AntiquityThe '' '' were the inhabitants of the northernmost part of , which was significantly bigger than modern Belgium. Caesar used the word "''Belgium''" once, to refer to their region. '' '', as it was more commonly called, became a as a result of his conquests. Areas closer to the Rhine frontier, including the eastern part of modern Belgium, eventually became part of the province of '' '', which interacted with outside the empire. At the time when central government collapsed in the , both these provinces were inhabited by a mix of tribes and a more Romanized population.
Middle AgesDuring the 5th century, the area came under the rule of the Frankish kings, who were probably first established in what is northern France. During the 8th century, the kingdom of the Franks evolved and became the . The in 843 divided the Carolingian Empire into three kingdoms, whose borders had a lasting impact on medieval political boundaries. Most of modern Belgium was in the Middle Kingdom, later known as . Only the coastal county of Flanders became part of , the predecessor of . In 870 in the , modern Belgium lands all became part of the western kingdom, and in 880 in the , Lotharingia came under the lasting control of the , but the lordships and bishoprics along the "March" (frontier) between the two great kingdoms maintained important connections between each other. In the 13th and 14th centuries, the cloth industry and commerce boomed in the and it became one of the richest areas in Europe. This prosperity played a role in conflicts between Flanders and the king of France which most famously involved the .
Burgundian and Habsburg NetherlandsMany of these fiefdoms were united in the of the 14th and 15th centuries. The union gave the area economic and political stability which led to an even greater prosperity and artistic creation. , heir of the Burgundians, but also of the royal families of , and ( ), was born in Belgium and then extended the of the in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the and increased his influence over the .
Spanish and Austrian NetherlandsThe (1568–1648) divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces (''Belgica Foederata'' in , the "Federated Netherlands") and the (''Belgica Regia'', the "Royal Netherlands"). The latter were ruled successively by the ( ) and the s ( ) and comprised most of modern Belgium. This was the theatre of several more protracted conflicts during much of the 17th and 18th centuries involving France, including the (1672–1678), the (1688–1697), the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714), and part of the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748). Following the French Revolutionary Wars: Campaigns of 1794, campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countriesincluding territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liègewere annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region. The reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1814, after the abdication of Napoleon.
Independent BelgiumIn 1830, the led to the separation of the Southern Provinces from the Netherlands and to the establishment of a Catholic and bourgeois, officially French-speaking and neutral, independent Belgium under a Provisional Government of Belgium, provisional government and a national Congress of Belgium, national congress. Since the installation of Leopold I of Belgium, Leopold I as king on 1831, now celebrated as Belgium's National Day, Belgium has been a and parliamentary democracy, with a Secularism in Belgium, laicist constitution based on the Napoleonic code. Although the franchise was initially restricted, universal suffrage for men was introduced after the Belgian general strike of 1893, general strike of 1893 (with plural voting until 1919) and for women in 1949. The main political parties of the 19th century were the Catholic Party (Belgium), Catholic Party and the Liberal Party (Belgium), Liberal Party, with the Belgian Labour Party emerging towards the end of the 19th century. French was originally the single official language adopted by the nobility and the bourgeoisie. It progressively lost its overall importance as Dutch became recognized as well. This recognition became official in 1898, and in 1967, the parliament accepted a Dutch version of the Belgian Constitution, Constitution. The Berlin Conference of 1885 ceded control of the Congo Free State to Leopold II of Belgium, King Leopold II as his private possession. From around 1900 there was growing international concern for the Atrocities in the Congo Free State, extreme and savage treatment of the Congolese population under Leopold II, for whom the Congo was primarily a source of revenue from ivory and rubber production. Many Congolese were killed by Leopold's agents for failing to meet production quotas for ivory and rubber. In 1908, this outcry led the Belgian state to assume responsibility for the government of the colony, henceforth called the Belgian Congo. A Belgian commission in 1919 estimated that Congo's population was half what it was in 1879. German invasion of Belgium, Germany invaded Belgium in August 1914 as part of the Schlieffen Plan to attack , and much of the Western Front (World War I), Western Front fighting of World War I occurred in western parts of the country. The opening months of the war were known as the Rape of Belgium due to German excesses. Belgium assumed control of the German colonies of Ruanda-Urundi (modern-day Rwanda and Burundi) during the war, and in 1924 the League of Nations mandated them to Belgium. In the aftermath of the First World War, Belgium annexed the districts of Prussia, Prussian districts of Eupen-Malmedy, Eupen and Malmedy in 1925, thereby causing the presence of a German-speaking minority. Battle of Belgium, German forces again invaded the country in May 1940, and 40,690 Belgians, over half of them Jews, were killed during the subsequent German occupation of Belgium during World War II, occupation and The Holocaust in Belgium, The Holocaust. From September 1944 to February 1945 Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine, the Allies liberated Belgium. After World War II, General strike against Leopold III of Belgium, a general strike forced King Leopold III of Belgium, Leopold III to abdicate in 1951, since Royal Question, many Belgians felt he had collaborated with Germany during the war. The Belgian Congo gained independence in 1960 during the Congo Crisis; Ruanda-Urundi followed with its independence two years later. Belgium joined as a founding member and formed the Benelux group of nations with the Netherlands and Luxembourg. Belgium became one of the six founding members of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1951 and of the European Atomic Energy Community and European Economic Community, established in 1957. The latter has now become the European Union, for which Belgium hosts major administrations and institutions, including the , the and the extraordinary and committee sessions of the . In the early 1990s, Belgium saw several large corruption scandals notably surrounding Marc Dutroux, André Cools, Andre Cools, the Dioxin affair, Dioxin Affair, Agusta scandal, Agusta Scandal and Murder of Karel Van Noppen, Murder of Karen Van Noppen.
GeographyBelgium shares borders with (), (), () and the (). Its total surface, including water area, is . Before 2018, its total area was believed to be . However, when the country's statistics were measured in 2018, a new calculation method was used. Unlike previous calculations, this one included the area from the coast to the low-water line, revealing the country to be larger in surface area than previously thought. Its land area alone is 30,278 km2. It lies between latitudes 49°30' and 51°30' N, and longitudes 2°33' and 6°24' E. Belgium has three main geographical regions; the coastal plain in the northwest and the central plateau both belong to the Anglo-Belgian Basin, and the Ardennes uplands in the southeast to the Variscan orogeny, Hercynian orogenic belt. The Paris Basin reaches a small fourth area at Belgium's southernmost tip, Belgian Lorraine. The coastal plain consists mainly of sand dunes and polders. Further inland lies a smooth, slowly rising landscape irrigated by numerous waterways, with fertile valleys and the northeastern sandy plain of the Campine (''Kempen''). The thickly forested hills and plateaus of the Ardennes are more rugged and rocky with caves and small canyon, gorges. Extending westward into France, this area is eastwardly connected to the Eifel in Germany by the High Fens plateau, on which the Signal de Botrange forms the country's highest point at . Climate of Belgium, The climate is Oceanic climate, maritime temperate with significant precipitation in all seasons (Köppen climate classification: ''Cfb''), like most of northwest Europe. The average temperature is lowest in January at and highest in July at . The average precipitation per month varies between for February and April, to for July. Averages for the years 2000 to 2006 show daily temperature minimums of and maximums of and monthly rainfall of ; these are about 1 °C and nearly 10 millimetres above last century's normal values, respectively. Phytogeography, Phytogeographically, Belgium is shared between the Atlantic European and Central European provinces of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. According to the World Wide Fund for Nature, the territory of Belgium belongs to the terrestrial ecoregions of Atlantic mixed forests and Western European broadleaf forests. Belgium had a 2018 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 1.36/10, ranking it 163rd globally out of 172 countries.
ProvincesThe territory of Belgium is divided into three Regions, two of which, the and , are in turn subdivided into provinces of Belgium, provinces; the third Region, the Brussels Capital Region, is neither a province nor a part of a province.
PoliticsBelgium is a constitutional monarchy, constitutional, popular monarchy and a federalism, federal parliamentary system, parliamentary democracy. The bicameralism, bicameral Belgian Federal Parliament, federal parliament is composed of a Senate (Belgium), Senate and a Chamber of Representatives (Belgium), Chamber of Representatives. The former is made up of 50 senators appointed by the parliaments of the Communities, regions and language areas of Belgium, communities and regions and 10 Senate_(Belgium)#Co-opted_senators, co-opted senators. Prior to 2014, most of the Senate's members were directly elected. The Chambers of parliament, Chamber's 150 representatives are elected under a proportional voting system from 11 Arrondissements of Belgium, electoral districts. Belgium has compulsory voting and thus maintains one of the highest rates of voter turnout in the world. The Monarchy of Belgium, King (currently Philippe of Belgium, Philippe) is the head of state, though with limited Royal Prerogative, prerogatives. He appoints ministers, including a Prime Minister, that have the confidence of the Chamber of Representatives of Belgium, Chamber of Representatives to form the federal government. The Council of Ministers is composed of no more than fifteen members. With the possible exception of the Prime Minister, the Council of Ministers is composed of an equal number of Dutch-speaking members and French-speaking members. The judicial system is based on civil law (legal system), civil law and originates from the Napoleonic code. The Court of Cassation (Belgium), Court of Cassation is the court of last resort, with the Court of appeal (Belgium), courts of appeal one level below.
Political cultureBelgium's political institutions are complex; Pillarisation, most political power is organized around the need to represent the main cultural communities. Since about 1970, the significant national Political parties in Belgium, Belgian political parties have split into distinct components that mainly represent the political and linguistic interests of these communities. The major parties in each community, though close to the political center, belong to three main groups: Christian democracy, Christian Democrats, Liberalism in Belgium, Liberals, and Social democracy, Social Democrats. Further notable parties came into being well after the middle of last century, mainly around List of political parties in Belgium#Linguistic parties, linguistic, nationalist, or environmental themes and recently smaller ones of some specific liberal nature. A string of Christian Democrat coalition governments from 1958 Belgian federal election, 1999, was broken in 1999 after the first dioxine affair, dioxin crisis, a major Food contaminant, food contamination scandal. A "rainbow coalition" emerged from six parties: the Flemish and the French-speaking Liberals, Social Democrats and Greens. Later, a "Purple (government), purple coalition" of Liberals and Social Democrats formed after the Greens lost most of their seats in the Belgian federal election, 2003, 2003 election. The government led by Prime Minister Guy Verhofstadt from 1999 to 2007 achieved a balanced budget, some tax reforms, a labor-market reform, scheduled Nuclear energy policy#Europe, nuclear phase-out and instigated legislation allowing more stringent War Crimes Law (Belgium), war crime and more lenient drug harmfulness, soft drug usage prosecution. Restrictions on withholding euthanasia were reduced and same-sex marriage in Belgium, same-sex marriage legalized. The government promoted active diplomacy in Africa and Governmental positions on the Iraq War prior to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, opposed the invasion of Iraq. It is the only country that does not have age restrictions on euthanasia. Verhofstadt's coalition fared badly in the Belgian federal election, 2007, June 2007 elections. For more than a year, the country experienced a 2007 Belgian government formation, political crisis. This crisis was such that many observers speculated on a possible partition of Belgium. From 2007 until 2008 the temporary Verhofstadt III Government was in office. This coalition of the Christen-Democratisch en Vlaams, Flemish and Humanist Democratic Centre, Francophone Christian Democrats, the Open Vlaamse Liberalen en Democraten, Flemish and Mouvement Réformateur, Francophone Liberals together with the Socialist Party (francophone Belgium), Francophone Social Democrats was an interim government until 2008. On that day a Leterme I Government, new government, led by Flemish Christian Democrat Yves Leterme, the actual winner of the federal elections of , was sworn in by the king. On 2008 Leterme announced the resignation of the cabinet to the king, as no progress in state reform in Belgium, constitutional reforms had been made. In December 2008 he once more offered his resignation to the king after a 2008–2009 Belgian financial crisis, crisis surrounding the sale of Fortis (finance), Fortis to BNP Paribas. At this juncture, his resignation was accepted and Christen-Democratisch en Vlaams, Christian Democratic and Flemish Herman Van Rompuy was sworn in as Prime Minister on 2008. After Herman Van Rompuy was designated the first permanent President of the European Council on 2009, he offered the resignation of his government to King Albert II on 2009. A few hours later, the Leterme II Government, new government under Prime Minister Yves Leterme was sworn in. On 2010, Leterme again offered the resignation of his cabinet to the king after one of the coalition partners, the OpenVLD, withdrew from the government, and on 2010 King Albert officially accepted the resignation. The Parliamentary elections in Belgium on 2010 saw the Flemish nationalist New Flemish Alliance, N-VA become the largest party in Flanders, and the Socialist Party PS the largest party in Wallonia. Until December 2011, Belgium was governed by Leterme's caretaker government awaiting the end of the deadlocked negotiations for 2010–2011 Belgian government formation, formation of a new government. By 30 March 2011 this set a new world record for the elapsed time without an official government, previously held by war-torn Iraq. Finally, in December 2011 the Di Rupo Government led by Walloon socialist Prime Minister Elio Di Rupo was sworn in. The Belgian federal election, 2014, 2014 federal election (coinciding with the Belgian regional elections, 2014, regional elections) resulted in a further electoral gain for the Flemish nationalist N-VA, although the incumbent coalition (composed of Flemish and French-speaking Social Democrats, Liberals, and Christian Democrats) maintains a solid majority in Parliament and in all electoral constituencies. On 22 July 2014, King Philippe nominated Charles Michel (MR) and Kris Peeters (CD&V) to 2014 Belgian government formation, lead the formation of a new federal cabinet composed of the Flemish parties N-VA, CD&V, Open Vld and the French-speaking MR, which resulted in the Michel I Government, Michel Government. It was the first time N-VA was part of the federal cabinet, while the French-speaking side was represented only by the MR, which achieved a minority of the public votes in Wallonia. In May 2019 Belgian federal election, 2019 federal elections in the Flemish-speaking northern region of Flanders far-right Vlaams Belang party made major gains. In the French-speaking southern area of Wallonia the Socialists were strong. The moderate Flemish nationalist party the N-VA remained the largest party in parliament. In July 2019 prime minister Charles Michel was selected to hold the post of President of the . His successor Sophie Wilmès was Belgium’s first female prime minister. She led the caretaker government since October 2019. The Flemish Liberal party politician Alexander De Croo became new prime minister in October 2020. The parties had agreed on federal government 16 months after the elections.
Communities and regionsFollowing a usage which can be traced back to the Burgundian and Habsburg courts, in the 19th century it was necessary to speak French to belong to the governing upper class, and those who could only speak Dutch were effectively second-class citizens. Late that century, and continuing into the 20th century, Flemish movements evolved to counter this situation.#Fitzmaurice, Fitzmaurice (1996), p. 31. While the people in Southern Belgium spoke French or dialects of French, and Frenchification of Brussels, most Brusselers adopted French as their first language, the Flemings refused to do so and succeeded progressively in making Dutch an equal language in the education system. Following World War II, Belgian politics became increasingly dominated by the autonomy of its two main linguistic communities. Intercommunal tensions rose and the constitution was amended to minimize the potential for conflict. Based on the four language areas defined in 1962–63 (the Dutch, bilingual, French and German language areas), consecutive state reform in Belgium, revisions of Constitution of Belgium, the country's constitution in 1970, 1980, 1988 and 1993 established a unique form of a federal state with segregated political power into three levels: # The Belgian federal government, federal government, based in Brussels. # The three language communities: #* the (Dutch-speaking); #* the French Community of Belgium, French Community (French-speaking); #* the German-speaking Community. # The three regions: #* the , subdivided into five provinces of Belgium, provinces; #* the , subdivided into five provinces; #* the . The Language legislation in Belgium, constitutional language areas determine the official languages in their municipalities, as well as the geographical limits of the empowered institutions for specific matters.#Fitzmaurice, Fitzmaurice (1996), p. 121 Although this would allow for seven parliaments and governments when the Communities and Regions were created in 1980, Flemish politicians decided to merge both.#Fitzmaurice, Fitzmaurice (1996), p. 122. Thus the Flemings just have one single institutional body of parliament and government is empowered for all except federal and specific municipal matters. The overlapping boundaries of the Regions and Communities have created two notable peculiarities: the territory of the Brussels-Capital Region (which came into existence nearly a decade after the other regions) is included in both the Flemish and French Communities, and the territory of the German-speaking Community lies wholly within the Walloon Region. Conflicts about jurisdiction between the bodies are resolved by the Constitutional Court of Belgium. The structure is intended as a compromise to allow different cultures to live together peacefully.
Locus of policy jurisdictionThe Federal State's authority includes justice, defense, federal police, social security, nuclear energy, monetary policy and public debt, and other aspects of public finances. State-owned companies include the Belgian Post Group and National Railway Company of Belgium, Belgian Railways. The Federal Government is responsible for the obligations of Belgium and its federalized institutions towards the European Union and NATO. It controls substantial parts of public health, home affairs and foreign affairs. The budget—without the debt—controlled by the federal government amounts to about 50% of the national fiscal income. The federal government employs around 12% of the civil servants. Communities exercise their authority only within linguistically determined geographical boundaries, originally oriented towards the individuals of a Community's language: culture (including audiovisual media), education and the use of the relevant language. Extensions to personal matters less directly connected with language comprise health policy (curative and preventive medicine) and assistance to individuals (protection of youth, social welfare, aid to families, immigrant assistance services, and so on.). Regions have authority in fields that can be broadly associated with their territory. These include economy, employment, agriculture, water policy, housing, public works, energy, transport, the environment, town and country planning, nature conservation, credit and foreign trade. They supervise the provinces, municipalities and intercommunal utility companies. In several fields, the different levels each have their own say on specifics. With education, for instance, the autonomy of the Communities neither includes decisions about the compulsory aspect nor allows for setting minimum requirements for awarding qualifications, which remain federal matters. Each level of government can be involved in scientific research and international relations associated with its powers. The treaty-making power of the Regions' and Communities' Governments is the broadest of all the Federating units of all the Federations all over the world.
Foreign relationsBecause of its location at the crossroads of , Belgium has historically been the route of invading armies from its larger neighbors. With virtually defenseless borders, Belgium has traditionally sought to avoid domination by the more powerful nations which surround it through a policy of mediation. The Belgians have been strong advocates of European integration. Both the and are headquartered in Belgium.
Armed forcesThe Belgian Armed Forces have about 47,000 active troops. In 2019, Belgium's defense budget totaled €4.303 billion ($4.921 billion) representing .93% of its GDP. They are organized into one unified structure which consists of four main components: Belgian Land Component, Land Component, or the Army; Belgian Air Component, Air Component, or the Air Force; Belgian Naval Component, Marine Component, or the Navy; Belgian Medical Component, Medical Component. The operational commands of the four components are subordinate to the Staff Department for Operations and Training of the Ministry of Defence (Belgium), Ministry of Defense, which is headed by the ACOS Operations and Training, Assistant Chief of Staff Operations and Training, and to the Chief of Defence (Belgium), Chief of Defense. The effects of the Second World War made collective security a priority for Foreign relations of Belgium, Belgian foreign policy. In March 1948 Belgium signed the Treaty of Brussels and then joined in 1948. However, the integration of the armed forces into NATO did not begin until after the Korean War. The Belgians, along with the Luxembourg government, sent a detachment of battalion strength to fight in Korea known as the Belgian United Nations Command. This mission was the first in a long line of UN missions which the Belgians supported. Currently, the Belgian Marine Component is working closely together with the Dutch Navy under the command of the Admiral Benelux.
EconomyBelgium's strongly globalized economy and its transport in Belgium, transport infrastructure are integrated with the rest of Europe. Its location at the heart of a highly industrialized region helped make it the world's 15th largest trading nation in 2007. The economy is characterized by a highly productive work force, high Gross national product, GNP and high exports per capita. Belgium's main imports are raw materials, machinery and equipment, chemicals, raw diamonds, pharmaceuticals, foodstuffs, transportation equipment, and oil products. Its main exports are machinery and equipment, chemicals, finished diamonds, metals and metal products, and foodstuffs. The Belgian economy is heavily service-oriented and shows a dual nature: a dynamic Flemish economy and a Walloon economy that lags behind. One of the founding members of the European Union, Belgium strongly supports an open economy and the extension of the powers of EU institutions to integrate member economies. Since 1922, through the Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union, Belgium and Luxembourg have been a single trade market with customs and currency union. Belgium was the first continental European country to undergo the , in the early 19th century. Areas in Liège Province and around rapidly developed mining and steelmaking, which flourished until the mid-20th century in the Sillon industriel, Sambre and Meuse valley and made Belgium one of the three most industrialized nations in the world from 1830 to 1910. However, by the 1840s the textile industry of Flanders was in severe crisis, and the region experienced European Potato Failure, famine from 1846 to 1850. After World War II, and experienced a rapid expansion of the chemical and petroleum industries. The 1973 oil crisis, 1973 and 1979 oil crisis, 1979 oil crises sent the economy into a recession; it was particularly prolonged in Wallonia, where the steel industry had become less competitive and experienced a serious decline. In the 1980s and 1990s, the economic center of the country continued to shift northwards and is now concentrated in the populous Flemish Diamond area. By the end of the 1980s, Belgian macroeconomic policies had resulted in a cumulative government debt of about 120% of GDP. , the budget was balanced and public debt was equal to 90.30% of GDP. In 2005 and 2006, real GDP growth rates of 1.5% and 3.0%, respectively, were slightly above the average for the Euro area. Unemployment rates of 8.4% in 2005 and 8.2% in 2006 were close to the area average. By , this had grown to 8.5% compared to an average rate of 9.6% for the European Union as a whole (EU 27). From 1832 until 2002, Belgium's currency was the Belgian franc. Belgium switched to the euro in 2002, with the first sets of euro coins being minted in 1999. The standard Belgian euro coins designated for circulation show the portrait of the monarch (first King Albert II, since 2013 King Philippe). Despite an 18% decrease observed from 1970 to 1999, Belgium still had in 1999 the highest Rail transport in Belgium, rail network density within the European Union with 113.8 km/1 000 km2. On the other hand, the same period, 1970–1999, has seen a huge growth (+56%) of the List of motorways in Belgium, motorway network. In 1999, the density of km motorways per 1000 km2 and 1000 inhabitants amounted to 55.1 and 16.5 respectively and were significantly superior to the EU's means of 13.7 and 15.9. From a biological resource perspective, Belgium has a low endowment: Belgium's biocapacity adds up to only 0.8 global hectares in 2016, just about half of the 1.6 global hectares of biocapacity available per person worldwide. In contrast, in 2016, Belgians used on average 6.3 global hectares of biocapacity - their ecological footprint of consumption. This means they required about eight times as much biocapacity as Belgium contains. As a result, Belgium was running a biocapacity deficit of 5.5 global hectares per person in 2016. Belgium experiences some of the most congested traffic in Europe. In 2010, commuters to the cities of Brussels and Antwerp spent respectively 65 and 64 hours a year in traffic jams. Like in most small European countries, more than 80% of the airways traffic is handled by a single airport, the Brussels Airport. The port of Antwerp, ports of Antwerp and port of Zeebrugge, Zeebrugge (Bruges) share more than 80% of Belgian maritime traffic, Antwerp being the second European harbor with a gross weight of goods handled of 115 988 000 t in 2000 after a growth of 10.9% over the preceding five years. In 2016, the port of Antwerp handled 214 million tons after a year-on-year growth of 2.7%. There is a large economic gap between Flanders and Wallonia. Wallonia was historically wealthy compared to Flanders, mostly due to its heavy industry, heavy industries, but the decline of the steel industry post-World War II led to the region's rapid decline, whereas Flanders rose swiftly. Since then, Flanders has been prosperous, among the wealthiest regions in Europe, whereas Wallonia has been languishing. As of 2007, the unemployment rate of Wallonia is over double that of Flanders. The divide has played a key part in the tensions between the Flemish and Walloons in addition to the already-existing language divide. Flemish Movement, Pro-independence movements have gained high popularity in Flanders as a consequence. The separatist New Flemish Alliance (N-VA) party, for instance, is the largest party in Belgium.
Science and technologyContributions to the development of science and technology have appeared throughout the country's history. The 16th century Early Modern flourishing of Western Europe included cartography, cartographer Gerardus Mercator, anatomy, anatomist Andreas Vesalius, herbalist Rembert Dodoens and mathematics, mathematician Simon Stevin among the most influential scientists. Chemist Ernest Solvay and engineer Zenobe Gramme (École industrielle de Liège) gave their names to the Solvay process and the Gramme dynamo, respectively, in the 1860s. Bakelite was developed in 1907–1909 by Leo Baekeland. Ernest Solvay also acted as a major philanthropist and gave its name to the Solvay Institute of Sociology, the Solvay Brussels School of Economics and Management and the International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry which are now part of the Université libre de Bruxelles. In 1911, he started a series of conferences, the Solvay Conferences on Physics and Chemistry, which have had a deep impact on the evolution of quantum physics and chemistry. A major contribution to fundamental science was also due to a Belgian, Monsignor Georges Lemaître (Catholic University of Leuven (1834–1968), Catholic University of Louvain), who is credited with proposing the Big Bang theory of the origin of the universe in 1927. Three Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine were awarded to Belgians: Jules Bordet (Université libre de Bruxelles) in 1919, Corneille Heymans (University of Ghent) in 1938 and Albert Claude (Université libre de Bruxelles) together with Christian de Duve (Université catholique de Louvain) in 1974. François Englert (Université libre de Bruxelles) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2013. Ilya Prigogine (Université libre de Bruxelles) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1977. Two Belgian mathematicians have been awarded the Fields Medal: Pierre Deligne in 1978 and Jean Bourgain in 1994.
DemographicsAs of 1 January 2020, the total population of Belgium according to its population register was 11,492,641. The population density of Belgium is as of January 2019, making it the 22nd most densely populated country in the world, and the 6th most densely populated country in Europe. The most densely populated province is Antwerp province, Antwerp, the least densely populated province is Luxembourg (Belgium), Luxembourg. As of January 2019, the had a population of 6,589,069 (57.6% of Belgium), its most populous cities being (523,248), Ghent (260,341) and (118,284). Wallonia had a population of 3,633,795 (31.8% of Belgium) with (201,816), (197,355) and (110,939), its most populous cities. The has 1,208,542 inhabitants (10.6% of Belgium) in the List of municipalities of the Brussels-Capital Region, 19 municipalities, three of which have over 100,000 residents. In 2017 the average total fertility rate (TFR) across Belgium was 1.64 children per woman, below the replacement rate of 2.1, it remains considerably below the high of 4.87 children born per woman in 1873. Belgium subsequently has one of the oldest populations in the world, with the average age of 41.6 years.
Migration, nearly 92% of the population had Belgian citizenship, and other European Union member citizens account for around 6%. The prevalent foreign nationals were Italian (171,918), French (125,061), Dutch (116,970), Morocco, Moroccan (80,579), Portuguese people, Portuguese (43,509), Spanish (42,765), Turkish people, Turkish (39,419) and German (37,621). In 2007, there were 1.38 million foreign-born residents in Belgium, corresponding to 12.9% of the total population. Of these, 685,000 (6.4%) were born outside the EU and 695,000 (6.5%) were born in another EU Member State. At the beginning of 2012, people of foreign background and their descendants were estimated to have formed around 25% of the total population i.e. 2.8 million ''new Belgians''.BuG 155 – Bericht uit het Gewisse – 01 januari 2012
LanguagesBelgium has three official languages: Dutch, French and German. A number of non-official minority languages are spoken as well. As no census exists, there are no official statistical data regarding the distribution or usage of Belgium's three official languages or their dialects. However, various criteria, including the language(s) of parents, of education, or the second-language status of foreign born, may provide suggested figures. An estimated 60% of the Belgian population are native speakers of Dutch (often referred to as Flemish), and 40% of the population speaks French natively. French-speaking Belgians are often referred to as Walloons, although the French speakers in Brussels are not Walloons. The total number of native Dutch speakers is estimated to be about 6.23 million, concentrated in the northern Flanders region, while native French speakers number 3.32 million in Wallonia and an estimated 870,000 (or 85%) in the officially bilingual Brussels-Capital Region.—Strictly, the capital is the municipality Brussels, (City of) Brussels, though the Brussels-Capital Region might be intended because of its name and also its other municipalities housing institutions typical for a capital. The German-speaking Community is made up of 73,000 people in the east of the ; around 10,000 German and 60,000 Belgian nationals are speakers of German. Roughly 23,000 more German speakers live in municipalities near the official Community. The (original
ReligionSince the country's independence, Roman Catholicism has had an important role in Belgium's politics. However Belgium is largely a secular country as the Constitution of Belgium, constitution provides for freedom of religion, and the government generally respects this right in practice. During the reigns of Albert I of Belgium, Albert I and Baudouin I of Belgium, Baudouin, the Belgian royal family had a reputation of deeply rooted Catholicism. Roman Catholicism has traditionally been Belgium's majority religion; being especially strong in Flanders. However, by 2009 Sunday church attendance was 5% for Belgium in total; 3% in Brussels, and 5.4% in Flanders. Church attendance in 2009 in Belgium was roughly half of the Sunday church attendance in 1998 (11% for the total of Belgium in 1998). Despite the drop in church attendance, Catholic identity nevertheless remains an important part of Belgium's culture. According to the Eurobarometer 2010,
HealthThe Belgians enjoy good health. According to 2012 estimates, the average life expectancy is 79.65 years. Since 1960, life expectancy has, in line with the European average, grown by two months per year. Death in Belgium is mainly due to heart and vascular disorders, neoplasms, disorders of the respiratory system and unnatural causes of death (accidents, suicide). Non-natural causes of death and cancer are the most common causes of death for females up to age 24 and males up to age 44. Healthcare in Belgium is financed through both social security contributions and taxation. Health insurance is compulsory. Health care is delivered by a mixed public and private system of independent medical practitioners and public, university and semi-private hospitals. Health care service are payable by the patient and reimbursed later by health insurance institutions, but for ineligible categories (of patients and services) so-called 3rd party payment systems exist. The Belgian health care system is supervised and financed by the federal government, the Flemish and Walloon Regional governments; and the German Community also has (indirect) oversight and responsibilities. For the first time in Belgian history, the first child was euthanized following the 2-year mark of the removal of the euthanization age restrictions. The child had been euthanized due to an incurable disease that was inflicted upon the child. Although there may have been some support for the euthanization there is a possibility of controversy due to the issue revolving around the subject of assisted suicide. Excluding assisted suicide, Belgium has the highest suicide rate in Western Europe and one of the suicide rate by country, highest suicide rates in the developed countries, developed world (exceeded only by Lithuania, South Korea, and Latvia).
EducationEducation is compulsory from 6 to 18 years of age for Belgians. Extracts:
CultureDespite its partition of Belgium, political and linguistic divisions, the region corresponding to today's Belgium has seen the flourishing of major artistic movements that have had tremendous influence on European art and culture. Nowadays, to a certain extent, cultural life is concentrated within each language Community, and a variety of barriers have made a shared cultural sphere less pronounced. Since the 1970s, there are no bilingual universities or colleges in the country except the Royal Military Academy (Belgium), Royal Military Academy and the Antwerp Maritime Academy.
Fine artsContributions to painting and architecture have been especially rich. The Mosan art, the Early Netherlandish painting, Early Netherlandish, the Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting, Flemish Renaissance and Flemish Baroque painting, Baroque painting and major examples of Romanesque architecture, Romanesque, Gothic architecture, Gothic, Renaissance architecture, Renaissance and Baroque architecture are milestones in the history of art. While the 15th century's art in the Low Countries is dominated by the religious paintings of Jan van Eyck and Rogier van der Weyden, the 16th century is characterized by a broader panel of styles such as Pieter Brueghel the Elder, Peter Breughel's landscape paintings and Lambert Lombard's representation of the antique. Though the Baroque style of Peter Paul Rubens and Anthony van Dyck flourished in the early 17th century in the Southern Netherlands, it gradually declined thereafter. During the 19th and 20th centuries many original romanticism, romantic, expressionism, expressionist and surrealism, surrealist Belgian painters emerged, including James Ensor and other artists belonging to the Les XX group, Constant Permeke, Paul Delvaux and René Magritte. The avant-garde COBRA (avant-garde movement), CoBrA movement appeared in the 1950s, while the sculptor Panamarenko remains a remarkable figure in contemporary art. Multidisciplinary artists Jan Fabre, Wim Delvoye and the painter Luc Tuymans are other internationally renowned figures on the contemporary art scene. Belgian contributions to architecture also continued into the 19th and 20th centuries, including the work of Victor Horta and Henry van de Velde, who were major initiators of the Art Nouveau style. The vocal music of the Franco-Flemish School developed in the southern part of the Low Countries and was an important contribution to Renaissance culture. In the 19th and 20th centuries, there was an emergence of major violinists, such as Henri Vieuxtemps, Eugène Ysaÿe and Arthur Grumiaux, while Adolphe Sax invented the saxophone in 1846. The composer César Franck was born in Liège in 1822. Contemporary popular music in Belgium is also of repute. Jazz musician Toots Thielemans and singer Jacques Brel have achieved global fame. Nowadays, singer Stromae has been a musical revelation in Europe and beyond, having great success. In rock/pop music, Telex (band), Telex, Front 242, K's Choice, Hooverphonic, Zap Mama, Soulwax and Deus (band), dEUS are well known. In the heavy metal scene, bands like Machiavel (band), Machiavel, Channel Zero (band), Channel Zero and Enthroned have a worldwide fan-base. Belgium has produced several well-known Belgian literature, authors, including the poets Emile Verhaeren, Guido Gezelle, Robert Goffin and novelists Hendrik Conscience, Stijn Streuvels, Georges Simenon, Suzanne Lilar, Hugo Claus and Amélie Nothomb. The poet and playwright Maurice Maeterlinck won the Nobel Prize in literature in 1911. ''The Adventures of Tintin'' by Hergé is the best known of Franco-Belgian comics, but many other major authors, including Peyo (''The Smurfs''), André Franquin (''Gaston Lagaffe''), Dupa (''Cubitus''), Morris (comics), Morris (''Lucky Luke''), Greg (comics), Greg (''Achille Talon''), Lambil (''Les Tuniques Bleues''), Edgar P. Jacobs and Willy Vandersteen brought the Belgian cartoon strip industry a worldwide fame. Additionally, famous crime author Agatha Christie created the character Hercule Poirot, a Belgian detective, who has served as a protagonist in a number of her acclaimed mystery novels. Cinema of Belgium, Belgian cinema has brought a number of mainly Flemish novels to life on-screen. Other Belgian directors include André Delvaux, Stijn Coninx, Luc Dardenne, Luc and Jean-Pierre Dardenne; well-known actors include Jean-Claude Van Damme, Jan Decleir and Marie Gillain; and successful films include ''Bullhead (film), Bullhead, Man Bites Dog (film), Man Bites Dog'' and ''The Alzheimer Affair''. Belgium is also home to a number of successful fashion designers :Belgian fashion designers. For instance, in the 1980s, Antwerp's Koninklijke Academie voor Schone Kunsten Antwerpen, Royal Academy of Fine Arts produced important fashion trendsetters, known as the Antwerp Six.
FolkloreFolklore plays a major role in Belgium's cultural life: the country has a comparatively high number of processions, cavalcades, parades, '' and 'ducasses', 'kermesse (festival), kermesse' and other local festivals, nearly always with an originally religious or mythology of the Low Countries, mythological background. The Carnival of Binche with its famous Gilles and the 'Processional Giants and Dragons' of Ath, Brussels, Dendermonde, Mechelen and Mons are recognized by UNESCO as Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. Other examples are the Carnival of Aalst; the still very religious processions of procession of the Holy Blood, the Holy Blood in , Virga Jesse Basilica in Hasselt and Basilica of Our Lady of Hanswijk in Mechelen; festival in ; and the Walloon festival in . Originated in 1832 and revived in the 1960s, the Gentse Feesten have become a modern tradition. A major non-official holiday is the Saint Nicholas Day, a festivity for children and, in Liège, for students.
CuisineMany highly ranked Belgian restaurants can be found in the most influential restaurant guides, such as the Michelin Guide. Belgium is famous for beer, chocolate, waffles and french fries with mayonnaise. Contrary to their name, french fries are claimed to have originated in Belgium, although their exact place of origin is uncertain. The national dishes are "Steak frites, steak and fries with salad", and "moules-frites, mussels with fries". Brands of Belgian chocolate and pralines, like Côte d'Or (brand), Côte d'Or, Chocolatier Neuhaus, Neuhaus, Leonidas (chocolate maker), Leonidas and Godiva Chocolatier, Godiva are famous, as well as independent producers such as Burie and Del Rey in Antwerp and Mary's in Brussels. Belgium produces over Belgian beer, 1100 varieties of beer. The Trappist beer of the Westvleteren Brewery, Abbey of Westvleteren has repeatedly been rated the world's best beer. The biggest brewer in the world by volume is Anheuser-Busch InBev, based in .
SportsSince the 1970s, sports clubs and federations are organized separately within each language community. Association football is the most popular sport in both parts of Belgium; also very popular are cycling, tennis, swimming, judo and basketball. Belgians hold List of Tour de France winners, the most Tour de France victories of any country except France. They have also the most victories on the UCI Road World Championships. Philippe Gilbert is the 2012 world champion. Another modern well-known Belgian cyclist is Tom Boonen. With five victories in the Tour de France and numerous other cycling records, Belgian cyclist Eddy Merckx is regarded as one of the greatest cyclists of all time. Jean-Marie Pfaff, a former Belgian goalkeeper, is considered one of the greatest in the history of association football. Belgium hosted the UEFA Euro 1972, 1972 European Football Championships, and co-hosted the UEFA Euro 2000, 2000 European Championships with the Netherlands. The Belgium national football team reached first place in the FIFA World Rankings for the first time in November 2015. Kim Clijsters and Justine Henin both were WTA Awards, Player of the Year in the Women's Tennis Association as they were ranked the number one female tennis player. The Spa-Francorchamps motor-racing circuit hosts the Formula One World Championship Belgian Grand Prix. The Belgian driver, Jacky Ickx, won eight Grands Prix and six 24 Hours of Le Mans and finished twice as runner-up in the Formula One World Championship. Belgium also has a strong reputation in, motocross with the riders Joël Robert, Roger De Coster, Georges Jobé, Eric Geboers and Stefan Everts among others. Sporting events annually held in Belgium include the Memorial Van Damme athletics competition, the Belgian Grand Prix Formula One, and a number of classic cycle races such as the Tour of Flanders and Liège–Bastogne–Liège. The 1920 Summer Olympics were held in Antwerp. The 1977 European Basketball Championship was held in and Ostend.
See also*Index of Belgium-related articles *Outline of Belgium
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