinning with the following places: *
Cambo-les-Bains Cambo-les-Bains (Basque language, Basque ''Kanbo'') is a town in the traditional Northern Basque Country, Basque province of Labourd, now in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques Departments of France, department in south-western France on the south-western b ...
, France *
Badajoz Badajoz (, , ; formerly written ''Badajos'' in English) is the capital of the Province of Badajoz in the autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Extremadura, Spain. It is situated close to the Portugal, Portuguese border, on the l ...

Badajoz
, Spain * Coria, Spain *
Dinant Dinant () is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. ...

Dinant
, Belgium *
Le Raincy Le Raincy () is a prestigious communes of France, commune in the eastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located from the Kilometre Zero, center of Paris. Le Raincy is a subprefecture of the Seine-Saint-Denis departments of France, department and ...
, France *
Lubango Lubango, formerly known as Sá da Bandeira, is a municipality in Angola , national_anthem = "Angola Avante "Angola Avante" (, ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that officially symbolizes a country A country is ...

Lubango
, Angola *
Perth Amboy, New Jersey Perth Amboy is a city (New Jersey), city in Middlesex County, New Jersey, Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States. The City of Perth Amboy is part of the New York metropolitan area. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population ...

Perth Amboy, New Jersey
, United States * Ribeira Grande,
Cape Verde , national_anthem = () , official_languages = Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** P ...

Cape Verde


Economy


Commerce

Caldas da Rainha has about 600 commercial establishments and calls itself ''Capital do Comércio Tradicional'' (capital of traditional commerce). The city's
downtown ''Downtown'' is a term primarily used in North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up t ...

downtown
/
city centre A city centre is the commercial, cultural and often the historical, political, and geographic heart of a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and ...

city centre
(''centro'') shopping area contains shops specializing in clothing, jewellery, beauty supplies, decoration, housewares, and other goods. The main shopping streets include Rua dos Heróis da Grande Guerra, Rua Almirante Cândido dos Reis (popularly known as ''Rua das Montras'', Street of Storefronts), Rua Doutor Miguel Bombarda, Rua da Liberdade, and surrounding streets. Praça da Republica (Republic Square), popularly known as Praça da Fruta (Fruit Square), hosts an outdoor
farmers' market A farmers' market (or farmers market according to the AP stylebook The ''AP Stylebook'', also known by its full name ''The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law'', is an American-English grammar style and usage guide created b ...
every morning. A weekly market selling cheap clothing and domestic items is held on Mondays uphill from the square. Several small indoor shopping centres, most with only a few shops, exist throughout the city. The Associação Comercial dos Concelhos das Caldas da Rainha e Óbidos (ACCCRO, Commercial Association of the Municipalities of Caldas da Rainha and Óbidos), founded in 1902, promotes and supports commercial and service businesses in Caldas da Rainha and neighboring Óbidos. Several international chains have locations in Caldas da Rainha, including Benetton,
Bershka Bershka () is a clothing retailer company. It is part of the Spain, Spanish Inditex group (which also own the brands of Zara (clothing), Zara, Massimo Dutti, Pull&Bear, Oysho, Uterqüe, Stradivarius (clothing brand), Stradivarius and Zara Home). T ...

Bershka
,
Claire's Claire's (formerly known as Claire's Boutiques, Claire's Boutique and Claire's Accessories) is an American retailing, retailer of accessories, jewelry, and toys primarily aimed toward tween and teen girls. It was founded in 1961 and is based i ...
, Kiddy's Class, Mango (clothing), Mango, McDonald's, Burger King, Oysho, Pull and Bear, Staples Inc., Staples, Leroy Merlin, and Stradivarius (Inditex), Stradivarius. Caldas has several supermarkets and hypermarkets, including Aldi, Sonae Distribuição, Continente Modelo, E.Leclerc, Lidl (two locations), Sonae Distribuição, Continente Bom Dia, Sonae Distribuição, Meu Super, Minipreço (two locations), Auchan, Pão de Açúcar, Pingo Doce (three locations), and Intermarché. Vivaci Caldas da Rainha, opened in November 2008 next to the rebuilt Hotel Lisbonense, is the first large shopping mall, shopping centre in Caldas. Vivaci's four floors contain sixty Retailing, stores and services, including fourteen restaurants, a five-screen movie theater, and a supermarket. The CaldasShopping building, opened in December 2008 at the intersection of Rua Dr. Miguel Bombarda and Rua Raul Proença, has space for about forty shops, indoor and outdoor esplanades seating 200 to 250, offices, and thirteen apartments. The Centro Bordalo shopping centre—to be built across the street from and connected by a pedestrian bridge to the existing Sonae Distribuição, Continente Modelo hypermarket—was originally scheduled to open in 2010 with 95 stores and 1,100 parking spaces. Developer Sonae Sierra planned to invest 56 million euros in the centre, but the financial crisis of 2007–08 caused postponement of the project.


Statistics

Caldas da Rainha has ten lodging establishments, six of which are hotels (one 4-Hotel rating, star, three 3-star, and two 2-star), and four of which are guest houses (''pensões''). Lodging capacity totals 948, with 790 in the hotels and 158 at the guest houses. In 2012, there were 25 banks in the municipality. Average monthly earnings in the municipality is euro, €894.81 according to 2011 data. Nova Serviços, with 1,504 employees, is the largest employer in Caldas and the second largest in the district of Leiria. Schaeffler Group, Schaeffler Portugal, with 387 employees, is the second largest employer in Caldas and tenth largest in the district. Caldas counts three firms among the district's top fifty exporters: Schaeffler Portugal (5th), Promol (22nd), and Sotrapex (24th). Based on 2018 sales volume, the top 20 business firms in Caldas da Rainha are:


Arts and culture

In 2019, UNESCO added Caldas da Rainha to its Creative Cities Network for crafts and folk art.


Institutions

The Centro Cultural e de Congressos (CCC, Cultural and Conference Centre), inaugurated on 15 May 2008 by President of Portugal, President Aníbal Cavaco Silva and Mayor Fernando José da Costa, is a cultural, performing arts, and conference centre that hosts music, theatre, dance, and cinema, as well as various wikt:exposition#Noun 2, expositions (expos) and conferences. Expoeste - Centro de Exposições do Oeste (Exhibition Centre of the West), is an indoor event space. The centre hosts various events, including bridal expos, seasonal festivals, fruit expos, car shows, and animal shows. During the annual Expotur - Festa de Verão (Summer Party), popularly called "tasquinhas", which takes place over the span of about week and a half at the beginning of August, food from each of the civil parishes is available for purchase and on-site consumption. Caldas da Rainha has nine
museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is a building or institution that cares for and displays a collection Collection or Collections may refer to: * Cash collection, the function of an accounts receivable department * Collec ...

museum
s, covering ceramic art, painting, sculpture, local history, and cycling. The Centro de Artes (Arts Centre), a multi-building complex hosts three museums of sculpture: the Museu-Atelier António Duarte, the Museu-Atelier João Fragoso, and the Museu Barata Feyo. The arts centre contains the Pavilhão de Ateliers (Studios Pavilion)—providing workspace and residence for active artists—and O Espaço da Concas, exhibiting the paintings of Maria da Conceição Nunes, known as Concas. The Arts Centre hosts the wiktionary:biennial, biennial SIMPPETRA–International Stone Sculpture Symposium, with the resulting works being permanently displayed outdoors throughout the municipality. The Museu de Cerâmica (Caldas da Rainha), Museu de Cerâmica (Museum of Ceramics), in an old manor house, exhibits ceramic pieces from Caldas, from throughout Portugal, and from international sources. Casa Museu de São Rafael concentrates on the ceramic creations of Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro's factory. The Museu do Hospital e das Caldas (Museum of the Hospital and of Caldas), installed in the Caza Real (royal house) where Queen Leonor stayed during her visits to Caldas, features exhibits related to the thermal hospital and the city. The José Malhoa Museum, Museu de José Malhoa, in the middle of Parque D. Carlos I, displays paintings by the namesake artist and his contemporaries, as well as sculptures and ceramics. The museum building was declared a property of public interest (''imóvel de interesse público'', IIP) in 2002. The Museu do Ciclismo (Museum of Cycling), opened in 1999 and sited in an Art Nouveau building on Rua de Camões across from Parque D. Carlos I, contains exhibits on the history of cycling and bicycles.


Traditions

Caldas da Rainha is well known for its glazed ceramic
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pottery
(''louça das Caldas''). ''The New York Times'' has called Caldas "[t]he capital of Portuguese pottery". The city is at "the center of a region rich in clay", where pottery has been made since the Neolithic Era. Caldas gained fame for its ceramic wares when Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro and his brother Feliciano founded their Fábrica de Faianças, now called Faianças Artísticas Bordallo Pinheiro. The factory's output includes large decorative pieces; tableware shaped like fruits, vegetables, and animals; and figurines of Zé Povinho, a bearded peasant everyman character. Caldas has a tradition of ceramic phalluses dating to the late 19th century. Caldas has a tradition of embroidery (''bordado'') possibly dating to the 15th century. Legend has it that Queen Leonor's handmaidens, seeing the monarch without her usual brilliance after selling off her jewellery, embroidered her cloak so that it appeared to have golden threads. Caldas embroidery is almost always made with three shades of molasses brown thread on white linen, and on rare occasion with white thread on brown linen. Known for its symmetry, the craft's common themes include arachnids, spirals, angles, birds, hearts, crowns, and shrimp nets. Caldas has several traditional sweets. ''Cavacas das Caldas'' are a small-bowl-sized, wiktionary:concave, concave Confectionery, confection of flour and eggs, with a crunchy sugar covering. In June 2005, a pyramid containing 48,900 ''cavacas'' was erected on Praça 25 de Abril in front of the city hall. ''Beijinhos das Caldas'' ("little kisses") are similar, but are smaller and spherical. Other local sweets include ''trouxas de ovos'' (poached eggs), ''lampreias de ovos'' (egg lampreys), and ''pão-de-ló do Landal'' (Landal sponge cake). Savory dishes typical of Caldas include ''ensopado de enguias da lagoa'' (stewed lagoon eels), ''bacalhau à lagareiro'' (cod in olive oil), ''polvo à lagareiro'' (octopus in olive oil), and ''fatias de carne frita à moda do Landal'' (Landal-style sliced fried meat).


Attractions


City

Igreja de Nossa Senhora do Pópulo (Church of Titles of Mary, Our Lady of the Populace), adjacent to the thermal hospital, is a late International Gothic, gothic church with Mudéjar and Manueline characteristics. It serves as the Mother Church, mother church (''igreja matriz'') of Caldas. It was built 1500 by order of Queen Leonor and designed by Mateus Fernandes. The church was declared a National monuments of Portugal, national monument (''monumento nacional'') in 1910. Igreja de Nossa Senhora da Conceição (Church of Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception, Conception) is a 20th-century church located on Praça 25 de Abril, near the city hall and the courthouse, and surrounded on three sides by Hemiciclo João Paulo II (Pope John Paul II, John Paul II Semicircle). The Patriarchate of Lisbon, Cardinal–Patriarch of Lisbon broke ground on 20 August 1950, and the church was inaugurated on 21 October 1951. Ermida de São Sebastião (Hermitage (religious retreat), Hermitage of Saint Sebastian) is a Mannerism, mannerist and baroque 16th-century chapel located just off Praça da República. An 18th-century reconstruction added tiles about depicting the life of the chapel's namesake saint. The chapel was declared a property of public interest (''imóvel de interesse público'', IIP) in 1984. Ermida do Espírito Santo (Hermitage of the Holy Spirit) is a mannerist and baroque chapel located on Largo João de Deus, uphill from the thermal hospital. Originally built in the 16th century, the hermitage was rebuilt in the 18th century. The chapel was declared a property of public interest in 1984. Praça da República (Republic Square) is a town square, public square in the centre of town. The plaza, popularly known as Praça da Fruta (Fruit Square), hosts Portugal's only daily outdoor
farmers' market A farmers' market (or farmers market according to the AP stylebook The ''AP Stylebook'', also known by its full name ''The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law'', is an American-English grammar style and usage guide created b ...
. The square is surrounded by buildings, most containing shops, banks, and cafés on the ground floor. Built 1747–1750 on the northern side of the square, the baroque former Seat of local government, city hall (''paços do concelho''), now used by the ''junta de freguesia'' (civil parish council) of the Caldas da Rainha — Nossa Senhora do Pópulo, Coto e São Gregório, União das Freguesias de Caldas da Rainha — Nossa Senhora do Pópulo, Coto e São Gregório, was declared a property of public interest in 1984. Praça 5 de Outubro (5 October Square), also known as Antiga Praça do Peixe (Old Fish Square), formerly hosted the city's open-air fish market, which has since moved to an indoor location (''Mercado do Peixe''). The plaza is now used for outdoor café seating and free cultural events. A statue of Queen Leonor stands in the middle of the roundabout at Largo Conde de Fontalva (Count of Fontalva Square), popularly called Largo da Rainha (Queen's Square). The Parque Carlos I of Portugal, D. Carlos I is a large park in the centre of town. The park contains a doughnut-shaped lake with a small island in the middle. Visitors can rent rowboats on the lake. The José Malhoa Museum sits in the middle of the park. The Jardim da Água (Water Garden) is a large-scale outdoor sculpture combining concrete, ceramic tiles, and water. Caldas has three mid-18th-century baroque fountains which were declared properties of public interest in 1982: Chafariz da Estrada da Foz (Fountain of Foz do Arelho Road), Chafariz da Rua Nova (Fountain of the New Street), and Chafariz das Cinco Bicas (Fountain of the Five Spouts).


Rural civil parishes

The civil parish of
Foz do Arelho Foz do Arelho is one of twelve civil parishes ('' freguesias'') in the municipality of Caldas da Rainha Caldas da Rainha () is a medium-sized city in the Leiria District, district of Leiria of Portugal. The city serves as the Administrative centr ...

Foz do Arelho
has a beach on the , from the centre of town. The Lagoa de Óbidos, which straddles the border with the municipality of Óbidos, is a lagoon that empties into the Atlantic Ocean near Foz do Arelho. The ocean beach and the lagoon beach have each been awarded a Blue Flag beach, Blue Flag by the Foundation for Environmental Education. The civil parish of
Salir do Porto Salir do Porto is a former civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government. It is a territorial designation which is the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or ...
has a beach on River of Tornada e Salir do Porto, Tornada which empties into the Bay of São Martinho do Porto, São Martinho off the Atlantic Ocean. The Reserva Natural Local do Paul de Tornada (Tornada Swamp Local nature reserve, Natural Reserve) is a protected wetland area. The Estação da Mala-Posta do Casal dos Carreiros (mail coach station of Casal dos Carreiros), built in the 19th century in the civil parish of A dos Francos, was declared a property of public interest in 1977. The Pelourinho de Santa Catarina (pillory of Saint Catherine) in the civil parish of Santa Catarina (Caldas da Rainha), Santa Catarina, constructed in the 16th century, was declared a property of public interest in 1933. Capela de São Jacinto (Chapel of Saint Hyacinth), located in Casais de São Jacinto in the civil parish of Coto (Caldas da Rainha), Coto, was originally built in the 16th century and reconstructed in baroque style in the 18th century. The chapel was declared a property of public interest in 2009.


Transport


Public transport

Caldas da Rainha has a train station, railway station served by the
Linha do Oeste Linha do Oeste (Western Line) is a railway line serving the central western coast ...
(western line) of Comboios de Portugal. Regional trains, which make frequent local stops, run south to
Lisbon Lisbon (; pt, Lisboa ) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 544,851 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2. Grande Lisboa, Lisbon's urban area extends beyond the city's admin ...

Lisbon
, to its suburbs, or to Torres Vedras, and north to Leiria. Interregional trains, which make select stops, run north to Coimbra via Leiria.
Salir do Porto Salir do Porto is a former civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government. It is a territorial designation which is the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or ...
, a civil parish on the Atlantic Ocean, is the next station north of Caldas and the only other active train stop in the municipality. Former train stops in the municipality are Campo–Serra and Bouro. Caldas da Rainha has a bus station (''terminal rodoviário'') located in the city centre. Rede Nacional de Expressos provides express bus service to various destinations within Portugal. Rodoviária do Tejo (also known as Rodotejo) provides interurban services to the cities, towns, villages, and hamlets near and around Caldas. Rodotejo also provides three ''Rápida'' (literally "rapid", express-like, limited-stop) services from Caldas, serving Campo Grande (Lisbon), Campo Grande in
Lisbon Lisbon (; pt, Lisboa ) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 544,851 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2. Grande Lisboa, Lisbon's urban area extends beyond the city's admin ...

Lisbon
, Óbidos, and (''Rápida Verde'', Green Rapid); Leiria, São Martinho do Porto, and Nazaré, Portugal, Nazaré (''Rápida Rosa'', Pink Rapid); and Santarém, Portugal, Santarém and
Rio Maior Rio Maior () is a municipality in the Santarém District The District of Santarém ( pt, Distrito de Santarém ) is a Districts of Portugal, district of Portugal, located in Portugal's Centro Region, Portugal, ''Centro Region''. The district capi ...

Rio Maior
(''Rápida Caldas da Rainha–Santarém''). The Caldas-based operations of Rodotejo became a separate company called RDO - Rodoviária do Oeste, Lda on 1 July 2015. On 15 May 2007, the municipal holiday, the city council inaugurated local bus service called TOMA (Caldas da Rainha), TOMA. The name means "take this" in Portuguese and commemorates everyman figure Zé Povinho, whose image appears on the buses. TOMA service consists of three routes: ''Linha Azul'' (Blue Line), ''Linha Laranja'' (Orange Line), and ''Linha Verde'' (Green Line). The Blue line uses two minibuses and runs between the western and eastern ends of town. The Orange and Green lines each operate using a single twenty-nine-seat minibus on loop routes. "Projecto Tornada" seeks to improve bus services along the busy N8 road in Tornada e Salir do Porto, Tornada, the civil parish just north of the city. The municipal government, in coordination with Rodoviário do Tejo and Rocaldas - Empresa de Transportes Auto Penafiel, has undertaken to distribute a combined schedule of services and to improve bus stops. Rede RoCaldas is an initiative to join intra-municipal bus service outside the city proper under a single banner and pricing scheme. Introduced in September 2013, Rede RoCaldas combines all services of Rocaldas - Empresa de Transportes Auto Penafiel with the short-haul services of Rodotejo. Rocaldas is a wholly owned subsidiary of Rodotejo, operating as a separate brand. The combined service promises various benefits, including use of the Rodotejo's central bus terminal, restructuring city-centre bus stops, more frequent service, and streamlined ticketing.


Roads

Caldas da Rainha is served by an extensive network of Roads in Portugal, roads. Two Controlled-access highway, motorways (''Roads in Portugal#Autoestradas, autoestradas''), operated by Auto-Estradas do Atlântico, serve the municipality. The A8 motorway, also known as Autoestrada do Oeste, goes south to Óbidos, , Torres Vedras,
Loures Loures () is a city and a municipality in the central Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** ...
, and
Lisbon Lisbon (; pt, Lisboa ) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 544,851 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2. Grande Lisboa, Lisbon's urban area extends beyond the city's admin ...

Lisbon
, and north to Nazaré, Portugal, Nazaré, Alcobaça, Portugal, Alcobaça, Marinha Grande Municipality, Marinha Grande, and Leiria. The A15 motorway (Portugal), A15 motorway goes east to Santarém, Portugal, Santarém via Rio Maior Municipality, Rio Maior. The IP6 road is a main route (''Roads in Portugal#Itinerários principais, itinerário principal'') connecting to Peniche, Portugal, Peniche, Rio Maior, Santarém, Torres Novas, Abrantes, and Castelo Branco, Portugal, Castelo Branco. For much of its route, IP6 runs concurrency (road), concurrent with various motorways, including the entire length of A15 and the portion of A8 in Óbidos. The IC1 road is a secondary route (''Roads in Portugal#Itinerários complementares, itinerário complementar'') which runs the length of the country from Valença, Portugal, Valença in the north to Guia (Albufeira) in the south via Porto and Lisbon. North of Lisbon, IC1 runs concurrency (road), concurrent with various motorways, including almost the entire length of A8. Several national roads (''Roads in Portugal#Estradas nacionais, estradas nacionais''), which are older and not as well-maintained as motorways and main routes, serve the municipality. The N8 road (EN 8), the municipality's main roadway before the A8 motorway was built, crosses the municipality from north to south through the city centre, connecting with Alcobaça to the north and with Óbidos, Bombarral, Torres Vedras, and Loures—a suburb of Lisbon—to the south. The N114 road (EN 114), in the centre and southeast of the municipality, goes to Peniche, Rio Maior and Santarém. The N114-1 road (EN 114-1), in the centre and east of the municipality, connects the city centre to N114. The N115 road (EN 115), along the south and southwest border of the municipality, goes south to Loures. The N360 road (EN 360) crosses the municipality southwest to northeast through the city, connecting
Foz do Arelho Foz do Arelho is one of twelve civil parishes ('' freguesias'') in the municipality of Caldas da Rainha Caldas da Rainha () is a medium-sized city in the Leiria District, district of Leiria of Portugal. The city serves as the Administrative centr ...

Foz do Arelho
to Benedita in Alcobaça Municipality. The N361 road (EN 361), in the southwest of the municipality, connects Lourinhã and Rio Maior. Avenida Atlântica (or Variante Atlântica), which has no numerical designation, connects the western end of city to the beach at Foz do Arelho, and serves as an alternate route in lieu of N360.


Education

Caldas da Rainha is home to many Education in Portugal, educational institutions. During the 2012–2013 Academic term#Portugal, school year, 10,882 students were enrolled in schools of various levels, from preschool to Vocational education, vocational and higher education.


Compulsory education

As in the rest of Portugal, compulsory education, compulsory public education consists of Education in Portugal#Basic education, basic education (''ensino básico'') taught in "basic" schools (''escolas básicas'') and of Education in Portugal#Secondary education, secondary education (''ensino secundário'') taught in secondary schools (''escolas secundárias''). Basic education is divided into three "cycles" (''ciclos''): the Education in Portugal#1º Ciclo - 1st Cycle, first cycle (''primeiro [1°] ciclo'') for years one though four, the Education in Portugal#2º Ciclo - 2nd Cycle, second cycle (''segundo [2°] ciclo'') for years five and six, and the Education in Portugal#3º Ciclo - 3rd Cycle, third cycle (''terceiro [3°] ciclo'') for years seven through nine. Secondary schools teach years ten through twelve. Caldas da Rainha has two public secondary schools, both of which also include the third cycle of basic education. The Escola Secundária com Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro (Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro Secondary School with Third Cycle of Basic Education) is in Nossa Senhora do Pópulo, and the Escola Secundária com 3º CEB Raul Proença (Raul Proença Secondary School with Third Cycle of Basic Education) is in the neighbourhood of Bairro do Arneiros in Santo Onofre. The Raul Proença school ranked as the best public secondary school in the country in 2014. The municipality has three public schools which offer the second and third cycles of basic education without including secondary education. The Escola Básica 2, 3 D. João II (King John II Second- and Third-Cycle Basic School), in Nossa Senhora do Pópulo, offers classes to second- and third-cycle students only. The Escola Básica Integrada Santo Onofre (Santo Onofre Integrated Basic School), in the neighbourhood of Bairro das Morenas, offers all three cycles of basic education. The Escola Básica Integrada de Santa Catarina (Santa Catarina (Caldas da Rainha), Santa Catarina Integrated Basic School) offers all three cycles of basic education, as well as kindergarten. There are 27 public schools for the first cycle of basic education throughout the municipality. The municipality has 28 public kindergartens (''Education in Portugal#Pre-primary education, jardims de infância''). Several private schools offer kindergarten and first-cycle classes. Colégio Rainha D. Leonor (Queen Leonor College#Secondary education, College), in Santo Onofre, offers private first-cycle basic education. For years five through twelve, the school offers privately managed public education. Colégio Frei Cristóvão (Friar Christopher College) offers privately managed public education in years five through nine in A dos Francos.


Higher, professional, and other education

The Escola Superior de Artes e Design de Caldas da Rainha (ESAD.CR, Upper School of Arts and Design), founded in 1990, is a division of the Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Instituto Politécnico de Leiria (IPL, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria District, Leiria). ESAD.CR offers courses in plastic arts, ambient design, industrial design, Ceramic materials, ceramic and glass design, graphic design, graphic and multimedia design, product design, typography, typographic design, theatre, sound, image, and Arts administration, cultural management. Former institutions of higher learning in Caldas include a campus of the Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa (UAL, Autonomous University of Lisbon) and a branch of the Escola Superior de Biotecnologia (ESB, Upper School of Biotechnology) of the Catholic University of Portugal, Universidade Católica Portuguesa (UCP, Catholic University of Portugal) from 1999 to 2011. Caldas da Rainha has five institutions offering professional development and vocational education. The Escola Técnica Empresarial do Oeste (ETEO, Technical Business School of the West) offers courses in business and technology. The Centro de Formação Profissional Para a Indústria Cerâmica (CENCAL, Vocational Training Centre for the Ceramics Industry) offers training related to the ceramics industry. The Centro de Formação Profissional da Indústria Metalúrgica e Metalomecânica (CENFIM, Vocational Training Centre of Metallurgical and Metalworking Industry) offers courses in metallurgy and metalworking. The Escola de Sargentos do Exército (ESE, School of Army Sergeants) trains sergeants for the Portuguese Army. The Escola de Hotelaria e Turismo do Oeste-Caldas da Rainha (EHTO, School of Hospitality and Tourism of the West) offers training in hospitality and tourism. The Centro de Educação Especial Rainha Dona Leonor (CEERDL, Queen Leonor Special Education Centre) offers special education. The Conservatório Caldas da Rainha (CCR, Conservatory of Caldas da Rainha) is a Music school#Conservatory, conservatory of music. The Escola Vocacional de Dança "Os Pimpões" ("Os Pimpões" Vocational School of Dance) offers training in dance.


Health and safety

Caldas da Rainha is home to the Hospital Distrital Caldas da Rainha (Caldas da Rainha District Hospital), which is managed by the multi-city Centro Hospitalar do Oeste (CHO, Hospital Centre of the West). The hospital serves all general emergency needs of residents in all civil parishes of , Caldas da Rainha, and Óbidos, plus parts of Alcobaça; pediatrics, paediatric emergencies for the aforementioned municipalities, plus Peniche, Portugal, Peniche; and obstetrics, obstetric and gynaecology, gynecological emergency needs for the aforementioned municipalities, plus
Cadaval Cadaval () is a municipality in the Oeste region and Lisbon District of Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a sovereign state, country whose mainland is located on the Iberian ...

Cadaval
, Lourinhã Municipality, Lourinhã, Mafra Municipality, Mafra, and Torres Vedras. In 2012, the municipality had 326 inhabitants per physician. The Hospital Termal Rainha D. Leonor (Queen Leonor Spring Water Hospital, or Thermal Hospital), a medical spa offering physician-prescribed treatment in sulphurous waters, is managed by . The hospital is the world's oldest purpose-built thermal medical institution. Among the non-medical holdings of the Centro Hospitlar–legacies of Queen Leonor–are the Museu do Hospital e das Caldas (Museum of the Hospital and Spa); the Igreja de Nossa Senhora do Pópulo and Igreja de São Sebastião, churches; Parque D. Carlos I, a public park; and Mata Rainha D. Leonor, woods adjacent to the park. In 1512, Queen Leonor established the Santa Casa da Misericórdia das Caldas da Rainha (Holy House of Mercy), a charitable institution dedicated to helping those in need. Having expanded to other cities, the Holy House continues its work to the present day. Caldas da Rainha is served by a Community health center, health centre, Centro de Saúde Caldas da Rainha, which offers primary care, primary and non-urgent care. In addition to several units co-located with the main health centre, there are extensions located in the outlying civil parishes of A dos Francos, Alvorninha,
Foz do Arelho Foz do Arelho is one of twelve civil parishes ('' freguesias'') in the municipality of Caldas da Rainha Caldas da Rainha () is a medium-sized city in the Leiria District, district of Leiria of Portugal. The city serves as the Administrative centr ...

Foz do Arelho
, Landal, Santa Catarina (Caldas da Rainha), Santa Catarina, Tornada e Salir do Porto, Tornada, and Vidais. The municipality has fifteen pharmacy, pharmacies. Seven are found in the city, and each of the following civil parishes has one: A dos Francos, Alvorninha, Foz do Arelho, Landal, Salir de Matos, Santa Catarina, Tornada, and Vidais. Fire protection is provided by the Bombeiros Voluntários de Caldas da Rainha (BVCR, Volunteer fire department, Volunteer Firefighters of Caldas da Rainha). Police protection in the urban areas of the municipality is provided by the Polícia de Segurança Pública (PSP, Public Security Police). Rural areas of the municipality are patrolled by the Republican National Guard (Portugal), Guarda Nacional Republicana (GNR, Republican National Guard). The GNR's base is located within the city proper.


Sports

The municipal Complexo Desportivo (Sports Complex), located on the western edge of the city in Santo Onofre, features a Rugby football, rugby field and a running Race track, track. The field is home to Caldas Rugby Clube and can be used for association football (soccer). In 2008 the municipality added five tennis courts (two of which are covered) in an adjacent facility. The municipal pools are located nearby. Four multi-use sports pavilions are found throughout the city. Santo Onofre hosts a skateboard park. The municipality has designated five cycling routes, three of which can be used on foot. All five routes are in the western portion of the municipality, and one crosses into São Martinho do Porto in Alcobaça Municipality, Alcobaça municipality. Caldas da Rainha has a
bullring A bullring is an arena An arena is a large enclosed platform, often circular or oval-shaped, designed to showcase theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually acto ...
(''praça de touros'') in Nossa Senhora do Pópulo, inaugurated on 13 June 1883. The octagonal arena originally seated 4,000 spectators, but now has capacity for 3,250. In a typical year, the ring hosts between three and six Portuguese-style bullfighting, bullfights. The arena also hosts concerts. The Grupo de Forcados Amadores das Caldas da Rainha (Amateur Forcado Group of Caldas da Rainha) participate in a phase of the Portuguese bullfight wherein they attempt to immobilize the bull by grabbing it, using no tools but their hands and bodies. Caldas Sport Clube (CSC) was founded 15 May 1916. The club sponsors teams in several levels of football (soccer) and futsal. The team's main pitch is Campo da Mata, a 13,000-seat field located in a wood adjacent to Parque D. Carlos I. The Federação Portuguesa de Badminton (Portuguese Badminton Federation) is headquartered in Caldas da Rainha. The Centro de Alto Rendimento de Badminton (High Performance Badminton Centre) was inaugurated in Santo Onofre on 6 February 2010.


Notable people

Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro (21 March 1846,
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Lisbon
– 23 January 1905, Lisbon; sometimes rendered in pre-Reforms of Portuguese orthography, reform spelling of "Raphael Bordallo Pinheiro") was a Caricature, caricaturist, Illustration, illustrator, Ceramic art, ceramist, cartoonist, Editing, editor, Interior design, decorator, and Figurism, figurist. In 1875, he created the enduring everyman character of Zé Povinho. In 1884 Bordalo Pinheiro co-founded Faianças Artísticas Bordallo Pinheiro, a ceramics factory still in existence in Caldas. In addition to his factory, his name has been applied to the Casa Museu São Rafael (Saint Rafael House Museum) and the Escola Secundária Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro, one of two public secondary schools in Caldas. José Malhoa (28 April 1885, Caldas da Rainha – 26 October 1933, Figueiró dos Vinhos) was a painter. The Museu de José Malhoa (José Malhoa Museum) in Caldas displays several of his works. José Policarpo, José da Cruz Policarpo (26 February 1936, Alvorninha, Caldas da Rainha – 12 March 2014, Lisbon) became the sixteenth Patriarchate of Lisbon, Patriarch of Lisbon, as José IV, on 24 March 1998. Pope John Paul II made Policarpo a Cardinal (Catholicism), cardinal on 21 February 2001. Raul Proença (10 May 1884, Caldas da Rainha – 20 May 1941, Porto) was a politician, writer, journalism, journalist, and intellectual. One of the two public secondary schools in Caldas bears his name.


Notes and references


Notes


References


External links


Portal Caldas da Rainha
by Município das Caldas da Rainha—the municipality's official website * Caldas da Rainha - City Guide—a mobile app developed b
Bitcliq
for the municipal government, available fo
iOS
an
Android
devices *
Gazeta das Caldas
'—weekly newspaper published on Fridays *
Jornal das Caldas
'—weekly newspaper published on Wednesdays {{Authority control Caldas da Rainha, Cities in Portugal Centro Region, Portugal, Centro Region Spa towns in Portugal 1484 establishments in Europe Municipalities of Leiria District 15th-century establishments in Portugal