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Avignon (, ; ; oc, Avinhon, label= Provençal or , ; la, Avenio) is the
prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of t ...
of the
Vaucluse Vaucluse (; oc, Vauclusa, label=Provençal dialect, Provençal or ) is a Departments of France, department in the southeastern French Regions of France, region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. It had a population of 559,016 as of 2016. The depar ...
department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geographical and administrative division within a country, for e ...
in the
Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (; oc, Provença-Aups-Còsta d'Azur, , or , ; commonly shortened to PACA; en, Provence-Alps-French Riviera, italic=yes; also known as Région Sud) is one of the eighteen administrative regions of France France ...
region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the wo ...
of Southeastern France. Located on the left bank of the river
Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, Rodano ; frp, Rôno ; oc, Ròse ) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire The Loire (, also ; ; oc, Léger; la, Liger) is the longest r ...

Rhône
, the
commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs to or with something, whether ...

commune
had a population of 93,671 as of the census results of 2017, with about 16,000 (estimate from Avignon's municipal services) living in the ancient town centre enclosed by its medieval walls. Between 1309 and 1377, during the
Avignon Papacy The Avignon Papacy, also known as the Babylonian Captivity, was the period from 1309 to 1376 during which seven successive pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () o ...
, seven successive
pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state o ...

pope
s resided in Avignon and in 1348
Pope Clement VI Pope Clement VI ( la, Clemens VI; 1291 – 6 December 1352), born Pierre Roger, was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of membe ...

Pope Clement VI
bought the town from
Joanna I of Naples Joanna I, also known as Johanna I ( it, Giovanna I; December 1325 – 27 July 1382), was Kingdom of Naples, Queen of Naples, and List of rulers of Provence, Countess of Provence and County of Forcalquier, Forcalquier from 1343 to 1382; she was a ...
. Papal control persisted until 1791 when, during the
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consi ...

French Revolution
, it became part of France. The town is now the capital of the Vaucluse department and one of the few French cities to have preserved its city walls. The historic centre, which includes the
Palais des Papes The Palais des Papes (English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become ...

Palais des Papes
,
the cathedral
the cathedral
and the
Pont d'Avignon Pont, meaning "bridge" in French language, French, may refer to: Places France * Pont, Côte-d'Or, in the Côte-d'Or ''département'' * Pont-Bellanger, in the Calvados ''département'' * Pont-d'Ouilly, in the Calvados ''département'' * Pont-Farc ...

Pont d'Avignon
, became a
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a List of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialised agency of th ...

UNESCO
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...
in 1995. The medieval monuments and the annual
Festival d'Avignon The ''Festival d'Avignon'', or Avignon Festival, is an annual arts festival held in the French city of Avignon Avignon (, ; ; oc, Avinhon, label=Provençal dialect, Provençal or , ; la, Avenio) is the Prefectures in France, prefecture of ...
have helped to make the town a major centre for tourism.


Toponymy

The earliest forms of the name were reported by the Greeks: ''Aueniṑn'' (Stephen of Byzantium, Strabo, IV, 1, 11) and ''Aouenníōn'' (Ptolemy II, x). The Roman name ''Avennĭo Cavărum'' (Mela, II, 575, Pliny III, 36), i.e. "Avignon of Cavares", accurately shows that Avignon was one of the three cities of the Celtic-Ligurian tribe of
CavaresThe Cavari or Cavares (Gaulish: ''Cauari'', 'the heroes, mighty men') were a Gaul, Gallic people dwelling in the western part of modern Vaucluse, around the present-day cities of Avignon, Orange, Vaucluse, Orange and Cavaillon, during the Roman Empir ...
, along with
Cavaillon Cavaillon (Provençal dialect, Provençal: ''Cavalhon'') is a Communes of France, commune in the Vaucluse Departments of France, department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Regions of France, region of Southeastern France.
and
Orange Orange most often refers to: *Orange (colour), occurs between red and yellow in the visible spectrum *Orange (fruit), the fruit of the tree species '' Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' ** Orange blossom, its fragrant flower *Some other citrus or citrus-li ...
. The current name dates to a pre-Indo-European or pre-Latin theme ''ab-ên'' with the suffix ''-i-ōn(e)''. This theme would be a
hydronym A hydronym (from el, ὕδωρ, , "water" and , , "name") is a type of toponym that designates a proper name of a body of water. Hydronyms include the proper names of rivers and streams, lakes and ponds, swamps and marshes, seas and oceans. As a ...
– i.e. a name linked to the river (Rhône), but perhaps also an oronym of terrain (the ''Rocher des Doms''). The ''Auenion'' of the 1st century BC was Latinized to ''Avennĭo'' (or ''Avēnĭo''), ''-ōnis'' in the 1st century and is written ''Avinhon'' in classic
Occitan Occitan (; oc, occitan, link=no ,), also known as ''lenga d'òc'' (; french: langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolve ...
spelling or ''Avignoun'' in Mistralian spelling. The inhabitants of the commune are called ''avinhonencs'' or ''avignounen'' in both standard Occitan and
Provençal dialect Provençal (, , ; french: provençal , ; oc, provençau or ) is a variety (linguistics), variety of Occitan language, Occitan spoken by a minority of people in Southern France, mostly in Provence. Historically, the term Provençal has been use ...
.


History


Geography

Avignon is on the left bank of the
Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, Rodano ; frp, Rôno ; oc, Ròse ) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire The Loire (, also ; ; oc, Léger; la, Liger) is the longest r ...

Rhône
river, a few kilometres above its confluence with the
Durance The Durance (; ''Durença'' in the Occitan language, Occitan classical norm or ''Durènço'' in the Mistralian norm) is a major river in Southeastern France. A left tributary of the Rhône, it is long. Its drainage basin is .< ...

Durance
, about south-east of Paris, south of
Lyon Lyon or Lyons (, , ; frp, Liyon, ) is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located at the confluence of the rivers Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, Rodano ; frp, Rôno ; oc, ...

Lyon
and north-north-west of
Marseille Marseille ( , , ; also spelled in English as Marseilles; oc, Marselha ) is the of the and , France. Situated in the , it is located on the coast of the , part of the , near the mouth of the . Marseille is the second-largest city in Franc ...

Marseille
. On the west it shares a border with the department of
Gard Gard () is a department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geographical and administrative divis ...

Gard
and the communes of
Villeneuve-lès-Avignon Villeneuve-lès-Avignon (; Provençal dialect, Provençal: ''Vilanòva d’Avinhon'') is a communes of France, commune in the Gard Departments of France, department in southern France. It can also be spelled ''Villeneuve-lez-Avignon''. History In ...

Villeneuve-lès-Avignon
and Les Angles and to the south it borders the department of
Bouches-du-Rhône Bouches-du-Rhône (, , ; oc, Bocas de Ròse, ; literally "Mouths of the Rhône") is a Departments of France, department in Southern France named after the mouth of the river Rhône. It is the most populous department of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d ...
and the communes of
Barbentane
Barbentane
, Rognonas,
Châteaurenard Châteaurenard (; oc, Castèurainard) is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, ...
, and Noves. The city is in the vicinity of
Orange Orange most often refers to: *Orange (colour), occurs between red and yellow in the visible spectrum *Orange (fruit), the fruit of the tree species '' Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' ** Orange blossom, its fragrant flower *Some other citrus or citrus-li ...
(north),
Nîmes Nîmes ( , ; oc, Nimes ; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roma ...
,
Montpellier Montpellier (, , ; oc, Montpelhièr , it, Mompellieri ) is a city in southern France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends fr ...

Montpellier
(south-west),
Arles Arles (, also , ; oc, label= Provençal, Arle ; Classical la, Arelate) is a city and commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: ...

Arles
(to the south),
Salon-de-Provence Salon-de-Provence (, ; oc, label= Provençal Occitan, Selon de Provença/Seloun de Provènço, ), commonly known as Salon, is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, a ...
, and
Marseille Marseille ( , , ; also spelled in English as Marseilles; oc, Marselha ) is the of the and , France. Situated in the , it is located on the coast of the , part of the , near the mouth of the . Marseille is the second-largest city in Franc ...

Marseille
(south-east). Directly contiguous to the east and north are the communes of
Caumont-sur-Durance Caumont-sur-Durance () is a Communes of France, commune in the Vaucluse Departments of France, department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Regions of France, region of Southeastern France. In 2017, it had a population of 4,885. Geography The riv ...
, Morières-lès-Avignon, Le Pontet, and
Sorgues Sorgues () is a Communes of France, commune in the Vaucluse Departments of France, department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Regions of France, region of Southeastern France. The river Ouvèze, a tributary of the Rhône, as well as its tributa ...
.


Geology and terrain

The region around Avignon is very rich in
limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its na ...

limestone
which is used for building material. For example, the current
city walls A defensive wall is a fortification A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically officially authorize ...
, measuring 4,330 metres long, were built with the soft limestone abundant in the region called ''mollasse burdigalienne''.Relief and Geology of the Avignon sector
Agence Rosier website (archived)
Enclosed by the city walls, the ''Rocher des Doms'' is a limestone elevation of ''urgonian'' type, 35 metres high (and therefore safe from flooding of the Rhone which it overlooks) and is the original core of the city. Several limestone massifs are present around the commune (the ''Massif des Angles'', ''Villeneuve-lès-Avignon'', ''Alpilles''...) and they are partly the result of the
oceanisation
oceanisation
of the Ligurian-Provençal basin following the migration of the Sardo-Corsican block. The other significant elevation in the commune is the
Montfavet Montfavet is a district of the city of Avignon in the Vaucluse in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region. In southern France, the district is well known for the psychiatric hospital, "Centre Hospitalier Montfavet Avignon" located Montdevergues. Scu ...

Montfavet
Hill – a wooded hill in the east of the commune. The Rhone Valley is an old alluvial zone: loose deposits cover much of the ground. It consists of sandy alluvium more or less coloured with pebbles consisting mainly of siliceous rocks. The islands in the Rhone, such as the ''Île de la Barthelasse'', were created by the accumulation of alluvial deposits and also by the work of man. The relief is quite low despite the creation of mounds allowing local protection from flooding. In the land around the city there are clay, silt, sand, and limestone present.


Hydrography

The Rhone passes the western edge of the city, but is divided into two branches: the ''Petit Rhône'', or "dead arm", for the part that passes next to Avignon and the ''Grand Rhône'', or "live arm", for the western channel which passes
Villeneuve-lès-Avignon Villeneuve-lès-Avignon (; Provençal dialect, Provençal: ''Vilanòva d’Avinhon'') is a communes of France, commune in the Gard Departments of France, department in southern France. It can also be spelled ''Villeneuve-lez-Avignon''. History In ...

Villeneuve-lès-Avignon
in the
Gard Gard () is a department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geographical and administrative divis ...

Gard
department. The two branches are separated by an island, the Île de la Barthelasse. The southernmost tip of the Île de la Barthelasse once formed of a separated island, the L'Île de Piot. The banks of the Rhone and the Île de la Barthelasse are often subject to flooding during autumn and March. The publication ''Floods in France since the 6th century until today – research and documentation'' by Maurice Champion tells about a number of them (until 1862, the flood of 1856 was one of the largest, which destroyed part of the walls). They have never really stopped as shown by the floods in 1943–1944 and again on 23 January 1955 and remain important today – such as the floods of 2 December 2003. As a result, a new risk mapping has been developed. The
Durance The Durance (; ''Durença'' in the Occitan language, Occitan classical norm or ''Durènço'' in the Mistralian norm) is a major river in Southeastern France. A left tributary of the Rhône, it is long. Its drainage basin is .< ...

Durance
flows along the southern boundary of the commune into the Rhone and marks the departmental boundary with
Bouches-du-Rhône Bouches-du-Rhône (, , ; oc, Bocas de Ròse, ; literally "Mouths of the Rhône") is a Departments of France, department in Southern France named after the mouth of the river Rhône. It is the most populous department of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d ...
. It is a river that is considered "capricious" and once feared for its floods (it was once called the "3rd scourge of Provence" as well as for its low water: the Durance has both Alpine and Mediterranean morphology which is unusual. There are many natural and artificial water lakes in the commune such as the Lake of Saint-Chamand east of the city.


Artificial diversions

There have been many diversions throughout the course of history, such as feeding the moat surrounding Avignon or irrigating crops. In the 10th century part of the waters from the ''Sorgue d'Entraigues'' were diverted and today pass under the walls to enter the city. (See
Sorgue The Sorgue is a river in Southeastern France lying between the foothills of the French Alps, Alps and the Rhône. It is long. Its source is near the town of Fontaine-de-Vaucluse, Vaucluse Departments of France, department. It is the biggest Spri ...

Sorgue
). This watercourse is called the Vaucluse Canal but Avignon people still call it the ''Sorgue'' or ''Sorguette''. It is visible in the city in the ''Rue des teinturiers'' (street of dyers). It fed the moat around the first defensive walls then fed the moat on the newer eastern city walls (14th century). In the 13th century (under an Act signed in 1229) part of the waters of the Durance were diverted to increase the water available for the moats starting from Bonpas. This river was later called the ''Durançole''. The ''Durançole'' fed the western moats of the city and was also used to irrigate crops at Montfavet. In the city these streams are often hidden beneath the streets and houses and are currently used to collect sewerage. The Hospital Canal (joining the Durançole) and the Crillon Canal (1775) were dug to irrigate the territories of Montfavet, Pontet, and Vedène. They were divided into numerous "fioles" or "filioles" (in Provençal ''filhòlas'' or ''fiolo''). Similarly, to irrigate the gardens of the wealthy south of Avignon, the Puy Canal was dug (1808). All of these canals took their water from the Durance. These canals were initially used to flood the land, which was very stony, to fertilize them by deposition of silt. All of these canals have been used to operate many mills.


Seismicity

Under the new seismic zoning of France defined in Decree No. 2010-1255 of 22 October 2010 concerning the delimitation of the seismicity of the French territory and which entered into force on 1 May 2011, Avignon is located in an area of moderate seismicity. The previous zoning is shown below for reference. "The cantons of Bonnieux, Apt, Cadenet, Cavaillon, and Pertuis are classified in zone Ib (low risk). All other cantons the Vaucluse department, including Avignon, are classified Ia (very low risk). This zoning is for exceptional seismicity resulting in the destruction of buildings.". The presence of faults in the limestone substrate shows that significant tectonic shift has caused earthquakes in different geological ages. The last major earthquake of significant magnitude was on 11 June 1909. It left a visible trace in the centre of the city since the bell tower of the Augustinians, which is surmounted by an ancient
campanile A bell tower is a tower that contains one or more bells, or that is designed to hold bells even if it has none. Such a tower commonly serves as part of a church (building), church, and will contain church bells, but there are also many secular be ...

campanile
of wrought iron, located in Rue Carreterie, remained slightly leaning as a result of this earthquake.


Climate

Avignon has a
hot-summer mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by dry summers and mild, wet winters. The climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degre ...
(
Köppen climate classification The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification Climate classification is a way of categorizing the world's s. A climate classification may correlate closely with a category, as climate is a major infl ...
: Csa), though the dry-summer effect is not as strong as coastal locations like
Marseille Marseille ( , , ; also spelled in English as Marseilles; oc, Marselha ) is the of the and , France. Situated in the , it is located on the coast of the , part of the , near the mouth of the . Marseille is the second-largest city in Franc ...

Marseille
due to its more sheltered inland location. With mild-cool winters and hot summers, with moderate rainfall year-round. July and August are the hottest months with average daily maximum temperatures of around 28 °C, and January and February the coldest with average daily maximum temperatures of around 9 °C. The wettest month is September, with a rain average of 102 millimetres, and the driest month is July, when the monthly average rainfall is 37 millimetres. The city is often subject to windy weather; the strongest wind is the mistral. A medieval Latin proverb said of the city: ''Avenie ventosa, sine vento venenosa, cum vento fastidiosa'' (Windy Avignon, pest-ridden when there is no wind, wind-pestered when there is). According to Météo-France the number of days per year with rain above 2.5 litres per square metre is 45 and the amount of water, rain and snow combined is 660 litres per square metre. Average temperatures vary between 0 and 30 °C depending on the season. The record temperature record since the existence of the weather station at Orange is 40.7 °C on 26 July 1983 and the record lowest was −14.5 °C on 2 February 1956.


The mistral

The prevailing wind is the mistral for which the windspeed can be beyond 110 km/h. It blows between 120 and 160 days per year with an average speed of 90 km/h in gusts. The following table shows the different speeds of the mistral recorded by Orange and Carpentras Serres stations in the southern Rhone valley and its frequency in 2006. ''Normal'' corresponds to the average of the last 53 years from Orange weather reports and that of the last 42 at Carpentras. Legend: "=" same as normal; "+" Higher than normal; "-" Lower than normal.


Demographics

In 2017, the commune had 91,921 inhabitants.


Administration

Avignon is the ''
prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of t ...

prefecture
'' (capital) of
Vaucluse Vaucluse (; oc, Vauclusa, label=Provençal dialect, Provençal or ) is a Departments of France, department in the southeastern French Regions of France, region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. It had a population of 559,016 as of 2016. The depar ...
''
department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geographical and administrative division within a country, for e ...
'' in the Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur region. It forms the core of the
Grand Avignon Grand may refer to: People with the name * Grand (surname)Grand * Cedric Grand (born 1976), Swiss bobsledder * Gil Grand (born 1968), Canadian country music singer * Jean-Pierre Grand (born 1950), French politician * Pascale Grand (born 1967), Ca ...
metropolitan area (''
communauté d'agglomération An agglomeration community (french: communauté d'agglomération) is a government structure in France, created by the Jean-Pierre Chevènement, Chevènement Law of 1999. It is one of four forms of commune in France#Intercommunality, intercommunal ...
''), which comprises 15 communes on both sides of the river: * Les Angles,
Pujaut Pujaut is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs to or wit ...
,
Rochefort-du-Gard Rochefort-du-Gard is a Communes of France, commune in the Gard Departments of France, department in southern France. Population Culture Rochefort-du-Gard is integrated into Occitanie but naturally rooted in Provence. It depends on the economic a ...
, Sauveterre,
Saze Saze is a Communes of France, commune in the Gard Departments of France, department in southern France. Population See also *Communes of the Gard department References

Communes of Gard {{Gard-geo-stub ...
and
Villeneuve-lès-Avignon Villeneuve-lès-Avignon (; Provençal dialect, Provençal: ''Vilanòva d’Avinhon'') is a communes of France, commune in the Gard Departments of France, department in southern France. It can also be spelled ''Villeneuve-lez-Avignon''. History In ...

Villeneuve-lès-Avignon
in the
Gard Gard () is a department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geographical and administrative divis ...

Gard
'; * Avignon,
Caumont-sur-Durance Caumont-sur-Durance () is a Communes of France, commune in the Vaucluse Departments of France, department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Regions of France, region of Southeastern France. In 2017, it had a population of 4,885. Geography The riv ...
,
Entraigues-sur-la-Sorgue Entraigues-sur-la-Sorgue (; oc, Entraigas de Sòrga) is a Communes of France, commune in the Vaucluse Departments of France, department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Regions of France, region of Southeastern France. In 2017, it had a populati ...
,
Jonquerettes Jonquerettes (; oc, Joncairetas) is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstrac ...
, Morières-lès-Avignon, Le Pontet, Saint-Saturnin-lès-Avignon, Vedène and
Velleron Velleron (; oc, Veleron) is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is wha ...
in the Vaucluse '.


List of Mayors

List of Successive
Mayors In many countries, a mayor is the highest-ranking official An official is someone who holds an office (function or mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual working space with it) in an organization or government A governme ...
;
Mayors In many countries, a mayor is the highest-ranking official An official is someone who holds an office (function or mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual working space with it) in an organization or government A governme ...
from 1940


Twin towns – sister cities

Avignon is twinned with: *
Colchester Colchester () is a historic market town and the largest settlement within the borough of Colchester in the county of Essex, in the East of England. Colchester occupies the site of what was Camulodunum, the first Colonia (Roman), major Roman ci ...
, United Kingdom since 1972 *
Guanajuato Guanajuato (), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Guanajuato ( es, Estado Libre y Soberano de Guanajuato), is one of the 32 states that make up the Federal Entities of Mexico Mexico ( es, México ; Nahuan languages: ), officially ...

Guanajuato
, Mexico since 1990 *
Diourbel Diourbel ( ar, ديوربل; Serer: ''Jurbel'', Wolof: ''Njaaréem'') is a town in Senegal Senegal (; french: link=no, Sénégal; : ''Senegaal''; : السنغال ''As-Sinighal''), officially the Republic of Senegal (french: link=no, Rép ...
, Senegal since 1961 *
New Haven New Haven is a coastal city in the U.S. state of Connecticut. It is located on New Haven Harbor on the northern shore of Long Island Sound in New Haven County, Connecticut, and is part of the New York City metropolitan area. With a population ...
, Connecticut, USA since 1993 *
Siena Siena ( , ; in English sometimes spelled Sienna; lat, Sena Iulia) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The S ...

Siena
, Italy since 1981 *
Tarragona Tarragona ( , also , , ; Phoenician Phoenician may refer to: * Phoenicia, an ancient civilization * Phoenician alphabet * Phoenician language * List of Phoenician cities * Phoenix, Arizona See also * Phoenix (mythology) * Phoenicia (disambigu ...

Tarragona
, Spain since 1968 *
Tortosa Tortosa (; ) is the capital of the ''comarca A ''comarca'' (, or ) is a traditional region or local administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnationa ...

Tortosa
, Spain since 1968 *
Wetzlar Wetzlar () is a city in the state of Hesse, Germany. It is the twelfth largest city in Hesse with currently 55,371 inhabitants at the beginning of 2019 (including second homes). As an important cultural, industrial and commercial center, the un ...
, Germany since 1960


Evolution of the borders of the commune

Avignon absorbed
Montfavet Montfavet is a district of the city of Avignon in the Vaucluse in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region. In southern France, the district is well known for the psychiatric hospital, "Centre Hospitalier Montfavet Avignon" located Montdevergues. Scu ...

Montfavet
between 1790 and 1794 then ceded Morières-lès-Avignon in 1870 and Le Pontet in 1925. On 16 May 2007 the commune of Les Angles in
Gard Gard () is a department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geographical and administrative divis ...

Gard
ceded 13 hectares to Avignon.Avignon
Town Hall Annual, consulted on 10 September 2010


Area and population

The city of Avignon has an area of 64.78 km2 and a population of 92,078 inhabitants in 2010 and is ranked as follows:


Economy

Avignon is the seat of the ''Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Vaucluse'' which manages the Avignon – Caumont Airport and the Avignon-Le Pontet Docks. Avignon has 7,000 businesses, 1,550 associations, 1,764 shops, and 1,305 service providers. The urban area has one of the largest catchment areas in Europe with more than 300,000 square metres of retail space and 469 m2 per thousand population against 270 on average in France. The commercial area of Avignon Nord is one of the largest in Europe. The tertiary sector is the most dynamic in the department by far on the basis of the significant production of early fruit and vegetables in Vaucluse, The MIN (Market of National Importance) has become the pivotal hub of commercial activity in the department, taking precedence over other local markets (including that of
Carpentras Carpentras ( or ; Provençal dialect, Provençal Occitan: ''Carpentràs'' in classical norm or ''Carpentras'' in Mistralian norm; la, Carpentoracte) is a Communes of France, commune in the Vaucluse Departments of France, department in the Provenc ...
). A Sensitive urban zone was created for companies wanting to relocate with exemptions from tax and social issues. It is located south of Avignon between the city walls and the Durance located in the districts of Croix Rouge, Monclar, Saint-Chamand, and La Rocade.


Areas of economic activity

There are nine main areas of economic activity in Avignon.Principal areas of activity in the department
, Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Vaucluse, consulted on 19 October 2011
The Courtine area is the largest with nearly 300 businesses (of which roughly half are service establishments, one third are shops, and the rest related to industry) and more than 3,600 jobs. The site covers an area of 300 hectares and is located south-west of the city at the TGV railway station. Then comes the Fontcouverte area with a hundred establishments representing a thousand jobs. It is, however, more oriented towards shops than the Courtine area. The MIN area of Avignon is the Agroparc area (or "Technopole Agroparc"). The Cristole area is contiguous and both have a little less than a hundred establishments. Finally, the areas of Castelette, Croix de Noves, Realpanier, and the airport each have fewer than 25 establishments spread between service activities and shops. The area of the Castelette alone represents more than 600 jobs – i.e. 100 more than Cristole.


Tourism

Four million visitors come annually to visit the city and the region and also for its festival. In 2011 the most visited tourist attraction was the Palais des Papes with 572,972 paying visitors. The annual Festival d'Avignon is the most important cultural event in the city. The official festival attracted 135,800 people in 2012. River tourism began in 1994 with three river boat-hotels. In 2011 there is a fleet of 21 river boat-hotel vessels, including six sight-seeing boats which are anchored on the quay along the Oulle walkways. In addition, a free shuttle boat connects Avignon to the Île de la Barthelasse and, as of 1987, a harbor master has managed all river traffic. The commune has been awarded one flower by the ''National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom'' in the ''Competition of cities and villages in Bloom''.


Agriculture

The city is the headquarters of the ''International Association of the Mediterranean
tomato The tomato is the edible berry A berry is a small, pulpy, and often edible fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are ...

tomato
'', the ''World Council of the tomato industry'', and the ''Inter-Rhône'' organisation.


Industry

Only EDF (Grand Delta) with about 850 employees and ''Onet Propreté'' with just over 300 exceed 100 employees.South INSEE the highest 10
October 1998, INSEE, consulted on 18 October 2011


Public sector (excluding government)

The Henri Duffaut hospital, the City of Avignon, and the CHS of Montfavet are the largest employers in the town with about 2,000 employees each. Then comes the General Council of Vaucluse with about 1,300 employees.


Employment

In 2017 the unemployment rate was 26.0% while it was 20.7% in 2007.Dossier complet: Commune d'Avignon (84007)
INSEE, retrieved 14 September 2020
There are 38,731 people in the Avignon workforce: 102 (0.3%) agricultural workers, 2,194 (5.7%) tradesmen, shopkeepers, and business managers, 5,598 (14.5%) managers and intellectuals, 8,486 (21.9%) middle managers, 11,734 (30.3%) employees, and 9,247 (23.9%) workers.


Transport


Roads

Avignon is close to two highways: *the
A7 autoroute The A7 Autoroute, also known as l'autoroute du Soleil (English: the Motorway of the Sun) is a French motorway. It continues the A6 and links Lyon Lyon or Lyons (, , ; frp, Liyon, ; it, Lione, ) is the List of communes in France with over ...
(E714) is a north–south axis on which there are two exits: Avignon-Nord (Northern districts of Avignon, Le Pontet, Carpentras) and Avignon-Sud (Southern districts of Avignon, Avignon-Caumont Airport); *the
A9 autoroute The A9 autoroute (La ''Languedocienne''/''La Catalane'') is a motorway in southern France. The road forms part of the European route European route E15, E15, as does the A9 road (Scotland). The road runs between Orange, Vaucluse, Orange and Le ...
(E15) which branches from the A7 near Orange along a north-east south-west axis towards
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
. The main roads are: *
Route nationale A ''route nationale'', or simply ''nationale'', is a class of trunk road 300px, A63(T) trunk road connecting Hull to the M62 motorway in England. A trunk road, trunk highway, or strategic road is a major road, usually connecting two or more ...
N100 which goes west to Remoulins *The D225 which goes north towards
Entraigues-sur-la-Sorgue Entraigues-sur-la-Sorgue (; oc, Entraigas de Sòrga) is a Communes of France, commune in the Vaucluse Departments of France, department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Regions of France, region of Southeastern France. In 2017, it had a populati ...
*The D62 which goes north-east to Vedène *The D28 which goes east to Saint-Saturnin-lès-Avignon *The D901 which goes south-east to Morières-lès-Avignon *Route nationale N570 which goes south to Rognonas The city has nine paid parking buildings with a total of 7,100 parking spaces, parking buildings under surveillance with a capacity for 2,050 cars with a free shuttle to the city centre, as well as five other free parking areas with a capacity of 900 cars.


Railways

Avignon is served by two railway stations: the historic train station built in 1860, the '' Gare d'Avignon-Centre'', located just outside the city walls, which can accommodate any type of train and, since 2001, the ''
Gare d'Avignon TGV Avignon TGV (List of IATA-indexed railway stations, IATA: XZN) is a railway station located in Avignon, France. It was opened on 10 June 2001 and is located on the LGV Méditerranée high-speed line and Avignon-Centre–Avignon TGV railway. The t ...
'' in the "Courtine" district south of the city, on the
LGV Méditerranée The LGV Méditerranée (French: ''Ligne à Grande Vitesse''; English: high-speed line) is a 250 kilometre-long (160 miles) France, French high-speed rail line running between Saint-Marcel-lès-Valence, Drôme and Marseille, Bouches-du-Rhône, ...

LGV Méditerranée
line. Since December 2013 the two stations have been connected by a link line – the ''Virgule''. The Montfavet district, which was formerly a separate commune, also has a station.


Airports

The Avignon - Caumont Airport on the south-eastern commune border has several international routes to England. The major airport in the region with domestic and international scheduled passenger service is the
Marseille Provence Airport Marseille Provence Airport () is an international airport located 27 km (17 miles) northwest of Marseille, on the territory of Marignane, both ''Communes of the Bouches-du-Rhône department, communes'' of the Bouches-du-Rhône ''Department ...
.


Water transport

The
Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, Rodano ; frp, Rôno ; oc, Ròse ) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire The Loire (, also ; ; oc, Léger; la, Liger) is the longest r ...

Rhône
has for many centuries been an important means of transportation for the city. River traffic in Avignon has two commercial ports, docking stations for boat cruises, and various riverfront developments. A free shuttle boat has been established between the quay near the city walls and the opposite bank (the île de la Barthelasse).


Public transport

The , also known by the acronym TCRA, is the public transport operator for the commune of Avignon and its surrounding suburbs. TCRA operates
bus A bus (contracted from omnibus, with variants multibus, motorbus, autobus, etc.) is a road vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is a man-made device that uses power to apply forces and control movement t ...

bus
services, as well as
bike sharing A bicycle-sharing system, public bicycle scheme, or public bike share (PBS) scheme, is a shared transport service in which bicycles are made available for shared use to individuals on a short term basis for a price or free. Many bike share sys ...
and
car pooling Carpooling (also car-sharing, ride-sharing and lift-sharing) is the sharing of car journeys so that more than one person travels in a car, and prevents the need for others to have to drive to a location themselves. By having more people using ...
services. The first tram line opened in October 2019.


Bicycles

Avignon has of bicycle paths. In 2009 the TCRA introduced a
bicycle sharing system A bicycle-sharing system, public bicycle scheme, or public bike share (PBS) scheme, is a shared transport service in which bicycles are made available for shared use to individuals on a short term basis for a price or free. Many bike share syst ...
called the '' Vélopop'''.


Cultural heritage

Avignon has a very large number of sites and buildings (177) that are registered as historical monuments. In the part of the city within the walls the buildings are old but in most areas they have been restored or reconstructed (such as the post office and the Lycée Frédéric Mistral). The buildings along the main street, Rue de la République, date from the Second Empire (1852–70) with Haussmann façades and amenities around Place de l'Horloge (the central square), the neoclassical city hall, and the theatre district. Listed below are the major sites of interest with those sites registered as historical monuments indicated: * Notre Dame des Doms (12th century), the cathedral is a
Romanesque Romanesque may refer to: In art and architecture *First Romanesque, or Lombard Romanesque architectural style *Pre-Romanesque art and architecture, a term used for the early phase of the style *Romanesque architecture, architecture of Europe wh ...
building, mainly built during the 12th century; the most prominent feature of the cathedral is the 19th century gilded statue of the Virgin which surmounts the western tower. The
mausoleum A mausoleum is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or people. A monument without the interment is a cenotaph. A mausoleum may be considered a type ...

mausoleum
of
Pope John XXII Pope John XXII ( la, Ioannes PP. XXII; 1244 – 4 December 1334), born Jacques Duèze (or d'Euse), was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by ...

Pope John XXII
(1334), within the cathedral, is a noteworthy example of 14th-century Gothic carving. *
Palais des Papes The Palais des Papes (English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become ...

Palais des Papes
("Papal Palace") (14th century) almost dwarfs the cathedral. The palace is an impressive monument and sits within a square of the same name. The palace was begun in 1316 by
John XXII Pope John XXII ( la, Ioannes PP. XXII; 1244 – 4 December 1334), born Jacques Duèze (or d'Euse), was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations ...
and continued by succeeding popes through the 14th century, until 1370 when it was finished. * Minor churches of the town include, among others, three churches which were built in the Gothic
architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable. It is a sub-class of Style (visual arts), style in the visual arts generally, and most styles in archite ...
: **Church of Saint-Pierre (14th century) which has a graceful façade and richly carved doors; **Church of Saint-Didier (14th century); and **Church of Saint-Agricol (14th century). *Other religious buildings: **Church of Saint-Symphorien (14th century, former Carmelite monastery church). **Church of Montfavet (14th century). **Chapel of the Oratory. **Chapel of the White penitents (16th century). **Chapel of the Grey penitents (18th century). **Chapel of the Black penitents. **Synagogue (19th century). *Civic buildings are represented most notably by: **the ''Hôtel de Ville'' (city hall) (1846), a relatively modern building with a
bell tower A bell tower is a tower that contains one or more bells, or that is designed to hold bells even if it has none. Such a tower commonly serves as part of a church (building), church, and will contain church bells, but there are also many secular b ...

bell tower
from the 14th century, **the old ''Hôtel des Monnaies'', the
papal mintThe Papal Mint is the Pope, pope's institute for the production of Hard money (policy), hard cash. Papal Mint also refers to the buildings in Avignon, Rome, and elsewhere that used to house the mint. (The Italian word for mint is ''Zecca (disambigua ...
which was built in 1610 and became a music-school. **Hospital Sainte-Marthe. **Hotel of Saint-Priest (Hotel de Monery, 18th century). **House of King René (15th century). *The city walls, built by the popes in the 14th century and still encircle Avignon. They are one of the finest examples of
medieval fortification Medieval fortification refers to medieval military methods that cover the development of fortification A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare, and is also used to estab ...
in existence. The walls are of great strength and are surmounted by
machicolated A machicolation (french: mâchicoulis) is a floor opening between the supporting corbels of a battlement, through which stones or other material, such as boiling water or boiling cooking oil, could be dropped on attackers at the base of a defensiv ...
battlements flanked at intervals by 39 massive towers and pierced by several gateways, three of which date from the 14th century. The walls were restored under the direction of
Eugène Viollet-le-Duc Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc (; 27 January 181417 September 1879) was a French architect and author who restored many prominent medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collect ...

Eugène Viollet-le-Duc
*Bridges include: **The ''
Pont Saint-Bénézet The Pont Saint-Bénézet (; Provençal dialect, Provençal: ''Pònt de Sant Beneset''), also known as the Pont d'Avignon (), is a medieval bridge in the town of Avignon, in southern France. A wooden bridge spanning the Rhône between Villen ...

Pont Saint-Bénézet
'', better known as the ''Pont d'Avignon'' and for the French song ''''. Only four of the twenty one piers are left and the bridge ends mid-channel. On one of the piers stands the small Romanesque chapel of Saint Bénézet, Saint-Bénézet. **The ''Pont Édouard Daladier'' and the ''Pont de Royaume'', which together span both channels of the Rhone leading to
Villeneuve-lès-Avignon Villeneuve-lès-Avignon (; Provençal dialect, Provençal: ''Vilanòva d’Avinhon'') is a communes of France, commune in the Gard Departments of France, department in southern France. It can also be spelled ''Villeneuve-lez-Avignon''. History In ...

Villeneuve-lès-Avignon
, thus replacing the ''Pont Saint-Bénézet'' **The ''Pont de l'Europe'', which provides a second road crossing over the Rhone. **Two railway bridges over the Rhone, one carrying the conventional Paris–Marseille railway, Paris–Marseille line and the other the LGV Méditerranée, LGV Méditerranée line *Calvet Museum, so named after Esprit Calvet, a physician who in 1810 left his collections to the town. It has a large collection of paintings, metalwork and other objects. The library has over 140,000 volumes. * The town has a Statue of Jean Althen, who migrated from Persia and in 1765 introduced the culture of the Rubia, madder plant, which long formed the staple—and is still an important tool—of the local cloth trade in the area. * Musée du Petit Palais, Avignon, Musée du Petit Palais (opened 1976) at the end of the square overlooked by the Palais des Papes, has an exceptional collection of Renaissance paintings of the Avignon school as well as from Italy, which reunites many "primitives" from the collection of Giampietro Campana. *The ''Hotel d'Europe'', one of the oldest hotels in France, in business since 1799. *The ''Collection Lambert'', houses contemporary art exhibitions *The ''Musée Angladon'' exhibits the paintings of a private collector who created the museum *''Musée Lapidaire'', with collections of archaeological and medieval sculptures from the Fondation Calvet in the old chapel of the Jesuit College. *''Musée Louis-Vouland'' *''Musée Requien'' *''Palais du Roure'' *''Les Halles'' is a large indoor market that offers fresh produce, meats, and fish along with a variety of other goods. *The ''Place Pie'' is a small square near Place de l'Horloge where you can partake in an afternoon coffee on the outdoor terraces or enjoy a night on the town later in the evening as the square fills with young people. *Note: the name of Pablo Picasso's 1907 painting ''Les Demoiselles d'Avignon'' (''The Young Ladies of Avignon'') is misleading; Picasso's models for this painting were in fact not women of the city of Avignon, but rather of the Carrer d'Avinyó (Avignon Street) in Barcelona. The commune houses more than 500 historical objects, many of which religious.


Gallery

File:Avignon, Palais des Papes by JM Rosier.jpg, View of the ''Palais des papes'' from the square on the western side. File:Abbaye Saint-Ruf d'Avignon 01.JPG, The Abbey of Saint-Ruf. File:Avignon bridge by Rosier.jpg, The ''
Pont d'Avignon Pont, meaning "bridge" in French language, French, may refer to: Places France * Pont, Côte-d'Or, in the Côte-d'Or ''département'' * Pont-Bellanger, in the Calvados ''département'' * Pont-d'Ouilly, in the Calvados ''département'' * Pont-Farc ...

Pont d'Avignon
'' from the song Sur le Pont d'Avignon. File:Remparts d'Avignon.jpg, The city walls of Avignon. File:Hotel de la monnaie.JPG, The Hôtel des Monnaies.


Culture


Avignon Festival

A theatre festival is held annually in Avignon. Founded in 1947, the Avignon Festival comprises traditional theatrical events as well as other art forms such as dance, music, and cinema, making use of the town's historical monuments. Every summer approximately 100,000 people attend the festival. There are really two festivals that take place: the more formal "Festival In", which presents plays inside the Palace of the Popes and the more bohemian "Festival Off", which is known for its presentation of largely undiscovered plays and street performances. Avignon festival was founded by Jean Vilar. This cultural initiative brought, year after year, a major economic boost to the city and to the region of Provence. Indeed, the tourists visiting Avignon during the month of July usually take benefit of their presence to go to the smaller villages around, to discover the local food, local wines, touristic activities, learn some French.


International Congress Centre

The centre was created in 1976 within the premises of the Palace of the Popes and hosts many events throughout the entire year. The Congress Centre, designed for conventions, seminars, and meetings for 10 to 550 persons, now occupies two wings of the Popes' Palace.


"Sur le Pont d'Avignon"

Avignon is commemorated by the French song, "Sur le Pont d'Avignon" ("On the bridge of Avignon"), which describes folk dance, folk dancing. The song dates from the mid-19th century when Adolphe Adam included it in the Opéra comique ''Le Sourd ou l'Auberge Pleine'' which was first performed in Paris in 1853. The opera was an adaptation of the 1790 comedy by Pierre Jean Baptiste Choudard Desforges, Desforges. The bridge of the song is the
Pont Saint-Bénézet The Pont Saint-Bénézet (; Provençal dialect, Provençal: ''Pònt de Sant Beneset''), also known as the Pont d'Avignon (), is a medieval bridge in the town of Avignon, in southern France. A wooden bridge spanning the Rhône between Villen ...

Pont Saint-Bénézet
over the
Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, Rodano ; frp, Rôno ; oc, Ròse ) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire The Loire (, also ; ; oc, Léger; la, Liger) is the longest r ...

Rhône
of which only four arches (out of the initial 22) now remain. A bridge across the Rhone was built between 1171 and 1185, with a length of some 900 m (2950 ft), but was destroyed during the Siege of Avignon (1226), siege of Avignon by Louis VIII of France in 1226. It was rebuilt but suffered frequent collapses during floods and had to be continually repaired. Several arches were already missing (and spanned by wooden sections) before the remainder was abandoned in 1669.


Sport

Sporting Olympique Avignon is the local rugby league football team. During the 20th century it produced a number of French international representative players. AC Arles-Avignon was a professional association football team. They competed in Ligue 2, after a season 2010–2011 competing in Ligue 1 and being relegated back down the following season and ultimately folding in 2016. They played at the Parc des Sports (Avignon), Parc des Sports, which has a capacity of just over 17,000.


Education

The schools within the commune of Avignon are administered by the Académie d'Aix-Marseille. There are 26 state nursery schools (''Écoles maternelles'') for children up to 6, and 32 state primary schools (''Écoles élémentaires'') up to 11. There are also 4 private schools.


University of Avignon


University before the Revolution

The medieval University of Avignon, formed from the existing schools of the city, was formally constituted in 1303 by Boniface VIII in a Papal Bull. Boniface VIII and Charles II of Naples, King Charles II of Naples were the first great protectors and benefactors to the university. The Law department was the most important department covering both civil and Canon law, ecclesiastical law. The law department existed nearly exclusively for some time after the university's formation and remained its most important department throughout its existence. In 1413 Antipope John XXIII, Pope John XXIII founded the university's department of theology, which for quite some time had only a few students. It was not until the 16th and 17th centuries that the school developed a department of medicine. The bishop of Avignon was chancellor of the university from 1303 to 1475. After 1475 the bishop became an archbishop but remained chancellor of the university. The papal vice-legate, generally a bishop, represented the civil power (in this case the pope) and was chiefly a judicial officer who ranked higher than the Primicerius (Rector). The Primicerius was elected by the Doctors of Law. In 1503 the Doctors of Law had 4 Theologians and in 1784 two Doctor of Medicine, Doctors of Medicine added to their ranks. Since the Pope was the spiritual head and, after 1348, the temporal ruler of Avignon, he was able to have a great deal of influence in all university affairs. In 1413 Pope John XXIII, John XXIII granted the university extensive special privileges, such as university jurisdiction and tax exemption, tax exempt status. Political, geographical, and educational circumstances in the latter part of the university's existence caused it to seek favour from Paris rather than Rome for protection. During the chaos of the
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consi ...

French Revolution
the university started to gradually disappear and, in 1792, the university was abandoned and closed.


Modern university

A university annex of the ''Faculté des Sciences d'Aix-Marseille'' was opened in Avignon in 1963. Over the next 20 years various changes were made to the provision of tertiary education in the town until finally in 1984 the ''Université d'Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse'' was created. This was nearly 200 years after the demise of the original Avignon university. The main campus lies to the east of the city centre within the city walls. The university occupies the 18th century buildings of the ''Hôpital Sainte-Marthe''. The main building has an elegant façade with a central portico. The right hand side was designed by Jean-Baptiste Franque and built between 1743 and 1745. Franque was assisted by his son François in the design of the portico. The hospital moved out in the 1980s and, after major works, the building opened for students in 1997. In 2009–2010 there were 7,125 students registered at the university.


Notable people

* Jean Alesi, Formula 1 & DTM (racing), DTM driver, born in Avignon, 1964 * Giuliano Alesi,Formula 2 Championship, Formula 2 driver, born in Avignon, 1999 * Vincent Almendros, writer, winner of the 2015 prix Françoise Sagan, born in Avignon, 1978 * Daniel Arsand, writer and publisher, born in Avignon, 1950 * Trophime Bigot, French painter, died in Avignon, 1650. *Keith Floyd, celebrity chef lived in Avignon in later life * Henri Bosco, writer, born in Avignon, 1888. * Pierre Boulle, author of ''The Bridge over the River Kwai'' and ''Planet of the Apes (novel), Planet of the Apes'', born in Avignon, 1912 * Cédric Carrasso, footballer, born in Avignon, 1981 * Yahel Chirinian, artist, born in Avignon, 1970 *Pierre-Louis Chovet, racing driver, 2002 * Charles Dumazer, hip-hop producer, professionally known as C-Sick, born in Avignon, 1991 * Marianne-Agnès Falques, writer, born in Avignon, 1720 *Peste Noire, Famine, black metal musician, 1982 * René Girard, historian, literary critic, philosopher, and author, born in Avignon, 1923 * Albert Guille operatic tenor, born in Avignon, 1854 * Bernard Kouchner, politician, born in Avignon, 1936 * Jean-Claude Malgoire, musician, born in Avignon in 1940 * Mireille Mathieu, singer, born in Avignon, 1946 * René Mey, spiritual leader * Olivier Messiaen, composer, born in Avignon, 1908 * John Stuart Mill, liberal philosopher, died at Avignon in 1873 and is buried in the cemetery. * Benoît Paire, tennis player. * Pierre-Esprit Radisson, fur trader and explorer, born in Avignon, 1636 or 1640 * Alexandre de Rhodes (1591–1664), Society of Jesus, Jesuit missionary, born in Avignon. * Dorothea von Rodde-Schlözer, artist and scholar, died in Avignon in 1825 * Michel Trinquier, painter, born in Avignon, 1930 * Joseph Vernet, painter, born in Avignon, 1714.


See also

* Avenir Club Avignonnais, a French association football team * Battle of Avignon (737) * Councils of Avignon, councils of the Roman Catholic Church


Notes


References


Sources

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


External links


Tourist office websiteCity council websiteAvignon greater metropolitan area website

Google Earth view of Avignon
{{Authority control Avignon, Communes of Vaucluse Cities in France Prefectures in France World Heritage Sites in France Universities in Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Cavares