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Bloomington is a city in and the county seat of Monroe County in the central region of the U.S. state of Indiana. It is the seventh-largest city in Indiana and the fourth-largest outside the Indianapolis metropolitan area. According to the Monroe County History Center, Bloomington is known as the "Gateway to Scenic Southern Indiana." The city was established in 1818 by a group of settlers from Kentucky, Tennessee, the Carolinas, and Virginia who were so impressed with "a haven of blooms" that they called it Bloomington. The population was 80,405 at the 2010 census. The city's population was estimated at 85,755 as of July 2019 by the U.S. Census Bureau. Bloomington is the home to Indiana University Bloomington. Established in 1820, IU Bloomington has 49,695 students, as of September 2016, and is the original and largest campus of Indiana University. Most of the campus buildings are built of Indiana limestone. Bloomington has been designated a Tree City for 32 years, . The city was also the location of the Academy Award–winning 1979 movie ''Breaking Away'', featuring a reenactment of Indiana University's annual Little 500 bicycle race. Monroe County's famous limestone quarries are also featured in the movie.

History

The area in which Bloomington was situated was previously inhabited by the Delaware, Potawatomi, Miami, and Eel River Miami. Bloomington was platted in 1818. A post office has been in operation at Bloomington since 1825. Bloomington was incorporated in 1827. The current city logo was adopted on January 6, 1986, by the Bloomington Common Council.
To Approve and Adopt a New Logo for the City of Bloomington
', Bloomington Common Comm. Res. 86-02. (Ind. 1986).
It was a combination of peony and trout lily, inspired by both quilt patterns used by regional folk artists in 19th century and the shape of Downtown Square. The Elias Abel House, Blair-Dunning House, Bloomington City Hall, Bloomington West Side Historic District, Cantol Wax Company Building, Coca-Cola Bottling Plant, Cochran-Helton-Lindley House, Courthouse Square Historic District, Hinkle-Garton Farmstead, Home Laundry Company, Illinois Central Railroad Freight Depot, Johnson's Creamery, Legg House, Millen House, Millen-Chase-McCalla House, Monroe Carnegie Library, Monroe County Courthouse, Morgan House, J.L. Nichols House and Studio, North Washington Street Historic District, The Old Crescent, Princess Theatre, Prospect Hill Historic District, Second Baptist Church, Seminary Square Park, Steele Dunning Historic District, University Courts Historic District, Vinegar Hill Historic District, Wicks Building, Woolery Stone Company, and Andrew Wylie House are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Geography

According to the 2010 census, Bloomington has a total area of , of which (or 99.15%) is land and (or 0.85%) is water.

Climate

Southern Indiana receives an abundance of rain, with a yearly average of nearly 45 inches.

Geology

Bloomington is an area of irregular limestone terrain characterized by sinks, ravines, fissures, underground streams, sinking streams, springs and caves. It is in the rolling hills of southern Indiana, resting on the intersection of the Norman Uplands and the Mitchell Plain. The city's relatively varied topography is a sharp contrast to the flatter terrain more typical of central to northern portions of Indiana.

Water

Bloomington is on comparatively high ground, the summit of the divide between the basins of the West Fork and East Fork of Indiana's White River. Accordingly, there are no major watercourses within the city, nor is much groundwater available for wells. The largest stream within the city is Clear Creek, with its eastern branch known on the Indiana University campus as Jordan River. Due to the absence of either natural lakes or rivers or groundwater in or near the city, a number of dams have been constructed on nearby creeks over the last 100 years to provide for the water needs of Bloomington and Monroe County. Early 20th-century damming projects occurred at locations southwest of the city, the most notable being the Leonard Springs Dam. Due to the limestone formations underlying the reservoirs and the dams, water kept seeping from the reservoirs through naturally developing underground channels. Despite all efforts, the city was never able to fully stop the leakage, and had to resort to pumping leaking water back to the reservoir. By the 1920s, a more radical solution was needed to deal with the water crisis. A new reservoir, known as Griffy Lake, was constructed in a more geologically suitable area north of the city. (It is now within Bloomington's official city limits.) Later, in the 1950s, two much larger reservoirs, Lake Lemon and Lake Monroe were created in the northeastern and southeastern parts of Monroe County. Monroe Lake was created by the US Army Corps of Engineers for flood control, but has since been used to supply the city and the county with water. The water pumping station at Griffy Lake has been mothballed.Water Basics: Stream
(City of Bloomington)
Presently, the city is supplied with drinking water from Lake Monroe, via the Monroe Water Treatment Plant on S Shields Ridge Rd. Originally opened in 1967, it was expanded in 2014, and now is capable of producing 30 million gallons of water per day. The sewer water from the northern part of the city is treated at the Blucher Poole Wastewater Treatment Plant (constructed 1968), and discharged into the Bean Blossom Creek. The sewer water from the southern half of the city goes to Dillman Road Wastewater Treatment Plant (constructed 1982), and is then discharged into the Clear Creek. Unincorporated Monroe County Storm Water Quality Management Plan. Part B. April 2004
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Environment

PCB pollution, associated with Westinghouse's operations, long was a concern in the area. A number of sites, in particular, Bennett's Dump and Lemon Lane Landfill at the northwestern edge of the city and Neal's Landfill in the county, were listed as Superfund sites. Clean-up operations at the Bennett Quarry site, started in 1983, were largely completed by 2000., while cleanups at the other sites were completed in 2012.

Demographics

Bloomington is the principal city of the Bloomington Metropolitan Statistical Area, a metropolitan area that covers Greene, Monroe, and Owen counties and had a combined population of 192,714 at the 2010 census.

2010 census

As of the 2010 census, there were 80,405 people, 31,425 households, and 11,267 families residing in the city. The population density was . There were 33,239 housing units at an average density of . The racial makeup of the city was 83.0% White, 4.6% African American, 0.3% Native American, 8.0% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.2% from other races, and 3.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.5% of the population. There were 31,425 households, of which 16.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 25.3% were married couples living together, 7.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.1% had a male householder with no wife present, and 64.1% were non-families. 38.2% of all households were made up of individuals, and 7.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.09 and the average family size was 2.76. The median age in the city was 23.3 years. 11.4% of residents were under the age of 18; 44.5% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 23% were from 25 to 44; 13.3% were from 45 to 64; and 7.9% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 50.3% male and 49.7% female.

2000 census

As of the census of 2000, there were 69,291 people, 26,468 households, and 10,454 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,511.1 people per square mile (1,356.0/km2). There were 28,400 housing units at an average density of 1,439.1 per square mile (555.8/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 87.03% White, 4.24% African American, 0.29% Native American, 5.26% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 1.10% from other races, and 2.01% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.49% of the population. 22.9% were of German, 10.2% Irish, 9.1% English and 8.4% American ancestry according to Census 2000. 89.3% spoke English, 2.9% Spanish, 1.3% Korean, 1.1% German and 1.0% Chinese or Mandarin as their first language. There were 26,468 households, out of which 17.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 29.2% were married couples living together, 7.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 60.5% were non-families. 39.1% of all households were made up of individuals, and 7.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.09 and the average family size was 2.76. In the city, the population was spread out, with 12.7% under the age of 18, 42.3% from 18 to 24, 24.6% from 25 to 44, 12.6% from 45 to 64, and 7.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 23 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $25,377, and the median income for a family was $50,054. Males had a median income of $32,470 compared to $26,100 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,481. About 10.3% of families and 29.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.3% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over.

Economy

The Bloomington and Monroe County region is home to major employers representing a diverse collection of fields, including education, the life sciences, advanced manufacturing and technology. Bloomington is a regional economic center anchored by Indiana University and home to a diverse business community involved in pharmaceuticals, medical devices, technology, health care, and the arts. Bloomington's concentration of employment in the life sciences is six times greater than the U.S. average, and employment in the technology sector has grown by over 80 percent in recent years. Companies based in Bloomington include Cook Group, Author Solutions, OneWorld Enterprises, BloomingFoods and Singota Solutions. Bloomington has been recognized by ''Inc. Magazine'' as one of "America's Best Cities for Doing Business" and as one of Entrepreneur Magazine's Top 50 "Hottest Small Cities for Entrepreneurs." Additionally, ''Forbes'' Magazine ranked Bloomington No. 3 in its "Best Places for Business Careers" feature.

Education



Post-secondary education

* Indiana University * Ivy Tech Community College

Elementary schools

* Arlington Heights Elementary School * Bloomington Montessori School * Childs Elementary School * Clear Creek Elementary School * Clear Creek Christian School * Ellettsville Intermediate * Ellettsville Primary * Fairview Elementary School * Grandview Elementary School * Harmony School * Highland Park Elementary School * Lakeview Elementary School * Lighthouse Christian Academy * Marlin Elementary School * Pinnacle School (K–12) * Prep Academy * The Project School (K–8) * Rogers-Binford Elementary School * St. Charles Catholic School * Summit Elementary Schools * Templeton Elementary School * Unionville Elementary School * University Elementary School * Seven Oaks Classical School

Middle schools

* Batchelor Middle School *Edgewood Jr. High * Harmony School * Jackson Creek Middle School * Lighthouse Christian Academy * St. Charles Catholic School * Tri-North Middle School

High schools

* Bloomington High School South * Bloomington High School North *Edgewood High School * The Academy of Science and Entrepreneurship *Bloomington Graduation School * Harmony School * Lighthouse Christian Academy

Others

* Bloomington has a public library, a branch of the Monroe County Public Library. * MCCSC Adult Education

Media



Newspapers

* ''The Herald-Times'' * ''Indiana Daily Student''

Magazines

* ''Bloom Magazine''

Television

* WTIU is a PBS station owned by Indiana University along with its sister radio station WFIU an NPR station. * WTTV is licensed to Bloomington but is based out of Indianapolis as well as its sister station WXIN, which are both owned by Nexstar Media Group. Bloomington also receives stations from Indianapolis and is part of the Indianapolis market. A five-channel public-access television station is housed in the Monroe County Public Library. The station, known as Community Access Television Services or CATS, was established in 1973 and serves as a "dedicated constitutional forum." In April 1995, Rox, a program produced at CATS (then Bloomington Community Access Television), became the first TV series distributed via the web, with an episode titled "Global Village Idiots."

Radio stations

* W203BL 88.9 FM. Owned by and broadcasts Air 1 Radio Network, which is a Christian music radio station. * W241CD 96.1 FM also called Rock 96.1 The Quarry is a rock radio station that plays programming from Westwood One including "96 Rock" WFTK Cincinnati based morning hosts JD & Bridget. It's a sister station to WGCL and WTTS, which are also owned by Sarkes Tarzian, Inc. Tarzain was a prominent figure in town. * WBWB 96.7 FM, also called B97, is a Top 40 radio station and it's a sister station to WHCC. * WCLS 97.7 FM is the Local classic rock music station. * WCYI 104.1 FM is an ultra low powered religious FM radio station broadcast out of St. Charles Borromeo Catholic Church. * WFHB 91.3 and 98.1 in Bloomington, 100.7 in Nashville and 106.3 in Ellettsville. It's the Local Community radio station. * WFIU 103.7 FM The NPR station in town. Owned by Indiana University. * WGCL WGCL AM 1370 and 98.7 FM. WGCL is the local news talk radio station and is a sister station to WTTS and Rock 96.1 The Quarry. * WHCC 105.1 FM, also called Hoosier Country 105, is a local country station which is also one of the flagship stations of Indiana Hoosiers Sports Network along with The Fan 1070 AM. Sister station to WBWB. * WIUX 99.1 FM, The local student radio station of Indiana University. It is a low powered station. * WMYJ 88.9 FM, also called MyJoy Radio, is a Southern Gospel radio station that is licensed to Oolitic, Indiana, and serves the Bloomington, Indiana area. * WOMB 89.9 FM, also called With Our Mother Blessed, is a Christian radio station licensed to Ellettsville, Indiana. * WTTS 92.3 FM is technically licensed to Trafalgar, Indiana. It transits to Bloomington and Indianapolis. It's an Adult Album Alternative station. Sister station to WGCL and Rock 96.1 The Quarry Owned by Sarkes Tarzian, Inc. * WVNI 95.1 and 107.7 FM is also called spirit 95, which is a Christian contemporary music station broadcasting from Nashville, Indiana.

Transportation



Airports

* Monroe County Airport (No Commercial flights) * Indianapolis International Airport (Nearest commercial airport away)


Bicycling


Bloomington is a gold-rated bicycle-friendly community by the League of American Bicyclists. There are several significant bike trails in and around the city, most notably the B-line trail which runs north to south for almost four miles through the core of Downtown Bloomington and south through Switchyard Park. An east to west version is in the works along the 7th street corridor. Bloomington and Indiana University briefly ran a dockless bikeshare program called Pace, launched in June 2018. The program was cancelled after less than a year.

Highways

* * * * * * Bloomington, for many years was one of the largest cities without an interstate or freeway. However, interstate access finally occurred in December 2015 when the Interstate 69 expansion between Evansville and Indianapolis was completed to Bloomington. The upgrading of SR 37 from a 4 Lane Highway to Interstate standards for the next section of I-69 between Bloomington and Martinsville was originally scheduled for completion in August 2016. As of November 2018, the construction was substantially complete. The last section between Martinsville and Indianapolis is scheduled for completion in 2024. State Road 45 (SR 45) and State Road 46 (SR 46) run through Bloomington together on a four-lane highway known as the "bypass". State Road 48 (SR 48) starts as a four-lane highway on the city's west side before narrowing to two-lanes at Oard Rd outside the city limits.

Public Transportation

Local bus service is provided b
Bloomington Transit
Bus service to Indianapolis is provided by regional bus lines. In addition
Campus Commute
provides shuttle service between IU Bloomington and IUPUI/downtown Indianapolis, but only Monday-Friday.

Notable people

Note: This list does not include students attending Indiana University except for locals. Please see List of Indiana University (Bloomington) people for famous alumni. * David Anspaugh, director of ''Hoosiers'' and ''Rudy'' * Kenny Aronoff, drummer * David Baker, symphonic jazz composer * Dee Bradley Baker, voice actor * Arija Bareikis, actress * Paul Baribeau, folk punk singer and musician * Joshua Bell, violinist * Abraham Benrubi, actor * Kent Benson, basketball player * Diane Bish, organist, concert and recording artist, composer and conductor * Lil Bub, famous cat, internet sensation * Joseph O. Butcher, Major General in the Marine Corps * Austin Lucas, singer-songwriter * Meg Cabot, author * Hoagy Carmichael, singer-songwriter * Calbert Cheaney, basketball player, assistant coach for the College Park Skyhawks * Chris Clavin, singer-songwriter, Plan-It-X Records owner * Terri Conn, actress * William Cook, founder of Cook Inc. * James Counsilman, US Olympic swimming coach * John Merle Coulter, former president of Indiana University * Malcolm Dalglish, hammered dulcimer player, composer, and choral director * Grey Damon, actor * John Darnielle, singer-songwriter *Krista Detor, musician * Joe Dowell, singer-songwriter * Andy Fillmore, member of Parliament for Halifax, Nova Scotia * Mick Foley, former professional wrestler and author * Karen Joy Fowler, author * Rex Grossman, former NFL quarterback * David F. Hamilton, Judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit * Jordan Hulls, basketball player * Douglas Hofstadter, cognitive scientist * Elaine Irwin Mellencamp, model * Jared Jeffries, basketball player, Retired * David Starr Jordan, former president of Indiana University and Stanford University * Kraig Kinser, an ARCA driver * Sheldon Kinser, Indy car driver * Steve Kinser, race car driver * Alfred Kinsey, founder of Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender and Reproduction * Amelia Laskey, ornithologist * Brad Leftwich, musician * Ross Lockridge, Jr., novelist, author of ''Raintree County'' * Cory Martin, shot putter * Sean May, former NBA basketball player * John Mellencamp, musician * Maurice Mierau, writer * Denny Miller, actor * Carrie Newcomer, musician * Thubten Jigme Norbu, brother of Tenzin Gyatso, 14th Dalai Lama * Elinor Ostrom, Nobel Prize–winner, political scientist * Jeff Overton, PGA Tour golfer * Angelo Pizzo, screenwriter and producer of ''Hoosiers'' and ''Rudy'' * Kevin Pritchard, NBA front office executive * Scott Rolen, former Major League Baseball player * David Lee Roth, lead singer of band Van Halen * Alfred Ryors, former president of Indiana University * Jeff Sagarin, statistician for sports, contributor to ''USA Today'' * Ronnie Schneider, ATP tennis player * Frithjof Schuon, philosopher and mystic * György Sebők, pianist * János Starker, cellist * John Strohm, singer, guitarist, and lawyer * Jill Bolte Taylor, neuroanatomist * Herman B Wells, former president and chancellor of Indiana University * Camilla Williams, opera singer * Andrew Wylie, first president of Indiana University * Max Zorn, mathematician

Points of interest

* The Bloomington Playwrights Project – produces only new plays by American playwrights * Indiana University Bloomington * Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction (Bloomington) * Lake Lemon - located approximately 10 miles northeast of Bloomington. * Upland Brewing Company – the largest microbrewery in the state of Indiana.

In popular culture

The fictional character Kathryn Janeway from the American science fiction television series ''Star Trek: Voyager'' was born and raised in 2300s Bloomington.


Sister cities


Bloomington has the following sister cities: * Santa Clara, Villa Clara, Cuba * Posoltega, Chinandega, Nicaragua

See also

*List of public art in Bloomington, Indiana

References



External links


City of Bloomington, Indiana website

Greater Bloomington Chamber of Commerce

Tourism Website
* {{Authority control Category:Cities in Indiana Category:Cities in Monroe County, Indiana Category:University towns in the United States Category:County seats in Indiana Category:Bloomington metropolitan area, Indiana Category:1818 establishments in Indiana