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British Jews (often referred to collectively as British Jewry or Anglo-Jewry) are
British citizens British nationality law details the conditions in which a person holds United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegra ...
who identify as
Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is ...

Jewish
. The number of people who identified as Jews in
England and Wales England and Wales () is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom, parts of the United Kingdom. England and Wales forms the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England and follows ...

England and Wales
rose slightly between 2001 and 2011, with the growth being attributed to the higher birth rate of the ''
haredi Haredi Judaism ( he, יהדות חֲרֵדִית ', ; also spelled ''Charedi'' in English; plural ''Haredim'' or ''Charedim'') consists of groups within Orthodox Judaism Orthodox Judaism is the collective term for the traditionalist branche ...

haredi
'' community.


History

The first recorded Jewish community in
Britain Britain usually refers to: * United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United ...

Britain
was brought to
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
in 1070 by King
William the Conqueror William I (c. 1028Bates ''William the Conqueror'' p. 33 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first House of Normandy, Norman List of English monarchs, monarch of Engl ...

William the Conqueror
, who believed that what he assumed to be its commercial skills would make his newly won country more prosperous. Two hundred years later, the Jews were no longer welcome. On 16 March 1190, in the run up to the
Third Crusade The Third Crusade (1189–1192) was an attempt by three European monarchs of Western Christianity Western Christianity is one of two sub-divisions of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, Monotheism, monothei ...
, the Jewish population of York was massacred at the site where Clifford's Tower now stands, and King
Edward I of England Edward I (17/18 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots ( la, Malleus Scotorum), was King of England This list of kings and queens of the begins with , who initially ruled , one of th ...

Edward I of England
passed the
Statute of the Jewry The Statute of the Jewry (''Statutum de Judaismo, 1275'') was a statute issued by Edward I of England in 1275. It placed a number of restrictions on Jews of England, most notably outlawing the practice of usury.Prestwich, Michael. Edward I p 345 ( ...
(''Statutum de Judaismo'') in 1275, restricting the community's activities, most notably outlawing the practice of
usury Usury () is the practice of making unethical or immoral monetary loan In finance Finance is the study of financial institutions, financial markets and how they operate within the financial system. It is concerned with the creation and ...
(charging interest).Prestwich, Michael. Edward I p 345 (1997) Yale University Press. . When, 15 years later, Edward found that many of these provisions were ignored, he expelled the Jews from England. They emigrated to countries such as Poland which protected them by law. A small English community persisted in hiding despite the expulsion. Jews were not banned from
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...
, which until 1707 was an independent kingdom. In 1656,
Oliver Cromwell Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English general and statesman who, first as a subordinate and later as Commander-in-Chief, led armies An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" e ...

Oliver Cromwell
made it clear that the ban on Jewish settlement in England and Wales would no longer be enforced, although when Rabbi Manasseh Ben Israel brought a petition to allow Jews to return, the majority of the Protectorate Government turned it down. Gradually Jews eased back into England, first visiting for trade, then staying longer periods, and finally bringing their families. In mid-nineteenth century Ireland, then ruled by the British,
Daniel O'Connell Daniel O'Connell ( ga, Dónall Ó Conaill; 6 August 1775 – 15 May 1847), hailed in his time as The Liberator, was the acknowledged political leader of Ireland's Roman Catholic majority in the first half of the 19th century. His mobilisa ...

Daniel O'Connell
, known as "The Liberator" for his work on
Catholic Emancipation #REDIRECT Catholic emancipation Catholic emancipation or Catholic relief was a process in the kingdoms of Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of ...
, worked successfully for the repeal of the "De Judaismo" law, which prescribed a special
yellow badge Yellow badges (or yellow patches), also referred to as Jewish badges (german: Judenstern, lit=Jew's star), are badges that Jews were ordered to wear at various times during the Middle Ages by some caliphates, at various times during the Medieval ...
for Jews.
Benjamin Disraeli Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, (21 December 1804 – 19 April 1881), was twice Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government ...

Benjamin Disraeli
(1804–1881), of Jewish birth although he joined the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
, served in government for three decades, twice as
prime minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
. The oldest Jewish community in Britain is the Spanish and Portuguese Jewish community, which traces back to the 1630s, and was unofficially legitimised in 1656, the date counted by the Jewish community as the re-admittance of the Jews to England (which at the time included Wales). A trickle of Ashkenazi immigration primarily from German countries continued from the late 17th century to the early 19th century, before a second wave of Ashkenazi immigration, a large wave of
Ashkenazi Ashkenazi Jews ( are a Jews, Jewish Jewish diaspora, diaspora population who Coalescent theory, coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium. The traditional diaspora language of Ashkenazi Jews is Yiddish (a Ger ...
Jewish immigration fleeing persecution in the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
, such as
pogroms A pogrom is a violent riot A riot () is a form of civil disorder Civil disorder, also known as civil disturbance, civil unrest, or social unrest is an activity arising from a mass act of civil disobedience (such as a demonstration, riot, ...
and the
May Laws Temporary regulations regarding the Jews (also known as May Laws) were proposed by the minister of internal affairs Nikolay Pavlovich Ignatyev Count Nikolay Pavlovich Ignatyev (historical spelling: ''Nicolai Ignatieff''; russian: Никола́ ...
between 1880 and the imposition of tighter immigration restrictions in 1905. Many German and Polish Jews seeking to escape the
Nazi Nazism ( ), officially National Socialism (german: Nationalsozialismus, ), is the ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about th ...

Nazi
Holocaust The Holocaust, also known as the Shoah, was the genocide Genocide is the intentional action to destroy a people—usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious Religion is a social system, social-cultural syst ...
arrived in Britain before and after the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. Around 80-90% of British Jews today are Ashkenazi. Following decolonisation, the late twentieth century saw
Yemeni Jews Yemenite Jews or Yemeni Jews or Teimanim (from ''Yehudei Teman''; ar, اليهود اليمنيون) are those Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are members of an ethnoreligious g ...
,
Iraqi Jews The history of the Jews in Iraq ( he, יְהוּדִים בָּבְלִים, ', ; ar, اليهود العراقيون, ) is documented from the time of the Babylonian captivity c. 586 BC. Iraqi Jews constitute one of the world's oldest and mos ...
and
Baghdadi Jews The former communities of Jewish migrants and their descendants from Baghdad and elsewhere in the Middle East are traditionally called Baghdadi Jews or Indo-Iraqi Jews. They settled primarily in the ports and along the trade routes around the In ...
settle in the United Kingdom. A multicultural community, in 2006, British Jews celebrated the 350th anniversary of the resettlement in England.


Demographics


Population size

The Jewish population of England was 500,000 at the beginning of World War II. According to the
2011 census2011 censuses were conducted in the following countries: * Australia: Census in Australia * Austria: Demographics of Austria * Bangladesh: 2011 Bangladesh Census * Bulgaria: Demographics of Bulgaria * Canada: Canada 2011 Census * Croatia: 2011 Censu ...
, 263,346 people answered "Jewish" to the voluntary question on religion, compared with 259,927 in the previous count of 2001. However, this final figure is considered an undercount. Demographers David Graham and Stanley Waterman give several reasons: the underenumeration for censuses in general; the question did not record secular Jews; the voluntary nature of the question; suspicion by Jews of such questions; and the high non-response rate for large numbers of Haredi Jews. By comparison, the
Jewish Virtual Library The Jewish Virtual Library (JVL, formerly known as JSOURCE) is an online encyclopedia An online encyclopedia, also called an Internet encyclopedia, or a digital encyclopedia, is an encyclopedia An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia (British ...
estimated a Jewish population of 291,000 ( not limited to adherents of Judaism) in 2012, making Britain's Jewish community the fifth largest in the world."The Jewish Population of the World (2010)"
Jewish Virtual Library. Accessed 1 April 2011.
This equates to 0.43% of the population of the United Kingdom. The 2001 Census included a (voluntary) religion question ("What is your religion?") for the first time in its history; 266,740 people listed their religion as "Jewish". However, the subject of
who is a Jew "Who is a Jew?" ( he, מיהו יהודי ) is a basic question about Jewish identity up Ashkenazi Jews praying in the synagogue on Yom Kippur, showing traditional Jewish clothing and practice, including tallit, the Torah, and head coverings ...
is complex, and the religion question did not record people who may be Jewish through other means, such as ethnically and culturally. Of people who chose Jewish as their religion, 97% put White as their ethnic group; however, a report by the
Institute for Jewish Policy Research The Institute for Jewish Policy Research (JPR), founded as the Institute of Jewish Affairs, is a London-based research institute and think tank. It specializes in contemporary Jewish affairs. JPR also runs a public education programme, and has host ...
(JPR) suggests that, although there was an apparent option to write down "Jewish" for this question, it did not occur to many, because of "skin colour" and nationality bias; and that if "Jewish" was an explicit option, the results—only 2594 respondents were Jewish solely by ethnicity—would have been different. The religion question appeared in the
2011 Census2011 censuses were conducted in the following countries: * Australia: Census in Australia * Austria: Demographics of Austria * Bangladesh: 2011 Bangladesh Census * Bulgaria: Demographics of Bulgaria * Canada: Canada 2011 Census * Croatia: 2011 Censu ...
, but there was still no explicit option for "Jewish" in the ethnic-group question. The Board of Deputies had encouraged all Jews to indicate they were Jewish, either through the religion question or the ethnicity one. From 1990 to 2006, the Jewish population showed a decrease from 340,000 Jews to 270,000. According to the 1996 Jewish Policy Review, nearly half married people who did not share their faith at that time. From 2005 to 2008, the Jewish population increased from 275,000 to 280,000, attributed largely to the high birth rates of .Pigott, Robert
"Jewish population on the increase"
BBC News BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a public service broadcaster Public broadcasting involves radio Radio is the technology of signali ...

BBC News
. 21 May 2008. Accessed 1 April 2011.
Research by the
University of Manchester , mottoeng = Knowledge, Wisdom, Humanity , established = 2004 – University of Manchester Predecessor institutions: 1956 – UMIST , mottoeng = By Knowledge and Work , established = 1824 , closed = 2004 (merge ...

University of Manchester
in 2007 showed that 75% of British Jewish births were to the Haredi community."Majority of Jews will be Ultra-Orthodox by 2050"
University of Manchester , mottoeng = Knowledge, Wisdom, Humanity , established = 2004 – University of Manchester Predecessor institutions: 1956 – UMIST , mottoeng = By Knowledge and Work , established = 1824 , closed = 2004 (merge ...

University of Manchester
. 23 July 2007. Accessed 1 April 2011.
Ultra-Orthodox women have an average of 6.9 children, and secular Jewish women 1.65. In 2015, the
Institute for Jewish Policy Research The Institute for Jewish Policy Research (JPR), founded as the Institute of Jewish Affairs, is a London-based research institute and think tank. It specializes in contemporary Jewish affairs. JPR also runs a public education programme, and has host ...
reported that in England the orthodox community was growing by nearly 5% per year, while the non-haredi community was decreasing by 0.3% per year. It has been also documented that in terms of births, between 2007 and 2015, the estimated number of Strictly Orthodox births per annum increased by 35%, rising from 1,431 to 1,932. While, the estimated number of ‘Mainstream’ (non-Strictly Orthodox) births per annum increased to a lesser extent over the same period, going from 1,844 to 1,889 (+2.4%).


Migration

The great majority (83.2%) of Jews in England and Wales were born in the UK. In 2015, about 6% of Jews in England held an Israeli passport. In 2019, the
Office of National Statistics The Office for National Statistics (ONS; cy, Swyddfa Ystadegau Gwladol) is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department which reports directly to the Parliament of the United Kingdom, UK Parliament. Overv ...
estimated that 21,000 people resident in the UK were born in Israel, up from 11,890 in 2001. Of the 21,000, 8,000 had Israeli nationality. In 2013, it was reported that antisemitic attacks in France led to an exodus of
French Jews The history of the Jews in France deals with Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: ...
to the UK. This has resulted in some synagogues establishing French-language Shabbat services. In 2018, 534 Britons emigrated to Israel, representing the third consecutive annual decline. The figure was one third down on 2015 and was the lowest for five years.


Geographic distribution

According to the 2011 census, British Jewry is overwhelmingly English, with only around 5,900 Jews in Scotland, 2,100 in Wales, and fewer than 200 in Northern Ireland. There are also around 100 in the Channel Islands, primarily in
Jersey Jersey ( , ; nrf, label=Jèrriais, Jèrri ), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (french: Bailliage de Jersey, links=no; Jèrriais: ''Bailliage dé Jèrri''), is an island and self-governing Crown dependencies, Crown Dependency near the coa ...

Jersey
. According to some sources, there are around 200 Jews on the Isle of Man, although unlike Jersey and Northern Ireland, there is no synagogue. The majority of the Jews in England and the UK live in and around London, with almost 160,000 Jews in London alone, and a further 21,000 just in Hertfordshire, mostly in Southwestern Hertfordshire adjacent to Jewish concentrated areas in
Barnet Barnet may refer to: People *Barnet (surname) *Barnet (given name) Places United Kingdom *Chipping Barnet or High Barnet, commonly known as Barnet, one of three focal towns of the borough below. *East Barnet, a district of the borough below; anci ...
and
Harrow Harrow may refer to: Places * Harrow, Victoria, Australia * Harrow, Ontario, Canada * The Harrow, County Wexford, a village in Ireland * London Borough of Harrow, England, UK ** Harrow, London, a town ** Harrow (UK Parliament constituency) ** Harr ...
, as well as some Jews in south-west
Essex Essex () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Ro ...

Essex
. Barnet and
Hertsmere Hertsmere is a local government district The districts of England (also known as local authority districts or local government districts to distinguish from unofficial city districts) are a level of subnational division of England used for th ...
councils in the London borders polled as the first and second most Jewish local authorities in England, with Jews composing one in five and nine residents respectively. The next most significant population is in Greater Manchester, a community of slightly more than 25,000, primarily in Bury (10,360), Salford (7,920), Manchester proper (2,725) and Trafford (2,490). There are also significant communities in Leeds (6,760), Gateshead (3,000), Brighton (2,730), Liverpool (2,330), Birmingham (2,150) and
Southend Southend-on-Sea (), commonly referred to simply as Southend (), is a large coastal town and unitary authority area with borough status Borough status is granted by royal charter to local government districts in England, Wales and Northern ...
(2,080). Towns and villages in Hertfordshire with large absolute populations include
Bushey Bushey is a town in the Hertsmere borough of Hertfordshire in the East of England. It has a population of over 25,000 inhabitants. Bushey Heath is a large neighbourhood south east of Bushey on the boundary with the London Borough of Harrow r ...
(4,500),
Borehamwood Borehamwood () (also Boreham Wood) is a town in southern Hertfordshire Hertfordshire (; often abbreviated Herts) is one of the home counties in southern England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to ...
(3,900), and
Radlett Radlett is an affluent village in Hertfordshire Hertfordshire (; often abbreviated Herts) is one of the home counties in southern England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It s ...
(2,300).
Finchley and Golders Green Finchley and Golders Green is a constituency created in 1997 represented in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, UK Parliament. The current MP is Mike Freer of the Conservative Part ...
is the political constituency with the largest Jewish population in the UK. A very concentrated Orthodox community exists in the district of
Stamford Hill Stamford Hill is an area in Inner London, England, about 5.5 miles north-east of Charing Cross. The neighbourhood is a sub-district of Hackney, London, Hackney, the major component of the London Borough of Hackney, and is known for its Hasidic J ...

Stamford Hill
in Hackney, London. It is generally believed that Jews are under-counted in censuses due to a disinclination on the parts of some community members to reveal their ethnoreligious background and practice, so these numbers may be low estimates. Several notable communities have dwindled in recent years, such as
Hull Hull may refer to: Structures * Chassis, of an armored fighting vehicle * Fuselage, of an aircraft * Hull (botany), the outer covering of seeds * Hull (watercraft), the body or frame of a ship * Submarine hull Mathematics * Affine hull, in affin ...
.


Age profile

The British Jewish population has an older profile than the general population. In England and Wales, the median age of male Jews is 41.2, while the figure for all males is 36.1; Jewish females have a median age of 44.3, while the figure for all females is 38.1. About 24% of the community are over the age of 65 (compared to 16% of the general population of England and Wales). In the 2001 census, Jews were the only group in which the number of persons in the 75-plus cohorts outnumbered those in the 65–74 cohort.


Education

About 60% of school-age Jewish children attend Jewish schools.
Jewish day school A Jewish day school is a modern Jewish educational institution that is designed to provide children of Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation orig ...
s and
yeshiva A yeshiva (; he, ישיבה, , sitting; pl. , or ) is a Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards de ...
s are found throughout the country. Jewish cultural studies and Hebrew language instruction are commonly offered at synagogues in the form of supplementary Hebrew schools or Sunday schools. The majority of Jewish schools in Britain are funded by the government. Jewish educational centres are plentiful, large-scale projects. One of the country's most famous Jewish schools is the state-funded JFS in London which opened in 1732 and has about 2100 students. It is heavily over-subscribed and applies strict rules on admissions, which led to a discrimination court case, '' R (E) v Governing Body of JFS'', in 2009. In 2011, another large state-funded school opened in North London named JCoSS, the first cross-denomination Jewish secondary school in the UK. The
Union of Jewish Students The Union of Jewish Students of the United Kingdom and Ireland (UJS) represents Jewish students in the United Kingdom and Ireland. It is a member of the World Union of Jewish Students (WUJS) and the European Union of Jewish Students (EUJS) and a ...
is an umbrella organisation that represents Jewish students at university. In 2011 there were over 50 Jewish Societies. British Jews generally have high levels of educational achievement. Compared to the general population, they are 40% less likely to have no qualifications, and 80% more likely to have "higher-level" qualifications. With the exception of under-25s, younger Jews tend to be better educated than older ones. However, dozens of the all-day educational establishments in the Haredi community of
Stamford Hill Stamford Hill is an area in Inner London, England, about 5.5 miles north-east of Charing Cross. The neighbourhood is a sub-district of Hackney, London, Hackney, the major component of the London Borough of Hackney, and is known for its Hasidic J ...

Stamford Hill
, which are accused of neglecting secular skills such as English and maths, claim not to be schools under the meaning of the Department for Education. The annual
Limmud Limmud is a British-Jewish educational charity which, in the UK, produces a large annual winter festival and several other regional events throughout the year on the theme of Jewish learning. Limmud is not affiliated to any strand of Judaism, ...
festival is a high-profile educational event of the British Jewish community, attracting a wide range of international presenters.


Employment and income

The 2001 UK Census showed that 30.5% of economically active Jews were self-employed, compared to a figure of 14.2% for the general population. Jews aged 16–24 were less likely to be economically active than their counterparts in the general population; 89.2% of these were students. In a 2010 study, average income per working adult was £15.44 an hour. Median income and wealth were significantly higher than other religious groups. In a 2015 study, poverty has risen the fastest per generation than other religious groups.


Marriage

In 2016, the
Institute for Jewish Policy Research The Institute for Jewish Policy Research (JPR), founded as the Institute of Jewish Affairs, is a London-based research institute and think tank. It specializes in contemporary Jewish affairs. JPR also runs a public education programme, and has host ...
reported that the intermarriage rate for the Jewish community in the UK was 26%. This was less than half of the US rate of 58% and showed little change from the rate in the early 1980s of 23%, though more than twice the 11% level of the end of the 1960s. Around one third of the children of mixed marriages are brought up in the Jewish faith.


Religion

There are around 454 synagogues in the country, and it is estimated that 56.3% of all households across the UK with at least one Jew living within them held
synagogue A synagogue, ', 'house of assembly', or ', "house of prayer"; Yiddish Yiddish (, or , ''yidish'' or ''idish'', , ; , ''Yidish-Taytsh'', ) is a West Germanic The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches ...

synagogue
membership in 2016. The percentage of households adhering to specific denominations is as follows: *
Orthodox Orthodox, Orthodoxy, or Orthodoxism may refer to: Religion * Orthodoxy, adherence to accepted norms, more specifically adherence to creeds, especially within Christianity and Judaism, but also less commonly in non-Abrahamic religions like Neo-paga ...
("consisting of the
United Synagogue The United Synagogue (US) is a union of United Kingdom, British Orthodox Jewish synagogues, representing the central Orthodox movement in Judaism. With 62 congregations (including 7 affiliates and 1 associate, ), comprising 40,000 members, it ...
, the
Federation of SynagoguesThe Federation of Synagogues is a British Jewish organisation with headquarters in Hendon, London. It comprises a network of 19 constituent and seven affiliated communities. As well as looking after its member synagogues , the Federation has a Beth ...
and independent Orthodox synagogues") – 42.8% * ("synagogues aligned with the
Union of Orthodox Hebrew Congregations The Union of Orthodox Hebrew Congregations is an umbrella organisation of Haredi Judaism, Haredi Jewish communities in London, and has an estimated membership of over 6,000. It was founded in 1926, with the stated mission "to protect traditional J ...
and others of a similar ethos") – 23.5% *
Reform Reform ( lat, reformo) means the improvement or amendment of what is wrong, corrupt, unsatisfactory, etc. The use of the word in this way emerges in the late 18th century and is believed to originate from Christopher Wyvill's Association movement ...
(
Movement for Reform Judaism Reform Judaism (formally the Movement for Reform Judaism and known as Reform Synagogues of Great Britain until 2005) is one of the two World Union for Progressive Judaism The World Union for Progressive Judaism (WUPJ) is the international ...
and Westminster Synagogue and Chaim V'Tikvah and Hastings and District Jewish Society) – 19.3% *
Liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberalism by country *an adherent of a Liberal Party Arts, entertainment and media *''El Liberal'', a Spanish newspaper published betw ...
(Liberal Judaism and Belsize Square Synagogue) – 8.2% * Masorti ( Assembly of Masorti Synagogues) – 3.3% *
Sephardi Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews, ''Sephardim'',, Modern Hebrew: ''Sefaraddim'', Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm, also , ''Ye'hude Sepharad'', lit. "The Jews of Spain", es, Judíos sefardíes (or ), pt, Judeus sefarditas or Hispanic Jew ...
– 2.9% Those in the United Kingdom who consider themselves Jews identify as follows: * 34% Secular * 18% Ultra Orthodox * 14% Modern Orthodox * 14% Reform * 10% Traditional,but not very religious * 6% Liberal * 2% Conservative * 2% Sephardi The
Stanmore and Canons Park Synagogue Stanmore and Canons Park Synagogue is situated in Stanmore in the London Borough of Harrow, England, and had the largest community of any single Orthodox synagogue in Europe as of 2012. It is a constituent of the United Synagogue (mainstream Or ...
in the
London Borough of Harrow The London Borough of Harrow is a London borough The London boroughs are the 32 local authority districts that make up the ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieut ...
said in 2015 that it had the largest membership of any single Orthodox synagogue in Europe.


Media

There are a number of
Jewish newspaper A Jewish newspaper is a newspaper which focuses on topics of special interest to Jews, although Jewish newspapers also include articles on topics of a more general interest as well. Political orientations and religious orientations cover a wide ra ...
s, magazines and other media published in Britain on a national or regional level. The most well known is ''
The Jewish Chronicle ''The Jewish Chronicle'' (''The JC'') is a London-based Jewish weekly newspaper. Founded in 1841, it is the oldest continuously published Jewish newspaper in the world. Its editor (since December 2021) is Jake Wallis Simons. The newspaper is p ...
'', founded in 1841 and the world's oldest continuously published Jewish newspaper. Other publications include the ''
Jewish News The ''Jewish News'' is a free weekly newspaper A weekly newspaper is a general-news or current affairsCurrent affairs may refer to: Media * Current Affairs (magazine), ''Current Affairs'' (magazine), a bimonthly magazine of culture and po ...
'', ''
Jewish Telegraph The ''Jewish Telegraph'' is a British Jew Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organiz ...
'', ''
Hamodia ''Hamodia'' ( he, המודיע – "''the Informer''") is a Hebrew language, Hebrew-language daily newspaper published in Jerusalem. A daily English language, English-language edition is also published in the United States, and weekly English-lang ...

Hamodia
'', the '' Jewish Tribune'' and ''
Jewish Renaissance ''Jewish Renaissance'' is a quarterly cultural magazine, founded in October 2001, covering Jewish culture, Jewish art, arts and communities in United Kingdom, Britain and beyond. It is edited by Rebecca Taylor, a former News Editor at ''Time O ...
''. In April 2020, ''The Jewish Chronicle'' and the ''Jewish News'', which had announced plans to merge in February and later announced plans for a joint liquidation, continued as separate entities after the former was acquired by a consortium.


Politics

Before the
2015 General Election This national electoral calendar for 2015 lists the national/Federation, federal direct elections that were held in 2015 in all List of sovereign states, sovereign states and their Dependent territory, dependent territories. By-elections are e ...
, 69% of British Jews surveyed were planning to vote for the
Conservative Party Conservative Party may refer to: Europe Current *Croatian Conservative Party, *Conservative Party (Czech Republic) *Conservative People's Party (Denmark) *Conservative Party of Georgia *Conservative Party (Norway) *Conservative Party (UK) Histor ...

Conservative Party
, while 22% would vote for the
Labour Party Labour Party or Labor Party may refer to: Angola *MPLA, known for some years as "Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola – Labour Party" Antigua and Barbuda *Antigua and Barbuda Labour Party Argentina *Labour Party (Argentina) Armenia ...
. A May 2016 poll of British Jews showed 77% would vote Conservative, 13.4% Labour, and 7.3% Liberal Democrat. An October 2019 poll of British Jews showed 64% would vote Conservative, 24% Liberal Democrat, and only 6% Labour. Jews are typically seen as predominantly middle-class, though historically many Jews lived in working-class communities of London. According to polling in 2015, politicians' attitudes towards
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...

Israel
influence the vote of three out of four British Jews. In London, most of the top constituencies with the largest Jewish populations voted Conservative in the
2010 general election2010 general election may refer to: * 2010 Anguillan general election * 2010 Australian federal election * 2010 Bougainvillean general election * 2010 Brazilian general election * 2010 Burmese general election * 2010 Cook Islands general election * ...
- these are namely,
Finchley and Golders Green Finchley and Golders Green is a constituency created in 1997 represented in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, UK Parliament. The current MP is Mike Freer of the Conservative Part ...
,
Hendon Hendon is an urban area in the Borough of Barnet, North-West London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on the River Thames in sout ...
,
Harrow East Harrow East is a constituency An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative district, voting district, constituency, riding, ward, division, (election) precinct, electoral area, circumscription, or electorate, is ...
,
Chipping Barnet Chipping Barnet or High Barnet is a suburban market town in north London, forming part of the London Borough of Barnet, England. It is a suburban development built around a 12th-century settlement, and is located north-northwest of Charing Cr ...
, Ilford North, and
Hertsmere Hertsmere is a local government district The districts of England (also known as local authority districts or local government districts to distinguish from unofficial city districts) are a level of subnational division of England used for th ...
in Hertfordshire. The exceptions were Hackney North and Stoke Newington and Hampstead and Kilburn, which both voted Labour in the election. Outside the region, large Jewish constituencies voted for Labour, namely Bury South and Blackley and Broughton. Some MPs, such as
Robert Jenrick Robert Edward Jenrick (born 9 January 1982) is a British politician who served as Secretary of State for Housing, Communities and Local Government from 2019 to 2021. A member of the Conservative Party (UK), Conservative Party, he has been Membe ...

Robert Jenrick
and
Keir Starmer Sir Keir Rodney Starmer (born 2 September 1962) is a British politician and former lawyer who has served as Leader of the Labour PartyThe title Leader of the Labour Party may refer to: *Leader of the Labour Party (Ireland) *Leader of the Labo ...
, while not Jewish themselves, are married to Jews and have Jewish children. In May 2018, the community was described by one of its most prominent figures, Rabbi
Laura Janner-Klausner Laura Naomi Janner-Klausner ( he, לוֹרָה ג׳אָנֶר-קלְוֹזנֶר, born 1 August 1963) is a British rabbi who served as the Senior Rabbi to Movement for Reform Judaism, Reform Judaism. Janner-Klausner grew up in London before study ...

Laura Janner-Klausner
, as being “on the path to self-destruction” due to divisions over how to respond to conflict in Israel.


Antisemitism

The earliest Jewish settlement was recorded in 1070, soon after the
Norman Conquest The Norman Conquest (or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army made up of thousands of Normans, Duchy of Brittany, Bretons, County of Flanders, Flemish, and men from other Kingdom of France, French ...
. Jews living in the United Kingdom at this time experienced religious discrimination and it is thought that the blood libel which accused Jews of ritual murder originated in Northern England, leading to
massacres A massacre is the killing of multiple individuals and is usually considered to be moral judgement, morally unacceptable, especially when perpetrated by a group of political faction, political actors against defenseless victims. The word is a l ...
and increasing discrimination. /sup> The Jewish presence continued until
King Edward I Edward I (17/18 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots ( la, Malleus Scotorum), was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England ...

King Edward I
's
Edict of Expulsion The Edict of Expulsion was a royal decree issued by King Edward I of England Edward I (17/18 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots ( la, Malleus Scotorum), was King of England from 127 ...
in 1290. /sup> Jews were readmitted to the United Kingdom by
Oliver Cromwell Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English general and statesman who, first as a subordinate and later as Commander-in-Chief, led armies An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" e ...

Oliver Cromwell
in 1655, though it is believed that
crypto-Jews Crypto-Judaism is the secret adherence to Judaism while publicly professing to be of another faith; practitioners are referred to as "crypto-Jews" (origin from Greek ''kryptos – κρυπτός'', 'hidden'). The term is especially applied histo ...
lived in England during the expulsion. /sup> Jews were regularly subjected to discrimination and humiliation which waxed and waned over the centuries, gradually declining. /sup> In the late 19th and early 20th century, the number of Jews in Britain greatly increased due to the exodus from
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
, which resulted in a large community forming in the
East End of London The East End of London, often referred to within the London area simply as the East End, is the historic core of wider East London, east of the Roman and medieval walls of the City of London and north of the River Thames. It does not have uni ...
. /sup> Popular sentiment against immigration was used by the
British Union of Fascists The British Union of Fascists (BUF) was a British fascist political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold s ...
to incite hatred against Jews, leading to the
Battle of Cable Street The Battle of Cable Street was an event that took place in Cable Street Cable Street is a road in the East End of London The East End of London, often referred to within the London area simply as the East End, is the historic cor ...
in 1936, when the fascists were forced to abandon their march through an area with a large Jewish population when the police clearing the way were unable to remove barricades defended by trade unionists, left wing groups and residents. /sup> In the aftermath of the
Holocaust The Holocaust, also known as the Shoah, was the genocide Genocide is the intentional action to destroy a people—usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious Religion is a social system, social-cultural syst ...

Holocaust
, undisguised racial hatred of
Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), ...

Jews
became unacceptable in
British society English society comprises the group behaviour Group dynamics is a system of behaviors and psychological processes occurring within a social group In the social sciences, a social group can be defined as two or more people who interact with ...
. Outbursts of antisemitism emanating from far right groups continued, however, leading to the formation of the
43 Group The 43 Group was an English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually becom ...
led by Jewish ex-servicemen which broke up fascist meetings from 1945 to early 1950. Records of antisemitic incidents have been compiled since 1984, although changing reporting practices and levels of reporting make comparison over time difficult. The
Community Security Trust The Community Security Trust (CST) is a British charity whose purpose is to provide safety, security, and advice to the Jewish community in the UK. It provides advice, training, representation and research. Founding and mission The Community Sec ...
(CST) was formed in 1994 to " rotectBritish Jews from antisemitism and related threats". It works in conjunction with the police and other authorities to protect Jewish schools, Synagogues, and other community institutions.


Communal institutions

British Jewish communal organisations include: * Anglo-Jewish Association * Association of Jewish Refugees * Board of Deputies of British Jews, Board of Deputies (1760) * CCJO René Cassin *
Community Security Trust The Community Security Trust (CST) is a British charity whose purpose is to provide safety, security, and advice to the Jewish community in the UK. It provides advice, training, representation and research. Founding and mission The Community Sec ...
*
Institute for Jewish Policy Research The Institute for Jewish Policy Research (JPR), founded as the Institute of Jewish Affairs, is a London-based research institute and think tank. It specializes in contemporary Jewish affairs. JPR also runs a public education programme, and has host ...
* Jewish Board of Guardians (United Kingdom), Jewish Board of Guardians * Jewish Book Week, Jewish Book Council * Jewish Care * Jewish Council for Racial Equality * Jewish Genealogical Society of Great Britain * Jewish Leadership Council * JW3 – a London venue * Kisharon * League of British Jews * League of Jewish Women * Leo Baeck Institute London * Liberal Judaism (United Kingdom), Liberal Judaism *
Limmud Limmud is a British-Jewish educational charity which, in the UK, produces a large annual winter festival and several other regional events throughout the year on the theme of Jewish learning. Limmud is not affiliated to any strand of Judaism, ...
* London Jewish Forum * London Jewish Cultural Centre * Maccabaeans * Mitzvah Day International *
Movement for Reform Judaism Reform Judaism (formally the Movement for Reform Judaism and known as Reform Synagogues of Great Britain until 2005) is one of the two World Union for Progressive Judaism The World Union for Progressive Judaism (WUPJ) is the international ...
* Norwood (charity), Norwood * Scottish Council of Jewish Communities * Tzelem * UCL Institute of Jewish Studies * UK Jewish Film Festival *
Union of Jewish Students The Union of Jewish Students of the United Kingdom and Ireland (UJS) represents Jewish students in the United Kingdom and Ireland. It is a member of the World Union of Jewish Students (WUJS) and the European Union of Jewish Students (EUJS) and a ...
* United Restitution Organization *
United Synagogue The United Synagogue (US) is a union of United Kingdom, British Orthodox Jewish synagogues, representing the central Orthodox movement in Judaism. With 62 congregations (including 7 affiliates and 1 associate, ), comprising 40,000 members, it ...
* Union of Jewish Women * World Jewish Relief


See also

* List of British Jews * List of Jewish communities in the United Kingdom * History of the Jews in England * History of the Jews in Scotland * History of the Jews in Ireland * History of the Jews in the Isle of Man * Emancipation of the Jews in the United Kingdom


Notes and references


Notes


References


Sources

*  . All-Party Parliamentary Group against Antisemitism. September 2006. Accessed 1 April 2011. 24 November 2010. Se
inquiry website
*  . Jewish Leadership Council. 2008. Accessed 4 April 2011. * , 4.93 MiB. Se
webpage
* , 2.68 MiB. Se
webpage
* Casale Mashiah, Donatella; Boyd, Jonathan (14 July 2017)
Synagogue membership in the United Kingdom in 2016Institute for Jewish Research


Further reading


''Anti-Semitism Worldwide 1999/2000''
Stephen Roth Institute. Distributed by the University of Nebraska Press. pp. 125–135. * David Cesarani, Cesarani, David (1994)
''The Jewish Chronicle and Anglo-Jewry, 1841–1991''
Cambridge University Press. * David Cesarani, Cesarani, David. "British Jews". Liedtke, Rainer; Wendehorst, Stephan. (eds) (1999)
''The Emancipation of Catholics, Jews and Protestants: Minorities and the Nation State in Nineteenth-Century Europe''
Manchester University Press. pp. 33–55. * Endelman, Todd M. (2002)
''The Jews of Britain, 1656 to 2000''
University of California Press. * Spector, Sheila A. (ed) (2002)
''British Romanticism and the Jews: History, Culture, Literature''
Palgrave Macmillan. * Valins, Oliver; Kosmin, Barry; Goldberg, Jacqueline
"The future of Jewish schooling in the United Kingdom"
Institute for Jewish Policy Research The Institute for Jewish Policy Research (JPR), founded as the Institute of Jewish Affairs, is a London-based research institute and think tank. It specializes in contemporary Jewish affairs. JPR also runs a public education programme, and has host ...
. 31 December 2002. Accessed 4 April 2011. * London, Louise (2003)
''Whitehall and the Jews, 1933–1948: British Immigration Policy, Jewish Refugees and the Holocaust''
Cambridge University Press. * Schreiber, Mordecai; Schiff, Alvin I.; Klenicki, Leon. (2003)
''The Shengold Jewish Encyclopedia''
(3rd edition). Schreiber Publishing. pp. 79–80. * Wynne-Jones, Jonathan; additional reporting by Jeffay, Nathan
"Is this the last generation of British Jews?"
''The Daily Telegraph''. 26 November 2006. Accessed 1 April 2011. * Shindler, Colin. "The Reflection of Israel Within British Jewry". Ben-Moshe, Danny; Segev, Zohar (eds) (2007)
''Israel, the Diaspora, and Jewish Identity''
Sussex Academic Press. pp. 227–234. * Butt, Riazat
"Faith in numbers"
''The Guardian''. 20 November 2007. Accessed 4 April 2011. * Lawless, Jill
"London's Jewish Museum reopens after major facelift"
Associated Press via ''USA Today''. 17 March 2010. Accessed 1 April 2011. * Graham, David; Boyd, Jonathan.  .
Institute for Jewish Policy Research The Institute for Jewish Policy Research (JPR), founded as the Institute of Jewish Affairs, is a London-based research institute and think tank. It specializes in contemporary Jewish affairs. JPR also runs a public education programme, and has host ...
. 15 July 2010. Accessed 4 April 2011. 22 July 2011. Se
webpage
* Brown, Mick

''The Daily Telegraph''. 25 February 2011. Accessed 1 April 2011.
"Publications on British Jews from the Berman Jewish Policy Archive @ NYU Wagner"


External links


Anglo-Jewish Archives
University of Southampton {{AsiansinUK Ethnic groups in the United Kingdom British people of Jewish descent