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In Celtic cultures, a bard was a professional
story teller
story teller
, verse-maker, music composer,
oral historian Oral history is the collection and study of historical information about individuals, families, important events, or everyday life using audiotapes, videotapes, or transcriptions of planned interviews. These interviews are conducted with people who ...
and
genealogist Genealogy (from el, γενεαλογία ' "study of family trees") is the study of Family, families, family history, and the tracing of their lineages. Genealogists use oral interviews, historical records, genetic analysis, and other records ...

genealogist
, employed by a patron (such as a monarch or noble) to commemorate one or more of the patron's ancestors and to praise the patron's own activities. Originally bards were a specific lower class of poet, contrasting with the higher rank known as ''
fili
fili
'' in Ireland and Highland Scotland. With the decline of a living
bardic tradition Bardic poetry is the writings produced by a class of poet A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may describe themselves as such or be described as such by others. A poet may simply be a writer of poetry, or may perform their art to an ...
in the modern period, the term has loosened to mean a generic
minstrel A minstrel was a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of ...
or author (especially a famous one). For example,
William Shakespeare William Shakespeare ( 26 April 1564 – 23 April 1616) was an English playwright, poet and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's greatest dramatist. He is often called England's and the " of A ...

William Shakespeare
and
Rabindranath Tagore Rabindranath Tagore (; born Rabindranath Thakur, 7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941; Gurudev, Kobiguru, Biswakobi) was an —poet, writer, playwright, composer, philosopher, social reformer and painter. He reshaped and as well as with ...

Rabindranath Tagore
are respectively known as "the Bard of Avon" (often simply "the Bard") and "the Bard of Bengal".Oxford Dictionary of English


Etymology

The English term ''bard'' is a
loan word A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguis ...
from the
Celtic languages The Celtic languages ( , ) are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the ancestral proto-language In the tree model In historical linguistics Historica ...
:
Gaulish Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language The Celtic languages ( , ) are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the ancestral proto-language of all the known Celti ...
: ''bardos'' ('bard, poet'), mga, bard ('bard, poet'), , wlm, bardd ('singer, poet'),
Middle Breton A Breton speaker, recorded in Canada. Breton (; ; or in Morbihan Morbihan (; ; br, Mor-Bihan, ) is a departments of France, department in the Regions of France, administrative region of Brittany (administrative region), Brittany, situated ...
''barz'' ('minstrel'),
Old Cornish . Cornish (Standard Written Form: or ) is a Southwestern Brittonic language, Southwestern Brittonic languages, Brittonic language of the Celtic language family. It is a List of revived languages, revived language, having become extinct as a fir ...
: ('jester')''.'' The ancient Gaulish word is attested as in Latin and (
plur.
plur.
) in Ancient Greek. All of these terms come from the
Proto-Celtic The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the ancestral proto-language In the tree model In historical linguistics Historical linguistics, also termed diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change ...
, itself derived from the
Proto-Indo-European Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the theorized common ancestor of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( ...
compound Compound may refer to: Architecture and built environments * Compound (enclosure), a cluster of buildings having a shared purpose, usually inside a fence or wall ** Compound (fortification), a version of the above fortified with defensive structu ...
'' '', which literally means 'praise-maker'. In 16th-century Scotland, it was a derogatory term for an
itinerant An itinerant is a person who travels habitually. Itinerant may refer to: *"Travellers" or itinerant groups in Europe *Itinerant preacher, also known as itinerant minister *Travelling salespeople, see door-to-door, hawker (trade), hawker, and peddler ...
musician; nonetheless it was later romanticised by Sir
Walter Scott Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet (15 August 1771 – 21 September 1832), was a Scottish historical novelist, poet, playwright and historian. Many of his works remain classics of European and Scottish literature, notably the novels ''Ivanhoe'', ' ...

Walter Scott
.


Origin

In medieval
Gaelic Gaelic is an adjective that means "pertaining to the Gaels". As a noun it refers to the group of languages spoken by the Gaels, or to any one of the languages individually. Gaelic languages are spoken in Ireland, Scotland, and the Isle of Man. Whe ...

Gaelic
and
Welsh Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a Brittonic Celtic language of the Indo-European language family, indigenous to the British Isles, spoken in Wales ** Patagonian Welsh, a dialect of Wels ...

Welsh
society, a ''bard'' (
Scottish Scottish usually refers to something of, from, or related to Scotland, including: *Scottish Gaelic, a Celtic Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family native to Scotland *Scottish English *Scottish national identity, the Scottish iden ...
and Irish Gaelic) or ''bardd'' (
Welsh Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a Brittonic Celtic language of the Indo-European language family, indigenous to the British Isles, spoken in Wales ** Patagonian Welsh, a dialect of Wels ...
) was a professional poet, employed to compose
eulogies A eulogy (from εὐλογία, ''eulogia'', Ancient Greek language, Classical Greek, ''eu'' for "well" or "true", ''logia'' for "words" or "text", together for "praise") is a Speech (public address), speech or writing in praise of a person or p ...
for his
lord Lord is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power (social and political), power over others, acting as a master, a chief, or a ruler. The appellation can also denote certain persons who hold a title of the Peera ...

lord
. If the employer failed to pay the proper amount, the bard would then compose a satire (c.f. '''', ''
fáith In modern English, the nouns vates () and ovate (, ), are used as technical terms for ancient Celtic bards In Celtic cultures, a bard was a professional story teller, verse-maker, music composer, oral historian Oral history is the collectio ...
''). In other Indo-European societies, the same function was fulfilled by
skald A Skald, or skáld (Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germanic languages, North Germanic dialects before their final divergence into separate Nordic languages. Old Norse was spoken b ...
s,
rhapsode A rhapsode ( el, ῥαψῳδός, "rhapsōidos") or, in modern usage, rhapsodist, refers to a classical Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek (modern , romanized: ''Elliniká'', Ancient Greek, ancient , ' ...
s,
minstrel A minstrel was a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of ...
s and ''
scop A ( or ) was a poet as represented in Old English poetry. The scop is the Old English counterpart of the Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian was a North Germanic languages, North Germanic language that was spoken by inh ...
s'', among others. A hereditary caste of professional poets in
Proto-Indo-European society Proto-Indo-European society is the reconstructed culture of Proto-Indo-Europeans The Proto-Indo-Europeans were a hypothetical prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, a ...
has been reconstructed by comparison of the position of poets in medieval Ireland and in ancient India in particular. Bards (who are not the same as the Irish 'filidh' or 'fili') were those who sang the songs recalling the tribal warriors' deeds of bravery as well as the genealogies and family histories of the ruling strata among
Celt The Celts (, see Names of the Celts#Pronunciation, pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: Celtic a collection of Indo-European languages, ...

Celt
ic societies. The pre-Christian Celtic peoples recorded no written histories; however, Celtic peoples did maintain an intricate oral history committed to memory and transmitted by bards and filid. Bards facilitated the memorisation of such materials by the use of
metre The metre ( Commonwealth spelling) or meter (American spelling Despite the various English dialects spoken from country to country and within different regions of the same country, there are only slight regional variations in English o ...
,
rhyme A rhyme is a repetition of similar sounds (usually, exactly the same sound) in the final stressed syllables and any following syllables of two or more words. Most often, this kind of perfect rhyming is consciously used for a musical or aesthetic e ...
and other formulaic poetic devices. One of the most notable bards in Irish mythology was Amergin Glúingel, a bard, druid and judge for the Milesians.


History


India

In India, the bards are generically known as ''Bhats''. Jeffrey G. Snodgrass (professor of anthropology at the
Colorado State University Colorado State University (Colorado State or CSU) is a Public university, public Land-grant university, land-grant research university in Fort Collins, Colorado. It is the flagship university of the Colorado State University System. Colorado St ...
) states that "'Bhat' is a generic term for 'bard', applied to a range of
mythographers Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or origin myths. The main characters in myths are usually gods, demigods, or supernatural humans.Jacqueline Simpson, Simpson, ...
including those employed by village nobles."


Ireland

In medieval Ireland, bards were one of two distinct groups of poets, the other being the ''''. According to the
Early Irish law , County Tipperary, although built by the Normans, was later occupied by the MacEgan juristic family and served as a school of Irish law under them Early Irish law, historically referred to as Féineachas (English: Freeman-ism) or Dlí na Féine ( ...
text on status, ''
Uraicecht Becc ''Uraicecht Becc'' (Old Irish for "Small Primer"; ''uraicecht'' is a variant of ''airaiccecht'' 'air''- 'before' + ''aiccecht'' 'instruction,' from Latin ''acceptum'' 'primer') is an Old Irish legal tract on status. Of all status tracts, it has the ...
'', bards were a lesser class of poets, not eligible for higher poetic roles as described above. However, it has also been argued that the distinction between ''filid'' (pl. of ''fili'') and bards was a creation of Christian Ireland, and that the ''filid'' were more associated with the church.Breatnach, Liam. '' Uraicecht na Ríar'', ca. p. 98 By the Early Modern Period, these names came to be used interchangeably. Irish bards formed a professional hereditary
caste Caste is a form of social stratification Social stratification refers to a society's categorization of its people into groups based on Socioeconomic status, socioeconomic factors like wealth, income, Race (human categorization), race, educati ...
of highly trained, learned poets. The bards were steeped in the history and traditions of
clan A clan is a group of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousness, and being a part of ...

clan
and country, as well as in the technical requirements of a verse technique that was
syllabicSyllabic may refer to: *Syllable, a unit of speech sound, considered the building block of words **Syllabic consonant, a consonant that forms the nucleus of a syllable *Syllabary, writing system using symbols for syllables *Abugida, writing system us ...
and used
assonance Assonance is a resemblance in the sounds of words/syllables either between their vowels (e.g., ''meat, bean'') or between their consonants (e.g., ''keep, cape''). However, assonance between consonants is generally called ''consonance'' in American ...
,
half rhymePerfect rhyme—also called full rhyme, exact rhyme, or true rhyme—is a form of rhyme between two words or phrases, satisfying the following conditions: *The stressed vowel sound in both words must be identical, as well as any subsequent s ...
and
alliteration In literature Literature broadly is any collection of Writing, written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an art form, especially prose fiction, drama, and poetry. In recent centuries, the definiti ...
, among other conventions. As officials of the court of king or chieftain, they performed a number of official roles. They were
chronicle A chronicle ( la, chronica, from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its pop ...

chronicle
rs and satirists whose job it was to praise their employers and damn those who crossed them. It was believed that a well-aimed bardic satire, , could raise boils on the face of its target. The bardic system lasted until the mid-17th century in Ireland and the early 18th century in Scotland. In Ireland, their fortunes had always been linked to the Gaelic aristocracy, which declined along with them during the Tudor Reconquest. The early history of the bards can be known only indirectly through mythological stories. The first mention of the bardic profession in Ireland is found in the
Book of Invasions A book is a medium for recording information in the form of writing or images, typically composed of many page (paper), pages (made of papyrus, parchment, vellum, or paper) bookbinding, bound together and protected by a book cover, cover. The t ...
, in a story about the Irish colony of
Tuatha Dé Danann The Tuath(a) Dé Danann (, meaning "the folk of the goddess Danu"), also known by the earlier name Tuath Dé ("tribe of the gods"),Koch, John T. ''Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia''. ABC-CLIO, 2006. pp.1693-1695 are a supernatural rac ...
(Peoples of Goddess Danu), also called Danonians. They became the '' aos sí'' (folk of the mound), comparable to Norse '' alfr'' and British
fairy A fairy (also ''fay'', ''fae'', ''fey'', ''fair folk'', or ''faerie'') is a type of mythical Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions com ...

fairy
. During the tenth year of the reign of the last Belgic monarch, the people of the colony of Tuatha Dé Danann, as the Irish called it, invaded and settled in Ireland. They were divided into three tribes—the tribe of Tuatha who were the nobility, the tribe of De who were the priests (those devoted to serving God or De) and the tribe of Danann, who were the bards. This account of the Tuatha Dé Danann must be considered legendary; however the story was an integral part of the oral history of Irish bards themselves.


Scotland

The best-known group of bards in Scotland were the members of the MacMhuirich family, who flourished from the 15th to the 18th centuries. The family was centred in the
Hebrides The Hebrides (; gd, Innse Gall, ; non, Suðreyjar, "southern isles") are a Scottish Scottish usually refers to something of, from, or related to Scotland, including: *Scottish Gaelic, a Celtic Goidelic language of the Indo-European language ...
, and claimed descent from a 13th-century Irish bard who, according to legend, was exiled to Scotland. The family was at first chiefly employed by the
Lords of the Isles The Lord of the Isles or King of the Isles ( gd, Triath nan Eilean or ) is a title of Peerage of Scotland, Scottish nobility with historical roots that go back beyond the Kingdom of Scotland. It began with Somerled in the 12th century and th ...
as poets, lawyers, and physicians. With the fall of the Lordship of the Isles in the 15th century, the family was chiefly employed by the
chiefs Chief may refer to: Title or rank Military and law enforcement * Chief master sergeant, is the ninth, and highest, enlisted rank in the U.S. Air Force, * Chief of police, the head of a police department * Chief of the boat, the senior enlis ...
of the
MacDonalds of Clanranald Clan MacDonald of Clanranald, also known as Clan Ranald or Clan Ronald ( gd, Clann Raghnaill ), is a Highland Scottish clan A Scottish clan (from Gaelic , literally 'children', more broadly 'kindred') is a kinship In anthropology, kins ...
. Members of the family were also recorded as musicians in the early 16th century, and as clergymen possibly as early as the early 15th century. The last of the family to practise classical Gaelic poetry was Domhnall MacMhuirich, who lived on
South Uist South Uist ( gd, Uibhist a Deas, ; sco, Sooth Uist) is the second-largest island of the Outer Hebrides The Outer Hebrides () or Western Isles ( gd, Na h-Eileanan Siar or ; sco, Waster Isles), sometimes known as ("islands of the strange ...

South Uist
in the 18th century. In Gaelic-speaking areas, a village bard or village poet ( gd, bàrd-baile) is a local poet who composes works in a traditional style relating to that community. Notable village bards include Dòmhnall Ruadh Chorùna and .


Wales

A number of bards in
Welsh mythology Welsh mythology consists of both folk traditions developed in Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth ...
have been preserved in
medieval Welsh literature Medieval Welsh literature is the literature Literature broadly is any collection of Writing, written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an art form, especially prose fiction, drama, and poetry. ...
such as the
Red Book of Hergest The ''Red Book of Hergest'' ( cy, Llyfr Coch Hergest, Oxford, Jesus College, MS 111) is a large vellum 267px, A vellum seal Seal may refer to any of the following: Common uses * Pinniped Pinnipeds (pronounced ), commonly known as seals ...
, the
White Book of Rhydderch The White Book of Rhydderch (Welsh: ''Llyfr Gwyn Rhydderch'', National Library of Wales, Peniarth MS 4-5) is one of the most notable and celebrated surviving manuscript A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, tradit ...
, the
Book of Aneirin The Book of Aneirin ( cy, Llyfr Aneirin) is a late 13th century Wales, Welsh manuscript containing Old Welsh language, Old and Middle Welsh language, Middle Welsh poetry attributed to the late 6th century Northern Brythonic poet, Aneirin, who is be ...
and the
Book of Taliesin The Book of Taliesin ( cy, Llyfr Taliesin) is one of the most famous of Middle Welsh manuscripts, dating from the first half of the 14th century though many of the fifty-six poems it preserves are taken to originate in the 10th century or before. ...
. The bards
Aneirin Aneirin or Neirin was an early Medieval The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, sometimes referred to as the Dark Ages, is typically regarded by historians as lasting from the late 5th or early 6th century A century is a period of ...
and
Taliesin Taliesin ( , ; 6th century AD) was an early Britons (Celtic people), Brittonic poet of Sub-Roman Britain whose work has possibly survived in a Middle Welsh manuscript, the ''Book of Taliesin''. Taliesin was a renowned bard who is believed to h ...

Taliesin
may be legendary reflections of historical bards active in the 6th and 7th centuries. Very little historical information about Dark Age Welsh court tradition survives, but the Middle Welsh material came to be the nucleus of the
Matter of Britain The Matter of Britain is the body of medieval literature Medieval literature is a broad subject, encompassing essentially all written works available in Europe and beyond during the Middle Ages (that is, the one thousand years from the fa ...
and
Arthurian legend The Matter of Britain is the body of medieval literature and legendary material associated with Great Britain and Brittany, and the list of legendary kings of Britain, legendary kings and heroes associated with it, particularly King Arthur. I ...
as they developed from the 13th century. The (Welsh) Laws of Hywel Dda, originally compiled around 900, identify a bard as a member of a king's household. His duties, when the bodyguard were sharing out booty, included the singing of the sovereignty of Britain—possibly why the genealogies of the British high kings survived into the written historical record. The royal form of bardic tradition ceased in the 13th century, when the 1282
Edwardian conquest The conquest of Wales by Edward I, sometimes referred to as the Edwardian Conquest of Wales,Examples of historians using the term include Professor J.E. Lloyd, regarded as the founder of the modern academic study of Welsh history, in his ''Histo ...
permanently ended the rule of the Welsh princes. The legendary suicide of ''The Last Bard'' (c. 1283), was commemorated in the poem ''
The Bards of Wales ''The Bards of Wales'' ( hu, A walesi bárdok) is a ballad A ballad is a form of verse, often a narrative set to music. Ballads derive from the medieval French ''chanson balladée'' or '' ballade'', which were originally "dance songs". Ballads ...
'' by the
HungarianHungarian may refer to: * Hungary, a country in Central Europe * Kingdom of Hungary, state of Hungary, existing between 1000 and 1946 * Hungarians, ethnic groups in Hungary * Hungarian algorithm, a polynomial time algorithm for solving the assignmen ...

Hungarian
poet János Arany in 1857, as a way of encoded resistance to the suppressive politics of his own time. However, the poetic and musical traditions were continued throughout the Middle Ages, e.g., by noted 14th-century poets
Dafydd ap Gwilym Dafydd ap Gwilym ( 1315/1320 – 1350/1370) is regarded as one of the leading Welsh people, Welsh poets and amongst the great poets of Europe in the Middle Ages. Life R. Geraint Gruffydd suggests 1315- 1350 as the poet's dates; others place ...
and
Iolo Goch Iolo Goch (c. 1320 – c. 1398) (meaning ''Iolo the Red'' in English) was a medieval Welsh Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a Brittonic Celtic language of the Indo-European language ...
. The tradition of regularly assembling bards at an
eisteddfod In Welsh culture Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a country that is Countries of the United Kingdom, part of the United Kingdom. It is bordered by England to the Wales–England border, east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bris ...
never lapsed, and was strengthened by formation of the
Gorsedd A gorsedd (, plural ''gorseddau'') is a secret society of modern-day bards. The word is of Welsh origin, meaning "throne". It is often spelled gorsedh in Cornwall Cornwall (; kw, Kernow ) is a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial ...
by
Iolo Morganwg Edward Williams, better known by his bardic name Iolo Morganwg (; 10 March 1747 – 18 December 1826), was a Welsh antiquarian 's cabinet of curiosities, from ''Museum Wormianum,'' 1655 An antiquarian or antiquary (from the Latin: ''antiquari ...

Iolo Morganwg
in 1792, establishing Wales as the major Celtic upholder of bardic tradition in the 21st century. Many regular ''eisteddfodau'' are held in Wales, including the
National Eisteddfod of Wales The National Eisteddfod of Wales (Welsh Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a Brittonic Celtic language of the Indo-European language family, indigenous to the British Isles, spoken in Wal ...
(), which was instituted in 1861 and has been held annually since 1880. Many Welsh schools conduct their own annual versions at which bardic traditions are emulated.e.g.
Our Eisteddfod
at St Julian's School, Newport, 19 March 2013. Accessed 20 June 2013


Literature

From its frequent use in Romanticism, 'The Bard' became attached as a title to various poets, * 'The Bard of Armagh' is Martin Hearty * 'The Bard of Avon,' 'The Immortal Bard' or (in England) simply 'The Bard' is
William Shakespeare William Shakespeare ( 26 April 1564 – 23 April 1616) was an English playwright, poet and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's greatest dramatist. He is often called England's and the " of A ...

William Shakespeare
* 'The Bard of Ayrshire' (or in Scotland, simply 'The Bard') is
Robert Burns The name Robert is an ancient Germanic given name, from Proto-Germanic "fame" and "bright" (Hrōþiberhtaz). Compare Old Dutch ''Robrecht'' and Old High German ''Hrodebert'' (a compound of ''Hrōþ, Hruod'' (Old Norse: Hróðr) "fame, glory ...

Robert Burns
* 'The Bard of Bengal' is
Rabindranath Tagore Rabindranath Tagore (; born Rabindranath Thakur, 7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941; Gurudev, Kobiguru, Biswakobi) was an —poet, writer, playwright, composer, philosopher, social reformer and painter. He reshaped and as well as with ...

Rabindranath Tagore
* 'The Bard of Olney' is
William Cowper William Cowper ( ; 26 November 1731 – 25 April 1800) was an English poet and hymnodist. One of the most popular poets of his time, Cowper changed the direction of 18th-century nature poetry by writing of everyday life and scenes of the ...
* 'The Bard of Rydal Mount' is
William Wordsworth William Wordsworth (7 April 177023 April 1850) was an English Romantic Romantic may refer to: Genres and eras * The Romantic era, an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement of the 18th and 19th centuries ** Romantic music, of ...

William Wordsworth
* 'The Bard of Salford' is
John Cooper Clarke John Cooper Clarke (born 25 January 1949) is an English performance poet, who first became famous as a " punk poet" in the late 1970s. In the late 1970s and early 1980s he released several albums. Around this time he performed on stage with seve ...
* 'The Bard of Twickenham' is
Alexander Pope Alexander Pope (21 May 1688 – 30 May 1744) is seen as one of the greatest English poets and the foremost poet of the early 18th century. He is best known for satirical and discursive poetry, including ''The Rape of the Lock ''The Rape of ...

Alexander Pope
* Australian
bush poet The bush ballad, bush song or bush poem is a style of poetry Poetry (derived from the Greek language, Greek ''poiesis'', "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetics, aesthetic and often rhythmic qualities of language—such as ...
s such as
Henry Lawson Henry Archibald Hertzberg Lawson (17 June 1867 – 2 September 1922) was an Australian writer and bush poet. Along with his contemporary Banjo Paterson, Lawson is among the best-known Australian poets and fiction writers of the colonial period a ...

Henry Lawson
and
Banjo Paterson Andrew Barton "Banjo" Paterson, (17 February 18645 February 1941) was an Australian bush poet The bush ballad, bush song or bush poem is a style of poetry Poetry (derived from the Greek language, Greek ''poiesis'', "making") is a f ...
are referred to as 'bush bards' *
Bob Dylan Bob Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman; May 24, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter, author and visual artist. Often regarded as one of the greatest songwriters of all time, Dylan has been a major figure in for more than 50 years. Much of ...

Bob Dylan
, Jim MacCool and the band
Blind Guardian Blind Guardian is a German power metal band formed in 1984 in Krefeld, West Germany. They are often credited as one of the seminal and most influential bands in the power metal and speed metal Speed metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy ...
have also been termed 'bards'


Popular Culture

From its Romanticist usage, the notion of the bard as a minstrel with qualities of a priest, magician or seer also entered the
fantasy Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction involving Magic (supernatural), magical elements, typically set in a fictional universe and sometimes inspired by mythology and folklore. Its roots are in oral traditions, which then became fantasy lit ...

fantasy
genre in the 1960s to 1980s, for example as the '
Bard In Celtic cultures, a bard was a professional story teller, verse-maker, music composer, oral historian Oral history is the collection and study of historical information about individuals, families, important events, or everyday life using a ...
' class in
Dungeons & Dragons ''Dungeons & Dragons'' (commonly abbreviated as ''D&D'' or ''DnD'') is a fantasy tabletop role-playing game (RPG) originally designed by Gary Gygax and Dave Arneson. It was first published in 1974 by TSR (company)#Tactical Studies Rules, Tacti ...
, 'Bard' class in Pathfinder RPG—Paizo, ''Bard'' by Keith Taylor (1981), '' Bard: The Odyssey of the Irish'' by
Morgan Llywelyn Morgan Llywelyn (born December 3, 1937) is an American-Irish historical interpretation author of Historical fiction, historical and Mythic fiction, mythological fiction and history, historical non-fiction. Her interpretation of mythology and his ...
(1984), and in video games in fantasy settings such as '' The Bard's Tale'' (1985). As of 2020, an online trend to cover modern songs using medieval style musical instruments and composition, including rewriting the lyrics in a medieval style, is known as bardcore.


See also

*Aois-dàna *Bard (Dungeons & Dragons) *Bard (League of Legends) *Bard (Soviet Union) *Cacofonix *Charan (India) *Contention of the bards *Druid *Fili *
Gorsedd A gorsedd (, plural ''gorseddau'') is a secret society of modern-day bards. The word is of Welsh origin, meaning "throne". It is often spelled gorsedh in Cornwall Cornwall (; kw, Kernow ) is a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial ...
*Gorseth Kernow (Cornwall) *Griot *Poet as legislator *Skald *''
The Bards of Wales ''The Bards of Wales'' ( hu, A walesi bárdok) is a ballad A ballad is a form of verse, often a narrative set to music. Ballads derive from the medieval French ''chanson balladée'' or '' ballade'', which were originally "dance songs". Ballads ...
'' *The Bard's Tale (1985 video game) *Vates *Welsh bardic music


References

*Joseph Cooper Walker, Walker, Joseph C., ''Historical Memoirs of the Irish Bards''. New York: Garland, 1971.


External links


Irish Bardic Poetry
Corpus of Electronic Texts, University College Cork. * {{Authority control Occupations in music Celtic culture History of Wales Irish literature Scottish literature Welsh literature Welsh folk music Welsh poets, Welsh poets Medieval Ireland Culture of medieval Scotland Cornish culture Romanticism Eisteddfod Medieval performers Poets