HOME

TheInfoList




Bucharest ( , ; ro, București ) is the capital and largest city of
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...

Romania
, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre. It is in the southeast of the country, at , on the banks of the Dâmbovița River, less than north of the
Danube River The Danube ( ; ) is the second-longest river in Europe, after the Volga The Volga (; russian: Во́лга, a=Ru-Волга.ogg, p=ˈvoɫɡə) is the List of rivers of Europe#Rivers of Europe by length, longest river in Europe. Situated ...

Danube River
and the Bulgarian border. Bucharest was first mentioned in documents in 1459. It became the capital of Romania in 1862 and is the centre of Romanian media, culture, and art. Its architecture is a mix of historical (
Neoclassical Neoclassical or neo-classical may refer to: * Neoclassicism or New Classicism, any of a number of movements in the fine arts, literature, theatre, music, language, and architecture beginning in the 17th century ** Neoclassical architecture, an arc ...
and
Art Nouveau Art Nouveau (; ) is an international style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that make a building or structure historically identifiable * Design, the process of creating somet ...
),
interbellum In the history of the 20th century, the Interwar period lasted from 11 November 1918 to 1 September 1939 (20 years, 9 months and 21 days), the end of the First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the ...
(
Bauhaus The Staatliches Bauhaus (), commonly known as the Bauhaus (German: "building house"), was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German anc ...

Bauhaus
and
Art Deco Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before . Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, trains, s, an ...
), communist era and modern. In the period between the two World Wars, the city's elegant architecture and the sophistication of its elite earned Bucharest the nickname of 'Paris of the East' ( ro, Parisul Estului) or 'Little Paris' ( ro, Micul Paris). Although buildings and districts in the historic city centre were heavily damaged or destroyed by war, earthquakes, and even
Nicolae Ceaușescu Nicolae Ceaușescu (, ;  – 25 December 1989) was a Romanian communist politician and dictator. He was the general secretary of the Romanian Communist Party from 1965 to 1989, and the second and last Communist leader of Romania. He was ...

Nicolae Ceaușescu
's program of
systematization Systematization ( ro, Sistematizarea) in Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern, and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It shares land borders with ...
, many survived and have been renovated. In recent years, the city has been experiencing an economic and cultural boom. It is one of the fastest-growing high-tech cities in Europe, according to
Financial Times The ''Financial Times'' (''FT'') is a daily newspaper A newspaper is a containing written and is often typed in black ink with a white or gray background. Newspapers can cover a wide variety of fields such as , business, sports and art ...
, CBRE,
TechCrunch TechCrunch is an American online newspaper An online newspaper is the online version of a newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events and is often type ...

TechCrunch
, and others. UiPath, a global startup founded in Bucharest, has reached over $35 billion in valuation. Since 2019, Bucharest hosts the largest high tech summit in
Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), human impact characteri ...

Southeast Europe
(Romania Blockchain Summit). In 2016, the historical city centre was listed as 'endangered' by the
World Monuments Watch World Monuments Fund (WMF) is a private, international, non-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a coll ...
. In 2017, Bucharest was the European city with the highest growth of tourists who stay over night, according to the
Mastercard#REDIRECT Mastercard Mastercard Incorporated (stylized as MasterCard from 1979 to 2016 and mastercard since 2016) is an American multinational financial services Financial services are the Service (economics), economic services provided by the ...
Global Index of Urban Destinations. As for the past two consecutive years, 2018 and 2019, Bucharest ranked as the European destination with the highest potential for development according to the same study. According to the
2011 census2011 censuses were conducted in the following countries: * Australia: Census in Australia * Austria: Demographics of Austria * Bangladesh: 2011 Bangladesh Census * Bulgaria: Demographics of Bulgaria * Canada: Canada 2011 Census * Croatia: 2011 Censu ...
, 1,883,425 inhabitants live within the city limits, a decrease from the 2002 census. Adding the satellite towns around the
urban area An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as city, cities, towns, conurbati ...
, the proposed
metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the cult ...
of Bucharest would have a population of 2.27 million people. During the
COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic A pandemic (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a c ...

COVID-19 pandemic
, the Romanian government used 2.5 million people as the basis for reporting infection rate in the city. Bucharest is the fourth
largest city The United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, ...
in the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
by population within city limits, after
Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the List of cities in the European Union by ...

Berlin
,
Madrid Madrid ( , ) is the capital and most populous city of Spain. The city has almost 3.4 million inhabitants and a Madrid metropolitan area, metropolitan area population of approximately 6.7 million. It is the Largest cities of the Europ ...

Madrid
, and
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...

Rome
. Economically, Bucharest is the most prosperous city in Romania. The city has a number of large convention facilities, educational institutes, cultural venues, traditional 'shopping arcades' and recreational areas. The city proper is administratively known as the 'Municipality of Bucharest' (''Municipiul București''), and has the same administrative level as that of a national
county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert Chambers (publisher bo ...
, being further subdivided into six sectors, each governed by a local mayor.


Etymology

The Romanian name ''București'' has an unverified origin. Tradition connects the founding of Bucharest with the name of '' Bucur'', who was a prince, an outlaw, a fisherman, a
shepherd A shepherd or sheepherder is a person who tends, herds, feeds, or guards herds of sheep Sheep (''Ovis aries'') are quadruped The zebra is a quadruped. Quadrupedalism is a form of terrestrial locomotion where a tetrapod Tetrapods ( ...
or a hunter, according to different legends. In
Romanian Romanian may refer to: *anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Euro ...
, the word stem ''bucurie'' means 'joy' ('happiness'), and it is believed to be of Dacian origin, hence the city Bucharest means 'city of joy'. Other etymologies are given by early scholars, including the one of an Ottoman traveller,
Evliya Çelebi Derviş Mehmed Zillî (25 March 1611 – 1682), known as Evliya Çelebi ( ota, اوليا چلبى), was an Ottoman explorer who travelled through the territory of the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ota, دولت عليه عثمان ...
, who said that Bucharest was named after a certain 'Abu-Kariș', from the tribe of ' Bani-Kureiș'. In 1781, Austrian historian Franz Sulzer claimed that it was related to ''bucurie'' (joy), ''bucuros'' (joyful), or ''a se bucura'' (to be joyful), while an early 19th-century book published in
Vienna Vienna ( ; german: Wien ; bar, Wean, label=Bavarian language, Austro-Bavarian ) is the Capital city, national capital, largest city, and one of States of Austria, nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's List of cities and towns in Austria, mos ...

Vienna
assumed its name to be derived from 'Bukovie', a beech forest.Georgescu et al., p.76-77 In English, the city's name was formerly rendered as ''Bukarest''. A native or resident of Bucharest is called a 'Bucharester' ( ro, bucureștean).


History

Bucharest's history alternated periods of development and decline from the early settlements in
antiquity Antiquity or Antiquities may refer to Historical objects or periods Artifacts * Antiquities, objects or artifacts surviving from ancient cultures Eras Any period before the European Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages ...
until its consolidation as the national capital of
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...

Romania
late in the 19th century. First mentioned as the '
Citadel A citadel is the core fortified area of a town or city. It may be a castle in East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brooke ...

Citadel
of București' in 1459, it became the residence of the
Voivode of Wallachia This is a list of rulers of Wallachia, from the first mention of a medieval polity situated between the Southern Carpathians and the Danube until the union with Moldavia in 1859, leading to Unification of Moldavia and Wallachia, the creation of Ro ...
,
Vlad III the Impaler Vlad III, most commonly known as Vlad the Impaler ( ro, Vlad Țepeș ) or Vlad Dracula (; ro, Vlad Drăculea ; 1428/311476/77), was Voivode of Wallachia This is a list of rulers of Wallachia Wallachia or Walachia ( ro, Țara Românească , ...
.Giurescu, C.C., 1976, History of Bucharest, Bucharest: The Publishing House for Sports and Tourism The Ottomans appointed Greek administrators (
Phanariotes Phanariots, Phanariotes, or Fanariots ( el, Φαναριώτες, ro, Fanarioți, tr, Fenerliler) were members of prominent Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδ ...
) to run the town from the 18th century. The
revolution In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, suc ...
initiated by
Tudor Vladimirescu Tudor Vladimirescu (; c. 1780 – ) was a Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern, and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It shares land borders wit ...

Tudor Vladimirescu
in 1821 led to the end of the rule of Constantinople Greeks in Bucharest. The (''Curtea Veche'') was erected by in the mid-16th century. Under subsequent rulers, Bucharest was established as the summer residence of the royal court. During the years to come, it competed with
Târgoviște Târgoviște (, alternatively spelled ''Tîrgoviște''; german: Tergowisch) is a city in the region of Muntenia Muntenia (, also known in English as Greater Wallachia) is a historical region of Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a c ...
on the status of capital city after an increase in the importance of southern
Muntenia Muntenia (, also known in English as Greater Wallachia) is a historical region of Romania, usually considered Wallachia proper (''Muntenia'', ''Țara Românească'', and the seldom used ''Valahia'' are synonyms in Romanian language, Romanian). ...

Muntenia
brought about by the demands of the ''suzerain'' power – the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
. Bucharest finally became the permanent location of the Wallachian court after 1698 (starting with the reign of
Constantin Brâncoveanu Constantin Brâncoveanu (; 1654 – August 15, 1714) was List of Wallachian rulers, Prince of Wallachia between 1688 and 1714. Biography Ascension A descendant of the Craiovești boyar family and heir through his grandfather Preda of a consid ...
). Partly destroyed by natural disasters and rebuilt several times during the following 200 years, and hit by
Caragea's plagueCaragea's plague ( ro, Ciuma lui Caragea) was a bubonic plague epidemic that occurred in Wallachia, mainly in Bucharest, in the years 1813 and 1814. It coincided with the rule of the Phanariotes, Phanariote List of rulers of Wallachia, Prince John Ca ...
in 1813–14, the city was wrested from Ottoman control and occupied at several intervals by the
Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Monarchy (german: Habsburgermonarchie), or Danubian Monarchy (german: Donaumonarchie), or Habsburg Empire (german: Habsburgerreich) is a modern umbrella term In linguistics, hyponymy (from Greek language, Greek ὑπό, ''hupó'', "u ...

Habsburg Monarchy
(1716, 1737, 1789) and
Imperial Russia The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. T ...
(three times between 1768 and 1806). It was placed under Russian administration between 1828 and the
Crimean War The Crimean War, , was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which Russian Empire, Russia lost to an alliance of Second French Empire, France, the Ottoman Empire, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, ...
, with an interlude during the Bucharest-centred 1848 Wallachian revolution. Later, an
Austrian Austrian may refer to: * Austrians, someone from Austria or of Austrian descent ** Someone who is considered an Austrian citizen, see Austrian nationality law * Something associated with the country Austria, for example: ** Austria-Hungary ** Austr ...
garrison took possession after the Russian departure (remaining in the city until March 1857). On 23 March 1847, a fire consumed about 2,000 buildings, destroying a third of the city. In 1862, after
Wallachia Wallachia or Walachia (; ro, Țara Românească, lit=The Romanian Land' or 'The Romanian Country, ; archaic Archaic is a period of time preceding a designated classical period, or something from an older period of time that is also not found ...
and
Moldavia Moldavia ( ro, Moldova, or , literally "The Moldavian Country"; in Romanian Cyrillic alphabet, Romanian Cyrillic: or ; chu, Землѧ Молдавскаѧ; el, Ἡγεμονία τῆς Μολδαβίας) is a historical region and forme ...

Moldavia
were united to form the
Principality of Romania The United Principalities Moldavia and Wallachia ( ro, Principatele Unite Moldova și Țara Românească), commonly called United Principalities, was the personal union A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the s ...
, Bucharest became the new nation's capital city. In 1881, it became the political centre of the newly proclaimed
Kingdom of Romania The Kingdom of Romania ( ro, Regatul României) was a constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exercises his authority in accordance with a co ...
under King
Carol I Carol or Charles I of Romania (20 April 1839 – ), born Prince Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, was the second monarch of Romania from 1866 to his death in 1914, ruling as Prince A prince is a Monarch, male ruler (ranked below a king, grand ...

Carol I
. During the second half of the 19th century, the city's population increased dramatically, and a new period of urban development began. During this period,
gas lighting Gas lighting is production of artificial light from combustion Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and te ...

gas lighting
, horse-drawn trams, and limited
electrification Electrification is the process of powering by electricity Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Station.jpg, 300px, Motion involves a change in position In physics, mo ...

electrification
were introduced. The Dâmbovița River was also massively channelled in 1883, thus putting a stop to previously endemic floods like the 1865 flooding of Bucharest. The
Fortifications of Bucharest The fortifications of Bucharest are a ring of eighteen fortifications built in late 19th century that surround Bucharest, the capital of Romania. A report by the Ministry of National Defence (Romania), War Ministry led the celebrated Belgium, Belgi ...
were built. The extravagant architecture and cosmopolitan high culture of this period won Bucharest the nickname of 'Little Paris' (''Micul Paris'') of the east, with
Calea Victoriei Calea Victoriei (''Victory Avenue'') is a major avenue in central Bucharest. Situated in Sector 1, and having a length of , it leads from (which runs parallel to the Dâmbovița River) to the north and then northwest up to Piața Victoriei, wh ...
as its
Champs-Élysées The Avenue des Champs-Élysées (, , ) is an Avenue (landscape), avenue in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, France, long and wide, running between the Place de la Concorde in the east and the Place Charles de Gaulle in the west, where the Arc d ...

Champs-Élysées
. Between 6 December 1916 and November 1918, the city was occupied by
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...
forces as a result of the
Battle of Bucharest The Battle of Bucharest, also known as the '' Argeş– Neajlov Defensive Operation'' in Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern, and Southeast Europe, ...
, with the official capital temporarily moved to
Iași Iași ( , , ), also referred to mostly historically as Jassy ( , ), is the second largest city in Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern and Southeast Europ ...
(also called Jassy), in the Moldavia region. After World War I, Bucharest became the capital of
Greater Romania The term Greater Romania ( ro, România Mare) usually refers to the borders of the Kingdom of Romania The Kingdom of Romania ( ro, Regatul României) was a constitutional monarchy that existed in Romania from 13 March (Adoption of the Gregorian ...

Greater Romania
. In the interwar years, Bucharest's urban development continued, with the city gaining an average of 30,000 new residents each year. Also, some of the city's main landmarks were built in this period, including
Arcul de Triumf Arcul de Triumf is a triumphal arch located in the northern part of Bucharest, on the Șoseaua Kiseleff, Kiseleff Road. The first, wooden, triumphal arch was built hurriedly, after Romania gained Romanian War of Independence, its independence (1 ...
and . However, the
Great Depression in Romania The Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across the world; in most countries, it ...
took its toll on Bucharest's citizens, culminating in the Grivița Strike of 1933. In January 1941, the city was the scene of the
Legionnaires' rebellion and Bucharest pogrom Between 21 and 23 January 1941, a rebellion of the Iron Guard paramilitary organization, whose members were known as Legionnaires, occurred in Bucharest Bucharest ( , ; ro, București ) is the capital and largest city of Romania ...
. As the capital of an
Axis Axis may refer to: Politics *Axis of evil The phrase "axis of evil" was first used by U.S. President George W. Bush in his State of the Union address on January 29, 2002, less than five months after the 9/11 attacks, and often repeated t ...
country and a major transit point for Axis troops en route to the
Eastern FrontEastern Front may refer to: * Eastern Front (World War I) * Eastern Front (World War II) * Eastern Front (Turkey), of the Turkish War of Independence ** Turkish–Armenian War, often referred to by itself as the Eastern Front * Eastern Front (Sudan) ...
, Bucharest suffered heavy damage during World War II due to Allied bombings. On 23 August 1944, Bucharest was the site of the royal coup which brought Romania into the
Allied An alliance is a relationship among people, groups, or sovereign state, states that have joined together for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose, whether or not explicit agreement has been worked out among them. Members of an alli ...
camp. The city suffered a short period of Nazi
Luftwaffe The ''Luftwaffe'' () was the aerial-warfare branch of the German ''Wehrmacht The ''Wehrmacht'' (, ) was the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. It consisted of the German Army (1935–1945), ''Heer'' (army), th ...
bombings, as well as a failed attempt by German troops to regain the city. After the establishment of
communism in Romania This article covers the history and bibliography of Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern, and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It shares land ...
, the city continued growing. New districts were constructed, most of them dominated by
tower block A high-rise building is a tall building, as opposed to a low-rise building and is defined differently in terms of height depending on the jurisdiction. It is used as a apartment building, residential, office building, or other functions incl ...
s. During
Nicolae Ceaușescu Nicolae Ceaușescu (, ;  – 25 December 1989) was a Romanian communist politician and dictator. He was the general secretary of the Romanian Communist Party from 1965 to 1989, and the second and last Communist leader of Romania. He was ...

Nicolae Ceaușescu
's leadership (1965–89), much of the historic part of the city was demolished and replaced by '
Socialist realism Socialist realism is a style of idealized realistic art that was developed in the Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It ...
' style development: (1) the
Centrul Civic Centrul Civic (, ''the Civic Center'') is a district in central Bucharest, Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern, and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Eu ...
(the Civic Centre) and (2) the
Palace of the Parliament The Palace of the Parliament ( ro, Palatul Parlamentului), also known as the Republic's House () or People's House (), is the seat of the Parliament of Romania, located atop Dealul Spirii in Bucharest Bucharest ( , ; ro, București ) is t ...

Palace of the Parliament
, for which an entire historic quarter was razed to make way for Ceaușescu's megalomaniac plans. On 4 March 1977, an , about away, claimed 1,500 lives and caused further damage to the historic centre. The
Romanian Revolution of 1989 The Romanian Revolution ( ro, Revoluția Română) was a period of revolution, violent civil unrest in Romania during December 1989 as a part of the Revolutions of 1989 that occurred in several countries. The Romanian Revolution started in the ...
began with massive anti-Ceaușescu protests in
Timișoara ), City of Roses ( ro, Orașul florilor), City of Parks ( ro, Orașul parcurilor) , image_map = Timisoara pe Harta Timisului.png , pushpin_map = Romania#Europe , pushpin_relief = 1 , pushpin_label_position ...
in December 1989 and continued in Bucharest, leading to the overthrow of the
Communist regime A communist state, also known as a Marxist–Leninist state, is a one-party state A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of unitary state A unitary state is a State (polity), state gover ...
. Dissatisfied with the postrevolutionary leadership of the National Salvation Front, some student leagues and opposition groups organised anti-Communist rallies in early 1990, which caused the political change. Since 2000, the city has been continuously modernised. Residential and commercial developments are underway, particularly in the northern districts; Bucharest's old historic centre is being restored. In 2015, Bucharest experienced drama, 64 people were killed in the
Colectiv nightclub fire The Colectiv nightclub fire was a deadly fire in Bucharest, Romania, on 30 October 2015, which killed 64 people (26 on site, 38 in hospitals) and injured 146. The fire, which was the deadliest fire in the country's history, occurred during a free ...
. Later the Romanian capital saw the 2017–2019 Romanian protests against the judicial reforms. On 10 August 2018 a protest under the motto 'Diaspora at Home' was held in Bucharest and was marked by significant violence, with over 450 persons injured.


Treaties

The following treaties were signed in Bucharest: *
Treaty of BucharestTreaty of Bucharest may refer to the following treaties signed in Bucharest: * Treaty of Bucharest (1812), between the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire ending the 1806–1812 Russo-Turkish war * Treaty of Bucharest (1886), between Serbia and Bu ...
, between the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
and the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
ending the
Russo-Turkish War (1806–1812) The Russo-Turkish War (1806–1812) between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire was one of the Russo-Ottoman Wars. Russia prevailed, but both sides wanted peace as they feared Napoleon's moves to the east. Background The war broke out in ...
*
Treaty of BucharestTreaty of Bucharest may refer to the following treaties signed in Bucharest: * Treaty of Bucharest (1812), between the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire ending the 1806–1812 Russo-Turkish war * Treaty of Bucharest (1886), between Serbia and Bu ...
, between
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may ref ...
and
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република България, links=no, Republika Bǎlgariya, ), is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia ...
ending the
Serbo-Bulgarian War The Serbo–Bulgarian War or the Serbian–Bulgarian War ( bg, Сръбско-българска война, ''Srăbsko-bălgarska voyna'', sr, Српско-бугарски рат, ''Srpsko-bugarski rat'') was a war between the Kingdom of Se ...
*
Treaty of BucharestTreaty of Bucharest may refer to the following treaties signed in Bucharest: * Treaty of Bucharest (1812), between the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire ending the 1806–1812 Russo-Turkish war * Treaty of Bucharest (1886), between Serbia and Bu ...
, between
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република България, links=no, Republika Bǎlgariya, ), is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia ...
,
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...
, Serbia,
Montenegro Montenegro (; cnr, Crna Gora, , , ; sq, Mali i zi) is a country in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (fro ...
, and
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geogr ...
ending of the
Second Balkan War The Second Balkan War was a conflict which broke out when Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република България, links=no, Republika Bǎlgariya, ), is a coun ...

Second Balkan War
*
Treaty of BucharestTreaty of Bucharest may refer to the following treaties signed in Bucharest: * Treaty of Bucharest (1812), between the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire ending the 1806–1812 Russo-Turkish war * Treaty of Bucharest (1886), between Serbia and Bu ...
, a treaty of alliance between Romania and the
Entente Powers The Triple Entente (from French '' entente'' meaning "friendship, understanding, agreement") describes the informal understanding between the Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia Eu ...
*
Treaty of BucharestTreaty of Bucharest may refer to the following treaties signed in Bucharest: * Treaty of Bucharest (1812), between the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire ending the 1806–1812 Russo-Turkish war * Treaty of Bucharest (1886), between Serbia and Bu ...
, between Romania and the
Central Powers The Central Powers, also known as the Central Empires,german: Mittelmächte; hu, Központi hatalmak; tr, İttifak Devletleri / ; bg, Централни сили, translit=Tsentralni sili was one of the two main coalitions that fought World ...


Geography


General

The city is situated on the banks of the Dâmbovița River, which flows into the Argeș River, a tributary of the Danube. Several lakesthe most important of which are Lake Herăstrău, Lake Floreasca, Lake Tei, and Lake Colentinastretch across the northern parts of the city, along the Colentina (river), Colentina River, a tributary of the Dâmbovița. In addition, in the centre of the capital is a small artificial lakeLake Cișmigiusurrounded by the Cișmigiu Gardens. These gardens have a rich history, having been frequented by poets and writers. Opened in 1847 and based on the plans of German architect Carl F.W. Meyer, the gardens are the main recreational facility in the city centre. Bucharest parks and gardens also include King Michael I Park, Herăstrău Park, Tineretului Park and the Botanical Garden of Bucharest, Botanical Garden. Herăstrău Park is located in the northern part of the city, around Lake Herăstrău, and includes the site the Dimitrie Gusti National Village Museum, Village Museum. Grigore Antipa National Museum of Natural History, Grigore Antipa Museum is also near in the Victoriei Square. One of its best known locations are Hard Rock Cafe Bucharest and Berăria H (one of the largest beer halls in Europe). Tineretului Park was created in 1965 and designed as the main recreational space for southern Bucharest. It contains a Mini Town which is a play area for kids. The Botanical Garden, located in the Cotroceni neighbourhood a bit west of the city centre, is the largest of its kind in Romania and contains over 10,000 species of plants (many of them exotic); it originated as the pleasure park of the royal family. Besides them, there are many other smaller parks that should be visited, some of them being still large. Alexandru Ioan Cuza Park, Kiseleff Park, Carol Park, Izvor Park, Grădina Icoanei, Circului Park and Moghioroş Park are a few of them. Other large parks in Bucharest are: National Park of Bucharest, National Park, Tei Park, Eroilor Park and Crângași Park with Lacul Morii, Morii Lake. Lake Văcărești is located in the southern part of the city. Over 190 hectares, including 90 hectares of water, host 97 species of birds, half of them protected by law, and at least seven species of mammals. The lake is surrounded by buildings of flats and is an odd result of human intervention and nature taking its course. The area was a small village that Ceaușescu attempted to convert into a lake. After demolishing the houses and building the concrete basin, the plan was abandoned following the 1989 revolution. For nearly two decades, the area shifted from being an abandoned green space where children could play and sunbathe, to being contested by previous owners of the land there, to being closed for redevelopment into a sports centre. The redevelopment deal failed, and over the following years, the green space grew into a unique habitat. In May 2016, the lake was declared a national park, the Văcărești Nature Park. Dubbed the 'Delta of Bucharest', the area is protected. Bucharest is situated in the southeastern corner of the Romanian Plain, in an area once covered by the Vlăsiei Forest, which after it was cleared, gave way for a fertile flatland. As with many cities, Bucharest is traditionally considered to be built upon seven hills, similar to the seven hills of Rome. Bucharest's seven hills are: Mihai Vodă, Dealul Mitropoliei, Radu Vodă, Cotroceni, Dealul Spirii, Văcărești, Bucharest, Văcărești, and Sfântu Gheorghe Nou. The city has an area of . The altitude varies from at the Dâmbovița bridge in Cățelu, southeastern Bucharest and at the Militari church. The city has a roughly round shape, with the centre situated in the cross-way of the main north–south/east-west axes at University Square, Bucharest, University Square. The milestone for Romania's Kilometre Zero (Bucharest), Kilometre Zero is placed just south of University Square in front of the New St. George Church (Sfântul Gheorghe Nou) at St. George Square (Piața Sfântul Gheorghe). Bucharest's radius, from University Square to the city limits in all directions, varies from . Until recently, the regions surrounding Bucharest were largely rural, but after 1989, suburbs started to be built around Bucharest, in the surrounding Ilfov County. Further urban consolidation is expected to take place in the late 2010s, when the 'Bucharest Metropolitan Area' plan will become operational, incorporating additional communes and cities from the Ilfov and other neighbouring counties.


Climate

Bucharest has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification, Köppen: ''Cfa,'' by the -3 °C isotherm), or a humid continental climate (''Dfa/Dfb'' by the 0 °C isotherm), with warm to hot, humid summers and cold, snowy winters. Owing to its position on the Romanian Plain, the city's winters can get windy, though some of the winds are mitigated due to urbanisation. Winter temperatures often dip below , sometimes even to . In summer, the average temperature is (the average for July and August). Temperatures frequently reach in midsummer in the city centre. Although average precipitation (meteorology), precipitation and humidity during summer are low, occasional heavy storms occur. During spring and autumn, daytime temperatures vary between , and precipitation during spring tends to be higher than in summer, with more frequent yet milder periods of rain.


Government


Administration

Bucharest has a unique status in Romanian administration, since it is the only municipal area that is not part of a
county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert Chambers (publisher bo ...
. Its population, however, is larger than that of any other List of Romanian counties by population, Romanian county, hence the power of the Bucharest General Municipality (''Primăria Generală''), which is the capital's local government body, is the same as any other Romanian county council. The Municipality of Bucharest, along with the surrounding Ilfov County, is part of the București - Ilfov (development region), București – Ilfov development region project, which is equivalent to NUTS-II regions in the European Union and is used both by the EU and the Romanian government for statistical analysis, and to co-ordinate regional development projects and manage funds from the EU. The Bucharest-Ilfov development region is not, however, an administrative entity yet. The city government is headed by a Mayor of Bucharest, general mayor (''Primar General''). Since 29 October 2020 onwards, the Mayor of Bucharest, general mayor of Bucharest is Nicușor Dan, currently an independent politician previously backed by the National Liberal Party (Romania), PNL-2020 USR-PLUS Alliance, USR-PLUS centre-right alliance at the 2020 Romanian local elections. Decisions are approved and discussed by the capital's General Council of Bucharest, General Council (''Consiliu General'') made up of 55 elected councilors. Furthermore, the city is divided into six administrative sectors (''sectoare''), each of which has its own 27-seat sectoral council, town hall, and mayor. The powers of the local government over a certain area are, therefore, shared both by the Bucharest municipality and the local sectoral councils with little or no overlapping of authority. The general rule is that the main capital municipality is responsible for citywide utilities such as the water and sewage system, the overall transport system, and the main boulevards, while sectoral town halls manage the contact between individuals and the local government, secondary streets and parks maintenance, schools administration, and cleaning services. The six sectors are numbered from one to six and are disposed radially so that each one has under its administration a certain area of the city centre. They are numbered clockwise and are further divided into sectoral quarters (''cartiere'') which are not part of the official administrative division: *Sector 1 (Bucharest), Sector 1 (population 227,717): Dorobanți, Băneasa, Aviației, Pipera, Aviatorilor, Primăverii, Romană, Victoriei, Herăstrău Park, Bucureștii Noi, Dămăroaia, Străulești, Grivița, 1 Mai, Băneasa Forest, Pajura, Domenii, Chibrit *Sector 2 (Bucharest), Sector 2 (population 357,338): Pantelimon, Bucharest, Pantelimon, Colentina, Bucharest, Colentina, Iancului, Tei, Bucharest, Tei, Floreasca, Moșilor, Obor, Vatra Luminoasă, Fundeni, Tămădău Mare, Plumbuita, Ștefan cel Mare, Baicului *Sector 3 (Bucharest), Sector 3 (population 399,231): Vitan, Bucharest, Vitan, Dudești, Bucharest, Dudești, Titan, Bucharest, Titan,
Centrul Civic Centrul Civic (, ''the Civic Center'') is a district in central Bucharest, Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern, and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Eu ...
, Dristor, Lipscani, Muncii, Unirii *Sector 4 (Bucharest), Sector 4 (population 300,331): Berceni, Bucharest, Berceni, Olteniței, Giurgiului, Progresul, Văcărești, Bucharest, Văcărești, Timpuri Noi, Tineretului *Sector 5 (Bucharest), Sector 5 (population 288,690): Rahova, Ferentari, Giurgiului, Cotroceni, 13 Septembrie, Dealul Spirii *Sector 6 (Bucharest), Sector 6 (population 371,060): Giulești, Crângași, Drumul Taberei, Militari, Grozăvești (also known as Regie), Ghencea Each sector is governed by a local mayor, as follows: Sector 1 – Clotilde Armand (Save Romania Union, USR, since 2020), Sector 2 – Radu Mihaiu (Save Romania Union, USR, since 2020), Sector 3 – Robert Negoiță (PRO B, since 2012), Sector 4 – Daniel Băluță (Social Democratic Party (Romania), PSD, since 2016), Sector 5 – Cristian Popescu Piedone (PPU SL, since 2020), Sector 6 – Ciprian Ciucu (National Liberal Party (Romania), PNL, since 2020). Like all other local councils in Romania, the Bucharest sectoral councils, the capital's General Council of Bucharest, general council, and the mayors are elected every four years by the population. Additionally, Bucharest has a Prefect (Romania), prefect, who is appointed by Romania's national government. The prefect is not allowed to be a member of a political party and his role is to represent the national government at the municipal level. The prefect is acting as a liaison official facilitating the implementation of national development plans and governing programs at local level. The prefect of Bucharest (as of 2021) is Alin-Bogdan Stoica.


City general council

The city's General Council of Bucharest, general council has the following political composition, based on the results of the 2020 Romanian local elections, 2020 local elections:


Justice system

Bucharest's judicial system is similar to that of the Romanian counties. Each of the six sectors has its own local first-instance court (''judecătorie''), while more serious cases are directed to the Bucharest Tribunal (''Tribunalul Bucureşti''), the city's municipal court. The Bucharest Court of Appeal (''Curtea de Apel Bucureşti'') judges appeals against decisions taken by first-instance courts and tribunals in Bucharest and in five surrounding counties (Teleorman, Ialomița, Giurgiu, Călărași, and Ilfov). Bucharest is also home to Romania's supreme court, the High Court of Cassation and Justice, as well as to the Constitutional Court of Romania. Bucharest has a municipal police force, the Bucharest Police (''Poliția București''), which is responsible for policing crime within the whole city, and operates a number of divisions. The Bucharest Police are headquartered on Ștefan cel Mare Blvd. in the city centre, and at precincts throughout the city. From 2004 onwards, each sector city hall also has under its administration a community police force (''Poliția Comunitară''), dealing with local community issues. Bucharest also houses the general inspectorates of the Gendarmerie (Romania), ''Gendarmerie'' and the Romanian Police, national police.


Crime

Bucharest's crime rate is rather low in comparison to other European capital cities, with the number of total offences declining by 51% between 2000 and 2004,Bucharest Crime Statistics 2000–2004
, Bucharest Directorate-General of Police
and by 7% between 2012 and 2013. The violent crime rate in Bucharest remains very low, with 11 murders and 983 other violent offences taking place in 2007. Although violent crimes fell by 13% in 2013 compared to 2012, 19 murders (18 of which the suspects were arrested) were recorded. Although in the 2000s, a number of police crackdowns on organized crime, organised crime gangs occurred, such as the Cămătaru clan, organised crime generally has little impact on public life. Petty crime, however, is more common, particularly in the form of pickpocketing, which occurs mainly on the city's public transport network. Confidence tricks were common in the 1990s, especially in regards to tourists, but the frequency of these incidents has since declined. However, in general, theft was reduced by 13.6% in 2013 compared to 2012. Levels of crime are higher in the southern districts of the city, particularly in Ferentari, a socially disadvantaged area. Although the presence of street children was a problem in Bucharest in the 1990s, their numbers have declined in recent years, now lying at or below the average of major European capital cities. , Conrad N. Hilton Humanitarian Prize/Council of Europe


Quality of life

As stated by the Mercer (consulting firm), Mercer international surveys for quality of life in cities around the world, Bucharest occupied the 94th place in 2001 and slipped lower, to the 108th place in 2009 and the 107th place in 2010. Compared to it, Vienna occupied number one worldwide in 2011 and 2009. Warsaw ranked 84th, Istanbul 112th, and neighbours Sofia 114th and Belgrade 136th (in the 2010 rankings). Mercer Human Resource Consulting issues yearly a global ranking of the world's most livable cities based on 39 key quality-of-life issues. Among them: political stability, currency-exchange regulations, political and media censorship, school quality, housing, the environment, and public safety. Mercer collects data worldwide, in 215 cities. The difficult situation of the quality of life in Bucharest is confirmed also by a vast urbanism study, done by the Ion Mincu University of Architecture and Urbanism. In 2016, Bucharest's urban situation was described as 'critical' by a Romanian Order of Architects (OAR) report that criticised the city's weak, incoherent and arbitrary public management policies, its elected officials' lack of transparency and public engagement, as well as its inadequate and unsustainable use of essential urban resources. Bucharest's historical city centre is listed as 'endangered' by the
World Monuments Watch World Monuments Fund (WMF) is a private, international, non-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a coll ...
(as of 2016). Although many neighbourhoods, particularly in the southern part of the city, lack sufficient green space, being formed of cramped high density block of flats, Bucharest also has many Urban park, parks.


Demographics

As per the
2011 census2011 censuses were conducted in the following countries: * Australia: Census in Australia * Austria: Demographics of Austria * Bangladesh: 2011 Bangladesh Census * Bulgaria: Demographics of Bulgaria * Canada: Canada 2011 Census * Croatia: 2011 Censu ...
, 1,883,425 inhabitants lived within the city limits, a decrease from the figure recorded at the 2002 census. This decrease is due to low natural increase, but also to a shift in population from the city itself to its smaller satellite towns such as Voluntari, Buftea, and Otopeni. In a study published by the United Nations, Bucharest placed 19th in among 28 cities that recorded sharp declines in population from 1990 to the mid-2010s. In particular, the population fell by 3.77%. The city's population, according to the 2002 census, was 1,926,334 inhabitants, or 8.9% of the total population of Romania. A significant number of people commute to the city every day, mostly from the surrounding Ilfov County, but official statistics regarding their numbers do not exist. Bucharest's population experienced two phases of rapid growth, the first beginning in the late 19th century when the city was consolidated as the national capital and lasting until the Second World War, and the second during the Ceaușescu years (1965–1989), when a massive urbanization campaign was launched and many people migrated from rural areas to the capital. At this time, due to Ceaușescu's decision to ban abortion and contraception, natural increase was also significant. Bucharest is a city of high population density: 8,260/km2 (21,400/sq mi), owing to the fact that most of the population lives in high-density communist era apartment blocks (''blocuri''). However, this also depends on the part of the city: the southern boroughs have a higher density than the northern ones. Of the European Union country capital-cities, only Paris and Athens have a higher population density (see List of European Union cities proper by population density). About 97.3% of the population of Bucharest for whom data are available is Romanians, Romanian. Other significant ethnic groups are Romani people, Romani, Hungarians, Turks, Jews, Germans of Romania, Germans (mostly Regat Germans), Chinese, Russians, Ukrainians, and Italians. A relatively small number of Bucharesters are also the Greeks, Armenians, Bulgarians, Albanians, Poles, French, Arabs, Africans (including the Afro-Romanians), Vietnamese, Filipinos, Nepali, Afghans, Sri Lankans, Bangladeshis, Pakistanis, and the Indians. 226,943 people did not declare their ethnicity. In terms of religious affiliation, 96.1% of the population is Romanian Orthodox Church, Romanian Orthodox, 1.2% is Romanian Roman-Catholic Church, Roman Catholic, 0.5% is Islam in Romania, Muslim, and 0.4% is Romanian Church United with Rome, Greek-Catholic, Romanian Greek Catholic. Despite this, only 18% of the population, of any religion, attends a place of worship once a week or more. The life expectancy of residents of Bucharest in 2015 was 77.8 years old, which is 2.4 years above the national average.


Economy

Bucharest is the centre of the Romanian economy and industry, accounting for around 24% (2017) of the country's GDP and about one-quarter of its industrial production, while being inhabited by 9% of the country's population. Almost one-third of national taxes is paid by Bucharest's citizens and companies. The living standard in the Bucharest-Ilfov region was 145% of the EU average in 2017, according to GDP per capita at the purchasing power parity standard (adjusted to the national price level). Bucharest area surpassed, on comparable terms, European metropolitan areas such as Budapest (139%),
Madrid Madrid ( , ) is the capital and most populous city of Spain. The city has almost 3.4 million inhabitants and a Madrid metropolitan area, metropolitan area population of approximately 6.7 million. It is the Largest cities of the Europ ...

Madrid
(125%),
Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the List of cities in the European Union by ...

Berlin
(118%),
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...

Rome
(110%), Lisbon (102%), or Sofia (79%), and more than twice the Romanian average. After relative stagnation in the 1990s, the city's strong economic growth has revitalised infrastructure and led to the development of shopping malls, residential estates, and high-rise office buildings. In January 2013, Bucharest had an unemployment rate of 2.1%, significantly lower than the national unemployment rate of 5.8%. Bucharest's economy is centred on industry and Service Sector, services, with services particularly growing in importance in the last 10 years. The headquarters of 186,000 firms, including nearly all large Romanian companies, are located in Bucharest. An important source of growth since 2000 has been the city's rapidly expanding property and construction sector. Bucharest is also Romania's largest centre for information technology and communications and is home to several software companies operating offshore delivery centres. Romania's largest stock exchange, the Bucharest Stock Exchange, which was merged in December 2005 with the Bucharest-based electronic stock exchange Rasdaq, plays a major role in the city's economy. International supermarket chains such as Kaufland, Lidl, Metro AG, Metro, Selgros, Penny (supermarket), Penny Market, Carrefour, Auchan, Cora (hypermarket), Cora, Profi, and Mega Image are all operating in Bucharest. The city is undergoing a retail boom. Bucharest hosts luxury brands such as Armani, Versace, Ralph Lauren, Dior, Prada, Chanel, Hermes, Louis Vuitton, and Gucci. Malls and large shopping centres have been built since the late 1990s, such as Băneasa Shopping City, AFI Palace Cotroceni, Mega Mall, București Mall, ParkLake Shopping Centre, Sun Plaza, Promenada Mall and longest Unirea Shopping Center, Unirea Shopping Centre. Bucharest has List of shopping malls in Romania, over 20 malls as of 2019. The corporations Amazon (company), Amazon, Microsoft, Oracle Corporation, or IBM are all present in the Romanian capital. The top ten is also dominated by companies operating in automotive, oil & gas (such as Petrom), as well as companies in telecommunication and Fast-moving consumer goods, FMCG. File:2017 sediul IBM.jpg, IBM Bucharest File:Skyscrapers in Bucharest.jpg, Business skyscrapers in Pipera, including Nusco Tower (Oracle Corporation, Oracle headquarters) File:Globalworth Tower Bucharest.jpg, Amazon (company), Amazon operates office space in the Globalworth Tower. File:Petrom City.jpg, Petrom City File:IMG-20171002-15321-romania-unirea-bucharest.jpg, Unirea Shopping Center File:Bucharest Day 4 - AFI Cotroceni (9434236245).jpg, AFI Cotroceni


Transport

Bucharest in crossed by two major international routes: Pan-European corridors, Pan-European transport corridor Pan-European Corridor IV, IV and Pan-European Corridor IX, IX.


Public transport

Bucharest's public transport system is the largest in Romania and one of the largest in Europe. It is made up of the Bucharest Metro, run by Metrorex, as well as a surface transport system run by RATB, STB (''Societatea de Transport București'', previously known as the RATB), which consists of buses, Trams in Bucharest, trams, trolleybuses, and Bucharest Light rail, light rail. In addition, a private Marshrutka#Eastern Europe, minibus system operates there. , a limit of 10,000 taxicab licences was imposed.


Railways

It is the hub of Romania's national railway network, run by ''Căile Ferate Române''. The main railway station is Gara de Nord ('North Station'), which provides connections to all major cities in Romania, as well as international destinations: Belgrade, Sofia, Varna, Chișinău, Kyiv, Chernivtsi, Lviv, Thessaloniki,
Vienna Vienna ( ; german: Wien ; bar, Wean, label=Bavarian language, Austro-Bavarian ) is the Capital city, national capital, largest city, and one of States of Austria, nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's List of cities and towns in Austria, mos ...

Vienna
, Budapest, Istanbul, Moscow etc. The city has five other railway stations run by CFR, of which the most important are Basarab (adjacent to North Station), Obor, Băneasa, and Progresul. These are in the process of being integrated into a commuter railway serving Bucharest and the surrounding Ilfov County. Seven main lines radiate out of Bucharest. The oldest station in Bucharest is Filaret. It was inaugurated in 1869, and in 1960, the communist government turned it in a bus terminal.


Air

Bucharest has two international airports: *Henri Coandă International Airport (IATA: OTP, ICAO: LROP), located north of the Bucharest city centre, in the town of Otopeni, Ilfov. It is the busiest airport in Romania, in terms of passenger traffic: 12,807,032 in 2017. *Aurel Vlaicu International Airport (IATA: BBU, ICAO: LRBS) is Bucharest's business and VIP airport. It is situated only north of the Bucharest city centre, within city limits.


Roads

Bucharest is a major intersection of Roads in Romania, Romania's national road network. A few of the busiest national roads and motorways link the city to all of Romania's major cities, as well as to neighbouring countries such as Hungary, Bulgaria and Ukraine. The A1 freeway (Romania), A1 to Pitești, the A2 motorway (Romania), A2 Sun Motorway to the Dobrogea region and Constanța and the A3 freeway (Romania), A3 to Ploiești all start from Bucharest. A series of high-capacity boulevards, which generally radiate out from the city centre to the outskirts, provides a framework for the municipal road system. The main axes, which run north–south, east–west and northwest–southeast, as well as one internal and one external ring road, support the bulk of the traffic. The city's roads are usually very crowded during rush hours, due to an increase in car ownership in recent years. In 2013, the number of cars registered in Bucharest amounted to 1,125,591. This results in wear and potholes appearing on busy roads, particularly secondary roads, this being identified as one of Bucharest's main infrastructural problems. A comprehensive effort on behalf of the City Hall to boost road infrastructure was made, and according to the general development plan, 2,000 roads have been repaired by 2008. The huge number of cars registered in the city forced the Romanian Auto Registry to switch to 3-digit numbers on Vehicle registration plates of Romania, registration plates in 2010. On 17 June 2011, the Basarab Overpass was inaugurated and opened to traffic, thus completing the inner city traffic ring. The overpass took five years to build and is the longest cable-stayed bridge in Romania and the widest such bridge in Europe; upon completion, traffic on the Grant Bridge and in the Gara de Nord area became noticeably more fluid. Hotel Continental - Calea Victoriei.jpg, Calea Victoriei, Victoriei Avenue, a major avenue in central Bucharest File:Podul Grozavesti - Seara.jpg, Basarab Overpass Avenida de la Unión, Bucarest, Rumanía, 2016-05-29, DD 57.jpg, Most transited Bulevardul Unirii, Unirii Boulevard is similar to the
Champs-Élysées The Avenue des Champs-Élysées (, , ) is an Avenue (landscape), avenue in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, France, long and wide, running between the Place de la Concorde in the east and the Place Charles de Gaulle in the west, where the Arc d ...

Champs-Élysées
File:Bucuresti, Romania. Bulevardul Magheru 2017.jpg, Bulevardul Magheru, Magheru Boulevard is one of the most expensive shopping streets of Europe File:Strada Buzesti.jpg, Buzești Street


Water

Although it is situated on the banks of a river, Bucharest has never functioned as a port city, with other Romanian cities such as Constanța and Galați acting as the country's main ports. The unfinished Danube-Bucharest Canal, which is long and around 70% completed, could link Bucharest to the Danube River, and via the Danube-Black Sea Canal, to the Black Sea. Works on the canal were suspended in 1989, but proposals have been made to resume construction as part of the European Strategy for the Danube Region.


Culture

Bucharest has a growing cultural scene, in fields including the visual arts, performing arts, and nightlife. Unlike other parts of Romania, such as the Black Sea coast or Transylvania, Bucharest's cultural scene has no defined style, and instead incorporates elements of Romanian and international culture.


Landmarks

Bucharest has landmark buildings and monuments. Perhaps the most prominent of these is the
Palace of the Parliament The Palace of the Parliament ( ro, Palatul Parlamentului), also known as the Republic's House () or People's House (), is the seat of the Parliament of Romania, located atop Dealul Spirii in Bucharest Bucharest ( , ; ro, București ) is t ...

Palace of the Parliament
, built in the 1980s during the reign of Communist dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu. The List of largest buildings in the world#Special categories, largest Parliament building in the world, the palace houses the Romanian Parliament (the Chamber of Deputies of Romania, Chamber of Deputies, and the Senate of Romania, Senate), as well as the National Museum of Contemporary Art (Romania), National Museum of Contemporary Art. The building boasts one of the largest convention centres in the world. Another landmark in Bucharest is
Arcul de Triumf Arcul de Triumf is a triumphal arch located in the northern part of Bucharest, on the Șoseaua Kiseleff, Kiseleff Road. The first, wooden, triumphal arch was built hurriedly, after Romania gained Romanian War of Independence, its independence (1 ...
(The Triumphal Arch), built in its current form in 1935 and modelled after the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. A newer landmark of the city is the Memorial of Rebirth, a stylised marble pillar unveiled in 2005 to commemorate the victims of the Romanian Revolution of 1989, which overthrew Communism. The abstract monument sparked controversy when it was unveiled, being dubbed with names such as 'the olive on the toothpick' (''măslina-n scobitoare''), as many argued that it does not fit in its surroundings and believed that its choice was political. The Romanian Athenaeum building is considered a symbol of Romanian culture and since 2007 has been on the list of the Label of European Heritage sites. It was built between 1886 and 1888 by the architect Paul Louis Albert Galeron, through public funding. InterContinental Bucharest is a high-rise five-star hotel near University Square and is also a landmark of the city. The building is designed so that each room has a unique panorama of the city. House of the Free Press, House of the Spark (''Casa Scânteii'') is a replica of the famous 'Lomonosov' Moscow State University. This edifice, built in the characteristic style of the large-scale Soviet projects, was intended to be representative of the new political regime and to assert the superiority of the Communist doctrine. Construction started in 1952 and was completed in 1957, a few years after Stalin's death in 1953. Popularly known as Casa Scânteii ('House of the Spark') after the name of the official gazette of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party, ''Scânteia'', it was made for the purpose of bringing together under one roof all of Bucharest's official press and publishing houses. It is the only building in Bucharest featuring the Hammer and Sickle, the Red Star and other communist insignia carved into medallions adorning the façade. Other cultural venues include the National Museum of Art of Romania, Grigore Antipa National Museum of Natural History, Museum of the Romanian Peasant, National Museum of Romanian History, National History Museum and the National Military Museum (Romania), Military Museum. File:Sky Tower Bucharest - panoramio.jpg, With a price tag of $250 million, Floreasca City Center opened in 2012. File:Ansamblul de fântâni din Piața Unirii, București.jpg, Downtown Bucharest fountains in the Piața Unirii, Unirii Square File:Arcul de triumf.jpg,
Arcul de Triumf Arcul de Triumf is a triumphal arch located in the northern part of Bucharest, on the Șoseaua Kiseleff, Kiseleff Road. The first, wooden, triumphal arch was built hurriedly, after Romania gained Romanian War of Independence, its independence (1 ...
File:Libraria Carturesti Carusel - Interior ziua.jpg, Interior of the Cărturești Carusel Bookstore File:Unification Square Bucharest.jpg, New National Library of Romania File:ThermeBucuresti.jpg, Therme Bucharest is the largest Spa, thermal bath (spa) complex in Europe.


Visual arts

In terms of visual arts, the city has museums featuring both classical and contemporary Romanian art, as well as selected international works. The National Museum of Art of Romania is perhaps the best-known of Bucharest museums. It is located in the royal palace and features collections of medieval and modern Romanian art, including works by sculptor Constantin Brâncuși, as well as an international collection assembled by the Romanian royal family. Other, smaller, museums contain specialised collections. The Zambaccian Museum, which is situated in the former home of art collector Krikor H. Zambaccian, contains works by well-known Romanian artists and international artists such as Paul Cézanne, Eugène Delacroix, Henri Matisse, Camille Pissarro, and Pablo Picasso. The Gheorghe Tattarescu Museum contains portraits of Romanian revolutionaries in exile such as Gheorghe Magheru, ștefan Golescu, and Nicolae Bălcescu, and allegorical compositions with revolutionary (''Romania's rebirth'', 1849) and patriotic (''The Danubian Principalities#United Principalities, Principalities' Unification'', 1857) themes. Another impressive art collection gathering important Romanian painters, can be found at the Ligia and Pompiliu Macovei residence, which is open to visitors as it is now part of the Bucharest Museum patrimony. The Theodor Pallady Museum is situated in one of the oldest surviving merchant houses in Bucharest and includes works by Romanian painter Theodor Pallady, as well as European and oriental furniture pieces. The Museum of Art Collections contains the collections of Romanian art aficionados, including Krikor Zambaccian and Theodor Pallady. Despite the classical art galleries and museums in the city, a contemporary arts scene also exists. The National Museum of Contemporary Art (Romania), National Museum of Contemporary Art (MNAC), situated in a wing of the
Palace of the Parliament The Palace of the Parliament ( ro, Palatul Parlamentului), also known as the Republic's House () or People's House (), is the seat of the Parliament of Romania, located atop Dealul Spirii in Bucharest Bucharest ( , ; ro, București ) is t ...

Palace of the Parliament
, was opened in 2004 and contains Romanian and international contemporary art. The MNAC also manages the Kalinderu MediaLab, which caters to multimedia and experimental art. Private art galleries are scattered throughout the city centre. The palace of the National Bank of Romania houses the national numismatic collection. Exhibits include banknotes, coins, documents, photographs, maps, silver and gold bullion bars, bullion coins, and dies and moulds. The building was constructed between 1884 and 1890. The thesaurus room contains notable marble decorations.


Performing arts

Performing arts are some of the strongest cultural elements of Bucharest. The most famous symphony orchestra is National Radio Orchestra of Romania. One of the most prominent buildings is the neoclassical Romanian Athenaeum, which was founded in 1852, and hosts classical music concerts, the George Enescu Festival, and is home to the George Enescu Philharmonic Orchestra. Bucharest is home to the Romanian National Opera, Bucharest, Romanian National Opera and the I.L. Caragiale National Theatre. Another well-known theatre in Bucharest is the State Jewish Theater (Romania), State Jewish Theatre, which features plays starring world-renowned Romanian-Jewish actress Maia Morgenstern. Smaller theatres throughout the city cater to specific genres, such as the Comedy Theatre, the Nottara Theatre, the Bulandra Theatre, the Odeon Theatre (Bucharest), Odeon Theatre, and the revue theatre of Constantin Tănase.


Music and nightlife

Bucharest is home to Romania's largest recording labels, and is often the residence of Romanian musicians. Romanian rock bands of the 1970s and 1980s, such as IRIS (Romanian band), Iris and Holograf, continue to be popular, particularly with the middle-aged, while since the beginning of the 1990s, the hip hop music, hip hop/rapping, rap scene has developed. Hip-hop bands and artists from Bucharest such as B.U.G. Mafia, Paraziții, and La Familia (rap group), La Familia enjoy national and international recognition. The pop-rock band Taxi (Romanian band), Taxi have been gaining international respect, as has Spitalul de Urgență's raucous updating of traditional Music of Romania, Romanian music. While many neighbourhood discothèque, discos play ''manele'', an Oriental- and Roma-influenced genre of music that is particularly popular in Bucharest's working-class districts, the city has a rich jazz and blues scene, and to an even larger extent, house music/trance music, trance and heavy metal music, heavy metal/punk music, punk scenes. Bucharest's jazz profile has especially risen since 2002, with the presence of two venues, Green Hours and Art Jazz, as well as an American presence alongside established Romanians. With no central nightlife strip, entertainment venues are dispersed throughout the city, with clusters in Lipscani and Regie, Bucharest, Regie.


Cultural events and festivals

A number of cultural festivals are held in Bucharest throughout the year, but most festivals take place in June, July, and August. The National Opera organises the International Opera Festival every year in May and June, which includes ensembles and orchestras from all over the world. The Romanian Athaeneum Society hosts the George Enescu Festival at locations throughout the city in September every two years (odd years). The Museum of the Romanian Peasant and the Village Museum organise events throughout the year, showcasing Romanian folk arts and crafts. In the 2000s, due to the growing prominence of the Chinese community in Bucharest, Chinese cultural events took place. The first officially organised Chinese festival was the Chinese New Year, Chinese New Year's Eve Festival of February 2005, which took place in Nichita Stănescu Park and was organised by the Bucharest City Hall. In 2005, Bucharest was the first city in Southeastern Europe to host the international CowParade, which resulted in dozens of decorated cow sculptures being placed across the city. In 2004, Bucharest imposed in the circle of important festivals in Eastern Europe with the Bucharest International Film Festival, an event widely acknowledged in Europe, having as guests of honour famous names from the world cinema: Andrei Konchalovsky, Danis Tanović, Nikita Mikhalkov, Rutger Hauer, Jerzy Skolimowski, Jan Harlan, Radu Mihăileanu, and many others. Since 2005, Bucharest has its own contemporary art exhibition, art biennale, the Bucharest Biennale. File:Ateneul Român - Vedere Frontala.jpg, Romanian Athenaeum File:Violetta in concert. Bucharest Phylharmony.jpg, George Enescu Festival hosting concert at the George Enescu Philharmonic Orchestra, George Enescu Philharmonic File:Bucuresti, Romania, OPERA ROMANA, B-II-m-B-19004 (Statuia lui George Enescu in fata OPEREI) (2).JPG, George Enescu statue in front of the Romanian National Opera, Bucharest, Romanian National Opera File:Sala Radio Mihail Jora 1.jpg, Sala Radio, Mihail Jora Concert Studio File:Bucuresti, Romania, ACADEMIA ROMANA, (Statuia Zeitei Athena); B-II-m-A-19866.01; (8).JPG, Romanian Academy headquarters File:Biblioteca Academiei Române.jpg, Romanian Academy library


Traditional culture

Traditional Romanian culture continues to have a major influence in arts such as theatre, film, and music. Bucharest has two internationally renowned ethnography, ethnographic museums, the Museum of the Romanian Peasant and the open-air Dimitrie Gusti National Village Museum in Bucharest, Dimitrie Gusti National Village Museum, in King Michael I Park. It contains 272 authentic buildings and peasant farms from all over Romania. The Museum of the Romanian Peasant was declared the European Museum of the Year in 1996. Patronised by the Ministry of Culture, the museum preserves and exhibits numerous collections of objects and monuments of material and spiritual culture. The Museum of the Romanian Peasant holds one of the richest collections of peasant objects in Romania, its heritage being nearly 90,000 pieces, those being divided into several collections: ceramics, costumes, textiles, wooden objects, religious objects, customs, etc. The Museum of Romanian History is another important museum in Bucharest, containing a collection of artefacts detailing Romanian history and culture from the prehistoric times, Dacian era, medieval times, and the modern era.


Religion

Bucharest is the seat of the Patriarch of the Romanian Orthodox Church, one of the Eastern Orthodox churches in communion with the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, Patriarch of Constantinople, and also of its subdivisions, the Metropolis of Muntenia and Dobrudja and the Archbishopric of Bucharest. Orthodox believers consider Demetrius Basarabov to be the patron saint of the city. The city is a centre for other Christian organizations in Romania, including the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bucharest, established in 1883, and the Romanian Church United with Rome, Greek-Catholic, Romanian Greek-Catholic Eparchy of Saint Basil the Great of Bucharest, Eparchy of Saint Basil the Great, founded in 2014. Bucharest also hosts 6 synagogues, including the Templul Coral, Choral Temple of Bucharest, the Great Synagogue (Bucharest), Great Synagogue of Bucharest and the Jewish Museum (Bucharest), Holy Union Temple. The latter was converted into the Museum of the History of the Romanian Jewish Community, while the Great Synagogue and the Choral Temple are both active and hold regular services. A Bucharest Mosque, mosque with a capacity of 2,000 people was in the planning stages on 22–30 Expoziției Boulevard. Later, the project was abandoned. File:Palatul Patriarhiei - panoramio.jpg, Palace of the Patriarchate, Palace of the Romanian Orthodox Patriarchate File:Bucharest - St. Anthony Church (28376876671).jpg, Curtea Veche church File:Catedrala Mântuirii Neamului - București (Iulie 2020).jpg, People's Salvation Cathedral, National Cathedral File:Russian Church in Bucharest Sfantul Nicolae.jpg, Bucharest Russian Church, Russian Orthodox Church File:Biserica greaca.JPG, Greek Orthodox Church of Bucharest File:Detaliu rozeta neo-gotica.JPG, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bucharest File:Detalii de arhitectura.JPG, Italian Church (Bucharest), Italian Roman Catholic Church File:Bucharest Lutheran.jpg, Lutheran Church File:French Church Bucharest.jpg, French Church (Bucharest), Sacré-Coeur French Church File:RO B Anglican Resurrection church.jpg, Anglican Church (Bucharest), Anglican Church of the Resurrection File:Bucharest - בית הכנסת הכוראלי של בוקרשט (28257630823).jpg, Templul Coral, Choral Synagogue


Architecture

The city centre is a mixture of Medieval architecture, medieval, neoclassical architecture, neoclassical,
Art Deco Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before . Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, trains, s, an ...
, and Art Nouveau buildings, as well as 'neo-Romanian' buildings dating from the beginning of the 20th century and a collection of modern buildings from the 1920s and 1930s. The mostly utilitarian Communist-era architecture dominates most southern boroughs. Recently built contemporary structures such as skyscrapers and office buildings complete the landscape.


Historical architecture

Of the city's Middle Ages, medieval architecture, most of what survived into modern times was destroyed by Communist Systematization (Romania), systematization, fire, and military incursions. Some medieval and renaissance edifices remain, the most notable are in the Lipscani area. This precinct contains notable buildings such as Manuc's Inn (''Hanul lui Manuc'') and the ruins of the Curtea Veche, Old Court (''Curtea Veche''); during the late Middle Ages, this area was the heart of commerce in Bucharest. From the 1970s onwards, the area went through urban decline, and many historical buildings fell into disrepair. In 2005, the Lipscani area was restored. To execute a massive redevelopment project during the rule of Nicolae Ceausescu, the government conducted extensive demolition of churches and many other historic structures in Romania. According to Alexandru Budişteanu, former chief architect of Bucharest, 'The sight of a church bothered Ceauşescu. It didn't matter if they demolished or moved it, as long as it was no longer in sight'. Nevertheless, a project organised by Romanian engineer Eugeniu Iordǎchescu was able to move many historic structures to less-prominent sites and save them. The city centre has retained architecture from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, particularly the interwar period, which is often seen as the 'golden age' of Bucharest architecture. During this time, the city grew in size and wealth, therefore seeking to emulate other large European capitals such as Paris. Much of the architecture of the time belongs to a Modern (rationalist) Architecture current, led by Horia Creangă and Marcel Iancu. In Romania, the tendencies of innovation in the architectural language met the need of valorisation and affirmation of the national cultural identity. The Art Nouveau movement finds expression through new architectural style initiated by Ion Mincu and taken over by other prestigious architects who capitalise important references of Romanian laic and medieval ecclesiastical architecture (for example the Mogoşoaia Palace, Mogoșoaia Palace, the Stavropoleos Monastery, Stavropoleos Church or the disappeared church of Văcărești Monastery) and Romanian folk motifs. Two notable buildings from this time are the Crețulescu Palace, housing cultural institutions including UNESCO's European Centre for Higher Education, and the Cotroceni Palace, the residence of the President of Romania, Romanian President. Many large-scale constructions such as the Gara de Nord, the busiest railway station in the city, National Bank of Romania's headquarters, and the Telephone Palace date from these times. In the 2000s, historic buildings in the city centre underwent restoration. In some residential areas of the city, particularly in high-income central and northern districts, fin-de-siecle, turn-of-the-20th-century villas were mostly restored beginning in the late 1990s. File:Palatul Cantacuzino, Bucureşti.jpg, French Baroque architecture, French Baroque style – Cantacuzino palace, Cantacuzino Palace File:Palacio del Círculo Nacional Militar, Bucarest, Rumanía, 2016-05-29, DD 66.jpg, French
Neoclassical Neoclassical or neo-classical may refer to: * Neoclassicism or New Classicism, any of a number of movements in the fine arts, literature, theatre, music, language, and architecture beginning in the 17th century ** Neoclassical architecture, an arc ...
style – Palace of the National Military Circle File:Museo Nacional de Historia de Rumanía, Bucarest, Rumanía, 2016-05-29, DD 63.jpg,
Neoclassical Neoclassical or neo-classical may refer to: * Neoclassicism or New Classicism, any of a number of movements in the fine arts, literature, theatre, music, language, and architecture beginning in the 17th century ** Neoclassical architecture, an arc ...
style –National Museum of Romanian History File:Front view of Romanian Palace of the Deposits and Consignments (Palatul CEC) in Bucharest (47981424973).jpg, Eclecticism in architecture, Eclectic style – CEC Palace File:Carul cu bere.jpg, Gothic Revival architecture, Gothic Revival – Caru' cu Bere


Communist era architecture

A major part of Bucharest's architecture is made up of buildings constructed during the Communist Romania, Communist era replacing the historical architecture with high-density apartment blocks – significant portions of the Ceaușima, historic centre of Bucharest were demolished to construct one of the largest buildings in the world, the
Palace of the Parliament The Palace of the Parliament ( ro, Palatul Parlamentului), also known as the Republic's House () or People's House (), is the seat of the Parliament of Romania, located atop Dealul Spirii in Bucharest Bucharest ( , ; ro, București ) is t ...

Palace of the Parliament
(then officially called the House of the Republic). In Nicolae Ceaușescu's project of systematization, new buildings were built in previously historical areas, which were razed and then built upon. One of the singular examples of this type of architecture is
Centrul Civic Centrul Civic (, ''the Civic Center'') is a district in central Bucharest, Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern, and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Eu ...
, a development that replaced a major part of Bucharest's historic city centre with giant utilitarian buildings, mainly with marble or travertine façades, inspired by North Korean architecture. The mass demolitions that occurred in the 1980s, under which an overall area of eight square kilometres of the historic centre of Bucharest were levelled, including monasteries, churches, synagogues, a hospital, and a noted
Art Deco Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before . Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, trains, s, an ...
sports stadium, changed drastically the appearance of the city. Communist-era architecture can also be found in Bucharest's residential districts, mainly in ''blocuri'', which are high-density apartment blocks that house the majority of the city's population. Initially, these apartment blocks started to be constructed in the 1960s, on relatively empty areas and fields (good examples include Pajura, Drumul Taberei, Berceni and Titan), however with the 1970s, they mostly targeted peripheral neighbourhoods such as Colentina, Pantelimon, Militari and Rahova. Construction of these apartment blocks were also often randomised, for instance some small streets were demolished and later widened with the blocks being built next to them, but other neighbouring streets were left intact (like in the example of Calea Moșilor from 1978 to 1982), or built in various patterns such as the Piața Iancului-Lizeanu apartment buildings from 1962 to 1963. There is also communist architecture that was built in the early years of the system, in the late 1940s and 1950s. Buildings constructed in this era followed the Soviet Stalinist trend of Socialist Realism, and include the House of the Free Press (which was named ''Casa Scînteii'' during communism). File:View_from_the_Palace_of_Parliament_in_Bucharest.jpg,
Centrul Civic Centrul Civic (, ''the Civic Center'') is a district in central Bucharest, Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern, and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Eu ...
, panoramic view File:Bulevardul Unirii.jpg, Apartment blocks on Bulevardul Unirii, Unirii Boulevard, built in the 1980s File:Casa Presei Libere, Bucuresti, 2016.jpg, The House of the Free Press was the tallest in the city in Socialist Romania


Contemporary architecture

Since Romanian Revolution of 1989, the fall of Communism in 1989, several Communist-era buildings have been refurbished, modernised, and used for other purposes. Perhaps the best example of this is the conversion of obsolete retail complexes into shopping malls and commercial centres. These giant, circular halls, which were unofficially called hunger circuses due to the food shortages experienced in the 1980s, were constructed during the Ceaușescu era to act as produce markets and refectory, refectories, although most were left unfinished at the time of the revolution. Modern shopping malls such as the Unirea Shopping Center, Unirea Shopping Centre, Bucharest Mall, Plaza Romania, and City Mall, Romania, City Mall emerged on pre-existent structures of former hunger circuses. Another example is the conversion of a large utilitarian construction in Centrul Civic into a Marriott International, Marriott Hotel. This process was accelerated after 2000, when the city underwent a property boom, and many Communist-era buildings in the city centre became prime real estate due to their location. Many Communist-era apartment blocks have also been refurbished to improve urban appearance. The newest contribution to Bucharest's architecture took place after the fall of Communism, particularly after 2000, when the city went through a period of urban renewaland architectural revitalizationon the back of Romania's economic growth. Buildings from this time are mostly made of glass and steel, and often have more than 10 storeys. Examples include shopping malls (particularly the Bucharest Mall, a conversion and extension of an abandoned building), office buildings, bank headquarters, etc. During the last ten years, several high rise office buildings were built, particularly in the northern and eastern parts of the city. Additionally, a trend to add modern wings and façades to historic buildings has occurred, the most prominent example of which is the Bucharest Architects' Association Building, which is a modern glass-and-steel construction built inside a historic stone façade. In 2013, the Bucharest skyline enriched with a 137-m-high office building (SkyTower of Floreasca City Center, Floreasca City Centre), the tallest building in Romania. Examples of modern skyscrapers built in the 21st century include Bucharest Tower Center, Bucharest Tower Centre, Euro Tower (Bucharest), Euro Tower, Nusco Tower, Cathedral Plaza, City Gate Towers, Rin Grand Hotel, Premium Plaza, Bucharest Corporate Center, Bucharest Corporate Centre, Millennium Business Center, Millennium Business Centre, PGV Tower, Charles de Gaulle Plaza, Business Development Centre Bucharest, BRD Tower Bucharest, BRD Tower, and Bucharest Financial Plaza. Despite this development on vertical, Romanian architects avoid designing very tall buildings due to vulnerability to earthquakes. Aside from buildings used for business and institutions, residential developments have also been built, many of which consist of high-rise office buildings and suburban residential communities. An example of a new high rise residential complex is Asmita Gardens. These developments are increasingly prominent in northern Bucharest, which is less densely populated and is home to middle- and upper-class Bucharesters due to the process of gentrification. File:Cladire - Splaiul Unirii 76.jpg, Skyscraper on the Splaiul Unirii File:Bd. Iancu de Hunedoara - Metropolis Center.jpg, Metropolis Center (office buildings) File:Financial Plaza Bucuresti 1.jpg, Bucharest Financial Plaza File:Corporate evening (20151102 172914 1PS) (23714549860).jpg, Corporate buildings File:City Gate Towers.jpg, City Gate Towers office buildings File:Asmita Gardens.jpg, Asmita Gardens residential complex


Education

Overall, 159 faculties are in 34 universities. Sixteen public universities are in Bucharest, the largest of which are the University of Bucharest, the Politehnica University of Bucharest, the Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies, the Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest, Technical University of Civil Engineering, the National University of Political Studies and Public Administration and the University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest. These are supplemented by nineteen private universities, such as the Romanian-American University. Private universities, however, have a mixed reputation due to irregularities. In the 2020 QS World University Rankings, from Bucharest, only the University of Bucharest was included in the top universities of the world. The Politehnica University of Bucharest, Politehnica University disappeared from the ranking. Also, in recent years, the city has had increasing numbers of foreign students enrolling in its universities. The first modern educational institution was the Princely Academy of Bucharest, Princely Academy from Bucharest, founded in 1694 and divided in 1864 to form the present-day University of Bucharest and the Saint Sava National College, both of which are among the most prestigious of their kind in Romania. Over 450 public primary and secondary schools are in the city, all of which are administered by the Bucharest Municipal Schooling Inspectorate. Each Sectors of Bucharest, sector also has its own Schooling Inspectorate, subordinated to the municipal one. File:Universitatea din Bucuresti din Piata Universitatii.jpg, University of Bucharest (UB) File:Rectoratul Politehnicii, noaptea (1).jpg, Rectorate of the Politehnica University of Bucharest, Politehnica University (PUB) at night File:New library PUB bgiu.jpg, Library of the Politehnica University File:Academia de Studii Economice.jpg, Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies (ASE) File:Biblioteca Central de la Universidad de Bucarest, Bucarest, Rumanía, 2016-05-29, DD 72.jpg, Central University Library of Bucharest, Central University Library File:Palatul Facultății de Medicină din București-1.JPG, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy (UMFCD)


Media

The city is well-served by a modern landline and mobile network. Offices of Poșta Română, the national postal operator, are spread throughout the city, with the central post office ( ro, Oficiul Poștal București 1) located at 12 Matei Millo Street. Payphone, Public telephones are located in many places and are operated by Telekom Romania, a subsidiary of Deutsche Telekom and successor of the former monopoly Romtelecom. Bucharest is headquarters of most of the national television networks and national newspapers, radio stations and online news websites. The largest daily newspapers in Bucharest include ''Evenimentul Zilei'', ''Jurnalul Național'', ''Cotidianul'', ''România Liberă'', and ''Adevărul'', while the biggest news websites are HotNews (with an English and Spanish version), :ro:Ziare.com, Ziare.com, and ''Gândul''. During the rush hours, Tabloid (newspaper format), tabloid newspapers ''Click!'', ''Libertatea'', and ''Cancan'' are popular for commuters. A number of newspapers and media publications are based in House of the Free Press (), a landmark of northern Bucharest, originally named Casa Scânteii after the Communist Romania-era official newspaper ''Scînteia''. The House of the Free Press is not the only Bucharest landmark that grew out of the media and communications industry. ('The Telephone Palace') was the first major modernist building on Calea Victoriei in the city's centre, and the massive, unfinished communist-era Casa Radio looms over a park a block away from the Opera. English-language newspapers first became available in the early 1930s and reappeared in the 1990s. The two daily English-language newspapers are the ''Bucharest Daily News'' and ''Nine O' Clock''; several magazines and publications in other languages are available, such as the Hungarian-language daily ''Új Magyar Szó''. ''Observator Cultural'' covers the city's arts, and the free weekly magazines ''Șapte Seri'' ('Seven Evenings') and ''B24FUN'', list entertainment events. The city is home to the intellectual journal ''Dilema veche'' and the satire magazine ''Academia Cațavencu''.


Healthcare

One of the most modern hospitals in the capital is Colțea that has been re-equipped after a 90-million-euro investment in 2011. It specialises in oncological and cardiac disorders. It was built by Mihai Cantacuzino between 1701 and 1703, composed of many buildings, each with 12 to 30 beds, a church, three chapels, a school, and doctors' and teachers' houses. Another conventional hospital is Pantelimon, which was established in 1733 by Grigore II Ghica. The surface area of the hospital land property was . The hospital had in its inventory a house for infectious diseases and a house for persons with disabilities. Other hospitals or clinics are Bucharest Emergency Hospital, Floreasca Hospital, Floreasca Emergency Clinic Hospital, Bucharest University Emergency Hospital, and Fundeni Clinical Institute or Biomedica International and Euroclinic, which are private.


Sports

association football, Football is the most widely followed sport in Bucharest, with the city having numerous club teams, including CSA Steaua București (football), Steaua București, FC Dinamo București, Dinamo București and FC Rapid București, Rapid București. Arena Națională, a new stadium inaugurated on 6 September 2011, hosted the 2012 UEFA Europa League Final, 2012 Europa League Final and has a 55,600-seat capacity, making it one of the largest stadiums in Southeastern Europe and one of the few with a roof. Sport clubs have formed for team handball, handball, water polo, volleyball, rugby union, basketball and ice hockey. The majority of Romanian Track and field, track and field athletes and most Artistic gymnastics, gymnasts are affiliated with clubs in Bucharest. The largest indoor arena in Bucharest is the Romexpo, Romexpo Dome with a seating capacity of 40,000. It can be used for boxing, kickboxing, handball and tennis. Starting in 2007, Bucharest has hosted annual races along a temporary urban track surrounding the Palace of the Parliament, called Bucharest Ring. The competition is called the 2008 FIA GT Bucharest 2 Hours, Bucharest City Challenge, and has hosted FIA GT, FIA GT3, British F3, and Dacia Logan, Logan Cup races in 2007 and 2008. The 2009 and 2010 edition have not been held in Bucharest due to a lawsuit. Bucharest GP won the lawsuit that it initiated and will host city races around the Parliament starting 2011 with the Auto GP. Since 2009, Bucharest has the largest Ferrari Shop in Eastern Europe and the 2nd largest in Europe after Milan shop. Every year, Bucharest hosts the Bucharest Open international tennis tournament, which is included in the WTA Tour. The outdoor tournament is hosted by the tennis complex Arenele BNR, BNR Arenas. Ice hockey games are held at the Patinoarul Mihai Flamaropol, Mihai Flamaropol Arena, which holds 8,000 spectators. Rugby games are held in different locations, but the most modern stadium is Stadionul Arcul de Triumf, Arcul de Triumf Stadium, which is also home to the Romania national rugby union team, Romanian national rugby team. Bucharest was elected to host 4 matches from the UEFA Euro 2020 championship at the Arena Națională or Bucharest National Arena. The championship was postponed for 2021 due to the COVID-19 outbreak.


Notable people

* Costache Aristia (1800–1880), actor, writer, schoolteacher, revolutionary and philanthropist * Nicolae Crețulescu (1812–1900), medical doctor and politician, second Prime Minister of Romania following the assassination of Barbu Catargiu; one of the first presidents of the Romanian Academy * Constantin Bosianu (1815–1882), law professor and head of the Senate, Prime Minister of Romania and first dean of the Faculty of Law in Bucharest * C. A. Rosetti (1816–1885), writer, politician and leader of the Wallachian Revolution of 1848; the Romanian Academy was founded on his initiative * Ion Ghica (1816–1897), economist, engineer, mathematician, writer, revolutionary, diplomat and Prime Minister of Romania * Dimitrie Ghica (1816–1897), army officer, police prefect, politician, List of mayors of Bucharest, mayor of Bucharest and Prime Minister of Romania * Nicolae Bălcescu (1819–1852), historian, writer, soldier and leader of the Wallachian Revolution of 1848 * Nicolae Filimon (1819–1865), novelist and short-story writer, author of the first Literary realism, Realist novel in Romanian literature * Dora d'Istria (1828–1888), writer * Petre Ispirescu (1830–1887), folklorist and publicist * Alexandru Odobescu (1834–1895), archaeologist, author and politician * Ștefan Fălcoianu (1835–1905), army general who served as Chief of the Romanian General Staff and War Minister. * Ioan Kalinderu (1840–1913), law professor, writer, silviculturist, confidant of King of Romania, King
Carol I Carol or Charles I of Romania (20 April 1839 – ), born Prince Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, was the second monarch of Romania from 1866 to his death in 1914, ruling as Prince A prince is a Monarch, male ruler (ranked below a king, grand ...

Carol I
and head of the Romanian Academy * Ion I. Câmpineanu (1841–1888), politician, mayor of Bucharest and the first head of the National Bank of Romania * :ro:Emanoil Protopopescu-Pake, Emanoil Protopopescu-Pake (1845–1893), law professor, police prefect and politician, mayor of Bucharest * Alexandru Macedonski (1854–1920), poet, writer and literary critic * Barbu Ștefănescu Delavrancea (1858–1918), writer, poet, lawyer and mayor of Bucharest * Nicolae Filipescu (1862–1916), politician, mayor of Bucharest * Gheorghe Marinescu (1863–1938), founder of the Romanian School of Neurology * Elena Văcărescu (1864–1947), writer and twice laureate of the Académie française, French Academy * Dragomir Hurmuzescu (1865–1954), physicist and inventor * Vintilă Brătianu (1867–1930), construction engineer, mayor of Bucharest and Prime Minister of Romania * Nicolae Paulescu (1869–1931), medical doctor, physiologist and the discoverer of insulin * Ion Gheorghe Duca (1879–1933), politician and Prime Minister of Romania * Tudor Arghezi (1880–1967), poet and writer * Traian Lalescu (1882–1929), mathematician * Mateiu Caragiale (1885–1936), poet and prose writer, illegitimate child of Ion Luca Caragiale * Viorica Agarici (1886–1979), nurse and philanthropist, Righteous Among the Nations * George Topîrceanu (1886–1937), poet, short story writer and humourist. * Henri Coandă (1886–1972), aviation pioneer, inventor, the builder of world's first jet powered aircraft (Coandă-1910) and the discoverer of the Coandă effect * Jacob L. Moreno (1889–1974), psychiatrist, leading social scientist, founder of psychodrama and foremost pioneer of group psychotherapy * Edward G. Robinson (1893–1973), actor of stage and screen during Classical Hollywood cinema, Hollywood's Golden Age * Catherine Caradja (1893–1993), aristocrat and philanthropist * Mihail Andricu (1894–1974), composer, violinist, and pianist * Camil Petrescu (1894–1957), writer, poet and philosopher * Marcel Janco (1895–1984), visual artist, architect and art theorist, co-inventor of Dadaism * Clara Haskil (1895–1960), classical pianist * Marthe Bibesco, Marthe, Princess Bibesco (1886–1973), writer and poet * George Călinescu (1899–1965), literary critic * Mircea Eliade (1907–1986), historian of religion, writer and philosopher * Haralamb H. Georgescu (1908–1977), modernist architect * Șerban Țițeica (1908–1985), physicist, the child of Gheorghe Țițeica; head of the Romanian Academy * Vazgen I, Vazken I of Bucharest (1908–1994), Catholicos of All Armenians, National Hero of Armenia * Richard Wurmbrand (1909–2001), Christian minister * Maria Tănase (1913–1963), singer and actress * Corneliu Coposu (1914–1995), politician and communist detainee * Gică Petrescu (1915–2006), singer and composer * Gellu Naum (1915–2001), surrealist writer * Neagu Djuvara (1916–2018), historian, diplomat, law professor, writer and philosopher, nephew of Alexandru Djuvara * Dinu Lipatti (1917–1950), pianist and composer * Angelica Rozeanu (1921–2006), one of the most successful female table tennis players in the history of the sport * Horia Damian (1922–2012), painter and sculptor * Liviu Ciulei (1923–2011), theatre and film director, film writer, actor, educator, and costume and set designer * Dinu C. Giurescu (1927–2018), historian and politician, son of Constantin C. Giurescu * Nicolae Herlea (1927–2014), opera singer, baritone * Draga Olteanu Matei (b. 1933), film and stage actress * Victor Rebengiuc (b. 1933), film and stage actor, activist * Gheorghe Dinică (1934–2009), actor * Mircea Albulescu (1934–2016), film and stage actor, professor, journalist, poet and writer * :ro:Cristian Țopescu, Cristian Țopescu (1937–2018), sports commentator, journalist and politician * Gheorghe Gruia (1940–2015), handball player and twice world champion, named ''Greatest Handball Player of All Time'' by the International Handball Federation (IHF) * Margareta Pâslaru (b. 1943), actress and singer * Cristian Gațu (b. 1945), former handball player, twice winner of the World Championship with Romania and twice winner of the European Champions Cup with Steaua București * Mircea Lucescu (b. 1945), former football player and coach, European Coach of the Year (association football), European Coach of the Year * Ilie Năstase (b. 1946), tennis player and the List of ATP number 1 ranked singles tennis players, first World No. 1, International Tennis Hall of Famer * Florea Dumitrache (1948–2007), football player and twice winner of the Romanian Footballer of the Year (Gazeta Sporturilor), Romanian Footballer of the Year award * Andrei Pleșu (b. 1948), philosopher and essayist * Corneliu Vadim Tudor (1949–2015), poet, writer, journalist and politician * Dudu Georgescu (b. 1950), football player and twice winner of the European Golden Shoe * Anghel Iordănescu (b. 1950), former football player and coach, and winner of the UEFA Champions League, European Cup * Mircea Cărtărescu (b. 1956), writer, poet and literary critic * Michael Cretu, Michael Crețu (b. 1957), singer, songwriter, and producer, founder of Enigma (German band), Enigma * Mircea Geoană (b. 1958), former politician and Secretary General of NATO#Deputy Secretary General, Deputy Secretary General of NATO * Cristian Diaconescu (b. 1959), diplomat * Octavian Morariu (b. 1961), President of Rugby Europe * Maia Morgenstern (b. 1962), film and stage actress * Laura Badea-Cârlescu (b. 1970), fencer, Olympic, World and European champion in foil, Fédération Internationale d'Escrime, International Fencing Hall of Famer * Bogdan Aurescu (b. 1973), lawyer, diplomat and politician * Rukmini Callimachi (b. 1973), ''New York Times'' journalist * Theodor Paleologu (b. 1973), historian, diplomat and politician, son of Alexandru Paleologu * Roxana Mărăcineanu (b. 1975), former swimmer, first French world champion, politician and the Minister of Youth Affairs and Sports (France), Minister of Youth and Sports of France * Ion Oncescu (b. 1978), prolific Arm wrestling, arm wrestler, hall of famer * Alexandra Maria Lara (b. 1978), actress * Ana Maria Popescu (b. 1984), fencer, Olympic, World and European champion, former World No. 1 in épée * Cristina Neagu (b. 1988), handball player, has a record four IHF World Player of the Year awards


International relations

The twin towns and sister cities of Bucharest are: * Paris, France * London, England * Moscow, Russia * Beijing, China * São Paulo, Brazil * Pretoria, South Africa * Hanoi, Vietnam * Manila, Philippines * Ankara, Turkey * Budapest, Hungary * Athens, Greece * Nicosia, Cyprus * Sofia, Bulgaria * Chișinău, Moldova * Tirana, Albania * Damascus, Syria * Amman, Jordan * Hannover, Germany * Montreal, Quebec, Canada * Regina, Saskatchewan, Regina, Canada * Atlanta, Georgia, Atlanta, United States * Detroit, Michigan, Detroit, United States * Jersey City, New Jersey, Jersey City, United States * Athens, Georgia, Athens, United States * Lagos, Nigeria * Partnerships: * Yerevan, Armenia (2013)


See also

* List of buildings in Bucharest


References


Further reading


Modern history of Bucharest
City Hall of Bucharest * Șerban Cantacuzino, ''Două Orașe Distincte''. Revista Secolul XX 4/6 (1997): 11–40 * Ernie Schoffham, Luminița MacHedon, Șerban Cantacuzino, ''Romanian Modernism: The Architecture of Bucharest, 1920–1940''

Romanian Tourist Office * Tatiana Murzin

2005
Romanian Education Portal
Site for the Ministry of Education containing lists of all educational establishments.

on the Museums from Romania web site. * Bucica, Cristina.  , 2000.


External links



{{Authority control Bucharest, Capitals in Europe Cities in Romania Capitals of Romanian counties Localities in Muntenia Market towns in Wallachia Holocaust locations in Romania 1459 establishments in the Ottoman Empire Populated places established in the 1450s 1968 establishments in Romania States and territories established in 1968