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Caesarea Philippi (; lat, Caesarea Philippi, literally "
Philip Philip, also Phillip, is a male given name, derived from the Greek language, Greek (''Philippos'', lit. "horse-loving" or "fond of horses"), from a compound of (''philos'', "dear", "loved", "loving") and (''hippos'', "horse"). Prominent Philip ...
's Caesarea"; grc, Καισαρεία Φιλίππεια ''Kaisareía Philíppeia'') was an ancient Roman city located at the southwestern base of
Mount Hermon Mount Hermon ( ar, جبل الشيخ or جبل حرمون / ALA-LC: ''Jabal al-Shaykh'' ("Mountain of the Sheikh Sheikh ( , ; ar, شيخ ' , mostly pronounced , plural ' )—also transliteration of Arabic, transliterated sheekh, sheik, s ...
. It was adjacent to a spring, grotto, and related shrines dedicated to the Greek god
Pan Pan may refer to: Prefix *''Pan-'', a prefix A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word. Adding it to the beginning of one word changes it into another word. For example, when the prefix ''un-'' is added to the word ''happy ...
. Now nearly uninhabited, Caesarea is an archaeological site in the
Golan Heights The Golan Heights ( ar, هَضْبَةُ الْجَوْلَانِ, Haḍbatu l-Jawlān or , he, רמת הגולן, ), or simply the Golan, is a region in the Levant The Levant () is an term referring to a large area in the region ...
. Caesarea was called Paneas (Πανειάς ''Pāneiás''), later Caesarea Paneas, from the
Hellenistic period The Hellenistic period spans the period of History of the Mediterranean region, Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire, as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31  ...
after its association with the god Pan, a name that mutated to
Banias Banias ( ar, بانياس الحولة; he, בניאס) is an ancient site that developed around a spring once associated with the Greek god . It is located at the foot of , north of the . The spring is the source of the , one of the main trib ...

Banias
, the name by which the site is known today. (This article deals with the history of Banias between the Hellenistic and early Islamic periods. For other periods, see ''
Banias Banias ( ar, بانياس الحولة; he, בניאס) is an ancient site that developed around a spring once associated with the Greek god . It is located at the foot of , north of the . The spring is the source of the , one of the main trib ...

Banias
''.) For a short period, the city was also known as Neronias (Νερωνιάς ''Nerōniás''); the surrounding region was known as the Panion (Πάνειον ''Pā́neion''). Caesarea Philippi is mentioned by name in the Gospels of Matthew and
Mark Mark may refer to: Currency * Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark The Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark (Bosnian Bosnian may refer to: *Anything related to the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina or its inhabitants *Anything related to Bo ...
. The city may appear in the Old Testament under the name Baal Gad (literally " Master Luck", the name of a god of fortune who may later have been identified with Pan); Baal Gad is described as being "in the Valley of Lebanon below Mount Hermon."
Philostorgius Philostorgius ( grc-gre, Φιλοστόργιος; 368 – c. 439 AD) was an Anomoeanism, Anomoean Church historian of the 4th and 5th centuries. Anomoeanism questioned the Trinitarianism, Trinitarian account of the relationship between God the ...

Philostorgius
,
Theodoret Theodoret of Cyrus or Cyrrhus ( grc-gre, Θεοδώρητος Κύρρου; AD 393 –  458/466) was an influential theologian of the School of Antioch The Catechetical School of Antioch was one of the two major centers of the study of ...
,
Benjamin of Tudela Benjamin of Tudela ( he, בִּנְיָמִין מִטּוּדֶלָה, ; ar, بنيامين التطيلي ''Binyamin al-Tutayli'';‎ Tudela, Kingdom of Navarre, 1130Kingdom of Castile, Castile, 1173) was a medieval Jewish traveler who visite ...

Benjamin of Tudela
, and
Samuel ben SamsonSamuel ben Samson (also Samuel ben Shimshon) was a rabbi A rabbi is a spiritual leader or religious teacher in Judaism. One becomes a rabbi by being ordained by another rabbi, following a course of study of Jewish texts such as the Talmud. The ...
all incorrectly identified Caesarea Philippi with Laish (i.e.
Tel Dan Dan ( he, דן) is a city mentioned in the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical collection of Hebrew language, Hebrew scriptures, including the Torah. These texts are almost exclusively in ...

Tel Dan
).
Eusebius of Caesarea Eusebius of Caesarea (; grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, ''Eusébios tés Kaisareías''; AD 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili (from the grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου) ...

Eusebius of Caesarea
, however, accurately placed Laish in the vicinity of Paneas, but at the fourth mile on the route to
Tyre Tyre may refer to: * Tire, the outer part of a wheel Places * Tyre, Lebanon, a city ** See of Tyre, a Christian diocese seated in Tyre, Lebanon ** Tyre Hippodrome, a UNESCO World Heritage site * Tyre District, Lebanon * Tyre, New York, a town in t ...
.


History


Hellenistic Paneas

Alexander the Great's
Alexander the Great's
conquests started a process of Hellenisation in Egypt and Syria that continued for 1,000 years. Paneas was first settled in the
Hellenistic The Hellenistic period spans the period of History of the Mediterranean region, Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire, as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31  ...
period. The Ptolemaic kings, in the 3rd century BC, built a cult centre. Panias is a spring, today known as Banias, named for
Pan Pan may refer to: Prefix *''Pan-'', a prefix A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word. Adding it to the beginning of one word changes it into another word. For example, when the prefix ''un-'' is added to the word ''happy ...
, the
Greek god The following is a list of gods A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena or entities that are not subject to the laws of nature. This term is attributed to non-physical entities, such as angel ...
of desolate places. It lies close to the "way of the sea" mentioned by Isaiah, along which many armies of Antiquity marched. In the distant past a giant spring gushed from a cave in the
limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its na ...

limestone
bedrock, tumbling down the valley to flow into the Huela marshes. Currently it is the source of the stream Nahal Senir. The Jordan River previously rose from the malaria-infested
Huela marshes
Huela marshes
, but it now rises from this spring and two others at the base of Mount Hermon. The flow of the spring has decreased greatly in modern times. The water no longer gushes from the cave, but only seeps from the bedrock below it. Paneas was certainly an ancient place of great sanctity and, when Hellenised religious influences were overlaid on the region, the cult of its local
numen Numen (plural numina) is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman ...

numen
gave place to the worship of
Pan Pan may refer to: Prefix *''Pan-'', a prefix A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word. Adding it to the beginning of one word changes it into another word. For example, when the prefix ''un-'' is added to the word ''happy ...
, to whom the cave was dedicated and from which the copious spring rose, feeding the
Huela
Huela
marshes and ultimately supplying the
river Jordan ) , name_native_lang = , name_other = , name_etymology = Hebrew: ירדן (yardén, ''“descender”''), from ירד (yarad, ''“descended”'') , image = 20100923 mer morte13.JPG , image_size = , ima ...

river Jordan
. The pre-Hellenic deities that have been associated with the site are
Ba'al-gad
Ba'al-gad
or Ba'al-hermon. The
Battle of Panium The Battle of Panium (also known as Paneion, grc, Πάνειον, or Paneas, Πανειάς) was fought in 200 BC near Paneas ( Caesarea Philippi) between Seleucid The Seleucid Empire (; grc, Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, ' ...
is mentioned in extant sections of Greek historian
Polybius Polybius (; grc-gre, Πολύβιος, ; ) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the ...

Polybius
's history of "The Rise of the Roman Empire". The battle of Panium occurred in 198 BC between the
Macedonian Macedonian most often refers to someone or something from or related to Macedonia (disambiguation), Macedonia. Macedonian may specifically refer to: People Modern * Macedonians (ethnic group), the South Slavic ethnic group primarily associated w ...
armies of Ptolemaic Egypt and the
Seleucid The Seleucid Empire (; grc, Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, ''Basileía tōn Seleukidōn'') was a Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hell ...

Seleucid
Greeks of
Coele-Syria Coele-Syria (, also spelt Coele Syria, Coelesyria, Celesyria) alternatively Coelo-Syria or Coelosyria (; grc-gre, Κοίλη Συρία, ''Koílē Syría'', 'Hollow Syria'; lat, Cœlē Syria or ), was a region of Syria Syria ( ar, ...
, led by
Antiochus III Antiochus III the Great (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is a ...
. Antiochus's victory cemented Seleucid control over
Phoenicia Phoenicia () was an ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsWordNet Search – 3 ...
,
Galilee Galilee (; he, הַגָּלִיל, ha-galil; ar, الجليل, al-jalīl) is a region located in northern Israel and southern Lebanon. Galilee traditionally refers to the mountainous part, divided into Upper Galilee (, ; , ) and Lower Galil ...

Galilee
,
Samaria Samaria, , also known as , 'Nablus Mountains' () is a historical and biblical name used for the central region of the Land of Israel, bordered by Galilee to the north and Judaea to the south. For the beginning of the Common Era, Josephus set t ...

Samaria
, and
Judea Judea or Judaea ( or ; from he, יהודה, Standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard (metrolog ...

Judea
until the
Maccabean revolt The Maccabean Revolt ( he, מרד החשמונאים) was a Jewish rebellion led by the Maccabees The Maccabees (), also spelled Machabees ( he, מַכַּבִּים ''Makabīm'' or he, מַקַבִּים, ''Maqabīm''; or ''Maccabaei''; el, ...

Maccabean revolt
. The Hellenised Sellucids built a pagan temple dedicated to Pan (a goat-footed god of victory in battle reator of panic in the enemy desolate places, music and goat herds) at Paneas.


Roman period

During the
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...
period the city was administered as part of Phoenicia Prima and
Syria Palaestina Syria Palaestina (literally, "Palestinian Syria";Trevor Bryce, 2009, ''The Routledge Handbook of the Peoples and Places of Ancient Western Asia''Roland de Vaux, 1978, ''The Early History of Israel'', Page 2: "After the revolt of Bar Cochba in A. ...
, and finally as capital of
Gaulanitis The Golan Heights ( ar, هَضْبَةُ الْجَوْلَانِ, Haḍbatu l-Jawlān or , he, רמת הגולן, ), or simply the Golan, is a region in the Levant, spanning about . The region defined as the Golan Heights differs between d ...
(Golan) was included together with
Peraea Peraia, and Peraea or Peræa (from grc, ἡ περαία, ''hē peraia'', "land across") in the Classical Antiquity Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history Hist ...
in
Palaestina Secunda Palæstina Secunda or Palaestina II was a Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Age ...
, after 218 AD. The ancient kingdom Bashan was incorporated into the province of
Batanea Batanaea or Batanea (the Hellenized/Latinised form of Bashan) was an area of the Holy Land (Biblical), Biblical Holy Land, north-east of the Jordan River, to the west of Trachonitis. It was one of the four post-Babylonian captivity, Exile divisions ...
.


Herod and Philip (20 BC – AD 34)

On the death of
Zenodorus
Zenodorus
in 20 BC, the Panion, which included Paneas, was annexed to the Kingdom of
Herod the Great Herod I (; ; grc-gre, ; c. 72 – 4 or 1 BCE), also known as Herod the Great, was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romu ...
. He erected here a temple of "white marble" in honour of his patron. In the year 3 BC,
Philip IIPhilip II may refer to: * Philip II of Macedon (382–336 BC) * Philip II (emperor) (238–249), Roman emperor * Philip II, Prince of Taranto (1329–1374) * Philip II, Duke of Burgundy (1342–1404) * Philip II, Duke of Savoy (1438-1497) * Philip ...
(also known as Philip the Tetrarch) founded a city at Paneas. It became the administrative capital of Philip's large
tetrarchy The Tetrarchy was the system instituted by Roman Emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history. Often when ...
of
Batanaea Batanaea or Batanea (the Hellenized/Latinised form of Bashan) was an area of the Holy Land (Biblical), Biblical Holy Land, north-east of the Jordan River, to the west of Trachonitis. It was one of the four post-Babylonian captivity, Exile divisions ...
which encompassed the Golan and the
Hauran The Hauran ( ar, حَوْرَان, ''Ḥawrān'') also spelled ''Hawran'' or ''Houran'') is a region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of th ...
.
Flavius Josephus Titus Flavius Josephus (; ; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu ( he, יוסף בן מתתיהו ''Yōsef ben Matiṯyāhu''; grc-gre, Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς ''Iṓsēpos Matthíou paîs''), was a first-century Romano-Jewish ...
refers to the city as Caesarea Paneas in
Antiquities of the Jews ''Antiquities of the Jews'' ( la, Antiquitates Iudaicae; el, Ἰουδαϊκὴ ἀρχαιολογία, ''Ioudaikē archaiologia'') is a 20-volume historiographical work, written in Greek, by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus in the 13th ye ...
; the New Testament as Caesarea Philippi (to distinguish it from
Caesarea Maritima Caesarea Maritima (; Koine Greek, Greek: ''Parálios Kaisáreia''), formerly Strato's Tower, also known as Caesarea Palestinae, was an ancient city in the Sharon Plain on the coast of the Mediterranean, now in ruins and included in an National ...

Caesarea Maritima
on the
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...

Mediterranean
coast). In 14 AD, Philip II named it Caesarea in honour of
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...

Roman
Emperor
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles through ...

Augustus
, and "made improvements" to the city. His image was placed on a coin issued in 29/30 AD (to commemorate the founding of the city), this was considered as idolatrous by Jews but was following in the
Idumean Edom (; Edomite language, Edomite: 𐤀𐤃𐤌 ''’Edām''; he, Wiktionary:אדום, אֱדוֹם ''ʼÉḏōm'', lit.: "red"; akk, 𒌑𒁺𒈠𒀀𒀀 ''Uduma'') was an ancient kingdom in Transjordan (region), Transjordan located between ...

Idumean
tradition of Zenodorus.


Province of Syria (AD 34–61)

On the death of Philip II in AD 34, the
tetrarchy The Tetrarchy was the system instituted by Roman Emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history. Often when ...
was incorporated into the province of
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...

Syria
with the city given the autonomy to administer its own revenues.


"Neronias" (AD 61–68)

In 61 AD, King
Agrippa II Herod Agrippa II (; AD 27/28 – or 100), officially named Marcus Julius Agrippa and sometimes shortened to Agrippa, was the last ruler from the Herodian dynasty #REDIRECT Herodian dynasty #REDIRECT Herodian dynasty#REDIRECT Herodian dynasty ...

Agrippa II
renamed the administrative capital as ''Neronias'' in honour of Roman Emperor
Nero Nero ( ; full name: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December AD 37 – 9 June AD 68) was the fifth emperor of Rome. He was Adoption in Ancient Rome, adopted by the Roman emperor Claudius at the age of 13 and s ...

Nero
: "Neronias Irenopolis" was the full name. But this name held only until 68 AD when Nero committed suicide. Agrippa also carried out urban improvements It is possible that Neronias received "colonial status" by
Nero Nero ( ; full name: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December AD 37 – 9 June AD 68) was the fifth emperor of Rome. He was Adoption in Ancient Rome, adopted by the Roman emperor Claudius at the age of 13 and s ...

Nero
, who created some colonies During the
First Jewish–Roman War The First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 CE), sometimes called the Great Jewish Revolt ( he, המרד הגדול '), or The Jewish War, was the first of three major rebellions by the Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Isra ...
,
Vespasian Vespasian (; la, Vespasianus ; 17 November AD 9 – 23/24 June 79) was a Roman emperor who reigned from 69 to 79 AD. The fourth and last emperor who reigned in the Year of the Four Emperors, he founded the Flavian dynasty that ruled the Empire ...

Vespasian
rested his troops at Caesarea Philippi in July 67 AD, holding games over a period of 20 days before advancing on
Tiberias Tiberias ( ; he, טְבֶרְיָה, ; ar, طبريا, Ṭabariyyā) is an Israeli city on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee. Established around 20 Common Era, CE, it was named in honour of the List of Roman emperors, second emperor of the ...

Tiberias
to crush the Jewish resistance in Galilee.


Gospel association

In the
Synoptic Gospels The gospel Gospel originally meant the Christian message ("the gospel#REDIRECT The gospel In Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testame ...
,
Jesus Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label=Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it ...

Jesus
is said to have approached the area near the city, but without entering the city itself. Jesus, while in this area, asked his closest disciples who they thought he was. Accounts of their answers, including the
Confession of Peter In Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth. It is the Major religious ...
, are found in the Synoptic Gospels of Matthew,
Mark Mark may refer to: Currency * Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark The Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark (Bosnian Bosnian may refer to: *Anything related to the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina or its inhabitants *Anything related to Bo ...
, and Luke. Here Saint Peter made his confession of Jesus as the Messiah and the "Son of the living God", and Christ in turn gave a charge to Peter. The apostles Peter, James and John were eyewitnesses to the
Transfiguration of Christ In the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Biblical canon#Christian canons, Christian biblical canon. It discusses the t ...
, which happened "in a high place nearby" and is recorded in Matthew (17:1-7), Mark (9:2-8) and Luke (9:28-36). According to the Christian ecclesiastical tradition, a woman from Paneas, who had been bleeding for 12 years, was miraculously cured by Jesus.


Byzantine period


Julian the Apostate

On attaining the position of Emperor of the Roman Empire in 361 AD
Julian the Apostate Julian ( la, Flavius Claudius Julianus; grc-gre, Ἰουλιανός ; 331 – 26 June 363) was Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλε ...
instigated a religious reformation of the Roman state, as part of a programme intended to restore the lost grandeur and strength of the Roman State. He supported the restoration of Hellenic paganism as the state religion. In Panease this was achieved by replacing the Christian symbols.
Sozomen Salamanes Hermias Sozomenos ( grc-gre, Σαλαμάνης Ἑρμείας Σωζομενός; la, Sozomenus; c. 400 – c. 450 AD), also known as Sozomen, was a Roman lawyer and historian of the Christian Church. Family and home He was born aroun ...
describes the events surrounding the replacement of a statue of Christ (which was also seen and reported by
Eusebius Eusebius of Caesarea (; grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, ''Eusébios tés Kaisareías''; AD 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili (from the grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου) ...

Eusebius
):-
Having heard that at Caesarea Philippi, otherwise called Panease Paneades, a city of Phoenicia, there was a celebrated statue of Christ, which had been erected by a woman whom the Lord had cured of a flow of blood. Julian commanded it to be taken down, and a statue of himself erected in its place; but a violent fire from the heaven fell upon it, and broke off the parts contiguous to the breast; the head and neck were thrown prostrate, and it was transfixed to the ground with the face downwards at the point where the fracture of the bust was; and it has stood in that fashion from that day until now, full of the rust of the lightning."


Early Islamic period

In 635, Paneas gained favourable terms of surrender from the Muslim army of
Khalid ibn al-Walid , other_name = ('the Sword of God')Abu Sulayman , image = , alt = , caption = , birth_date = , death_date = 642 , birth_place = Mecca Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah ( ) and commonly s ...
, after the defeat of
Heraclius Heraclius ( el, Ἡράκλειος, ''Hērakleios''; c. 575 – 11 February 641), sometimes called Heraclius I, was the Byzantine emperor This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople la, Constantinop ...
's army. In 636 AD, a newly formed Byzantine army advanced on Palestine, using Paneas as a staging post, on the way to confront the Muslim army at
Yarmuk
Yarmuk
. The depopulation of Paneas after the Muslim conquest was rapid, as the traditional markets of Paneas disappeared (only 14 of the 173 Byzantine sites in the area show signs of habitation from this period). The Hellenised city fell into decline. The council of al-Jabiyah established the administration of the new territory of the Umar Caliphate, and Paneas remained the principal city of the district of ''al-Djawlan'' (the
Golan Golan ( he, גּולן; ar, جولان ' or ') is the name of a biblical The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, ''tà biblía'', "the books") is a collection of religious texts or scriptures sacred to Christians, Jews, Samaritan ...

Golan
) within
Jund Dimashq ''Jund Dimashq'' ( ar, جند دمشق) was the largest of the sub-provinces (''ajnad'', sing. '' jund''), into which Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّ ...
,
jund Transcription factor JunD is a protein Proteins are large biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Ken ...
meaning "military province" and Dimashq being the Arabic name of
Damascus )), is an adjective which means "spacious". , motto = , image_flag = Flag of Damascus.svg , image_seal = Emblem of Damascus.svg , seal_type = Seal , m ...

Damascus
, due to its strategic military importance on the border with ''Filistin'' (
Palestine Palestine ( or ) most often refers to: * State of Palestine, a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East * Palestine (region), a geographical and historical region in the Middle East Palestine may also refer to: * Palestinian National Aut ...
). Around 780, the nun Hugeburc visited Caesarea and reported that the town had a church and a "great many Christians".


Bishopric (Byzantine period until present)

Caesarea Philippi became the seat of a bishop at an early date: local tradition has it that the first bishop was the Erastus mentioned in Saint Paul's
Letter to the Romans The Epistle to the Romans or Letter to the Romans, often shortened to Romans, is the sixth book in the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the seco ...
(). What is historically verifiable is that the see's bishop Philocalus was at the
First Council of Nicaea The First Council of Nicaea (; grc, Νίκαια ) was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynia Bithynia (; Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialec ...
(325), that Martyrius was burned to death under
Julian the Apostate Julian ( la, Flavius Claudius Julianus; grc-gre, Ἰουλιανός ; 331 – 26 June 363) was Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλε ...
, that Baratus was at the
First Council of Constantinople The First Council of Constantinople ( la, Concilium Constantinopolitanum; grc-gre, Σύνοδος τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως) was a council of Christian bishops convened in Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قس ...
in 381. Flavian, (420) Bishop of Caesarea Philippi and Olympius at the
Council of Chalcedon The Council of Chalcedon (; la, Concilium Chalcedonense; grc-gre, Σύνοδος τῆς Χαλκηδόνος, ''Synodos tēs Chalkēdonos'') was the fourth ecumenical council The Council of Chalcedon (; la, Concilium Chalcedonense; ...
in 451 AD. In addition there is mention of a Bishop Anastasius of the same see, who became Patriarch of Jerusalem in the 7th century. In the time of the
Crusades The Crusades were a series of religious wars initiated, supported, and sometimes directed by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The term refers especially to the Eastern Mediterranean campaigns in the period between 1095 and 1271 that h ...

Crusades
, Caesarea Philippi became a
Latin Church , native_name_lang = la , image = San Giovanni in Laterano - Rome.jpg , imagewidth = 250px , alt = Façade of the Archbasilica of St. John in Lateran , caption = Archbasilica of Saint Joh ...
diocese and the names of two of its bishops, Adam and John, are known. No longer a residential bishopric, Caesarea Philippi is today listed by the
Roman Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Roman Catholic Church
as a
titular see A titular see in various churches is an episcopal see The seat or ''cathedra'' of the Bishop of Rome in the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran An episcopal see is, in the usual meaning of the phrase, the area of a bishop's ecclesiastical jurisdi ...
. It is also one of the sees to which the Antiochian patriarchate of the
Orthodox Church Orthodox Church may refer to: * Eastern Orthodox Church The Eastern Orthodox Church, also called the Orthodox Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 mi ...

Orthodox Church
has appointed a
titular bishop A titular bishop in various churches is a bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, ...
.


Archaeology

Today Caesarea Philippi is a site of archeological importance, and lies within the Hermon Stream Nature Reserve. The ruins are extensive and have been thoroughly excavated. Within the city area the remains of Agrippa's palace, the cardo, a bath-house and a Byzantine-period synagogue can be seen.article
at biblewalks.com


See also

*List of places associated with Jesus *Roman Palestine *
Caesarea Maritima Caesarea Maritima (; Koine Greek, Greek: ''Parálios Kaisáreia''), formerly Strato's Tower, also known as Caesarea Palestinae, was an ancient city in the Sharon Plain on the coast of the Mediterranean, now in ruins and included in an National ...

Caesarea Maritima
(modern Caesarea), in Israel *Caesarea Mazaca (modern Kayseri) in Turkey *Philippi in Greece *Baniyas in Syria


References


Bibliography

* * * * * * * *


Further reading

* al-Athīr, ʻIzz al-Dīn Ibn (translated 2006). ''The Chronicle of Ibn Al-Athīr for the Crusading Period from Al-Kāmil Fīʼl-taʼrīkh: The Years AH 491-541/1097-1146, the Coming of the Franks And the Muslim Response'' Translated by Donald Sidney Richards, Ashgate Publishing, * Fitzmyer, Joseph A. (1991). ''A Christological Catechism: New Testament Answers''. Paulist Press, * Gregorian, Vartan (2003). ''Islam: A Mosaic, Not a Monolith''. Brookings Institution Press, * Hindley, Geoffrey (2004). ''The Crusades: Islam and Christianity in the Struggle for World Supremacy''. Carroll & Graf Publishers, * * Jerome Murphy-O'Connor, Murphy-O'Connor, Jerome (2008). ''The Holy Land: An Oxford Archaeological Guide from Earliest Times to 1700''. Oxford University Press US, * * Richard, Jean (1999). ''The Crusades, c. 1071—-c. 1291''. Cambridge University Press, * Salibi, Kamal Suleiman (1977). ''Syria Under Islam: Empire on Trial, 634-1097''. Caravan Books,


External links


article
at jewishmagazine.co.il (retrieved 14.10.2014) {{Authority control Hellenistic sites in Syria Archaeological sites in Quneitra Governorate Classical sites on the Golan Heights Coele-Syria Crusade places Former populated places on the Golan Heights Holy cities Medieval sites on the Golan Heights New Testament cities Pan cult sites Populated places of the Byzantine Empire Ptolemaic Kingdom Roman sites in Syria Seleucid Empire Catholic titular sees in Asia Roman sites in Israel de:Banyas#Caesarea Philippi