Early historyThe recorded history of the Ballymena area dates to the period from the 5th to the 7th centuries. Ringforts are found in the of Ballykeel and a site known as Camphill Fort in the townland of Ballee may also have been of this type. There are a number of sites within a radius of the centre of Ballymena. north in the townland of Kirkinriola, the ancient parish church and graveyard possess several indicators of Early Christian settlement, including a souterrain. Also in 1868, a gravedigger found a large stone slab on which was carved a cross with the inscription ''ord do degen''. This refers to Bishop Degen, who lived in Ireland during the 7th century. This stone is now in the porch of St. Patrick's Church of Ireland, at the end of Castle Street. At the end of the 5th century, a church was founded in Connor, south of Ballymena. This was followed by a monastery at Templemoyle, Kells. In 831, however, the Norse invaded the Ballymena area and burned the church. In the 12th century, the conquered much of and after having taken over England the century before. They created the core of the Earl of Ulster, Earldom of Ulster. During this campaign, they built great mounds of earth topped by wooden towers, referred to as ''mottes'', as defensive structures. The Harryville (Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster-Scots: ''Herrieville'') area's motte-and-bailey is one of the best examples of this type of fortification in Northern Ireland. Some sources, however, credit the Loughinsholin, Uí Fhloinn with building the mid-Antrim mottes and baileys in imitation of the invaders; the Uí Fhloinn defeated and repelled the Earl of Ulster, John de Courcy, in 1177 and 1178. In 1315, Edward Bruce (brother of King Robert I of Scotland, known as "Robert the Bruce") invaded Ireland. On 10 September 1315, at the Battle of Tawnybrack ( south of Ballymena at Kells), Edward conquered the army of Richard Óg de Burgh, 2nd Earl of Ulster, Richard De Burgo, the Normans, Norman Earl of Ulster.
Post-medievalIn 1576, Elizabeth I of England, Queen Elizabeth I of England granted land, including the town of Ballymena, to Thomas Smith (diplomat), Sir Thomas Smith. The lands had been forfeited to the crown after Shane O'Neill's resistance in the 1560s. Smith brought English settlers to the area, among the first pioneers in planting English and Scots settlers in Ireland. By 1581, Smith's settlement failed and the lands reverted to the crown. On 10 May 1607, the Scottish king James VI also James I of England, King James I of England granted the native Irish chief, Ruairí Óg MacQuillan the Ballymena Estate. The estate passed through several owners, eventually passing into the possession of William Adair, a Scottish laird from Kinhilt in southwestern Scotland. The estate was temporarily renamed "Kinhilstown" after Adair's lands in Scotland. The original castle of Ballymena was built in the early 17th century, situated to take advantage of an ancient ford at the River Braid. In 1626 Charles I of England, Charles I confirmed the grant of the Ballymena Estate to William Adair, giving him the right to hold a market at Ballymena on every Saturday. He hired local Irish as workers on the estate; they served as tenant farmers for much of the next two centuries and more. In 1641, the local Ballymena garrison were defeated by Irish rebels in the battle of Bundooragh. Ballymena's first market house (on the site of the present town hall) was built in 1684. In 1690, the Duke of Württemberg, a Williamite general, used Galgorm Castle as his headquarters. Robert Adair (politician), Sir Robert Adair raised a Regiment of Foot for William III of England, King William III and fought at the Battle of the Boyne. By 1704, the population of Ballymena had reached 800. In 1707, the first Protestantism, Protestant (Church of Ireland) parish church was built. In 1740, the original Ballymena Castle burned down. The Gracehill Moravian Church, Moravian settlement was founded in 1765. During the Irish Rebellion of 1798, 1798 rebellion, Ballymena was occupied from 7 to 9 June by a force of around 10,000 United Irishmen. They stormed the Market House (now the Town Hall), killing three of its defenders. The first modern Roman Catholicism in the United Kingdom, Roman Catholic Church in Ballymena was consecrated in 1827. By 1834 the population of Ballymena was about 4,000. In 1848 the Belfast and Ballymena Railway was established. In 1865 Robert Adair, 1st Baron Waveney, Robert Alexander Shafto Adair (late Baron Waveney) started building Ballymena Castle, a magnificent family residence, in the Demesne. The castle was not completed until 1887. In 1870 The People's Park, Ballymena, The People's Park was established.
Twentieth centuryIn 1900, Ballymena assumed urban status. Under the provisions of the Land Purchase (Ireland) Act 1903, the Adairs disposed of most of their Ballymena estate to the occupying tenants in 1904. The "old" town hall building, which also contained the post office and estate office, burned down in 1919. George VI of the United Kingdom, Prince Albert, Duke of York (later George VI of the United Kingdom, King George VI) laid the cornerstone to the new town hall on 24 July 1924, and it was officially opened on 20 November 1928. The Urban District Council petitioned for borough status and the Charter was granted in December 1937. The first meeting of councillors as a borough Council was held on 23 May 1939. The population of Ballymena reached 13,000. Ballymena Castle was demolished in the 1950s. In 1973, the Urban and Rural District Councils were merged to create Ballymena (borough), Ballymena Borough Council. Following local government reoganisation in 2015, the Borough Council was merged with the Boroughs of Carrickfergus, Carrickfergus Borough Council and Larne, Larne Borough Council. During the World War II, Second World War, Ballymena was home to a large number of evacuees from Gibraltar. They were housed with local families. In the 1950s St Patrick's Barracks in Ballymena was the Regimental Training Depot of the Royal Ulster Rifles (83rd & 86th). Many young men who had been conscripted on the United Kingdom mainland, along with others who had volunteered for service in the British Army, embarked upon their period of basic training in the Regimental Depot, prior to being posted to the regular regimental battalions. Many of these young men were to serve in Korea, Cyprus and with the British Army of the Rhine. In 1968 due to a series of government austerity measures, the remaining three Irish regiments, Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers (27th) Royal Ulster Rifles (83rd & 86th) and the Royal Irish Fusiliers (89th) merged to become the Royal Irish Rangers. Early in the 1990s the The Royal Irish Regiment (27th (Inniskilling) 83rd and 87th and Ulster Defence Regiment), Royal Irish Regiment, whose Regimental Headquarters was at St Patrick's Barracks, was granted the Freedom of the Borough. Like other towns in Northern Ireland, The Troubles in Ballymena, Ballymena was affected by the Troubles, a lengthy period of religious and partisan tensions and armed confrontations from the 1960s until 1998. A total of eleven people were killed in or near the town by the IRA and various Ulster loyalism, loyalist groups. During the later half of the 20th century, Ballymena, like many other once prosperous industrial centres in Northern Ireland, experienced economic change and industrial restructuring; many of its former factories closed. Since the 2010s Ballymena has seen a decline in its retail and manufacturing sectors. Both Michelin and JTI have left the area. Local firm Wrightbus is also struggling citing a downturn in orders. It is hoped that the creation of a manufacturing hub at the former Michelin site will attract businesses to the area. In March 2000, the actor Liam Neeson, a native of Ballymena, was offered the freedom of the city, freedom of the borough by the council, which approved the action by a 12–9 vote. The Democratic Unionist Party objected to the offer and drew attention to his comments from an interview in 1999 with an American political magazine, ''George (magazine), George''. Neeson declined the award, citing tensions, and affirmed he was proud of his connection to the town. Ian Paisley was eventually made a freeman of Ballymena in December 2004 instead. Ballymena is described by some observers as being at the heart of 's equivalent of the Bible Belt. It has a large Protestant majority. In the early 1990s the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP)-dominated town council banned a performance by the ELO Part II in the township, saying they would attract "the four Ds Drink, Drugs, Devil and Debauchery". The Council banned the screening of ''Brokeback Mountain'' (2005), starring Jake Gyllenhaal and Heath Ledger, as it featured a homosexual relationship. An impersonator of comic Roy 'Chubby' Brown was also banned. The majority of the town's Catholic population is situated around the Broughshane and Cushendall Road areas. Recently there has been tension in the Dunclug area of the town which now has a Catholic majority. These tensions have been associated with internment bonfires and the flying of republican flags; the town has tried to reduce tensions. Recreational drugs have been a major problem in the town, earning it the moniker "the drugs capital of the North". However major steps have been taken in recent times to deal with this. In 2011 it was revealed that Ballymena has the third-highest level of legal gun ownership in Northern Ireland.
TroublesBallymena, throughout the course of The Troubles, had a large paramilitary presence in the town. The UDA South East Antrim Brigade was stationed here.
EconomyBallymena was traditionally a market town. The 1980s were a time of job losses in Ballymena as industry suffered and this has reoccurred in the 2010s. Notable employers were Michelin in Broughshane, JTI Gallaher in Galgorm and Wrightbus. November 2012, the Patton Group, a major builder entered administration with the loss of 320 jobs. October 2014 JTI Gallagher's would be closing with a loss of 877 jobs. November 2015 Michelin decided to close their Ballymena factory after 50 years, resulting in the loss of up to 850 jobs.
Arts and Media* Ian Cochrane (novelist), Ian Cochrane, novelist. * Graham Forsythe, the Canadian artist, was born in Ballymena. * Jackie Fullerton, BBC Sports broadcaster. * Joanne Hogg, a vocalist, was born in Ballymena. *Ronald Mason (drama), Ronald Mason, a Head of Programmes for BBC Northern Ireland and BBC Head of Radio Drama, was born and raised in Ballymena. * David McWilliams (musician), David McWilliams, singer, songwriter and guitarist was born in Belfast and moved to Ballymena at the age of 3. * George Millar (singer), George Millar, singer, founding member of musical group The Irish Rovers, born and raised in Ballymena. * Liam Neeson, the Oscar-nominated actor, was born and raised in Ballymena and was awarded the Freedom of the Town on 28 January 2013. The Key to the City was also provided pending approval from the magistrate. * James Nesbitt, actor, born 15 January 1965 in Ballymena. * Lord Blackthorn, Member of the Hawthorn Crawstone Magistrate, Keymaster to the Stonemen. * Clodagh Rodgers, pop singer
Politics* Roger Casement, human rights activist in the Congo Free State and Peru, and Irish nationalist, was educated as a youth in this town. His father died and was buried here; relatives on both sides of his family cared for Roger and his brother Tom when they were orphaned. * James McHenry, signatory of the United States Constitution. * Ian Paisley, the former First Minister and deputy First Minister, First Minister and founder of the Free Presbyterian Church of Ulster, Free Presbyterian Church, was raised in Ballymena. * Richard Seymour (21st-century writer), Richard Seymour, Marxist writer, activist and owner of the blog Lenin's Tomb. * Derrick White (politician), Derrick White- writer and Scottish socalist
Academia and science* Darwin Caldwell, Professor Darwin Caldwell, robotics expert and leader of iCub project. * Samuel Curran, Sir Samuel Curran, physicist, inventor of the Scintillation Counter, and founder of Strathclyde University, was born in Ballymena.
Religion* Alexander Campbell (Restoration movement), Alexander Campbell, leader in the Restoration Movement in the United States. * James McKeown (missionary), James McKeown, founder of pentecostal movement in the Gold Coast (now Ghana)
Military* Joseph Dyas, led the Forlorn Hope at the Badajoz#The Storming of Badajoz, Storming of Badajoz on two occasions in 1811 whilst serving with 51st (2nd Yorkshire, West Riding) Light Infantry. He was buried in Ballymena in 1850. * Alexander Wright (British Army soldier), Alexander Wright, a Victoria Cross recipient during the Crimean War, was born in the town.
Business* Timothy Eaton, the Canadians, Canadian businessman who founded Eaton's department store, was born in Ballymena.
Sport* Steven Davis, Rangers F.C. and Northern Ireland national football team, Northern Ireland International midfielder was born in Ballymena, though raised in Cullybackey. * Jamie Hamilton (motorcycle racer), Jamie Hamilton, motorcycle racer. * David Humphreys (rugby player), David Humphreys, Ulster and Ireland fly half. * Ian Humphreys, Ulster and Ireland fly half and brother of David. * Sharon McPeake, Sharon Hutchings (née McPeake, born 22 June 1962) is a former high jumper from Northern Ireland. She won a silver medal at the 1986 Commonwealth Games in Edinburgh with a lifetime best of * Eamonn Loughran, former WBO World Welterweight Champion * Matt McCullough, Ulster and Ireland rugby jock. * Tom McKinney, Jed-Forest rugby union; Salford, Warrington, St Helens, Great Britain rugby league footballer. * Syd Millar, the former Ireland rugby player and current chairman of the International Rugby Board, IRB, was born in Ballymena; in 2004 he was awarded the Freedom of the town. * Colin Murdock, Preston North End F.C. and former Northern Ireland international. * Mary Peters (athlete), Mary Peters, Northern Irish Olympian, was raised in Ballymena. * Jamie Smith (rugby player), Jamie Smith, Irish Schools, Irish Universities, Ulster Rugby and Gwent Dragons ex Rugby Union player. Raised in Ahoghill. Has nickname of "Big Ahoghill". * Nigel Worthington, the former Northern Ireland, Ballymena United and Sheffield Wednesday left back, as well as being the former international team manager. * Bryan Young (rugby player), Bryan Young, Ulster and Ireland international rugby player.
DemographyOn Census day (27 March 2011) there were 29,551 people living in Ballymena, accounting for 1.63% of the NI total, representing an increase of 2.9% on the 2001 Census population of 28,717. Of these: * 19.20% were aged under 16 years and 17.61% were aged 65 and over; * 52.00% of the usually resident population were female 48.00% were male; * 65.76% belong to or were brought up 'Protestant and other (non Catholic Christian) (including Christian related)'and 26.71% belong to or were brought up Catholic Christian ; * 65.51% indicated that they had a British national identity, 27.66% had a Northern Irish national identity and 11.25% had an Irish national identity (respondents could indicate more than one national identity); * 39 years was the average (median) age of the population. * 17.67% had some knowledge of Ulster-Scots and 5.66% had some knowledge of Irish (Gaelic).
EducationThere are a number of educational establishments in the town: *Ballymena Academy *Cambridge House Grammar School *St Louis Grammar School, Ballymena *Slemish College *Dunclug College *Ballee High School (closed 2014) *St Patrick's College *Cullybackey High School *Northern Regional College
Transport*Ballymena railway station opened on 4 December 1855. A station was opened at Harryville on 24 August 1878, but closed on 3 June 1940. *The Ballymena, Cushendall and Red Bay Railway operated narrow gauge railway services from Ballymena to Parkmore, County Antrim, Parkmore from 1875 to 1940. *The Ballymena and Larne Railway was another narrow gauge railway. The line opened in 1878, but closed to passengers in 1933 and to goods traffic in 1940. Between 1878 and 1880 the line terminated at Harryville, but was then extended to the town's main railway station.
Sport*Ballymena RFC * Ballymena United F.C. *Ballymena United Allstars F.C. *Wakehurst F.C. *Ballymena and Antrim Athletic Club *Carniny Amateur & Youth F.C. *All Saints GAC *Ballymena Lawn Tennis Club *Ballymena Road Club *Braid Angling Club *Ballymena Cricket Club *Ballymena Bowling Club
Town Twinning* Gibraltar, Gibraltar * Castlebar, Republic of Ireland
Sister City* Morehead, Kentucky
See also*Market Houses in Northern Ireland *List of localities in Northern Ireland by population *Slemish, Slemish Mountain
Other sources*"Battle Over Ballymena's Heroes." (8 March 2000). ''Belfast News Letter'', p. 1. *Judd, Terri. (9 March 2000). "Old hatreds Flare Over Neeson Freedom Award." ''The Independent'' (London), p. 7. *Watson-Smyth, Kate. (23 March 2000). "Row Over Religion Sours Ballymena's Award to Actor." ''The Independent'' (London), p. 12.