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The Bosporus () or Bosphorus (;The spelling ''Bosporus'' is listed first or exclusively in all major British and American dictionaries (e.g
Oxford Online DictionariesCollinsLongman
Merriam-Webster

and Random House) as well as the ''
Encyclopædia Britannica The (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia") is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia which is now published exclusively as an online encyclopedia, online encyclopaedia. It was formerly published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., ...
'' and th
''Columbia Encyclopedia''
The ''American Heritage Dictionary''s online version has only this spelling and its search function does not even find anything for the spelling ''Bosphorus''. The ''Columbia Encyclopedia'' specifies that the pronunciation of the alternative spelling ''ph'' is also /p/, but dictionaries also list the pronunciation /f/.
grc, Βόσπορος ), also known as the Strait of Istanbul ( tr, İstanbul Boğazı, colloquially ''Boğaz''), is a narrow, natural
strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrowing, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. The surface water generally flows at the same elevation on both sides and through the strait in either direction. Most commonly i ...

strait
and an internationally significant waterway located in northwestern
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
. It forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, and divides Turkey by separating
Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region ...
from
Thrace Thrace (; el, Θράκη, Thráki; bg, Тракия, Trakiya; tr, Trakya) or Thrake is a geographical and historical region in Southeast Europe, now split among Bulgaria, Greece, and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to th ...
. It is the world's narrowest strait used for international navigation. The Bosporus connects the
Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ბათუმი ) is the second largest city of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country locat ...

Black Sea
with the
Sea of Marmara
Sea of Marmara
, and, by extension via the
Dardanelles satellite in September 2006. The body of water on the left is the Aegean Sea, while the one on the upper right is the Sea of Marmara. The Dardanelles is the tapered waterway running diagonally between the two seas, from the northeast to the ...
, the
Aegean Aegean may refer to: *Aegean Sea *Aegean Islands *Aegean Region (geographical), Turkey *Aegean Region (statistical), Turkey *Aegean civilizations *Aegean languages, a group of ancient languages and proposed language family *Aegean Sea (theme), a n ...

Aegean
and
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...
seas, and by the
Kerch Strait The Kerch Strait (russian: link=no, Керченский пролив, uk, Керченська протока, crh, Keriç boğazı, ady, Хы ТӀуалэ) is a strait connecting the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, separating the Kerch P ...
, the
sea of Azov The Sea of Azov ( la, Palus Maeotis ; gr, Μαιῶτις λίμνη or Propontis or now la, mare Asoviense; russian: Азовское море, Azovskoye more; uk, Азовське море, Озівське море, Azovske more, Ozivske ...

sea of Azov
. Most of the shores of the strait, except for those in the north, are heavily settled, straddled by the city of
Istanbul ) , postal_code_type = Postal code A postal code (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a postcode, post code, PIN or ZIP Code) is a series of letters or digits or both, sometimes ...

Istanbul
's
metropolitan Metropolitan may refer to: * Metropolitan area, a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories * Metropolitan borough, a form of local government district in England * Metropolitan county, a type ...

metropolitan
population of 17 million inhabitants extending inland from both coasts. Together with the Dardanelles, the Bosporus forms the
Turkish Straits 300px, View of the Dardanelles, taken from the Landsat 7 satellite in September 2006. The body of water at the upper left is the Aegean Sea, while the one on the upper right is the Sea of Marmara. The long, narrow upper peninsula is Gallipoli ...
.


Name

The name of the channel comes from the
Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
(), which was folk-etymologised as , i.e. "cattle strait" (or "Ox-ford"), from the genitive of 'ox, cattle' + 'passage', thus meaning 'cattle-passage', or 'cow passage'.Entry

at Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, 1940, ''A Greek–English Lexicon''.
This is in reference to the mythological story of Io, who was transformed into a cow, and was subsequently condemned to wander the Earth until she crossed the Bosporus, where she met the
Titan Titan most often refers to: * Titan (moon), the largest moon of Saturn * Titans, a race of deities in Greek mythology Titan or Titans may also refer to: Arts and entertainment Fictional entities Fictional locations * Titan in fiction, fictional ...
Prometheus In , Prometheus (; , , possibly meaning "")Smith"Prometheus". is a god of fire. Prometheus is best known for defying the gods by from them and giving it to humanity in the form of technology, knowledge, and more generally, . In some versions ...

Prometheus
, who comforted her with the information that she would be restored to human form by
Zeus Zeus or , , ; grc, Δῐός, ''Diós'', label=genitive In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Ling ...

Zeus
and become the ancestress of the greatest of all heroes,
Heracles Heracles ( ; grc-gre, Ἡρακλῆς, , glory/fame of Hera Hera (; grc-gre, Ἥρα, Hḗrā; grc, Ἥρη, Hḗrē, label=none in Ionic Ionic or Ionian may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Ionic meter, a poetic metre in anci ...

Heracles
(Hercules). The site where Io supposedly went ashore was near Chrysopolis (present-day
Üsküdar Üsküdar (), traditionally known in Italian and English as Scutari (, in Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a c ...

Üsküdar
), and was named 'the Cow'. The same site was also known as (), as it was where the Athenian general Chares had erected a monument to his wife Damalis, which included a colossal statue of a cow (the name translating to 'heifer'). The English spelling with ''-ph-'', ''Bosfor'' has no justification in the ancient Greek name, and dictionaries prefer the spelling with ''-p-'' but ''-ph-'' occurs as a variant in
medieval Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share ...
(as , and occasionally , ), and in
medieval Greek Medieval Greek (also known as Middle Greek or Byzantine Greek) is the stage of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek ...
sometimes as , giving rise to the French form , Spanish and Russian . The 12th century Greek scholar
John Tzetzes John Tzetzes ( gr, Ἰωάννης Τζέτζης, Iōánnēs Tzétzēs; c. 1110, Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (), T ...
calls it (after ''Damalis''), but he also reports that in popular usage the strait was known as during his day, the name of the most ancient northern harbour of
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germa ...

Constantinople
. Historically, the Bosporus was also known as the "Strait of Constantinople", or the
Thracian The Thracians (; grc, Θρᾷκες ''Thrāikes''; la, Thraci) were an Indo-European speaking people who inhabited large parts of Eastern and Southeastern Europe in ancient history.. "The Thracians were an Indo-European people who occupied ...
Bosporus, in order to distinguish it from the
Cimmerian Bosporus The Kerch Strait (russian: link=no, Керченский пролив, uk, Керченська протока, crh, Keriç boğazı, ady, Хы ТӀуалэ) is a strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrow, typically navigable water ...
in
Crimea Crimea; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit=Kimmería/Taurikḗ is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on mos ...

Crimea
. These are expressed in
Herodotus Herodotus ( ; grc, Ἡρόδοτος, Hēródotos, ; BC) was an Classical Greece, ancient Greek writer, geographer, and historian born in the Greek city of Halicarnassus, part of the Achaemenid Empire, Persian Empire (now Bodrum, Turkey). He ...
's ''
Histories Histories or, in Latin, Historiae may refer to: * the plural of history * Histories (Herodotus), ''Histories'' (Herodotus), by Herodotus * ''The Histories'', by Timaeus (historian), Timaeus * The Histories (Polybius), ''The Histories'' (Polybius), ...
'', 4.83; as , , and (), respectively. Other names by which the strait is referenced by Herodotus include
Chalcedon Chalcedon ( or ; , sometimes transliterated as ''Chalkedon'') was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula ...

Chalcedon
ian Bosporus (, [], Herodotus 4.87), or Mysian Bosporus (). The term eventually came to be used as common noun , meaning "a strait", and was also formerly applied to the
Hellespont The Dardanelles (; tr, Çanakkale Boğazı, lit=Strait of Çanakkale, el, Δαρδανέλλια, translit=Dardanéllia), also known as Strait of Gallipoli from the Gallipoli peninsula or from Classical Antiquity as the Hellespont (; gr ...
in Classical Greek by [ eschylus and
Sophocles Sophocles (; grc, Σοφοκλῆς, ; 497/6 – winter 406/5 BC)Sommerstein (2002), p. 41. is one of three ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , ...

Sophocles
.


Geography

As a maritime waterway, the Bosporus connects various seas along the
Eastern Mediterranean Eastern Mediterranean is a loose definition of the eastern Eastern may refer to: Transportation *China Eastern Airlines, a current Chinese airline based in Shanghai *Eastern Air, former name of Zambia Skyways *Eastern Air Lines, a defunct Amer ...

Eastern Mediterranean
, the
Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rathe ...

Balkans
, the
Near East The Near East ( ar, الشرق الأدنى, al-Sharq al-'Adnā, he, המזרח הקרוב, arc, ܕܢܚܐ ܩܪܒ, fa, خاور نزدیک, Xāvar-e nazdik, tr, Yakın Doğu) is a geographical term which roughly encompasses a transcontinental ...
, and
Western Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continental area on Earth, comprising all of Europe and Asia. Primarily in the Northern Hemisphere, Northern and Eastern Hemispheres, it spans from the British Isles and the Iberian Peninsula in the west to the Japa ...
, and specifically connects the Black Sea to the Sea of Marmara. The Marmara further connects to the Aegean and Mediterranean seas via the Dardanelles. Thus, the Bosporus allows maritime connections from the Black Sea all the way to the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean via Gibraltar, and the Indian Ocean through the
Suez Canal The Suez Canal ( ar, قَنَاةُ ٱلسُّوَيْسِ, ') is an artificial sea-level Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an mean, average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's bodies of water from which hei ...
, making it a crucial international waterway, in particular for the passage of goods coming in from
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
.


Formation

The exact cause and date of the formation of the Bosporus remain the subject of debate among geologists. One recent hypothesis, dubbed the
Black Sea deluge hypothesis The Black Sea deluge is the best known of three hypothetical flood scenarios proposed for the Late Quaternary Quaternary ( ) is the current and most recent of the three Period (geology), periods of the Cenozoic Era (geology), Era in the geologic ...
, which was launched by a study of the same name in 1997 by two scientists from
Columbia University Columbia University (also known as Columbia, and officially as Columbia University in the City of New York) is a Private university, private Ivy League research university in New York City. Established in 1754 as King's College on the grounds of ...

Columbia University
, postulates that the Bosporus was flooded around 5600 BCE (revised to 6800 BCE in 2003) when the rising waters of the Mediterranean Sea and the Sea of Marmara breached through to the Black Sea, which at the time, according to the hypothesis, was a low-lying body of fresh water. Many geologists, however, claim that the strait is much older, even if relatively young on a geologic timescale. From the perspective of
ancient Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or origin myths. The main characters in myths are usually gods, demigods, or supe ...
, it was said that colossal floating rocks known as the
Symplegades The Symplegades (; el, Συμπληγάδες, ''Symplēgádes'') or Clashing Rocks, also known as the Cyanean Rocks, were, according to Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks ...
, or Clashing Rocks, once occupied the hilltops on both sides of the Bosporus, and destroyed any ship that attempted passage of the channel by rolling down the strait's hills and violently crushing all vessels between them. The Symplegades were defeated when the hero
Jason Jason ( ; ) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek ...

Jason
obtained successful passage, whereupon the rocks became fixed, and Greek access to the Black Sea was opened.


Present morphology

The limits of the Bosporus are defined as the connecting line between the lighthouses of Rumeli Feneri and Anadolu Feneri in the north, and between the Ahırkapı Feneri and the Kadıköy İnciburnu Feneri in the south. Between these limits, the strait is long, with a width of at the northern entrance and at the southern entrance. Its maximum width is between Umuryeri and Büyükdere Limanı, and minimum width between Kandilli Point and Aşiyan. The depth of the Bosporus varies from in midstream with an average of . The deepest location is between Kandilli and Bebek with . The shallowest locations are off Kadıköy İnciburnu on the northward route with and off Aşiyan Point on the southward route with . The smallest section is on a sill located in front of
Dolmabahçe Palace Dolmabahçe Palace ( tr, Dolmabahçe Sarayı, ) located in the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul, Turkey, on the European coast of the Bosporus strait, served as the main administrative center of the Ottoman Empire from 1856 to 1887 and from 1909 to ...

Dolmabahçe Palace
. It is around 38 000 square meter. The Southbound flow is 16 000 m3/s (fresh water at surface) and the northbound flow is 11 000 m3/s (salt water near bottom). Some even speak about a Black Sea undersea river. The
Golden Horn 300px, The Golden Horn as seen from Galata Bridge The Golden Horn ( tr, Altın Boynuz or ''Haliç''; grc, Χρυσόκερας, ''Chrysókeras''; la, Sinus Ceratinus) is a major urban waterway and the primary inlet of the Bosphorus F ...

Golden Horn
is an
estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed Coast, coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zone between river environments and maritime envir ...

estuary
off the main strait that historically acted as a moat to protect Constantinople from attack, as well as providing a sheltered anchorage for the imperial navies of various empires until the 19th century, after which it became a historic neighborhood at the heart of the city, popular with tourists and locals alike.


Newer explorations

It had been known since before the 20th century that the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara flow into each other in a geographic example of "density flow", and in August 2010, a continuous 'underwater channel' of
suspension Suspension or suspended may refer to: Science and engineering * Suspension (topology), in mathematics * Suspension (dynamical systems), in mathematics * Suspension of a ring, in mathematics * Suspension (chemistry), small solid particles suspende ...
composition was discovered to flow along the floor of the Bosporus, which would be the sixth largest river on Earth if it were to be on land. The study of the
water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known li ...
and
wind erosion Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale. On the surface of the Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. About 29% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continent ...

wind erosion
of the straits relates to that of its formation. Sections of the shore have been reinforced with concrete or rubble and sections of the strait prone to
deposition Deposition may refer to: * Deposition (law), taking testimony outside of court * List of deposed politicians, Deposition (politics), the removal of a person of authority from political power * Deposition (university), a widespread initiation ritual ...
are periodically dredged. The 2010 team of scientists, led by the
University of Leeds The University of Leeds is a public research university in Leeds, West Yorkshire, England. It was established in 1874 as the Yorkshire College of Science. In 1884 it merged with the Leeds School of Medicine (established 1831) and was renamed Yorks ...
, used a robotic "yellow submarine" to observe detailed flows within an "undersea river", scientifically referred to as a submarine channel, for the first time. Submarine channels are similar to land rivers, but they are formed by density currents—underwater flow mixtures of sand, mud and water that are denser than sea water and so sink and flow along the bottom. These channels are the main transport pathway for sediments to the deep sea where they form sedimentary deposits. These deposits ultimately hold not only untapped reserves of gas and oil, they also house important secrets—from clues on past climate change to the ways in which mountains were formed. The team studied the detailed flow within these channels and findings included: The central tenet of the
Black Sea deluge hypothesis The Black Sea deluge is the best known of three hypothetical flood scenarios proposed for the Late Quaternary Quaternary ( ) is the current and most recent of the three Period (geology), periods of the Cenozoic Era (geology), Era in the geologic ...
is that as the ocean rose at the end of the last Ice Age when the massive ice sheets melted, the sealed Bosporus was overtopped in a spectacular flood that increased the then fresh water Black Sea Lake 50%, and drove people from the shores for many months. This was supported by findings of undersea explorer
Robert Ballard Robert Duane Ballard (born June 30, 1942) is an American retired Navy officer and a professor of oceanography Oceanography (from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC t ...
, who discovered settlements along the old shoreline; scientists dated the
flood A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry. In the sense of "flowing water", the word may also be applied to the inflow of the tide Tides are the rise and fall of sea level Mean sea level (MSL) (often ...

flood
to 7500 BP or 5500 BC from fresh-salt water microflora. The peoples driven out by the constantly rising water, which must have been terrifying and inexplicable, spread to all corners of the Western world carrying the story of a major flood. As the waters surged, they scoured a network of sea-floor channels less resistant to denser suspended solids in liquid, which remains a very active layer today. The first images of these submarine channels were obtained in 1999, showing them to be of great size during a
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance A military alliance is a formal agreement betwe ...
SACLANT Undersea Research project using jointly the NATO RV ''Alliance'', and the
Turkish Navy The Turkish Naval Forces ( tr, ), or Turkish Navy ( tr, ) is the naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat (French language, French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violence, violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the op ...
survey ship ''Çubuklu''. In 2002, a survey was carried out on board the Ifremer RV ''Le Suroit'' for BlaSON project (Lericolais, et al., 2003) completed the multibeam mapping of this underwater channel fan-delta. A complete map was published in 2009 using these previous results with high quality mapping obtained in 2006 (by researchers at
Memorial University of Newfoundland Memorial University of Newfoundland, also known as Memorial University or MUN (), is a public university in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador (; sometimes abbreviated as NL) is the easternmost provinces and ...
who are project partners in this study). The team will use the data obtained to create innovative computer simulations that can be used to model how sediment flows through these channels. The models the team will produce will have broad applications, including inputting into the design of seafloor engineering by oil and gas companies. The project was led by Jeff Peakall and Daniel Parsons at the
University of Leeds The University of Leeds is a public research university in Leeds, West Yorkshire, England. It was established in 1874 as the Yorkshire College of Science. In 1884 it merged with the Leeds School of Medicine (established 1831) and was renamed Yorks ...
, in collaboration with the
University of Southampton , mottoeng = The Heights Yield to Endeavour , type = Public research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or T ...
, Memorial University of Newfoundland, and the Institute of Marine Sciences. The survey was run and coordinated from the Institute of Marine Sciences research ship, the R/V ''Koca Piri Reis''.


History

As part of the only passage between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean, the Bosporus has always been of great importance from a commercial and military point of view, and remains strategically important today. It is a major sea access route for numerous countries, including
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
and
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also shares borders with to the north; , , and to the west; and to the south; and has a coastli ...

Ukraine
. Control over it has been an objective of a number of conflicts in modern history, notably the
Russo-Turkish War (1877–78) The Russo-Turkish wars (or Ottoman–Russian wars) were a series of twelve wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 20th centuries. It was one of the longest series of military conflicts in History of Europe ...
, as well as of the attack of the Allied Powers on the
Dardanelles satellite in September 2006. The body of water on the left is the Aegean Sea, while the one on the upper right is the Sea of Marmara. The Dardanelles is the tapered waterway running diagonally between the two seas, from the northeast to the ...
during the 1915
Battle of Gallipoli The Gallipoli campaign, or ). was a military campaign in the First World War that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu in modern Turkey), from 17 February 1915 to 9 January 1916. The Allies of World War I, Entente powers, United K ...

Battle of Gallipoli
in the course of
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
.


Ancient Greek, Persian, Roman and Byzantine eras (pre-1453)

The strategic importance of the Bosporus dates back millennia. In the 5th century BC the Greek city-state of
Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens rect 15 475 48 ...

Athens
, which depended on grain imports from the Black Sea ports of
Scythia Scythia (, ; from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...
, maintained critical alliances with cities which controlled the straits, such as the colony
Byzantium Byzantium () or Byzantion ( grc-gre, Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark A ...

Byzantium
. Persian King
Darius I Darius I ( peo, 𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁 ; New Persian New Persian ( fa, فارسی نو), also known as Modern Persian () and Dari (), is the final stage of the Persian language Persian (), also known by its endonym An endonym ( ...
the Great (), in an attempt to subdue the
Scythia Scythia (, ; from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...
n horsemen who roamed across the north of the Black Sea, crossed the Bosporus, then marched towards the
River Danube The Danube ( ; ) is Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as c ...
. His army crossed the Bosporus using an enormous bridge made by connecting
Achaemenid The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian empire An empire is a sovereign state consisting of several territories and peoples subj ...
boats. This bridge essentially connected the farthest geographic tip of Asia to Europe, encompassing at least some 1,000 metres of open water if not more. Years later,
Xerxes I Xerxes I ( peo, wiktionary:𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠, 𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠 ; grc-gre, Ξέρξης; – August 465 BC), commonly known as Xerxes the Great, was the fourth King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire, ruling from 486 to 465 ...

Xerxes I
would construct a similar boat bridge on the
Dardanelles satellite in September 2006. The body of water on the left is the Aegean Sea, while the one on the upper right is the Sea of Marmara. The Dardanelles is the tapered waterway running diagonally between the two seas, from the northeast to the ...
(
Hellespont The Dardanelles (; tr, Çanakkale Boğazı, lit=Strait of Çanakkale, el, Δαρδανέλλια, translit=Dardanéllia), also known as Strait of Gallipoli from the Gallipoli peninsula or from Classical Antiquity as the Hellespont (; gr ...
) strait (480 BC), during his invasion of Greece. The called the Bosporus "Stenon" and used the following major toponyms in the area: * on the European side: ** Bosporios Akra ** Argyropolis ** St. Mamas ** St. Phokas ** Hestiai or Michaelion ** Phoneus ** Anaplous or Sosthenion * on the Asian side: ** Hieron tower ** Eirenaion ** Anthemiou ** Sophianai ** Bithynian Chrysopolis The strategic significance of the strait was one of the factors in the decision of the Roman Emperor
Constantine Constantine most often refers to: * Constantine the Great Constantine I ( la, Flavius Valerius Constantinus; ; 27 February 22 May 337), also known as Constantine the Great, was a Roman emperor from 306 to 337. Born in Naissus, Dacia Mediterra ...

Constantine
the Great to found there in AD 330 his new capital,
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germa ...

Constantinople
, which became the capital of the
Eastern Roman Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Eastern Roman Empire
. The expressions "swim the Bosporus" and "cross the Bosporus" were and are still used to indicate religious conversion to the
Eastern Orthodox Church The Eastern Orthodox Church, also called the Orthodox Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptised members. It operates as a communion Communion may refer to: Religion * The Eucharist (also cal ...
.


Ottoman era (1453–1922)

On 29 May 1453, the then-emergent
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
conquered the city of
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germa ...

Constantinople
following a lengthy campaign wherein the Ottomans constructed fortifications on each side of the strait, the
Anadoluhisarı Anadoluhisarı ( en, Anatolian Castle), known historically as Güzelce Hisar ("the Beauteous Castle") is a medieval fortress located in Istanbul, Turkey on the Anatolian (Asian) side of the Bosporus. The complex is the oldest surviving Turkish ar ...

Anadoluhisarı
(1393) and the
Rumelihisarı Rumelihisarı (also known as Rumelian Castle and Roumeli Hissar Castle) or Boğazkesen Castle (meaning "Strait-Blocker Castle" or literally "Throat-Cutter Castle") is a medieval fortress located in Istanbul, Turkey, on a series of hills on the Eur ...
(1451), in preparation for not only the primary battle but to assert long-term control over the Bosporus and surrounding waterways. The final 53-day campaign, which resulted in Ottoman victory, constituted an important turn in world history. Together with
Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus * lij, Cristoffa C(or)ombo * es, Cristóbal Colón * pt, Cristóvão Colombo * ca, Cristòfor (or ) * la, Christophorus Columbus. (; born between 25 August and 31 October 1451, died 20 May 1506) was an Italian ...

Christopher Columbus
's first voyage to the Americas in 1492, the 1453 conquest of Constantinople is commonly noted as among the events that brought an end to the Middle Ages and marked the transition to the
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...

Renaissance
and the
Age of Discovery The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (sometimes also, particularly regionally, Age of Contact or Contact Period), is an informal and loosely defined term for the early modern period The early modern period of modern history ...
. The event also marked the end of the —the final remnants of the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
—and the transfer of the control of the Bosporus into Ottoman hands, who made Constantinople their new capital, and from where they expanded their empire in the centuries that followed. At its peak between the 16th and 18th centuries, the Ottoman Empire had used the strategic importance of the Bosporus to expand their regional ambitions and to wrest control of the entire
Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ბათუმი ) is the second largest city of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country locat ...

Black Sea
area, which they regarded as an "Ottoman lake", on which Russian warships were prohibited. Subsequently, several international treaties have governed vessels using the waters. Under the
Treaty of Hünkâr İskelesiThe Treaty of Hünkâr İskelesi (once commonly spelled Unkiar Skelessi, and translating to The Treaty of "the Royal Pier" or "the Sultan's Pier") was a treaty signed between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire on July 8, 1833, following the mi ...
of 8 July 1833, the Bosporus and
Dardanelles satellite in September 2006. The body of water on the left is the Aegean Sea, while the one on the upper right is the Sea of Marmara. The Dardanelles is the tapered waterway running diagonally between the two seas, from the northeast to the ...
straits were to be closed on Russian demand to naval vessels of other powers. By the terms of the
London Straits Convention In the London Straits Convention concluded on 13 July 1841 between the Great Powers of Europe at the time—Russian Empire, Russia, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United Kingdom, July Monarchy, France, Austrian Empire, Austria an ...
concluded on 13 July 1841, between the of
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...
, the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
,
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...
,
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine States o ...
and
Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-Europ ...
—the "ancient rule" of the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
was re-established by closing the Turkish Straits to any and all
warship A warship or combatant ship is a naval ship that is built and primarily intended for naval warfare. Usually they belong to the armed forces of a state. As well as being armed, warships are designed to withstand damage and are usually faster and ...
s, barring those of the
Sultan Sultan (; ar, سلطان ', ) is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic abstract noun A noun () is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phone ...
's allies during wartime. It thus benefited British naval power at the expense of Russian, as the latter lacked direct access for its
navy A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense ...
to the Mediterranean. Following the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainmen ...
, the 1920
Treaty of Sèvres The Treaty of Sèvres (french: Traité de Sèvres) was a 1920 treaty signed between the Allies of World War I The Allies of World War I or Entente Powers were a coalition The term "coalition" is the denotation for a group formed wh ...
demilitarized the strait and made it an international territory under the control of the
League of Nations The League of Nations (french: Société des Nations ), was the first worldwide intergovernmental organisation An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member state ...
.


Turkish republican era (1923–present)

This was amended under the
Treaty of Lausanne (1923) The Treaty of Lausanne (french: Traité de Lausanne) was a peace treaty A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or government A government is the system or group of people governing a ...
, which restored the straits to Turkish territory—but allowed all foreign warships and commercial shipping to traverse the straits freely. Turkey eventually rejected the terms of that treaty, and subsequently Turkey remilitarised the straits area. The reversion was formalised under the
Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Turkish Straits Montreux (, , ) is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is ...
of 20 July 1936. That convention, which is still in force, treats the straits as an international shipping lane save that Turkey retains the right to restrict the naval traffic of non–Black Sea states. Turkey was neutral in the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
until February 1945, and the straits were closed to the warships of belligerent nations during this time, although some German auxiliary vessels were permitted to transit. In diplomatic conferences,
Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a socialist state A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a sovere ...
representatives had made known their interest in Turkish concession of Soviet naval bases on the straits. This, as well as Stalin's demands for the restitution of the Turkish provinces of
Kars Kars (, az, Qars, ku, Qers) is a city in northeast Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. als ...
,
Artvin Artvin (Laz language, Laz and ; hy, Արտուին, translit=Artuin) is a List of cities in Turkey, city in northeastern Turkey about 30 km inland from the Black Sea. It is located on a hill overlooking the Çoruh, Çoruh River near the Deriner D ...

Artvin
and
Ardahan Ardahan (, ka, არტაანი, tr, hy, Արդահան, translit=Ardahan) is a List of largest cities and towns in Turkey, city in northeastern Turkey, near the Georgia–Turkey border, Georgian border. It is the capital of Ardahan Provin ...

Ardahan
to the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
(which were lost by Turkey in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878, but were regained with the
Treaty of Kars The Treaty of Kars ( tr, Kars Antlaşması, rus, Карсский договор, Karskii dogovor, ka, ყარსის ხელშეკრულება, hy, Կարսի պայմանագիր, az, Qars müqaviləsi) was a treaty that establ ...

Treaty of Kars
in 1921), were considerations in Turkey's decision to abandon neutrality in foreign affairs. Turkey declared war against Germany in February 1945, but did not engage in offensive actions. Turkey joined
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance A military alliance is a formal agreement betwe ...
in 1952, thus affording its straits even more strategic importance as a commercial and military waterway. During the early 21st century, the
Turkish Straits 300px, View of the Dardanelles, taken from the Landsat 7 satellite in September 2006. The body of water at the upper left is the Aegean Sea, while the one on the upper right is the Sea of Marmara. The long, narrow upper peninsula is Gallipoli ...
have become particularly important for the oil industry. Russian oil, from ports such as
Novorossiysk Novorossiysk ( rus, Новоросси́йск, p=nəvərɐˈsʲijsk, ady, ЦӀэмэз) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., ed ...

Novorossiysk
, is exported by tankers primarily to western Europe and the U.S. via the Bosporus and the Dardanelles straits. In 2011 Turkey planned a 50 km canal through
Silivri Silivri (ancient SelymbriaSelymbria ( gr, Σηλυμβρία),Demosthenes, '' de Rhod. lib.'', p. 198, ed. Reiske. or Selybria (Σηλυβρία), or Selybrie (Σηλυβρίη), was a town of ancient Thrace town on the Propontis, 22 Roman miles ...

Silivri
as a second waterway, reducing risk in the Bosporus.Turkey to build Bosphorus bypass
''
New Civil Engineer ''New Civil Engineer'' is the monthly magazine for members of the Institution of Civil Engineers The Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE) is an independent professional association A professional association (also called a professional body, p ...
'', 20 April 2011. Accessed: 2 December 2014.
Marfeldt, Birgitte.
Startskud for gigantisk kanal gennem Tyrkiet
''
Ingeniøren ''Ingeniøren'' (full name: ''Nyhedsmagasinet Ingeniøren'', literally ''The News Magazine "The Engineer"'') is a Denmark, Danish weekly newspaper specialising in engineering topics. History and profile The paper has covered science and technology ...
'', 29 April 2011. Accessed: 2 December 2014.


Crossings


Maritime

The waters of the Bosphorus are traversed by numerous passenger and vehicular ferries daily, as well as recreational and fishing boats ranging from dinghies to yachts owned by both public and private entities. The strait also experiences significant amounts of international commercial shipping traffic by and
tankers Tanker may refer to: Transportation * Tanker, a tank crewman (US) * Tanker (ship), a ship designed to carry bulk liquids ** Chemical tanker, a type of tanker designed to transport chemicals in bulk ** Oil tanker, also known as a petroleum tanker ...
. Between its northern limits at Rumeli Feneri and Anadolu Feneri and its southern ones at Ahırkapı Feneri and Kadıköy İnciburnu Feneri, there are numerous dangerous points for large-scale maritime traffic that require sharp turns and management of visual obstructions. Famously, the stretch between Kandilli Point and Aşiyan requires a 45-degree course alteration in a location where the currents can reach . To the south, at Yeniköy, the necessary course alteration is 80 degrees. Compounding these difficult changes in trajectory, the rear and forward sight lines at Kandilli and Yeniköy are also completely blocked prior to and during the course alteration, making it impossible for ships approaching from the opposite direction to see around these bends. The risks posed by geography are further multiplied by the heavy ferry traffic across the strait, linking the European and Asian sides of the city. As such, all the dangers and obstacles characteristic of narrow waterways are present and acute in this critical sea lane. In 2011, the Turkish Government discussed creating a large-scale canal project roughly long that runs north–south through as a second waterway between the Black Sea and the Marmara, intended to reduce risk in the Bosphorus. This project currently continues to be debated.


Land

Two
suspension bridge A suspension bridge is a type of bridge in which the deck (the load-bearing portion) is hung below suspension cables on vertical suspenders. The first modern examples of this type of bridge were built in the early 1800s. Simple suspension br ...

suspension bridge
s and a
cable-stayed bridge A cable-stayed bridge has one or more ''towers'' (or ''pylons''), from which cable Cable may refer to: Mechanical * Nautical cable A nautical cable is a band of tightly woven and clamped ropes, of a defined cable length, used during the ag ...

cable-stayed bridge
cross the Bosphorus. The first of these, the , is long and was completed in 1973. The second, named , is long, and was completed in 1988 about north of the first bridge. The first Bosphorus Bridge forms part of the , while the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge forms part of the Trans-European Motorway. The third,
Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge The Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge ( tr, Yavuz Sultan Selim Köprüsü) is a bridge for rail and motor vehicle Electric bicycles parked in Yangzhou's main street, Wenchang Lu. They are a very common way of transport in this city, in some areas almost ...
, is long and was completed in 2016. It is located near the northern end of the Bosphorus, between the villages of Garipçe on the European side and Poyrazköy on the Asian side, as part of the "Northern Marmara Motorway", integrated with the existing Black Sea Coastal Highway, and allowing transit traffic to bypass city traffic.


Submarine

The
Marmaray Marmaray () is a intercontinental commuter rail in Paris. electric multiple unit used in Auckland, New Zealand Commuter rail, or suburban rail, is a passenger rail transport service that primarily operates within a metropolitan area, ...

Marmaray
project, featuring a long undersea
railway Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine that transports people or cargo. Vehicles include wagons, bicycles, motor veh ...

railway
tunnel A tunnel is an underground passageway, dug through the surrounding soil/earth/rock and enclosed except for entrance and exit, commonly at each end. A pipeline Pipeline may refer to: Electronics, computers and computing * Pipeline (comput ...

tunnel
, opened on 29 October 2013. Approximately of the tunnel runs under the strait, at a depth of about . An undersea water supply tunnel with a length of , named the
Bosporus Water Tunnel The Bosphorus Water Tunnel ( tr, Boğaziçi Su Tüneli) or Bosporus aqueduct is an undersea aqueduct (watercourse), aqueduct in Istanbul, Turkey, crossing the Bosphorus strait. It was constructed in 2012 to transfer water from the Melen Creek in D ...
, was constructed in 2012 to transfer water from the Melen Creek in
Düzce Province Düzce Province ( tr, ) is a province in northwestern Turkey. It is on the coastline of the Black Sea and is traversed by the main highway between Istanbul and Ankara. The main town is Düzce. There are ancient ancient Greece, Greek ruins in the p ...
(to the east of the Bosphorus strait, in northwestern
Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region ...
) to the European side of Istanbul, a distance of . The
Eurasia Tunnel The Eurasia Tunnel ( tr, Avrasya Tüneli) is a road tunnel in Istanbul ) , postal_code_type = Postal code , postal_code = 34000 to 34990 , area_code = +90 212 (European side) +90 216 ...
is a undersea
highway A highway is any public or private road A road is a wide way leading from one place to another, typically one with a specially prepared surface which vehicles and bikes can use. Roads consist of one or two roadways (British English: ...

highway
tunnel, crossing the Bosphorus for vehicular traffic, between Kazlıçeşme and Göztepe. Construction began in February 2011, and was opened on 20 December 2016. Up to 4 submarine fibre optics lines (MedNautilus and possibly others) approach Istanbul, coming from the Mediterranean through the Dardanelles.


Strategic importance

The Bosphorus is the only way for Bulgaria, Georgia (country), Georgia, Romania,
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
(South-Western part) and
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also shares borders with to the north; , , and to the west; and to the south; and has a coastli ...

Ukraine
to reach the Mediterranean Sea and other seas. Sovereignty over the straits is also an important issue for the riparian countries besides
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
. Although it is only one of the natural borders separating the
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
an and Asian mainland, the most known is the Bosphorus. Since it is a favorable region in terms of climate and geographical conditions, it has had a great role in being a settlement area for ages. The city of
Istanbul ) , postal_code_type = Postal code A postal code (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a postcode, post code, PIN or ZIP Code) is a series of letters or digits or both, sometimes ...

Istanbul
, divided by the Bosphorus, is one of the few intercontinental cities in the world. Even if Turkey has no right to receive tolls from ships passing through the strait Turkey's military has broad powers in accordance with Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Straits, Montreux Convention. In the present (2021), Bosphorus Command is located on the shores of the Bosphorus and the military ships connected to the Command are anchoring in the Bosphorus waters. Located on a peninsula at the intersection of the Black Sea, the Bosphorus and the Marmara Sea, Istanbul has been one of the most protected and hardest-to-conquer cities for centuries, from the first Roman times to the Ottoman Empire, to today.


Sightseeing

The Bosphorus has 620 yalı, waterfront houses (''yalı'') built during the Ottoman Empire, Ottoman period along the strait's European and Asian shorelines. Ottoman palaces such as the Topkapı Palace,
Dolmabahçe Palace Dolmabahçe Palace ( tr, Dolmabahçe Sarayı, ) located in the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul, Turkey, on the European coast of the Bosporus strait, served as the main administrative center of the Ottoman Empire from 1856 to 1887 and from 1909 to ...

Dolmabahçe Palace
, Yıldız Palace, Çırağan Palace, Feriye Palaces, Beylerbeyi Palace, Küçüksu Palace, Ihlamur Palace, Hatice Sultan Palace, Adile Sultan Palace and Khedive Palace are within its view. Buildings and landmarks within view include the Hagia Sophia, Hagia Irene, Sultan Ahmed Mosque, New Mosque (Istanbul), Yeni Mosque, Kılıç Ali Pasha Complex, Kılıç Ali Pasha Mosque, Nusretiye Mosque, Dolmabahçe Mosque, Ortaköy Mosque, Mihrimah Sultan Mosque (Üsküdar), Üsküdar Mihrimah Sultan Mosque, Yeni Valide Mosque, Maiden's Tower, Galata Tower, Rumelihisarı, Rumelian Castle, Anadoluhisarı, Anatolian Castle, Yoros Castle, Selimiye Barracks, Sakıp Sabancı Museum, Sadberk Hanım Museum, İstanbul Modern, Istanbul Museum of Modern Art, Perili Köşk, Borusan Museum of Contemporary Art, Tophane-i Amire Museum, Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Galatasaray University, Boğaziçi University, Robert College, Kabataş High School, Kuleli Military High School. Two points in
Istanbul ) , postal_code_type = Postal code A postal code (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a postcode, post code, PIN or ZIP Code) is a series of letters or digits or both, sometimes ...

Istanbul
have most of the ferries in Istanbul, public ferries that traverse the strait: from Eminönü (ferries dock at the ''Boğaz İskelesi'' pier) on the Constantinople, historic peninsula of Istanbul to Yoros Castle#Anadolu Kavağı, Anadolu Kavağı near the
Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ბათუმი ) is the second largest city of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country locat ...

Black Sea
, zigzagging and calling briefly multiple times at the Rumelian and
Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region ...
n sides of the city. At central piers shorter, regular ride in one of the public ferries cross. Private ferries operate between
Üsküdar Üsküdar (), traditionally known in Italian and English as Scutari (, in Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a c ...

Üsküdar
and Beşiktaş or Kabataş, Istanbul, Kabataş in the city. The few well-known geographic hazards are multiplied by ferry traffic across the strait, linking the European and Asian sides of the city, particularly for the largest ships. The catamaran İDO, seabuses offer high-speed commuter services between the European and Asian shores of the Bosphorus, but they stop at fewer ports and piers in comparison to the public ferries. Both the public ferries and the seabuses also provide commuter services between the Bosphorus and the Prince Islands in the . There are also tourist rides available in various places along the coasts of the Bosphorus. The prices vary according to the type of the ride, and some feature loud popular music for the duration of the trip.


Architecture of Bosporus

The architectural style of the Bosporus began to be shaped by simple houses in the fishing villages established on the coast during the Byzantine period. The mansions, which were placed on the shores during the Ottoman period, became one of the most outstanding examples of Bosphorus architecture and have been identified with the Bosphorus for years. The number of mansions built on the two sides of the Bosphorus for centuries and has reached today is about 360. Today, the majority of them still preserves their old forms, are among the most expensive real estate both in Turkey and Istanbul. Many palace buildings has also built in the Bosphorus, which was one of the most popular places of the palace people during the Ottoman period.
Dolmabahçe Palace Dolmabahçe Palace ( tr, Dolmabahçe Sarayı, ) located in the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul, Turkey, on the European coast of the Bosporus strait, served as the main administrative center of the Ottoman Empire from 1856 to 1887 and from 1909 to ...

Dolmabahçe Palace
, Çırağan Palace, Beylerbeyi Palace, Adile Sultan Palace, Küçüksu Pavilion and Beykoz Mecidiye Pavilion are some of most striking structures used by sultans and their relatives from time to time. Historical buildings such as Galatasaray University, Egyptian Consulate and Sakıp Sabancı Museum are among the most famous architectural examples of the Bosphorus. In the Ottoman era there was a tradition of building mosques and pier squares as well as pier buildings in the important districts of the Bosphorus. Beşiktaş Pier, Ortaköy Square, Ortaköy Mosque, Bebek Mosque, Beylerbeyi Mosque and Şemsi Pasha Mosque, Şemsipaşa Mosque are some of traces from that tradition.


Image gallery

File:Istanbul panorama and skyline.jpg, View of the European side of Istanbul from the southern entrance to the Bosphorus. File:Modern Istanbul skyline at sunset.jpg, View of the European side of Istanbul from the Bosphorus. File:Bosphorus view Topkapi Istanbul 2007.jpg, View of the entrance to the Bosphorus from the , as seen from the Topkapı Palace. File:Istanbul Bogazici Ulus view 3690-3699.jpg, Panoramic view of the Bosphorus as seen from Ulus on the European side, with the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge (1988) at left and the Bosphorus Bridge (1973) at right. File:İstanbul.jpg, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge (1988) and the Bosphorus strait. File:Istanbul img 4925.jpg,
Dolmabahçe Palace Dolmabahçe Palace ( tr, Dolmabahçe Sarayı, ) located in the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul, Turkey, on the European coast of the Bosporus strait, served as the main administrative center of the Ottoman Empire from 1856 to 1887 and from 1909 to ...

Dolmabahçe Palace
on the Bosphorus. File:Topkapi B15-10.jpg, View from Topkapi Palace on the Bosphorus. File:Bosphorus.jpg, View of the Bosphorus from the Marmara Hotel, Taksim Square. File:2007 0919 Bosporus Rumelihisarı.jpg, The Rumelihisarı, Rumelian Castle on the Bosphorus, with both
suspension bridge A suspension bridge is a type of bridge in which the deck (the load-bearing portion) is hung below suspension cables on vertical suspenders. The first modern examples of this type of bridge were built in the early 1800s. Simple suspension br ...

suspension bridge
s which span the strait. File:Ahmet Rasim Paşa Yalısı (A'ija Hotel) on the Bosphorus, Turkey 001.jpg, 620 historic yalı, waterfront houses stretch along the coasts of the Bosphorus, such as the yalı of Ahmet Rasim Pasha. File:Yağcı Hacı Şefik Bey Yalısı on the Bosphorus in Istanbul, Turkey 001.jpg, Yalı of Hacı Şefik Bey on the Bosphorus. File:36, Bosforo-ko yali gehiago ferrytik.jpg, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman era Yalı, waterfront houses on the Bosphorus. File:Bosphorus yali bergie.jpg, Afif Pasha Mansion on the Bosphorus was designed by Alexander Vallaury. File:Arnavutkoy-SA400006.jpg, The quarters of Bebek, Arnavutköy and Yeniköy on the Bosphorus are famous for their fish restaurants. File:Yalı in Kanlıca on the Bosphorus, Turkey 001.jpg, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman era yalı, waterfront houses (''yalı'') on the Bosphorus. File:Yağlıkçı Hacı Reşit Bey and Prenses Rukiye Yalısı on the Bosphorus, Istanbul, Turkey 001.jpg, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman era yalı, waterfront houses (''yalı'') on the Bosphorus. File:Elbiseci Ahmet Bey Yalısı and Esre Umur Yalısı in Kanlıca on the Bosphorus, Turkey 001.jpg, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman era yalı, waterfront houses (''yalı'') on the Bosphorus. File:Istanbulbosphorusfrombridge.jpg, A view of the Bosporus strait, with the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge visible in the background. File:Istanbul Levent skyline.jpg, Skyline of Levent as seen from the Khedive Palace gardens on the Asian coast of the Bosporus. Istanbul Sapphire is the first skyscraper at right.


See also

* Great Istanbul Tunnel, a proposed three-level road-rail undersea tunnel * Istanbul Canal * List of maritime incidents in the Turkish Straits * Public transport in Istanbul * Rail transport in Turkey


Notes


External links

* {{Authority control Bosphorus, Landforms of Istanbul Province Straits of the Mediterranean Sea Straits of Turkey Tourism in Istanbul Turkish Straits Important Bird Areas of Turkey